Genomes and Genes
Summary: Narrowing of the lumen of one or more intracranial arteries due to contraction of arterial smooth muscle or to morphologic changes of the blood vessel wall. Large blood vessels near the base of the brain are primarily affected and reduced blood flow may result in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN). Vasospasm may be associated with SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other disorders. (From Neurosurg Clin N Am, 1998 Jul;9(3):615-27)
Publications225 found, 100 shown here
- Effects of acute treatment with pravastatin on cerebral vasospasm, autoregulation, and delayed ischemic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a phase II randomized placebo-controlled trialMing Yuan Tseng
Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
Stroke 36:1627-32. 2005....
- Marked reduction of cerebral vasospasm with lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhagePaul Klimo
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132 2303, USA
J Neurosurg 100:215-24. 2004....
- Impairment of cerebral perfusion and infarct patterns attributable to vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective MRI and DSA studyStefan Weidauer
Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
Stroke 38:1831-6. 2007..The objective of this study was to investigate disturbance of perfusion and infarct patterns attributable to cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)...
- Role of bedside microdialysis in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageA W Unterberg
Department of Neurosurgery and Radiology, Charite, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
J Neurosurg 94:740-9. 2001..The aims of the present study were to correlate clinical course, microdialysis-recorded data, transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography findings, and angiographic findings in patients with SAH...
- Simvastatin reduces vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: results of a pilot randomized clinical trialJohn R Lynch
Departments of Medicine Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Stroke 36:2024-6. 2005..Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We demonstrate that simvastatin reduces serum markers of brain injury and attenuates vasospasm after SAH...
- Transcranial Doppler versus angiography in patients with vasospasm due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm: A systematic reviewC Lysakowski
Divisions of Anesthesiology, Neuroanesthesia Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Stroke 32:2292-8. 2001..Our aim was to evaluate both the accuracy of TCD compared with angiography and its usefulness as a screening method in this setting...
- Predictors of cerebral infarction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageAlejandro A Rabinstein
Neurological Neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit and the Department of Neurology, Rochester, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA
Stroke 35:1862-6. 2004..Clinical and radiologic predictors of cerebral infarction occurrence and location after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have been seldom studied...
- Prophylactic hyperdynamic postoperative fluid therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled studyA Egge
Department of Neurosurgery, , Norway
Neurosurgery 49:593-605; discussion 605-6. 2001..Costs were higher and complications were more frequent for the hyperdynamic therapy group. CONCLUSION: Neither early nor late outcome measures revealed any significant differences between the two subarachnoid hemorrhage treatment models...
- Mechanisms of acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhageFatima A Sehba
Department of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
Neurol Res 28:381-98. 2006..This review will summarize some of these mechanisms that contribute to acute cerebral injury after SAH...
- Magnesium sulfate therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageRichard S Veyna
Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit 48202, USA
J Neurosurg 96:510-4. 2002..The authors hypothesize that MgSO4 therapy is safe, feasible, and has a beneficial effect on vasospasm and, ultimately, on neurological outcome following aneurysmal SAH...
- Increase of the IL-1 beta and IL-6 levels in CSF in patients with vasospasm following aneurysmal SAHStanislaw Hendryk
Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology, Silesian Medical University, Bytom, Poland
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 25:141-7. 2004..This increase of ILs level in CSF is probably related to the intensity of the SAH, and secondarily aggravates the vasospasm and ischemic changes in the brain...
- CT angiography and perfusion imaging in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: correlation of vasospasm to perfusion abnormalityAyse Aralasmak
Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
Neuroradiology 51:85-93. 2009..We retrospectively evaluated computed tomography angiography (CTA) and perfusion imaging (CTP) of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for any correlation between degree of vasospasm and perfusion deficit...
- Cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a correlative microdialysis-PET studyAsita S Sarrafzadeh
Charité Campus Virchow Medical Clinic, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
Stroke 35:638-43. 2004..The main objective of this study was to investigate whether pathological MD parameters reflect a reduced regional CBF (rCBF) determined by 15O-H2O PET...
- Effect of nicardipine prolonged-release implants on cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome after severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective, randomized, double-blind phase IIa studyMartin Barth
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Mannheim, Faculty for Clinical Medicine of the Karl Ruprecht University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
Stroke 38:330-6. 2007..The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nicardipine prolonged-release implants (NPRIs) on cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome after severe subarachnoid hemorrhage...
- Intraarterially administered verapamil as adjunct therapy for cerebral vasospasm: safety and 2-year experienceLei Feng
Department of Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:1284-90. 2002..In this study, we examined the safety of intraarterial administration of verapamil to patients with cerebral vasospasm. We herein summarize our 2-year experience with this treatment...
- Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase on cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhageToshiyuki Sasaki
Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Stroke 35:1466-70. 2004..This study was conducted to examine the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the development of vasospasm and cytokine production...
- Haptoglobin and the development of cerebral artery vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhageM Borsody
Department of Neurology, The Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA
Neurology 66:634-40. 2006..Each of these three haptoglobin types has different antihemoglobin activities; therefore, haptoglobin may influence the development of vasospasm differently in various patients with SAH...
- Intravenous magnesium sulfate after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective randomized pilot studyGeorge K C Wong
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 18:142-8. 2006..On the basis of the preliminary data, a larger study recruiting approximately 800 patients is required to test for a possible neuroprotective effect of magnesium after SAH...
- Cerebral vasospasm and headache during sexual intercourse and masturbatory orgasmsMarcelo M Valença
Division of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuropsychiatry, CCS, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil
Headache 44:244-8. 2004..Five reported cases of patients with thunderclap headache, precipitated by sexual activity, in association with concomitant cerebral arterial narrowing, were found in the literature...
- Regional cerebral blood flow monitoring in the diagnosis of delayed ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhagePeter Vajkoczy
Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
J Neurosurg 98:1227-34. 2003..The goal of this study was to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) monitoring, performed using thermal-diffusion (TD) flowmetry, as a novel means for the bedside diagnosis of symptomatic vasospasm...
- Effect on cerebral vasospasm of coil embolization followed by microcatheter intrathecal urokinase infusion into the cisterna magna: a prospective randomized studyJun ichiro Hamada
Department of Neurosurgery, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, 1 1 1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860 856, Japan
Stroke 34:2549-54. 2003....
- Efficacy and safety of the endothelin, receptor antagonist TAK-044 in treating subarachnoid hemorrhage: a report by the Steering Committee on behalf of the UK/Netherlands/Eire TAK-044 Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Study GroupM D Shaw
The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom
J Neurosurg 93:992-7. 2000..They then assessed whether this agent reduced the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemic events and examined its safety profile in this group of patients...
- Magnesium sulfate in the management of patients with Fisher Grade 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage: a pilot studyR Boet
Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories
Neurosurgery 47:602-6; discussion 606-7. 2000..To evaluate the effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the clinical course of patients with severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)...
- Does intracisternal thrombolysis prevent vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage? A meta-analysisSepideh Amin-Hanjani
Neurosurgical Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Neurosurgery 54:326-34; discussion 334-5. 2004..The intracisternal application of thrombolytic agents to dissolve subarachnoid clot has been advocated. The goal of this analysis was to assess the currently available evidence regarding the effectiveness of this treatment...
- Racial differences in cerebral vasospasm: a systematic review of the literatureJ Mocco
Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
Neurosurgery 58:305-14. 2006..We present a review of the modern aSAH literature to examine the incidence of CV in Japan and Europe, two highly researched populations...
- Cerebral vasoconstriction syndromesAneesh B Singhal
Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Top Stroke Rehabil 11:1-6. 2004..This article reviews the history, clinical and radiological characteristics, differential diagnosis, and management of cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes...
- Is vasospasm requisite for posterior leukoencephalopathy in patients with primary thunderclap headaches?S P Chen
The Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
Cephalalgia 26:530-6. 2006..Therefore, searching for any clue of vasospasm is mandatory in treatment of patients with primary TCH. Absence of an accompanying vasospasm might predict a good outcome...
- Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms predict susceptibility to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasmVini G Khurana
Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:291-7. 2004....
- Reduction of ischemic sequelae following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: a double-blind, randomized comparison of enoxaparin versus placeboGabriele Wurm
Department of Neurosurgery, Landesnervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, A 4020 Linz, Austria
Clin Neurol Neurosurg 106:97-103. 2004..This study was designed to evaluate whether the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin reduces the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm and ischemia following spontaneous SAH...
- Cerebral blood flow velocity response to magnesium sulfate in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhageR P Brewer
Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 13:202-6. 2001..Intravenous magnesium bolus did not reduce elevated CBFV in the subset of SAH patients with clinical vasospasm. The role of magnesium sulfate as a cerebral vasodilator in patients with SAH requires further study...
- Intraventricular sodium nitroprusside therapy: a future promise for refractory subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasmR Kumar
Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India
Neurol India 51:197-202. 2003..The overall outcome was good in 6 out of 10 patients. The study suggests that intraventricular SNP therapy is effective in reversing the changes even in established cases of SAH-induced vasospasm...
- Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: interest in diffusion-weighted MR imagingS Condette-Auliac
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, CHU, Nancy, France
Stroke 32:1818-24. 2001..It is hoped that larger studies will be undertaken to determine whether the ADC has a reversibility threshold, because this would facilitate patient management...
- Intravenous magnesium versus nimodipine in the treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized studyRobert Schmid-Elsaesser
Department of Neurosurgery, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munich, Germany
Neurosurgery 58:1054-65; discussion 1054-65. 2006..The aim of the current pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium versus nimodipine to prevent delayed ischemic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage...
- Anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects of Tetramethylpyrazine following subarachnoid hemorrhage in ratsCheng Gao
Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, No 23, Youzheng Street, Nan Gang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, 150001, PR China
Auton Neurosci 141:22-30. 2008..In conclusion, TMP ameliorated cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury after experimental SAH in rats. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of caspase-3 dependent proapoptosis pathway...
- "Triple-H" therapy for cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhageKendall H Lee
Section of Neurosurgery, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
Neurocrit Care 4:68-76. 2006..This review examines the evidence underlying the implementation of triple-H therapy, and makes practical recommendations for the use of this therapy in patients with aneurysmal SAH...
- Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: utility of perfusion CT and CT angiography on diagnosis and managementM Wintermark
Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:26-34. 2006..To evaluate the utility of perfusion CT (PCT) combined with CT angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis and management of vasospasm, by using conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard...
- Therapeutic effect of caspase inhibitors in the prevention of apoptosis and reversal of chronic cerebral vasospasmKazuya Aoki
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
J Clin Neurosci 9:672-7. 2002..Only caspase-3 inhibitor, however, had a near-significant effect on reducing 13.3% of angiographic vasospasm. Higher doses and early treatment, as well as other more potent apoptosis inhibitors, are recommended for future studies...
- Multidetector-row CT angiography of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: comparison of volume-rendered images and digital subtraction angiographyD Y Yoon
Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong Sim Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Gil dong Kangdong Gu, Seoul, Korea
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:370-7. 2006..The purpose of this study was to evaluate cerebral vasospasm at multidetector-row spiral CT angiography (MDCTA) compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs)...
- Efficacy of transluminal angioplasty for the management of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageR S Polin
Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport 71130, USA
J Neurosurg 92:284-90. 2000..In this study the authors assess the efficacy of the aforementioned procedure...
- Mechanisms of vascular dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhageE Kozniewska
Department of Neurosurgery, M Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
J Physiol Pharmacol 57:145-60. 2006....
- Nimodipine for treatment of primary thunderclap headacheS R Lu
Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, Taiwan
Neurology 62:1414-6. 2004..IV nimodipine was given in two patients with vasospasm, including one who developed ischemic stroke. Nimodipine may be effective for TCH. Vasospasm may warrant IV nimodipine...
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a complicated clinical course treated with intra-arterial application of nimodipineM Elstner
Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
Cephalalgia 29:677-82. 2009..We discuss the use of intra-arterial nimodipine application as a potential emergency treatment for a complicated or treatment-refractory course of RCVS...
- Comparison of three rat models of cerebral vasospasmIlker Gules
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson 39216, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 283:H2551-9. 2002....
- Narrative review: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromesLeonard H Calabrese
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University and Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
Ann Intern Med 146:34-44. 2007..In this review, we describe our current understanding of RCVS; summarize its key clinical, laboratory, and imaging features; and discuss strategies for diagnostic evaluation and treatment...
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromeAnne Ducros
Emergency Headache Centre, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Head and Neck Centre, Lariboisiere Hospital, 2 rue Ambroise Pare, Paris Cedex 10, France
Pract Neurol 9:256-67. 2009..Nimodipine seems to reduce thunderclap headaches within 48 h but has no definite effect on the haemorrhagic and ischaemic complications...
- The safety and feasibility of continuous intravenous magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageAbutaher M Yahia
Department of Neurology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Neurocrit Care 3:16-23. 2005..The safety and feasibility of continuous high-dose intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and ischemic cerebral injury has not been well studied...
- Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome or primary angiitis of the central nervous system?Philip Gerretsen
Division of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Can J Neurol Sci 34:467-77. 2007....
- Intracranial heme metabolism and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageHidenori Suzuki
Dept of Neurosurgery, Mie University School of Medicine, 2 174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514 8507, Japan
Stroke 34:2796-800. 2003....
- Effect of intra-arterial papaverine on regional cerebral blood flow in hemodynamically relevant cerebral vasospasmP Vajkoczy
Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
Stroke 32:498-505. 2001..The aim of the present study was to continuously assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during and after IAP with the use of quantitative, bedside thermal diffusion flowmetry...
- Continuous assessment of cerebral autoregulation in subarachnoid hemorrhageMartin Soehle
Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Anesth Analg 98:1133-9, table of contents. 2004..34 +/- 0.29; Sx, 0.16 +/- 0.25). The increased Mx and Sx during cerebral vasospasm demonstrate impaired cerebral autoregulation. Mx and Sx provide additional information on changes in autoregulation in SAH patients...
- Prevention of symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage by intraoperative cisternal fibrinolysis using tissue-type plasminogen activator combined with continuous cisternal drainageHiroyuki Kinouchi
Department of Neurosurgery, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita, Japan
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 44:569-75; discussion 576-7. 2004..Intraoperative cisternal irrigation with tPA combined with cisternal drainage is safe and effective for the prevention of symptomatic vasospasm following SAH...
- Effect of intraventricular sodium nitroprusside on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in poor-grade aneurysm patients with severe, medically refractory vasospasmAndreas Raabe
Department of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery Center, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Neurosurgery 50:1006-13; discussion 1013-4. 2002....
- Severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome mimicking aneurysmal rupture and vasospasmChristopher Nickele
Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Neurocrit Care 7:81-5. 2007..The development of diffuse vasoconstriction after aneursym clipping in the absence of any subarachnoid blood was initially confusing, until subtle vasoconstriction before clipping was seen retrospectively...
- Statin use was not associated with less vasospasm or improved outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhageAndreas H Kramer
Department of Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Neurosurgery 62:422-7; discussion 427-30. 2008..Preliminary studies suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of vasospasm, but additional study is required...
- Call-Fleming syndrome associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage: three new casesR R Moustafa
University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:602-5. 2008....
- Symptomatic vasospasm diagnosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage: evaluation of transcranial Doppler ultrasound and cerebral angiography as related to compromised vascular distributionJose I Suarez
Division of Neurosciences Critical Care, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
Crit Care Med 30:1348-55. 2002..To evaluate the reliability of transcranial Doppler ultrasound in detecting symptomatic vasospasm in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and monitoring response after hypertensive and endovascular treatments...
- Pitfalls in the diagnosis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and primary angiitis of the central nervous systemK Koopman
Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Eur J Neurol 14:1085-7. 2007..Distinction between both can be difficult, but is necessary because of different treatment options. Clinical features and diagnostic assessments to distinguish RCVS from PACNS and the potential pitfalls are discussed...
- Reversible segmental cerebral vasoconstriction (Call-Fleming syndrome): the role of calcium antagonistsD W Dodick
Cephalalgia 23:163-5. 2003
- Magnesium sulfate: role as possible attenuating factor in vasospasm morbidityDaniel Monte Serrat Prevedello
Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Nossa Senhora das Gracas, Curitiba, Paraná 80810 040, Brazil
Surg Neurol 65:S1:14-1:20; discussion S1:20-1:21. 2006..Magnesium sulfate recently returned to the scene (with still unproven benefit) as an adjuvant in the treatment of vasospasm...
- Vasospasm as the sole cause of cerebral ischemia: how strong is the evidence?Sherman C Stein
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106, USA
Neurosurg Focus 21:E2. 2006..They conclude that vasospasm and thromboembolism play interrelated and additive roles in the development of DINDs, and that this interaction provides opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches...
- Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageWade S Smith
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Calif 94134 0114, USA
Stroke 35:2518-22. 2004..Papaverine is used to vasodilate cerebral arteries undergoing vasospasm from subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, papaverine inhibits cellular respiration in vitro and could cause neurotoxicity in humans...
- Evidence-based cerebral vasospasm managementGeorge W Weyer
Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center and Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Neurosurg Focus 21:E8. 2006..The study of rescue therapy such as balloon angioplasty and intraarterial vasodilating agents will be difficult. The quality of clinical trials should be improved...
- Predictors of outcome after endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasmAlejandro A Rabinstein
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:1778-82. 2004..We sought to determine variables for predicting functional outcome in this setting...
- Efficacy of intra-arterial nimodipine in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm complicating subarachnoid haemorrhageC Hui
Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic, Australia
Clin Radiol 60:1030-6. 2005..To examine the efficacy and safety of nimodipine as an alternative to papaverine for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage...
- Endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm: transluminal balloon angioplasty, intra-arterial papaverine, and intra-arterial nicardipineBrian L Hoh
Endovascular Neurosurgery, Neurosurgical Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, VBK 710, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Neurosurg Clin N Am 16:501-16, vi. 2005..We have adopted a treatment protocol at our institution of transluminal balloon angioplasty and intra-arterial nicardipine therapy as the endovascular treatments for medically refractory cerebral vasospasm...
- Dynamic perfusion computed tomography in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasmGill E Sviri
Department of Neurosurgery, Rambam Maimonides Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
Neurosurgery 59:319-25; discussion 319-25. 2006....
- CT angiography and perfusion CT in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhageS Binaghi
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Neuroradiology Unit, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:750-8. 2007..We investigated the association of multisection CT angiography (MSCTA) and perfusion CT (PCT) for the characterization of vasospasm secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage...
- Effect of normal saline bolus on cerebral blood flow in regions with low baseline flow in patients with vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhageSarah C Jost
Department of Neurology, Neurological Surgery, and Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
J Neurosurg 103:25-30. 2005..The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of volume expansion on regional (r)CBF in patients with DIND following SAH...
- Cerebral vasospasm: results of a structured multimodal treatmentE Keller
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Acta Neurochir Suppl 94:65-73. 2005..The different treatment options with CVS are reviewed and practical guidelines for a step by step treatment are given...
- Duration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage for prevention of symptomatic vasospasm and late hydrocephalusYutaka Hirashima
Department of Neurosurgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugutani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 45:177-82; discussion 182-3. 2005..86, 95% confidence interval 1.46-16.2, p = 0.0099), respectively. Prevention of both symptomatic vasospasm and late hydrocephalus is not possible without additional procedures such as cisternal irrigation using fibrinolytic agents...
- Trans-cranial Doppler in severe head injury: evaluation of pattern of changes in cerebral blood flow velocity and its impact on outcomeBal Krishna Ojha
Department of Neurosurgery, King George s Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India
Surg Neurol 64:174-9; discussion 179. 2005..We have studied cerebral blood flow changes in patients with severe head injury using serial TCD starting within 6 hours after trauma, and present our findings and its correlation with clinical outcome...
- Endovascular treatment strategies for cerebral vasospasmStefan A Mindea
Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Neurosurg Focus 21:E13. 2006....
- Serum magnesium levels as related to symptomatic vasospasm and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageFrederic P Collignon
Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Neurocrit Care 1:441-8. 2004..We studied the association between serum magnesium levels, the development of DIND, and the outcomes of patients with SAH...
- Factors associated with the development of vasospasm after planned surgical treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageR Loch MacDonald
Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
J Neurosurg 99:644-52. 2003....
- Dynamic perfusion computerized tomography in cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a comparison with technetium-99m-labeled ethyl cysteinate dimer-single-photon emission computerized tomographyGill E Sviri
Department of Neurosurgery, Rambam Maimonides Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
J Neurosurg 104:404-10. 2006....
- The long-term effects of transluminal balloon angioplasty for vasospasms after subarachnoid hemorrhage: analyses of cerebral blood flow and reactivityYasuo Murai
Department of Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo 113 86, Japan
Surg Neurol 64:122-6; discussion 127. 2005..The long-term effects of TBA in this clinical context on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the functional properties of the arterial wall after aneurysmal SAH remain controversial. We therefore studied these effects...
- Posttraumatic vasospasm: the epidemiology, severity, and time course of an underestimated phenomenon: a prospective study performed in 299 patientsMatthias Oertel
Department of Biostatistics, Brain Injury Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 7039, USA
J Neurosurg 103:812-24. 2005..The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence, duration, and time course of cerebral vasospasm after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a cohort of 299 patients...
- Urokinase cisternal irrigation therapy for prevention of symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of urokinase concentration and the fibrinolytic systemT Sasaki
Department of Neurosurgery, Fukushima Medical School, Japan
Stroke 31:1256-62. 2000..Cisternal irrigation therapy with urokinase (UK) was performed in multiple institutions to prevent symptomatic vasospasm. The efficacy and safety of this therapy were evaluated, and the optimal concentration of UK was estimated...
- Prospective evaluation of multidetector-row CT angiography for the diagnosis of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage: a comparison with digital subtraction angiographySaadia R Chaudhary
Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0628, USA
Cerebrovasc Dis 25:144-50. 2008..To evaluate the accuracy of multidetector-row CT angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of large-vessel vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage by comparison to digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
- Comparison of a standard neurological tool with a stroke scale for detecting symptomatic cerebral vasospasmKathy Doerksen
Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
J Neurosci Nurs 34:320-5. 2002..This study demonstrates the need to develop a more appropriate tool for early detection of vasospasm...
- Microemboli in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageJose G Romano
Department of Neurology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
J Neuroimaging 18:396-401. 2008..The determinants of ischemic complications in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are not well defined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of microemboli in SAH-related cerebral ischemia...
- The relation between cerebral blood flow velocities as measured by TCD and the incidence of delayed ischemic deficits. A prospective study after subarachnoid hemorrhageKatarzyna Jarus-Dziedzic
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw
Neurol Res 24:582-92. 2002..Daily monitoring of vasospasm using TCD examination is thus helpful to identify patients at high risk for delayed ischemic deficits. This should allow us to implement further preventive treatment regimens...
- Prediction of cerebral vasospasm in patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a reviewChristopher G Harrod
Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Neurosurgery 56:633-54; discussion 633-54. 2005..This topic review describes the various methodologies and approaches that have been studied in an effort to predict the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm in patients presenting with SAH...
- Efficacy and safety of nicardipine prolonged-release implants for preventing vasospasm in humansHidetoshi Kasuya
Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Stroke 33:1011-5. 2002..This study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of nicardipine prolonged-release implants (NPRI) for humans, which have already been proven in dogs...
- Intrathecal administration of nicardipine hydrochloride to prevent vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhageM Suzuki
Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Japan
Neurosurg Rev 24:180-4. 2001....
- Safety of hemodynamic augmentation in patients treated with Guglielmi detachable coils after acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhageV Aiyagari
Neurology/Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurology Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Stroke 32:1994-7. 2001..No patient had rebleeding or any significant complication during the course of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this limited series of patients, we believe that it may be safe to use HA in patients treated with GDC for SAH...
- Visual grading system for vasospasm based on perfusion CT imaging: comparisons with conventional angiography and quantitative perfusion CTMax Wintermark
Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Cerebrovasc Dis 26:163-70. 2008..The purpose of this study was to compare simple visual grading of perfusion CT (PCT) maps to a more quantitative, threshold-based interpretation of PCT parameters in the characterization of presence and severity of vasospasm...
- Perfusion-weighted MRI to evaluate cerebral autoregulation in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhageElke Hattingen
Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
Neuroradiology 50:929-38. 2008..For this purpose, regional cerebral blood flow and volume (rCVF and rCBV) were measured in relation to different degrees of angiographically visible cerebral vasospasm (CVS)...
- Quantitative analysis of gene expressions related to inflammation in canine spastic artery after subarachnoid hemorrhageY Aihara
Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Stroke 32:212-7. 2001..9-fold). CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of genes related to inflammation in the spastic artery suggests that inflammatory reaction of the cerebral artery is associated with sustained contraction...
- Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with a nonlocalizing examination and vasospasm from subarachnoid hemorrhageThanh G Phan
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Cerebrovasc Dis 15:177-81. 2003..In this patient, serial MRI studies showed no ischemia. Our results suggest that DWI may provide a method to assess the presence and severity of ischemia in patients with SAH and vasospasm and assist in patient management...
- Cerebral perfusion CT: technique and clinical applicationsEllen G Hoeffner
Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, University Hospital B2 A209, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Radiology 231:632-44. 2004..This article is a review of the technique, clinical applications, and controversies surrounding perfusion CT...
- Preliminary experience with intra-arterial nicardipine as a treatment for cerebral vasospasmNeeraj Badjatia
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:819-26. 2004..We prospectively studied the use of IA nicardipine as a treatment for vasospasm...
- Triple-H therapy in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhageJon Sen
Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, of the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
Lancet Neurol 2:614-21. 2003..In this review, the rationale for this approach will be discussed, alongside new thoughts and future prospects for the management of this complex disorder...
- Simvastatin attenuation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats via increased phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthaseTakashi Sugawara
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
J Neurosci Res 86:3635-43. 2008..The present study elucidates the critical role of the PI3K activation leading to phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in simvastatin-mediated attenuation of cerebral vasospasm after SAH...
- Focal laminar cortical infarcts following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhageStefan Weidauer
Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2 16, 60528, Frankfurt, Germany
Neuroradiology 50:1-8. 2008..The aim of this prospective study was to analyse small band-like cortical infarcts after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with reference to additional digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
- Intra-arterial nimodipine for the treatment of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: preliminary resultsAlessandra Biondi
Department of Neuroradiology, Pitié Salpetriere Hospital Paris VI University, Paris, France
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:1067-76. 2004..Our purpose was to assess the efficacy of intra-arterial nimodipine, a calcium-channel blocker acting mainly on cerebral vessels, in preventing delayed neurologic deficits in patients with symptomatic vasospasm...
- Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: subarachnoid blood volume, mortality rate, neuronal death, cerebral blood flow, and perfusion pressure in three different rat modelsGiselle Fabiana Prunell
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Neurosurgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Neurosurgery 52:165-75; discussion 175-6. 2003..To investigate which of three subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models is the most suitable for studies of pathological and pathophysiological processes after SAH...
- An often unrecognized cause of thunderclap headache: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromeK Koopman
Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
J Headache Pain 9:389-91. 2008..Calcium-channel antagonists may be a good therapy and repeated transcranial Doppler ultrasonography can be a reliable non-invasive investigation to monitor the effect of treatment and demonstrate reversibility of the vasoconstriction...
- [Perspectives in the treatment of subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm]J Fandino
Hospital Universitario de Berna, Universidad de Berna, Berna, Suiza
Neurocirugia (Astur) 18:16-27. 2007..This review article summarizes the stage of investigation of these medications and therapeutic strategies which will be relevant in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm...
- Effect of intraarterial papaverine and/or angioplasty on the cerebral veins in patients with vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysmsAyman A Elsayed
Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110 1076, USA
Neurosurg Focus 21:E16. 2006..The goal in this study was to determine if there was a change in intracranial venous diameters after endovascular treatment of carotid distribution vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage...
- [Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage]N Bruder
Departement d Anesthesie Reanimation, CHU de la Timone Adultes, 264, rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex, France
Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 26:954-8. 2007..There is a risk of cerebral vasospasm, although less frequent than after aneurysmal rupture. The improvement in imaging techniques has decreased the frequency of idiopathic SAH...
- MECHANISM AND THERAPY OF CEREBROVASCULAR SPASMThomas Duff; Fiscal Year: 1992..Hypothesis V will be investigated by quantitating angiographic changes following intra- arterial administration of albumin to animals previously subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage...
- PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CHRONIC CEREBRAL VASOSPASMRobert MacDonald; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Biochemical Mechanisms of Cerebral VasospasmJoseph Clark; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Creatine Transport Across the Blood Brain BarrierJoseph Clark; Fiscal Year: 2006..The goal for Hypothesis 2 is to develop methods and drugs to improve brain energy metabolism by getting creatine into the brain. ..
- Bilirubin oxidation and intracerebral hemorrhageJoseph Clark; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies are important because we believe that strategies designed to prevent BOXes production in the hematoma should provide a novel and beneficial therapeutic option for patients who have suffered an ICH. ..
- Developing antibodies to diagnose cerebral vasospasmJoseph Clark; Fiscal Year: 2003..These data will provide proof of concept that antibodies against BOXes can be used to diagnose and predict vasospasm in SAH patients. ..
- Biochemical Mechanisms of VasospasmsJoseph Clark; Fiscal Year: 2003..The ultimate long-term goal for this project is to define the molecular causes of vasospasm in order to develop effective diagnostic, therapeutic and preventative approaches for this cerebral vascular disease. ..
- Long Term Outcomes in ICU Patients: Delirium & Apolipoprotein ESheila Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2009..This would likely lead to decreased time in the ICU and hospital. ..
- Advanced NeuroImaging for Acute Stroke TreatmentMax Wintermark; Fiscal Year: 2007..Invited junior scientists, for whom funding is requested, were selected based on merit. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid HemorrhageGail Pyne Geithman; Fiscal Year: 2009..The results obtained from completion of the aims stated above will be of clinical relevance, and application to the human pathology. ..
- Microvascular injury after Subarachnoid HemorrhageFatima A Sehba; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Implications of Hypothermia on Hepatic Drug MetabolismSamuel Poloyac; Fiscal Year: 2009..Once completed, this research will provide critical information to design future clinical studies to optimize the benefits of this breakthrough therapy. ..
- Plasminogen activators and cerebral ischemic injuryWilliam M Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- API 4000 QTRAPSamuel Poloyac; Fiscal Year: 2007..The acquisition of this hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer would provide essential instrumentation for this research and thereby remove impediments to research progress. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Normobaric Hyperoxia in Acute Ischemic StrokeAneesh B Singhal; Fiscal Year: 2010..Breathing high-flow oxygen may prove to be a simple, practical, portable, and potentially cost-effective therapy that improves stroke outcomes, either independently or by extending the time window for IV tPA. ..
- The Role of 20-HETE in the Pathogenesis of StrokeSamuel Poloyac; Fiscal Year: 2009..Furthermore, these studies will provide important information about the role of monohydroxylated arachidonic acid metabolites as a contributing pathway in the pathogenesis of stroke. ..
- Histo-Mechanics & Biology of Remodeling in HypertensionJAY HUMPHREY; Fiscal Year: 2005..Subsequent parallel studies will focus on additional pharmacological agents and gender-related differences. ..
- Trangenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's DiseaseJohn Lynch; Fiscal Year: 2005..Ultimately, this may lead to novel therapeutic strategies that are translatable for use in clinical trials. ..
- Mechanical Stress and the Heat-Treatment of Soft TissueJAY HUMPHREY; Fiscal Year: 2003..There is a need for a firmer scientific understanding. ..
- Regression Analysis of Health Care CostsXiao Hua Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2004..Furthermore, contributions will be demonstrated in the area of health services research by applying the proposed methods to analyze of total health care costs in four existing datasets. ..
- POTASSIUM CHANNELS AND CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS AFTER BRAINWilliam Armstead; Fiscal Year: 2005..These studies may lead to therapies for brain injured children. ..
- MICROGLIAL NEURON SPECIFIC TOXINDaniel Laskowitz; Fiscal Year: 2003..Conversely, drugs that show promise against AD and PD will be examined in this model system to see if they inhibit the production or action of the neuron- specific toxin. ..
- ApoE-mimetic peptides protect against brain injuryDaniel Laskowitz; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will use this system to investigate possible pharmacogenomic interactions between the therapeutic apoE peptide and the humanized apoE background in the targeted replacement mice. ..
- 2006 National Neurotrauma SymposiumDOUGLAS DEWITT; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- NITROXIDERGIC CEREBROVASCULAR TONE DURING ANESTHESIAShailendra Joshi; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Evaluation of pH Dependent Neuroprotectants in SAH ModelDaniel Laskowitz; Fiscal Year: 2008..In this project promising new drugs that may one day protect brain tissue from damage caused by SAH and stroke will be tested in an animal model of ischemia. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Novel Organ Culture & Theory for Arteriolar RemodelingJAY HUMPHREY; Fiscal Year: 2005..We will collect simultaneous pressure-diameter, cell morphological, and actin cytoskeletal data at multiple times during the remodeling, which in turn will allow us to develop a novel, single theoretical framework. ..
- Ex Vivo Delineation of Mechanisms of Cerebral VasospasmJAY HUMPHREY; Fiscal Year: 2008..In summary, we submit that this project will reveal new insight into mechanisms. ..
- Statistical Methods in Diagnostic MedicineXiao Hua Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2007..Finally, we will develop general group sequential designs for comparative ROC studies using nonparametrically estimated ROC curves. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- EFFECTS OF O2 RADICALS AND PERIVASCULAR NERVES IN TRAUMADOUGLAS DEWITT; Fiscal Year: 2009..Specific Aim IV is to measure GJ communication (using FRAP) and Cx mRNA expression in cerebral arteries harvested from rats subjected to traumatic brain injury and treated with SOD, L-NAME, FeTPPS or penicillamine. ..
- Apolipoprotein E and Outcomes in Subarachnoid HemorrhageNerissa Ko; Fiscal Year: 2007..A program of didactic courses and mentoring in this project will build upon the candidate's clinical training, and allow her to develop into an independent clinical investigator in neurovascular neurology. ..
- APOLIPOPROTEIN E EFFECT ON THE CNS IMMUNE RESPONSEDaniel Laskowitz; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- Causal Analysis of Encouragement Design StudiesXiao Hua Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2004..In this proposal, we will develop a general statistical methodology for causal treatment analysis of the randomized EDS when data have a complicated structure. ..
- Cerebral artery Ca2+ signaling & subarachnoid hemorrhageGeorge Wellman; Fiscal Year: 2009..This study should significantly enhance current knowledge with respect to Ca2+signaling and constriction of cerebral arteries in health and disease and provide insight into possible new therapies for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. ..