cryptococcal meningitis

Summary

Summary: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS
    Benjamin J Park
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    AIDS 23:525-30. 2009
  2. ncbi Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 363:1764-7. 2004
  3. ncbi Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults
    Neil French
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    AIDS 16:1031-8. 2002
  4. ncbi High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
  5. ncbi HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Joseph N Jarvis
    AIDS 21:2119-29. 2007
  6. ncbi IFN-gamma at the site of infection determines rate of clearance of infection in cryptococcal meningitis
    Asna A Siddiqui
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:1746-50. 2005
  7. pmc Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients
    Tihana Bicanic
    Centre for Infection, St George s University of London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 49:702-9. 2009
  8. ncbi Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for concurrent HIV infection and cryptococcal meningitis in sub-saharan Africa
    Azure T Makadzange
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1532-8. 2010
  9. pmc Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi
    Jesse C Nussbaum
    University of North Carolina UNC Project and 2Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
    Clin Infect Dis 50:338-44. 2010
  10. ncbi Shunt surgery for hydrocephalus complicating cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients
    Po Chou Liliang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    Clin Infect Dis 37:673-8. 2003

Detail Information

Publications251 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS
    Benjamin J Park
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    AIDS 23:525-30. 2009
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most important HIV-related opportunistic infections, especially in the developing world...
  2. ncbi Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Lancet 363:1764-7. 2004
    It frequently takes more than 2 weeks for drug treatments for cryptococcal meningitis to sterilise cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  3. ncbi Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults
    Neil French
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    AIDS 16:1031-8. 2002
    ....
  4. ncbi High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
    The standard therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis of amphotericin B (AmB; 0...
  5. ncbi HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Joseph N Jarvis
    AIDS 21:2119-29. 2007
  6. ncbi IFN-gamma at the site of infection determines rate of clearance of infection in cryptococcal meningitis
    Asna A Siddiqui
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:1746-50. 2005
    ..fluid (CSF) fungal cultures in 62 patients in a trial of antifungal therapy for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. CSF IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 were significantly higher in survivors compared with ..
  7. pmc Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients
    Tihana Bicanic
    Centre for Infection, St George s University of London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 49:702-9. 2009
    Progress in therapy for cryptococcal meningitis has been slow because of the lack of a suitable marker of treatment response...
  8. ncbi Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for concurrent HIV infection and cryptococcal meningitis in sub-saharan Africa
    Azure T Makadzange
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1532-8. 2010
    BACKGROUND. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related death in sub-Saharan Africa...
  9. pmc Combination flucytosine and high-dose fluconazole compared with fluconazole monotherapy for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized trial in Malawi
    Jesse C Nussbaum
    University of North Carolina UNC Project and 2Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
    Clin Infect Dis 50:338-44. 2010
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated morbidity and mortality in Africa...
  10. ncbi Shunt surgery for hydrocephalus complicating cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients
    Po Chou Liliang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    Clin Infect Dis 37:673-8. 2003
    From 1988 through 2001, 27 patients with cryptococcal meningitis who had hydrocephalus were identified and were treated by placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts...
  11. pmc Outcomes of cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda before and after the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Andrew Kambugu
    Infectious Disease Institute, Makerere University, Kampala Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1694-701. 2008
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the proximate cause of death in 20%-30% of persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Africa.
  12. ncbi A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of primary cryptococcal meningitis prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with severe immune deficiency
    P Chetchotisakd
    Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
    HIV Med 5:140-3. 2004
    To assess the efficacy and survival benefit of low-dose fluconazole (400 mg weekly) for primary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with advanced HIV infection.
  13. ncbi Survival time of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis
    Suthat Chottanapund
    Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 90:2104-11. 2007
    To study survival time and risk factors of mortality among HIV-infected patients who had cryptococcal meningitis.
  14. pmc Low CD4 count plus coma predicts cryptococcal meningitis in Tanzania
    Peter R Kisenge
    Department of Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania
    BMC Infect Dis 7:39. 2007
    Largely due to the lack of diagnostic reagents, the prevalence and clinical presentation of cryptococcal meningitis in Tanzania is poorly understood. This in turn is limiting the impact of increased fluconazole availability.
  15. ncbi Epidemiology and management of cryptococcal meningitis: developments and challenges
    Read Pukkila-Worley
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 9:551-60. 2008
    ..was to outline the worldwide significance of cryptococcosis and review developments in the management of cryptococcal meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans var...
  16. pmc Outcome of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis initially treated with 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day of fluconazole
    C F Schaars
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 6:118. 2006
    AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis has a high mortality. Fluconazole was the only systemic antifungal therapy available in our centre...
  17. ncbi Dose response effect of high-dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in southwestern Uganda
    Nicky Longley
    Department of Medicine, Mbarara University Hospital, Mbarara, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1556-61. 2008
    Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis in many centers in Africa is fluconazole administered at a dosage of 400-800 mg per day...
  18. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during experimental cryptococcal meningitis
    B R Steen
    Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 2:1336-49. 2003
    ..Taken together, these findings provide the first insight into the transcriptional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment and identify the set of fungal genes most highly expressed during cerebrospinal fluid infection...
  19. ncbi Two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia: defective cytokine production and reversal by recombinant interferon- gamma therapy
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 39:e83-7. 2004
    ..Activation of cellular immunity by proinflammatory cytokines plays a central role in anticryptococcal defense...
  20. ncbi Primary and opportunistic pathogens associated with meningitis in adults in Bangui, Central African Republic, in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus
    Claudine Bekondi
    Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Unité des Maladies Infectieuses Opportunistes, Boîte Postale 923, Bangui, Central African Republic
    Int J Infect Dis 10:387-95. 2006
    ..To determine the causative organisms and characteristics of patients presenting with meningitis in Bangui in order to provide guidance to physicians for case management...
  21. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with acquired immunudeficiency syndrome in prehaart era at Gondar College of Medical Sciences Hospital north-west Ethiopia
    Teshale Seboxa
    Department of Internal Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Ethiop Med J 48:237-41. 2010
    ..CIyptococcal meningitis is an important opportunistic funimgal infection that became very common after the era of HIV infection...
  22. pmc New guinea pig model of Cryptococcal meningitis
    William R Kirkpatrick
    The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:3011-3. 2007
    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole...
  23. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis
    Tihana Bicanic
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Br Med Bull 72:99-118. 2004
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is a common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients, particularly in Southeast Asia and Africa. Cases also occur in patients with other forms of immunosupression and in apparently immunocompetent individuals...
  24. ncbi Fluconazole alone or combined with flucytosine for the treatment of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Eric Milefchik
    University of Southern California, San Diego, California, USA
    Med Mycol 46:393-5. 2008
    An all oral treatment for cryptococcal meningitis is attractive, particularly where amphotericin B use is impractical. Both fluconazole and flucytosine are available in oral formulations and have activity against Cryptococcus neoformans...
  25. pmc Clinical presentation, natural history, and cumulative death rates of 230 adults with primary cryptococcal meningitis in Zambian AIDS patients treated under local conditions
    P Mwaba
    Department of Medicine and the UNZA-UCLMS Project, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
    Postgrad Med J 77:769-73. 2001
    ..define the natural history, clinical presentation, and management outcome of microbiologically confirmed cryptococcal meningitis in adult AIDS patients treated under local conditions where antifungal and antiretroviral therapies are ..
  26. ncbi Immunological profiles of immune restoration disease presenting as mycobacterial lymphadenitis and cryptococcal meningitis
    D B A Tan
    School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    HIV Med 9:307-16. 2008
    ..A proportion of HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop immune restoration disease (IRD). Immunological characteristics of IRD were investigated in a cohort of HIV patients beginning therapy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...
  27. ncbi Baseline correlation and comparative kinetics of cerebrospinal fluid colony-forming unit counts and antigen titers in cryptococcal meningitis
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Infect Dis 192:681-4. 2005
    ..unit counts and CSF cryptococcal antigen titers serve as alternative measures of organism load in cryptococcal meningitis. For these measures, we correlated baseline values and rates of decline during the first 2 weeks of ..
  28. ncbi A case of AIDS associated cryptococcal meningitis with multiple cranial nerve neuropathies
    Sumit Mohan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University at Harlem Hospital, New York, NY 10037, USA
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 108:610-3. 2006
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is a common opportunistic infection among patients with AIDS...
  29. ncbi Use of ventriculoperitoneal shunts to treat uncontrollable intracranial hypertension in patients who have cryptococcal meningitis without hydrocephalus
    Po Chou Liliang
    Departments of 1Neurosurgery and 2Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    Clin Infect Dis 34:E64-8. 2002
    Between 1997 and 2000, 4 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in our institution had cryptococcal meningitis with uncontrollable intracranial hypertension...
  30. ncbi Overexpression of beta-arrestin 2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with cryptococcal meningitis
    Rong Xia
    Department of Transfusion, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:155-62. 2010
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is often associated with elevated IL-10 levels, which suggest a dysregulation in the antifungal immune response...
  31. pmc Combination therapy with fluconazole and flucytosine in the murine model of cryptococcal meningitis
    M H Nguyen
    University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville VA Medical Center, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:1120-3. 1997
    ..001]), and (iii) synergism between fluconazole and flucytosine (therapy with a combination of fluconazole and flucytosine was superior to therapy with either agent alone [P < 0.01])...
  32. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease: complete neurological and cognitive recovery with treatment
    Michael Hoffmann
    Department of Neurology, University of South Florida and James A Haley Veteran s Administration Hospital, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 16:517-20. 2009
    ..dysexecutive syndrome and brain imaging notable for leptomeningeal enhancement; laboratory data confirmed cryptococcal meningitis. Four months after treatment, the patient was normal neurologically, cognitively and neuroradiologically...
  33. ncbi Seizure in non-HIV cryptococcal meningitis
    Somsak Tiamkao
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 90:1298-302. 2007
    The authors studied the prevalence of seizure in non-HIV cryptococcal meningitis.
  34. pmc Oral versus intravenous flucytosine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Annemarie E Brouwer
    Centre of Infection, St George s University of London, London SW17 ORE, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1038-42. 2007
    ..controlled trial of amphotericin B-based therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Thailand, we also compared the mycological efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of oral versus ..
  35. ncbi Fungal burden, early fungicidal activity, and outcome in cryptococcal meningitis in antiretroviral-naive or antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with amphotericin B or fluconazole
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 45:76-80. 2007
    In a prospective observational study of 54 patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcal meningitis, the early fungicidal activity of amphotericin B (1 mg/kg/day) was significantly greater than that of fluconazole (..
  36. pmc Capsule structure changes associated with Cryptococcus neoformans crossing of the blood-brain barrier
    Caroline Charlier
    Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, CNRS FRE2948, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Am J Pathol 166:421-32. 2005
    ..The rapid changes in capsule structure could contribute to inability of the host immune response to control cryptococcal infection in extrapulmonary spaces...
  37. ncbi Immune mediators in cerebrospinal fluid during cryptococcosis are influenced by meningeal involvement and human immunodeficiency virus serostatus
    O Lortholary
    , , Paris, France
    J Infect Dis 183:294-302. 2001
    ..Overall, these data support the idea that inflammatory responses are crucial to the eradication of cryptococcal infections in the central nervous system...
  38. ncbi Clinical relevance of intracranial arterial stenoses in tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis
    C H Lu
    Dept of Neurology Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    Infection 35:359-63. 2007
    Tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis are two of the most common types of chronic meningitis...
  39. ncbi Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates and clinical outcomes of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients with/without fluconazole prophylaxis
    Weerawat Manosuthi
    Bamrasnaradura Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 89:795-802. 2006
    ..neoformans) obtained from the CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF); and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis.
  40. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in two apparently immunocompetent Maltese patients
    L Vella Zahra
    Medical School, Mycology Laboratory, Pathology Department, St Luke s Hospital, Malta
    Mycoses 47:168-73. 2004
    Two cases of cryptococcal meningitis occurring in immunocompetent men are described...
  41. ncbi Temporary external lumbar drainage for reducing elevated intracranial pressure in HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis
    Weerawat Manosuthi
    Department of Medicine, Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Tiwanon Road, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
    Int J STD AIDS 19:268-71. 2008
    ..external lumbar drainage for continuous release of cerebrospinal fluid among patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP)...
  42. ncbi Interleukin-2 treatment for persistent cryptococcal meningitis in a child with idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphocytopenia
    Yesim Yilmaz-Demirdag
    Allergy and Immunology Section, Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130 3932, USA
    Allergy Asthma Proc 29:421-4. 2008
    ..This case is the first reported pediatric idiopathic CD4(+) T-lymphocytopenia case with cryptococcal meningitis that was successfully treated by the addition of rIL-2 therapy to antifungal therapy.
  43. ncbi Managing cryptococcal meningitis is about handling the pressure
    Peter G Pappas
    Clin Infect Dis 40:480-2. 2005
  44. ncbi Two cases of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients not infected with HIV
    S Akcaglar
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey
    Mycoses 50:235-8. 2007
    We present the cases of two patients with cryptococcal meningitis who were predisposed to fungal infection because of diabetes mellitus (Case 1) and systemic lupus erythematosus (Case 2)...
  45. pmc Cryptococcal meningitis presenting with isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus
    Seung Ki Kwok
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 23:153-5. 2008
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  46. ncbi Comparison of one week with two week regimens of amphotericin B both followed by fluconazole in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis among AIDS patients
    Somsit Tansuphaswadikul
    Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute, Department of Disease Control, Nonthaburi
    J Med Assoc Thai 89:1677-85. 2006
    ..Amphotericin B treatment in cryptococcosis requires daily hospital visits or admission. Its toxicities and hospital costs have been concerned. Short course amphotericin B regimen warrants to be evaluated...
  47. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV negative pregnant women: case report and review of literature
    Maria Laura Botelho Costa
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 51:289-94. 2009
    ..However, there are case reports of cryptococcal meningitis in immune competent pregnant women...
  48. ncbi [Cryptococcal meningitis as a diagnostic problem in a patient with SLE--case report]
    Dubravka Bosnic
    Zavod za klinicku immunologiju i reumatologiju, Klinika za unutarnje bolesti Medicinskog fakulteta, KBC Zagreb
    Lijec Vjesn 130:136-40. 2008
    ..neophormans. In recent medical literature are dominant cases reported in Asia. Reports from Europe are very rare, and this case is the one of that kind in Croatia...
  49. ncbi Bilateral blindness after starting highly active antiretroviral treatment in a patient with HIV infection and cryptococcal meningitis
    C De Schacht
    Departement Klinische Wetenschappen, Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskunde, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerpen
    Acta Clin Belg 60:10-2. 2005
    A 26-year-old HIV-seropositive Caucasian man with cryptococcal meningitis developed permanent bilateral blindness shortly after starting highly active antiretroviral treatment...
  50. ncbi Intracerebral CSF collection mimicking cerebral abscess in a patient suffering from cryptococcal meningitis
    Antonis Vakis
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Crete, Medical School, Heraklion University Hospital, Voutes, 71021 Heraklion Crete, Greece
    J Infect 51:e233-5. 2005
    ..of the catheter of an ommaya-type reservoir (Medtronic 12 mm), implanted in a patient suffered from cryptococcal meningitis in the frame of CLL...
  51. ncbi Feasibility study of serial lumbar puncture and acetazolamide combination in the management of elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda
    J Orem
    Uganda Cancer Institute, Kampala, Uganda
    Trop Doct 35:19-21. 2005
    ..combination in managing raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure was undertaken in 18 patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis in Uganda...
  52. ncbi Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study
    Asda Vibhagool
    Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 36:1329-31. 2003
    ..with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were successfully treated for acute cryptococcal meningitis, were receiving secondary prophylaxis, and were naive for antiretroviral therapy...
  53. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and literature review
    Norlijah Othman
    Department of Human Growth and Development, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:930-4. 2004
    ..Further immunological tests did not reveal any defect in the cell-mediated immune system. C. neoformans meningitis may present with non-specific symptoms and should be considered in a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin...
  54. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 1994-2004
    Beatriz Consuelo Quinet Leimann
    Laboratório de Microbiologia Micologia, Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 24:2582-92. 2008
    The objective of this article was to evaluate the epidemiology of cryptococcal meningitis in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from 1994 to 2004...
  55. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage
    Romy Hoque
    Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103, USA
    South Med J 101:1255-7. 2008
    ..He was diagnosed with pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to cryptococcal meningitis and choroidal microabscesses with retinal inflammation after a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination ..
  56. ncbi A phase II randomized trial of amphotericin B alone or combined with fluconazole in the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Peter G Pappas
    Div of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, 1900 University Blvd, THT 229, Birmingham, AL 35294 0006, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1775-83. 2009
    ..Therapeutic options for the treatment of central nervous system cryptococcosis are limited, especially in resource-limited settings...
  57. pmc Phase I evaluation of the safety and pharmacokinetics of murine-derived anticryptococcal antibody 18B7 in subjects with treated cryptococcal meningitis
    Robert A Larsen
    Department of Medicine Infectious Diseases, 2020 Zonal Ave, IRD Room 632, MC 9520, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:952-8. 2005
    A promising approach to improving outcomes in patients with cryptococcal meningitis is to use adjunctive passive immunotherapy with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans...
  58. doi Mortality rate of early versus deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis
    Weerawat Manosuthi
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:508-9. 2008
  59. pmc The use of HAART is associated with decreased risk of death during initial treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in adults in Botswana
    Gregory P Bisson
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49:227-9. 2008
    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes among adults with a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis (CM), comparing those on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with those not on HAART.
  60. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS
    Revathi S Iyer
    Indian J Med Sci 56:593-7. 2002
    ..PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for cryptococcal meningitis was evaluated...
  61. ncbi Raised intracranial pressure complicating cryptococcal meningitis: immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or recurrent cryptococcal disease?
    Josephine York
    Department of HIV GUM, The Guy s, King s and St Thomas School of Medicine, Weston Education Centre, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill Campus, Cutcombe Road, London SE5 9RT, UK
    J Infect 51:165-71. 2005
    We report the case of a patient with advanced HIV disease and cryptococcal meningitis, who after an initially good clinical and mycological response to systemic anti-fungal treatment developed symptomatic raised intracranial pressure 10 ..
  62. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acetazolamide for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis
    Paul N Newton
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 35:769-72. 2002
    We conducted a trial of oral acetazolamide for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in 22 Thai adults with headache and an opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure of >/=200 mm H(2)0...
  63. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis: an analysis among 5,521 consecutive organ transplant recipients
    G Wu
    Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Transpl Infect Dis 4:183-8. 2002
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis has been reported to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients...
  64. ncbi Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility of clinical sequential isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Sao Paulo State, Brazil
    Ana Marisa Fusco Almeida
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Biotecnologia, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brasil
    FEMS Yeast Res 7:152-64. 2007
    ..neoformans, including four Cryptococcus gattii isolates, obtained from 38 Sao Paulo AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis were assessed by electrophoretic karyotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis...
  65. ncbi Cerebral infarction related to cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV-infected patient: case report and literature review
    Andréa Gurgel Batista Leite
    Emilio Ribas Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Braz J Infect Dis 8:175-9. 2004
    ..most common causes of cerebral infarction in AIDS are central nervous system infections: toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis...
  66. ncbi Prevalence of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis and utility of microbiological determinants for its diagnosis in a tertiary care center
    Rajeev Thakur
    Department of Microbiology, IHBAS, Delhi, India
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 51:212-4. 2008
    ..Early diagnosis of such patients is the key to their therapeutic success...
  67. pmc A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease
    Tran Th Chau
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Quan, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    BMC Infect Dis 10:199. 2010
    Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur in patients with HIV infection: the course and outcome of disease in the apparently immunocompetent is much more poorly understood...
  68. pmc Paucity of initial cerebrospinal fluid inflammation in cryptococcal meningitis is associated with subsequent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    David R Boulware
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:962-70. 2010
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis (CM)-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) complicates antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 20%-40% of ART-naive persons with AIDS and prior CM. Pathogenesis is unknown.
  69. pmc Microsatellite typing and susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis
    María T Illnait-Zaragozí
    Department of Bacteriology and Mycology, Instituto Pedro Kouri, Havana, Cuba
    BMC Infect Dis 10:289. 2010
    ..We studied C. neoformans isolates from 7 Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Antifungal susceptibility and genotyping with microsatellite molecular typing were carried out.
  70. pmc In vitro-clinical correlations for amphotericin B susceptibility in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    R A Larsen
    Department of Medicine Infectious Diseases, 2020 Zonal Ave, IRD Room 620, MC 9520, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:343-5. 2007
    ..In vitro susceptibility employed a modified broth macrodilution method. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the quantitative measures of in vitro amphotericin B susceptibility and the quantitative response observed in patients...
  71. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic overviews
    P Satishchandra
    Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences NIMHANS and St Johns Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, India
    Neurol India 55:226-32. 2007
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS...
  72. ncbi Comparison of 2 doses of liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate for treatment of AIDS-associated acute cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of efficacy and safety
    Richard J Hamill
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:225-32. 2010
    BACKGROUND. It is generally acknowledged that amphotericin B is the most effective treatment for cryptococcal meningitis. However, administration of this drug is accompanied by substantial adverse effects...
  73. ncbi Time course of cerebral hemodynamics in cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-negative adults
    W N Chang
    Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Eur J Neurol 14:770-6. 2007
    To evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics in cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients using non-invasive studies...
  74. ncbi Cerebral infarction in chronic meningitis: a comparison of tuberculous meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis
    S H Lan
    Departments of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    QJM 94:247-53. 2001
    ..They accounted for 47% (17/36) of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 32% (11/34) of cryptococcal meningitis cases. Single infarctions were found in 15 patients and multiple infarctions in 13...
  75. ncbi Simultaneous presentation of cryptococcal meningitis and lupus nephritis
    K Kwasind Huston
    J Rheumatol 32:2501-2. 2005
  76. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related cryptococcal meningitis in rural central Thailand--treatment difficulties and prevention strategies
    P Wright
    Manorom Christian Hospital, Manorom, Chainat, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38:58-61. 2007
    In 2000, cryptococcal meningitis was a common HIV related opportunistic infection in central Thailand requiring inpatient management but few patients suffering from it could afford a full course of treatment once infection had occurred...
  77. ncbi Paradoxical recurrent meningitis following therapy of cryptococcal meningitis: an immune reconstitution syndrome after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Mark D King
    Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 13:724-6. 2002
    ..active antiretroviral therapy in a patient receiving maintenance fluconazole for a previous diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. We describe the unusual radiographic and histopathologic findings which are consistent with an immune ..
  78. ncbi Antiretroviral roll-out, antifungal roll-back: access to treatment for cryptococcal meningitis
    Tihana Bicanic
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:530-1. 2005
  79. pmc Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa: the role of inadequate secondary prophylaxis
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 100:378-82. 2010
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is the commonest cause of adult meningitis in Southern Africa. A sizeable proportion of this disease burden is thought to be due to symptomatic relapse of previously treated infection...
  80. pmc The STE12alpha homolog is required for haploid filamentation but largely dispensable for mating and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans
    C Yue
    Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Genetics 153:1601-15. 1999
    ..The association of the MATalpha locus with virulence may involve additional genes, and other transcription factors that regulate mating and virulence remain to be identified...
  81. ncbi Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), cryptococcal reactivation and disseminated Herpes simplex in an HIV infected child following HAART
    Ronald van Toorn
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 9:355-9. 2005
    ..We describe a 7-year-old HIV infected child (CD4=10, viral load =180,669copies/ml) who develops a cryptococcal meningitis, with raised intracranial pressure, complicated by ADEM and disseminated Herpes simplex infection ..
  82. ncbi Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis: a prospective multicenter study
    Somnuek Sungkanuparph
    Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Infect Dis 49:931-4. 2009
    ..Of 101 AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis who received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 13 experienced cryptococcal IRIS...
  83. ncbi The use of ventriculoperitoneal shunts for uncontrollable intracranial hypertension without ventriculomegally secondary to HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Graeme F Woodworth
    Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Surg Neurol 63:529-31; discussion 531-2. 2005
    ..CSF infection have historically discouraged surgeons from implanting CSF shunts in patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis. However, this patient population often requires frequent lumbar punctures to manage elevated ..
  84. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in the immunocompromised host: intracranial hypertension and other complications
    D A Stevens
    Department of Medicine, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA
    Mycopathologia 146:1-8. 1999
    ..This trend has heightened awareness of the complications of cryptococcal meningitis; of these, intracranial hypertension is common, severe, and life-threatening, as exemplified by three ..
  85. ncbi Primary gastrointestinal lymphangiectasia presenting as cryptococcal meningitis
    Steven L Cole
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, James A Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 98:490-2. 2007
    ..b>Cryptococcal meningitis is a fatal condition if untreated and is usually found in patients with cellular immunodeficiency.
  86. ncbi Cryptococcus meningoencephalitis in AIDS: parenchymal and meningeal forms
    J Berkefeld
    Institut für Neuroradiologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neuroradiology 41:129-33. 1999
    ..Enhancement of cryptococcomas, indicating an inflammatory response in the surrounding brain, is not typical in patients with impairment of immune function...
  87. ncbi Management of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS: the need for specific studies in developing countries
    Olivier Lortholary
    Clin Infect Dis 45:81-3. 2007
  88. ncbi Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: report of four cases in three patients and review of the literature
    Daniel J Skiest
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 9113, USA
    J Infect 51:e289-97. 2005
    ..Patients with cryptococcal disease who initiate HAART are at risk for cryptococcal IRIS...
  89. ncbi Pseudocystic cryptococcal meningitis complicated by transient periaqueductal obstruction in a child with HIV infection
    Ronald van Toorn
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 9:81-4. 2005
    ..We describe a 10-year-old human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infected girl who presented with pseudocystic cryptococcal meningitis complicated by hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal obstruction...
  90. ncbi Voriconazole use and pharmacokinetics in combination with interferon-gamma for refractory cryptococcal meningitis in a patient receiving low-dose ritonavir
    Natalie E Nierenberg
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Med Mycol 48:532-6. 2010
    We present a case of relapsing cryptococcal meningitis unresponsive to standard therapy...
  91. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV infected: experience from a North Indian tertiary center
    Susheel Kumar
    Department of Internal Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
    Neurol India 56:444-9. 2008
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is a common opportunistic infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. There is little information specifically addressing cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients from North India.
  92. ncbi Primary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis
    Laurence John
    HIV Med 5:131-2. 2004
  93. ncbi Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pressure, fungal burden and outcome in patients with cryptococcal meningitis undergoing serial lumbar punctures
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 23:701-6. 2009
    ..on association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure and prognosis in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis; to explore time course and relationship of opening pressure with neurological findings, CSF fungal ..
  94. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus
    J Liou
    Department of Pediatrics, Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, No 160, Sec 3, Chung Kang Rd, Taichung 407, Taiwan
    Mycoses 46:153-6. 2003
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but often fatal complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  95. ncbi Mesencephalic cryptococcal abscesses presenting with parkinsonism as an initial manifestation of AIDS
    John Paul Bouffard
    Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306 6000, USA
    Mov Disord 18:1354-7. 2003
    ..Movement disorders in association with AIDS and mesencephalic mass lesions are discussed...
  96. ncbi Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis after initial fluconazole monotherapy: the role of fluconazole resistance and immune reconstitution
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1069-73. 2006
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in South Africa is often treated with fluconazole as initial therapy...
  97. ncbi Burden of cryptococcal meningitis in Malawi
    Simon D Makombe
    HIV Unit, Ministry of Health, Lilongwe
    Trop Doct 39:32-4. 2009
    There is little information about the national burden of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in African countries affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic...
  98. ncbi Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a prospective study
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:130-4. 2009
    Prospective data on incidence, characteristics, and risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are lacking.
  99. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis mimicking vascular dementia
    J Aharon-Peretz
    Cognitive Neurology Unit, Rambam Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
    Neurology 62:2135. 2004
  100. ncbi Intrathecal production and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor during Cryptococcal Meningitis
    Frank E J Coenjaerts
    Department of Acute Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Eijkman Winkler Institute for Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 190:1310-7. 2004
    Patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) show elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in most cases. Elevated ICP is an important contributor to mortality...
  101. ncbi Cryptococcal meningitis in a patient treated with infliximab
    Patricia Munoz
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, University of Madrid, 28007 Madrid, Spain
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 57:443-6. 2007
    ..We report the first case of cryptococcal meningitis in a patient treated with infliximab and other immunosuppressive agents, and review a further 5 reported ..

Research Grants62

  1. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Antibody cytokine fusion proteins against Cryptococcus neoformans
    DAVID OWEN BEENHOUWER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Host immune responses will be defined and correlated with efficacy. Mortality from cryptococcal meningitis is 10-20% indicating the need for better therapies...
  3. Targeting copper homeostasis in the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
    RICHARD FESTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..can progress to systemic infection in both immunocompromised and healthy individuals, leading to lethal cryptococcal meningitis. Current therapies to address C...
  4. Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus Spores
    Christina M Hull; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The bulk of this burden is in Sub-Saharan Africa where the number of deaths from cryptococcal meningitis now appears to surpass the number of deaths from tuberculosis...
  5. The immunopathogenesis of HIV-related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
    DAVID BISAGAYA MEYA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..biomarkers to diagnose and predict HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) associated with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in AIDS patients at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) in Kampala, Uganda and to better ..
  6. The CryptoART Study: Decreasing mortality associated with initiation of antiretro
    CHIRATIDZO ELLEN NDHLOVU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..facilities to identify among patients with a positive LFA test which patients are at greatest risk of cryptococcal meningitis and require transfer to better resourced facilities for spinal taps and intravenous antifungal therapy...
  7. Invasion of C. neoformans into brain endothelial cells
    Ambrose Y Jong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..At present, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and also the most frequent ..
  8. Discovery and evaluation of fungicidal anti-cryptococcal molecules
    Damian J Krysan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most common disease caused by C...
  9. Discovering a Combination Therapeutic Approach to Use in the Treatment of Cryptoc
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cryptococcosis most often spreads to the brain, causing cryptococcal meningitis (CM), and is fatal if left untreated...
  10. Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia in HIV-Infected Patients in the United Stat
    Michele W Tang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcal meningitis is a devastating disease in AIDS patients, with a mortality of 12% in the U.S. and 20-90% in resource-limited settings...
  11. Trial for the Optimal Timing of HIV Therapy after Cryptococcal Meningitis
    David R Boulware; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death among all AIDS-related opportunistic infections, causing an estimated 1 million infections and 625,000 deaths worldwide annually...
  12. Outcomes of Cryptococcal Meningitis in Uganda
    Paul R Bohjanen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the AIDS-associated opportunistic infection that causes the largest number of deaths worldwide...
  13. Targeted Treatment of Early Cryptococcal Infection in HIV-infected Patients
    ANA CLAIRE LEW MEYER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cohort studies have demonstrated that this approach clearly identifies a population at high risk of cryptococcal meningitis and death and is a feasible screening method for resource-limited settings...
  14. Improving Diagnostics and Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV/AIDS-related Meningitis
    David R Boulware; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In persons with HIV, cryptococcal meningitis is particularly common, being the second most common AIDS defining illness in Africa and the most common ..
  15. A Computer Modeling Approach to Create an Antifungal to Improve the Treatment of
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) continues to be a significant cause of mortality among HIV positive individuals, and a major world-wide health concern in developing regions including Africa and ..
  16. Operational Research for cryptococcal antigen screening to improve ART survival
    DAVID BISAGAYA MEYA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death in AIDS patients in the developing world, responsible for up to 500,000 deaths each year in sub-Saharan Africa alone...
  17. Evaluation of a public health strategy to improve survival of HIV-infected patien
    Chau Van Vinh Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A leading contributor to this early mortality is cryptococcal meningitis, a fungal disease that is among the leading opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons in ..
  18. Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in HIV infected Persons in Resource-Limited Areas
    David R Boulware; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HIV IRIS has emerged as a frequent complication of ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. As cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the second most common AIDS-defining illness in sub-Saharan Africa, CM-IRIS is a common problem...
  19. Research Training in Infection and Neurodevelopment in Uganda
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of neurocognitive impairment in children with cerebral malaria and in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis. These studies provide an ideal basis for training in the pathogenesis of infection-related ..
  20. Cryptococcus traversal of Brain Endothelial cells
    Kwang Kim; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Several lines of evidence from experimental mouse models of cryptococcal meningitis indicate that C...
  21. Induction of Protection Against Cryptococcus neoformans in Immune Deficient Hosts
    Floyd L Wormley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Global estimates suggest that one million cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur each year resulting in over 620,000 deaths...
  22. HUMAN ANTIBODIES TO CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    Liise Anne Pirofski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..provided by applicant): There is an urgent need for new approaches to treat and prevent HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM)...
  23. MECHANISM OF ANTIBODY PROTECTION AGAINST C. NEOFORMANS
    Sherie Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Current treatment is inadequate as 10-20% of patients die from cryptococcal meningitis despite aggressive antifungal therapy, and individuals who survive beyond the initial treatment period ..
  24. Role of Ipc1 in fungal pathogenesis
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..neoformans is no longer pathogenic in an animal model of cryptococcal meningitis when Ipcl is down-regulated...
  25. PATHOGENESIS OF CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
    Sunhee Lee; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..b>Cryptococcal meningitis is incurable in patients with AIDS, despite antifungal treatments...
  26. Molecular study of calcium channels in fungal pathogens.
    ANGELA GELLI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..mutants generated for the structure-function studies, will be tested for virulence in an animal model of cryptococcal meningitis. Channel activation and regulation will be examined in cells that lack key signaling molecules in order ..
  27. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND VIRULENCE IN C NEOFORMANS
    J Alspaugh; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In a rabbit model of cryptococcal meningitis, the gpa1 mutant cells were markedly attenuated for virulence...
  28. Amphotericin B Nanodisks and Cryptococcal Meningitis
    Robert Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..with Cryptococcus neoformans represents a serious problem that results in the potentially fatal disease, cryptococcal meningitis. The antibiotic, amphotericin B (ampB) is active against C...
  29. ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY OF SYSTEMIC MYCOTIC DISEASES
    William Dismukes; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of various single and multiple drug regimens for the therapy of cryptococcal meningitis and various forms of aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and candidiasis...
  30. HIV Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in Uganda
    Paul Bohjanen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Of these, 50 patients have no active OI at time of ART initiation, and 50 patients have a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis within the previous 2 months...
  31. Trial for the Optimal Timing of HIV Therapy after Cryptococcal Meningitis
    David Boulware; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the second most common AIDS defining illness in Sub-Saharan Africa...
  32. GENETIC SCREEN FOR VIRULENCE GENES IN C NEOFORMANS
    JENNIFER LODGE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..neoformans. C. neoformans causes cryptococcal meningitis in 6-10 percent of patients with AIDS...
  33. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Robert Larsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the developing world cryptococcal meningitis and pulmonary tuberculosis are the two most common opportunistic infections...
  34. C. Neoformans Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients
    Nina Singh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, the data regarding reactivation or primary infection has implications relevant for the prevention of C. neoformans infection in transplant recipients. ..
  35. Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network
    Peter Pappas; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally, the establishment of a bank will be invaluable in the development and validation of newer diagnostic assays. ..
  36. Invasion of C. neoformans into brain endothelial cells
    Ambrose Jong; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The information derived from the studies is expected to be helpful in the development of novel strategies to prevent cryptococcal meningitis and its associated morbidity.
  37. Oxidative Stress Markers and HIV Dementia
    Ned Sacktor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We believe that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of HIV-D, and strategies to decrease oxidative stress may serve as a useful therapeutic target to treat HIV-D. ..
  38. GENETIC & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF VIRULENCE IN C NEOFORMANS
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is our hypothesis that beginning to understand the genetic regulation of C. neoformans during infection through this proposal will be a powerful tool to find targets to interrupt pathogenesis. ..
  39. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--A MODEL FOR PATHOGENIC FUNGI
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This program emphasizes a focus on a single pathogen with a basic but broad-spectrum and highly interactive genomic approach to scientific investigations which can be extrapolated to other fungi. ..
  40. RECENT ADVANCES IN AIDS AND HIV RESEARCH
    Michael Saag; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..CME credit for attending physicians will be provided. ..
  41. ADULT AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP
    Michael Saag; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Effect of GBV-C on HIV
    Gregory Bisson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This aim will be examined using a cohort study with GBV-C viremia at baseline as the exposure and viral load breakthrough as the outcome. Analysis will examine effect of GBV-C viremia on time to virologic breakthrough. ..
  43. Role of Oxylipins in Cryptococcal Pathogenesis
    GARY HUFFNAGLE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..production; (3) to determine the role of the fungal oxylipin CnPGEx in cryptococcal biology and pathogenesis; (4) to determine the role of host PGE2 and other prostaglandins in cryptococcal biology and host immunity ..
  44. MOLECULAR BASIS OF PHENOTYPIC SWITCHING IN 24067 MUTANT
    Bettina Fries; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The second part is designed to clone the gene mediating this complex phenotype and the third part will aim to establish whether there is a causative relationship between chromosomal rearrangement and switching. ..
  45. Monoclonal antibodies for invasive aspergillosis
    Marta Feldmesser; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To determine the biological activity of MAbs generated in Aim 2 in murine models of invasive aspergillosis. It is anticipated that this study will identify important targets for further investigation. ..
  46. Role of Fungal Microflora in Mucosal Tolerance/Immunity
    GARY HUFFNAGLE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will provide the basic science foundation for future studies in humans for understanding how and why manipulation of the microflora (by diet or probiotics) can alter or prevent allergies. ..
  47. REGULATION OF COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION BY CANDIDA ALBICANS
    Thomas Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..An understanding of this system is fundamental to identification of individuals at possible risk for opportunistic Candida infections and the development of immunological means to prevent infection. ..
  48. Improving Antimicrobial Use
    Mark King; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  49. Cryptococcus gatti mating 1oci; mapping and gene study
    Vishnu Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS IN IMMUNITY TO C NEOFORMANS
    GARY HUFFNAGLE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..neoformans infection; (5) To determine the role of MCP-1 and CCR2 in the development of a Th2 response to C. neoformans. ..
  51. MODULATION OF TH1/TH2 RESPONSES BY INNATE IMMUNITY
    GARY HUFFNAGLE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..One of the potential implications of these studies is that therapies inhibiting melanin biosynthesis or activity may also have an adjuvant effect and promote the development of protective Th1 immunity to C. neoformans. ..
  52. Mucosal Defense vs Transmission of HIV by Breast Milk
    Edward Janoff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  53. Aspergillosis: Engineering Antibody for Diagnosis
    Marta Feldmesser; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The availability of reagents that have potential to improve both sensitivity and specificity of galactomannan detection would be a significant advance. ..
  54. Monoclonal antibodies to inhibit Aspergillus germination
    MARTA L FELDMESSER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is anticipated that this study will identify fungal molecules important for germination and begin to define their interaction with host immune responses. ..
  55. C.elegans as a model system forC.neoformans pathogenesis
    Eleftherios Mylonakis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Because C. neoformanshas similarities with other pathogenic yeasts, we expect that our findings will facilitate the study of fungus/host interaction in general. ..
  56. A C.elegans high-throughput assay for the identification of new antifungal agents
    Eleftherios Mylonakis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  57. Cryptococcal polysaccharide-phagocytosis inhibition
    Thomas Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will contribute to our understanding of a virulence factor that is common to many microbial pathogens and will identify means to enhance phagocytosis and host resistance to cryptococcosis. ..