cryptococcosis

Summary

Summary: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america
    John R Perfect
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:291-322. 2010
  2. ncbi Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak
    James A Fraser
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 437:1360-4. 2005
  3. pmc A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada)
    S E Kidd
    Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17258-63. 2004
  4. pmc Clonality and α-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population--an emerging outbreak in Australia
    Fabian Carriconde
    Sydney Emerging Infections and Biosecurity Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e16936. 2011
  5. pmc Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000945. 2010
  6. pmc Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the northwest United States
    Edmond J Byrnes
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000850. 2010
  7. ncbi Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box
    James W Kronstad
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:193-203. 2011
  8. pmc Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe
    Ferry Hagen
    Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1618-24. 2012
  9. pmc The fatal fungal outbreak on Vancouver Island is characterized by enhanced intracellular parasitism driven by mitochondrial regulation
    Hansong Ma
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12980-5. 2009
  10. pmc Molecular evidence that the range of the Vancouver Island outbreak of Cryptococcus gattii infection has expanded into the Pacific Northwest in the United States
    Edmond J Byrnes
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1081-6. 2009

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications269 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the infectious diseases society of america
    John R Perfect
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:291-322. 2010
    b>Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality...
  2. ncbi Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak
    James A Fraser
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 437:1360-4. 2005
    ..This has implications for the emergence of other microbial pathogens and inbreeding in host range expansion in the fungal and other kingdoms...
  3. pmc A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada)
    S E Kidd
    Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17258-63. 2004
    ..The emergence of this usually tropical pathogen on Vancouver Island highlights the changing distribution of this genotype and emphasizes the importance of an ongoing collaborative effort to monitor the global epidemiology of this yeast...
  4. pmc Clonality and α-a recombination in the Australian Cryptococcus gattii VGII population--an emerging outbreak in Australia
    Fabian Carriconde
    Sydney Emerging Infections and Biosecurity Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e16936. 2011
    ..The present work aimed to define the genetic variability within the Australian VGII population and determine processes shaping its population structure...
  5. pmc Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000945. 2010
    ..neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens...
  6. pmc Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the northwest United States
    Edmond J Byrnes
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000850. 2010
    ..Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak...
  7. ncbi Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box
    James W Kronstad
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:193-203. 2011
    ....
  8. pmc Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe
    Ferry Hagen
    Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1618-24. 2012
    ..These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere...
  9. pmc The fatal fungal outbreak on Vancouver Island is characterized by enhanced intracellular parasitism driven by mitochondrial regulation
    Hansong Ma
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12980-5. 2009
    ..demonstrate that such enhanced intracellular parasitism is directly linked to virulence in a murine model of cryptococcosis, suggesting that this phenotype may be the cause of the outbreak. Finally, microarray studies on 24 C...
  10. pmc Molecular evidence that the range of the Vancouver Island outbreak of Cryptococcus gattii infection has expanded into the Pacific Northwest in the United States
    Edmond J Byrnes
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1081-6. 2009
    ..Multilocus sequence typing demonstrates the spread of C. gattii VGIIa and VGIIb from Vancouver Island to the Pacific Northwest. Clinical strains recovered in Oregon represent a unique VGIIc genotype...
  11. pmc Screening for cryptococcal antigenemia in patients accessing an antiretroviral treatment program in South Africa
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:856-62. 2009
    ..Screening for cryptococcal antigen in patients who enroll in ART programs may identify those at risk of cryptococcal meningitis and permit targeted use of preemptive therapy...
  12. pmc Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest region of the United States
    Kausik Datta
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1185-91. 2009
    ..We summarize the study results of a group of investigators and review current knowledge with the goal of increasing awareness and highlighting areas where further knowledge is required...
  13. pmc Systematic genetic analysis of virulence in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Oliver W Liu
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, 600 16th St, GH N372C, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell 135:174-88. 2008
    ..In particular, we describe a GATA family transcription factor that inhibits phagocytosis by murine macrophages independently of the capsule, indicating a previously unknown mechanism of innate immune modulation...
  14. pmc Spores as infectious propagules of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Rajesh Velagapudi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 77:4345-55. 2009
    ..These studies provide a detailed morphological and physiological analysis of the spore and document that spores can serve as infectious propagules...
  15. ncbi Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults
    Neil French
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    AIDS 16:1031-8. 2002
    ....
  16. ncbi Identification of novel hybrids between Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI and Cryptococcus gattii VGII
    Mojgan Aminnejad
    Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Westmead, Australia
    Mycopathologia 173:337-46. 2012
    ..Determination of mating-type allelic patterns by PCR revealed that the isolates were αA aB. This is the first study discovering novel natural hybrids between C. neoformans molecular type VNI and C. gattii molecular type VGII...
  17. pmc Extracellular vesicles produced by Cryptococcus neoformans contain protein components associated with virulence
    Marcio L Rodrigues
    Instituto de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941590 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Eukaryot Cell 7:58-67. 2008
    ..In addition, different vesicle proteins were recognized by sera from patients with cryptococcosis. These results reveal an efficient and general mechanism of secretion of pathogenesis-related molecules in C...
  18. pmc Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells is mediated through the lipid rafts-endocytic pathway via the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3 (DYRK3)
    Sheng He Huang
    Department of Pediatrics, Saban Research Institute, Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:34761-9. 2011
    ..Our data demonstrate that the lipid raft-dependent endocytosis process mediates C. neoformans internalization into HBMEC and that the CD44 protein of the hosts, cytoskeleton, and intracellular kinase-DYRK3 are involved in this process...
  19. pmc Cryptococcal urease promotes the accumulation of immature dendritic cells and a non-protective T2 immune response within the lung
    John J Osterholzer
    Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Am J Pathol 174:932-43. 2009
    ..These findings provide new insights into mechanisms by which microbial factors contribute to the immunopathology associated with invasive fungal disease...
  20. pmc Cryptococcal cell morphology affects host cell interactions and pathogenicity
    Laura H Okagaki
    Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000953. 2010
    ..neoformans evades host phagocytosis to allow survival of a subset of the population at early stages of infection. Thus, morphological changes play unique and specialized roles during infection...
  21. pmc Real-time imaging of trapping and urease-dependent transmigration of Cryptococcus neoformans in mouse brain
    Meiqing Shi
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Clin Invest 120:1683-93. 2010
    ..neoformans infection...
  22. ncbi Asymptomatic serum cryptococcal antigenemia and early mortality during antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda
    Cheryl A Liechty
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Uganda, Entebbe, Uganda
    Trop Med Int Health 12:929-35. 2007
    ..Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of HIV-related mortality in Africa, but current guidelines do not advocate CRAG testing as a screening tool...
  23. pmc Cryptococcal yeast cells invade the central nervous system via transcellular penetration of the blood-brain barrier
    Yun C Chang
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 72:4985-95. 2004
    ..The mechanism(s) by which C. neoformans crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key unresolved issue in cryptococcosis. We used both an in vivo mouse model and an in vitro model of the human BBB to investigate the cryptococcal ..
  24. ncbi Deciphering the model pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans
    Alexander Idnurm
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:753-64. 2005
    ..We discuss the biology of C. neoformans in light of this genomic data, with a special emphasis on the role that evolution and sexual reproduction have in the complex relationships of the fungus with the environment and the host...
  25. ncbi Epidemiology and host- and variety-dependent characteristics of infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans in Australia and New Zealand. Australasian Cryptococcal Study Group
    S Chen
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
    Clin Infect Dis 31:499-508. 2000
    ..study was conducted in Australia and New Zealand during 1994-1997 to elucidate the epidemiology of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (CNVN) and C. neoformans var...
  26. ncbi Cryptococcus gattii serotype-C strains isolated in Bangalore, Karnataka, India
    Massimo Cogliati
    Department of Public Health Microbiology Virology, Universita degli Studi, Milan, Italy
    Mycoses 55:262-8. 2012
    During a retrospective study on cryptococcosis carried out in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, four Cryptococcus gattii strains were isolated from one HIV-positive and three HIV-negative patients, two of which had unknown predisposing ..
  27. pmc Genome variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging pathogen of immunocompetent hosts
    C A D'Souza
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    MBio 2:e00342-10. 2011
    Cryptococcus gattii recently emerged as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in healthy individuals in western North America, despite previous characterization of the fungus as a pathogen in tropical or subtropical regions...
  28. pmc Protective immunity against pulmonary cryptococcosis is associated with STAT1-mediated classical macrophage activation
    Sarah E Hardison
    Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
    J Immunol 189:4060-8. 2012
    ..neoformans yeasts. Finally, the classical activation phenotype of protective anticryptococcal macrophages is likely mediated via STAT1 signal transduction pathways...
  29. ncbi Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen in the Southeastern United States
    Brenda Sellers
    Microbiology Laboratory, Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, Albany, GA 31701, USA
    Am J Med Sci 343:510-1. 2012
    ..Clinicians need to be aware of this fungal emerging pathogen in the Southern United States...
  30. ncbi Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in the era of effective azole therapy
    P G Pappas
    University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 0006, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 33:690-9. 2001
    We conducted a case study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with cryptococcosis at 15 United States medical centers from 1990 through 1996 to understand the demographics, therapeutic approach, and factors associated ..
  31. pmc First reported case of Cryptococcus gattii in the Southeastern USA: implications for travel-associated acquisition of an emerging pathogen
    Edmond J Byrnes
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5851. 2009
    ..gattii VGI was transferred from Australia to California, possibly though an association with its common host plant E. camaldulensis, and the patient was exposed in San Francisco and returned to present with disease in North Carolina...
  32. pmc Epidemiology of Cryptococcus gattii, British Columbia, Canada, 1999-2007
    Eleni Galanis
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:251-7. 2010
    ..6%) or lung cryptococcoma (75.4%). Persons without HIV/AIDS hospitalized with cryptococcosis were more likely than those with HIV/AIDS to be older and admitted for pulmonary cryptococcosis. The 19 (8...
  33. pmc alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness
    Xiaorong Lin
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Genet 3:1975-90. 2007
    ..These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population...
  34. ncbi Involvement of human CD44 during Cryptococcus neoformans infection of brain microvascular endothelial cells
    Ambrose Jong
    Division of Hematology Oncology, The Saban Research Institute, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:1313-26. 2008
    ..Our results highlight the interactions between C. neoformans hyaluronic acid and host CD44 and the dynamic results of these interactions, which may represent events during the adhesion and entry of C. neoformans at HBMEC membrane rafts...
  35. pmc Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the British Columbia cryptococcosis outbreak induce less protective inflammation in a murine model of infection than Cryptococcus neoformans
    Po Yan Cheng
    The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Infect Immun 77:4284-94. 2009
    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes approximately one million cases of cryptococcosis per year in people with AIDS. In contrast, the related species C...
  36. ncbi Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans
    G M Cox
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Mol Microbiol 39:166-75. 2001
    ..We also found that the plb1 strain exhibited a growth defect in a macrophage-like cell line. These data demonstrate that secretory phospholipase is a virulence factor for C. neoformans...
  37. ncbi Expulsion of live pathogenic yeast by macrophages
    Hansong Ma
    Molecular Pathobiology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Curr Biol 16:2156-60. 2006
    ....
  38. pmc Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis
    G M Cox
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 68:443-8. 2000
    ..large amounts of urease; thus we wanted to investigate the importance of urease in the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. We cloned and sequenced the genomic locus containing the single-copy C...
  39. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    VCU Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:5898-906. 2012
    ..In the absence of clinical breakpoints, our ECVs may aid in the detection of isolates with acquired resistance mechanisms and should be listed in the revised CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M27-S3 documents...
  40. pmc Cryptococcus gattii: a resurgent fungal pathogen
    Vishnu Chaturvedi
    Mycology Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:564-71. 2011
    Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans are causal agents of cryptococcosis, which manifests as pneumonia and meningitis. C...
  41. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans strains and infection in apparently immunocompetent patients, China
    Jianghan Chen
    Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:755-62. 2008
    To determine the population structure of the cryptococcosis agents in China, we analyzed the genotype of 120 Cryptococcus neoformans and 9 Cryptococcus gattii strains isolated from 1980 through 2006 from cryptococcosis patients residing ..
  42. pmc Evaluation of a newly developed lateral flow immunoassay for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis
    Mark D Lindsley
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:321-5. 2011
    b>Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals mostly occurring in resource-limited countries...
  43. pmc Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals
    Edmond J Byrnes
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Microbes Infect 13:895-907. 2011
    ..Infections in patients and animals can be severe and often fatal if untreated. We review the molecular epidemiology, population structure, clinical manifestations, and ecological niche of this emerging pathogen...
  44. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans in organ transplant recipients: impact of calcineurin-inhibitor agents on mortality
    Nina Singh
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:756-64. 2007
    ..and outcome of Cryptococcus neoformans infection were assessed in 111 organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis in a prospective, multicenter, international study...
  45. ncbi The GATA-type transcriptional activator Gat1 regulates nitrogen uptake and metabolism in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Lívia Kmetzsch
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, 43421, Caixa Postal 15005, Porto Alegre, RS 91501 970, Brazil
    Fungal Genet Biol 48:192-9. 2011
    ..neoformans survival during macrophage infection or for virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis. Microarray analysis allowed the identification of target genes that are regulated by Gat1 in the presence of ..
  46. pmc Role of dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages in regulating early host defense against pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans
    John J Osterholzer
    Pulmonary Section, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Infect Immun 77:3749-58. 2009
    ..neoformans. These findings provide important insight into the cellular mechanisms which coordinate early host defense against an invasive fungal pathogen in the lung...
  47. pmc Nitrogen metabolite repression of metabolism and virulence in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    I Russel Lee
    Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Genetics 188:309-23. 2011
    ..Conversely, Gat1 positively regulates capsule production. A murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis revealed that the gat1Δ mutant is slightly more virulent than wild type, indicating that Gat1 plays a complex ..
  48. pmc Robust Th1 and Th17 immunity supports pulmonary clearance but cannot prevent systemic dissemination of highly virulent Cryptococcus neoformans H99
    Yanmei Zhang
    VA Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Am J Pathol 175:2489-500. 2009
    ..These data indicate that the Th2 immune bias is a crucial mechanism for pulmonary virulence of H99, whereas other mechanisms are largely responsible for its central nervous system tropism and systemic dissemination...
  49. pmc Risk factors for Cryptococcus gattii infection, British Columbia, Canada
    Laura Macdougall
    British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:193-9. 2011
    ..001), or have a history of invasive cancer (p<0.001). Although C. gattii is commonly believed to infect persons with apparently healthy immune systems, several immunosuppressive and pulmonary conditions seem to be risk factors...
  50. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans mates on pigeon guano: implications for the realized ecological niche and globalization
    Kirsten Nielsen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Research Drive, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 6:949-59. 2007
    ..gattii. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that an ancestral Cryptococcus strain gained the ability to sexually reproduce in pigeon guano and then swept the globe...
  51. pmc The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Servicio de Micologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Crta Majadahonda Pozuelo, Km2, Majadahonda 28220, Madrid, Spain
    Adv Appl Microbiol 68:133-216. 2009
    ..In this review, we will provide an update on the current knowledge of the C. neoformans capsule, covering aspects related to its structure, synthesis and particularly, its role as a virulence factor...
  52. ncbi Diversity of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex
    Marjan Bovers
    Yeast Research Group, CBS Fungal Diversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Rev Iberoam Micol 25:S4-12. 2008
    ..Each of these may have different roles in disease. An overview of obsolete and current names is presented...
  53. ncbi The biology of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex
    Xiaorong Lin
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 60:69-105. 2006
    ..The melding of these disparate disciplines should yield rich dividends in our understanding of the evolution of microbial pathogens, providing insights relevant to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention...
  54. ncbi Cryptococcosis
    Methee Chayakulkeeree
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Duke University Medical Center, P O Box 3353, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 20:507-44, v-vi. 2006
    ..This article examines current issues in cryptococcal infections, including new classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and specific clinical aspects...
  55. pmc Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa infection in man, Japan, 2007
    Koh Okamoto
    University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1155-7. 2010
    ..This strain was identical to the Vancouver Island outbreak strain R265. Our results suggest that this virulent strain has spread to regions outside North America...
  56. ncbi Limited contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 to the host response to a fungal infectious pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kiwamu Nakamura
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 47:148-54. 2006
    ..neoformans in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) detected by a luciferase assay. Our results suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 do not or only marginally contribute to the host and cellular response to this pathogen...
  57. ncbi CCR2 expression determines T1 versus T2 polarization during pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection
    T R Traynor
    Pulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Immunol 164:2021-7. 2000
    ..neoformans infection and lack of CCR2 results in a switch to a T2-type response. Thus, CCR2 plays a critical role in promoting the development of T1- over T2-type immune responses in the lung following cryptococcus infection...
  58. pmc Projecting global occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii
    Deborah J Springer
    New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:14-20. 2010
    Cryptococcus gattii and C. neoformans cause pulmonary and systemic cryptococcosis. Recently, C. gattii was recognized as a distinct pathogen of humans and animals...
  59. pmc Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in murine pulmonary infection
    M Feldmesser
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Infect Immun 68:4225-37. 2000
    ..Furthermore, our observations suggest that C. neoformans occupies a unique niche among the intracellular pathogens whereby survival in phagocytic cells is accompanied by intracellular polysaccharide production...
  60. ncbi Cryptococcus neoformans: morphogenesis, infection, and evolution
    Xiaorong Lin
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, 3258 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 3258, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 9:401-16. 2009
    ..Hopefully, a common theme for the convergent evolution of virulence-associated morphology will emerge with future studies...
  61. ncbi The role of serum cryptococcal antigen screening for the early diagnosis of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients with different ranges of CD4 cell counts
    Pannee Pongsai
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Infect 60:474-7. 2010
    To determine the role of serum cryptococcal antigen (SCA) for the screening of cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients with different ranges of CD4 cell counts.
  62. pmc Congenic strains for genetic analysis of virulence traits in Cryptococcus gattii
    Pinkuan Zhu
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Infect Immun 81:2616-25. 2013
    ..The two congenic strains show the same virulence in different models of cryptococcosis and equivalent levels of competition in coinfection assays...
  63. pmc The link between morphotype transition and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Linqi Wang
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002765. 2012
    ..Importantly, ZNF2 overexpression abolishes fungal virulence in murine models of cryptococcosis. Thus, Znf2 bridges the sex-independent morphotype transition and fungal pathogenicity...
  64. pmc Pulmonary infection with an interferon-gamma-producing Cryptococcus neoformans strain results in classical macrophage activation and protection
    Sarah E Hardison
    Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 0062, USA
    Am J Pathol 176:774-85. 2010
    Alternative macrophage activation is associated with exacerbated disease in murine models of pulmonary cryptococcosis. The present study evaluated the efficacy of interferon-gamma transgene expression by Cryptococcus neoformans strain ..
  65. pmc Immune modulation mediated by cryptococcal laccase promotes pulmonary growth and brain dissemination of virulent Cryptococcus neoformans in mice
    Yafeng Qiu
    Research Service, Veterans Administration Ann Arbor Health System, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e47853. 2012
    ..Furthermore, our data support the hypothesis that laccase-induced changes in polarization of CD4+ T cells contribute to CNS dissemination...
  66. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of clinical and environmental isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex reveals a high genetic diversity and the presence of the molecular type VGII mating type a in Colombia
    Patricia Escandon
    Grupo de Microbiologia, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogota, Colombia
    FEMS Yeast Res 6:625-35. 2006
    ..The data presented form part of the Colombian contribution to the ongoing global survey of the C. neoformans species complex...
  67. ncbi Epidemiologic cutoff values for triazole drugs in Cryptococcus gattii: correlation of molecular type and in vitro susceptibility
    Shawn R Lockhart
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 73:144-8. 2012
    ..We used the MIC values to establish preliminary epidemiologic cutoff values for each azole and molecular type of C. gattii...
  68. ncbi Prevalence of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus gattii serotype C among patients with AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Anastasia P Litvintseva
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:888-92. 2005
    ..3%) of 15 isolates from Malawi were C. gattii serotype C strains. All of these serotype C strains belong to the rare VGIV genotype, possess the MAT alpha mating-type allele, and exhibit little genetic diversity...
  69. ncbi Genotyping of Mexican Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii isolates by PCR-fingerprinting
    L R Castañón Olivares
    Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, México C P 04510
    Med Mycol 47:713-21. 2009
    b>Cryptococcosis in México is caused by both species of the Cryptococcus species complex i.e., Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii...
  70. ncbi Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group
    R A Hajjeh
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:449-54. 1999
    To determine the incidence of cryptococcosis and its risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, population-based active surveillance was conducted in four US areas (population, 12...
  71. pmc Enhanced innate immune responsiveness to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with resistance to progressive infection
    Loic Guillot
    Centre for the Study of Host Resistance, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Infect Immun 76:4745-56. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that an enhanced innate immune response against pulmonary C. neoformans infection in SJL/J mice is associated with natural resistance to progressive infection...
  72. pmc Cryptococcus gattii virulence composite: candidate genes revealed by microarray analysis of high and less virulent Vancouver island outbreak strains
    Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
    Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Sydney Medical School Westmead, Westmead Millennium Institute, Sydney Emerging Infections and Biosecurity Institute, The University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e16076. 2011
    Human and animal cryptococcosis due to an unusual molecular type of Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) emerged recently on Vancouver Island, Canada. Unlike C. neoformans, C...
  73. ncbi Prevalence, determinants of positivity, and clinical utility of cryptococcal antigenemia in Cambodian HIV-infected patients
    Romain Micol
    Unité d Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:555-9. 2007
    To determine the prevalence, determinants ofpositivity, and clinical utility of serum cryptococcal polysaccharide (CPS) antigen testing among HIV-infected patients in 2004 in Cambodia, an area highly endemic for cryptococcosis.
  74. ncbi Cryptococcus gattii: where do we go from here?
    Julie Harris
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS C 09, Atlanta, GA 30309 USA
    Med Mycol 50:113-29. 2012
    ..This review synthesizes existing data and raises issues that remain to be addressed...
  75. pmc Role of natural killer cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans infections in mice
    M F Lipscomb
    Am J Pathol 128:354-61. 1987
    ..However, NK cells do not play a role in either determining survival after an intravenous inoculation nor in resistance during an infection acquired via the respiratory tract...
  76. ncbi The impact of the host on fungal infections
    John R Perfect
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Am J Med 125:S39-51. 2012
    ....
  77. pmc Prostaglandin E2 suppresses antifungal immunity by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 4 function and interleukin-17 expression in T cells
    Patricia A Valdez
    Bacterial Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 36:668-79. 2012
    ..These findings suggest that host- or pathogen-derived PGE2 can act directly on Th17 cells during differentiation to inhibit IL-17-dependent antimicrobial responses...
  78. pmc Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing
    Lisa McTaggart
    Medical Mycology, Ontario Public Health Laboratories, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Department ofLaboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2522-7. 2011
    ..neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease...
  79. pmc Cryptococcal interactions with the host immune system
    Kerstin Voelz
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Eukaryot Cell 9:835-46. 2010
    ..Not only is cryptococcosis the fourth-most-common fatal infectious disease in sub-Saharan Africa, but also Cryptococcus is an emerging ..
  80. pmc Hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 deficiency is associated with decreased Cryptococcus neoformans brain infection
    Ambrose Jong
    Division of Hematology Oncology, The Saban Research Institute, Children s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:15298-306. 2012
    ..These results suggest that the CD44 and RHAMM receptors function on membrane lipid rafts during invasion and that simvastatin may have a potential therapeutic role in C. neoformans infections of the brain...
  81. pmc Evaluation of Cryptococcus neoformans galactoxylomannan-protein conjugate as vaccine candidate against murine cryptococcosis
    Siu Kei Chow
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Vaccine 29:1891-8. 2011
    ..neoformans. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the GalXM-protein conjugate to induce robust immune responses although no evidence was obtained that such responses contributed to host defense...
  82. pmc Transcriptional network of multiple capsule and melanin genes governed by the Cryptococcus neoformans cyclic AMP cascade
    Read Pukkila-Worley
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:190-201. 2005
    ..These studies provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of capsule and melanin production by the C. neoformans cAMP pathway and demonstrate that multiple laccases contribute to C. neoformans melanin production and pathogenesis...
  83. pmc Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the United States: 1992 to 1994 and 1996 to 1998
    M E Brandt
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3065-9. 2001
    ..We conclude that in vitro resistance to antifungal agents remains uncommon in C. neoformans and has not significantly changed with time during the past decade...
  84. pmc Blood-brain barrier invasion by Cryptococcus neoformans is enhanced by functional interactions with plasmin
    Jamal Stie
    Research Institute for Children, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Microbiology 158:240-58. 2012
    ..neoformans can invade BMEC by a plasmin-dependent mechanism, in vitro, and that small, or minimal, surface capsule expression during the blood-borne phase of cryptococcosis may promote virulence by means of plasmin(ogen) acquisition.
  85. pmc The trehalose synthesis pathway is an integral part of the virulence composite for Cryptococcus gattii
    Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 77:4584-96. 2009
    ..gattii in the invertebrate and mammalian hosts. These results highlight the central importance of this pathway in the virulence composites of both pathogenic cryptococcal species...
  86. pmc Correlation of genotype and in vitro susceptibilities of Cryptococcus gattii strains from the Pacific Northwest of the United States
    Naureen Iqbal
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Mailstop G 11, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:539-44. 2010
    ..This is the first study to apply antifungal susceptibility testing to C. gattii isolates from the Pacific Northwest and the first to make direct comparisons between subtypes...
  87. pmc Heteroresistance of Cryptococcus gattii to fluconazole
    A Varma
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2303-11. 2010
    ..gattii to azoles is an intrinsic mechanism as in C. neoformans and is associated with the strain's virulence...
  88. pmc Th2 but not Th1 immune bias results in altered lung functions in a murine model of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection
    Aditya V Jain
    Department of Veteran s Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    Infect Immun 77:5389-99. 2009
    Changes in airway dynamics have been reported in the rat model of pulmonary cryptococcosis. However, it is not known if Cryptococcus neoformans-induced changes in lung functions are related to the immunophenotype that develops in response ..
  89. ncbi Global VGIIa isolates are of comparable virulence to the major fatal Cryptococcus gattii Vancouver Island outbreak genotype
    P Ngamskulrungroj
    Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Disease and Microbiology, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, Sydney Medical School Westmead, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:251-8. 2011
    The ongoing cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada, is caused by two VGII sub-genotypes of the primary pathogen, Cryptococcus gattii: VGIIa isolates predominate, whereas VGIIb isolates are rare...
  90. ncbi Opportunistic infections in patients with and patients without Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    Kent A Sepkowitz
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10021, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:1098-107. 2002
    ..Reviewed are 4 common opportunistic infections: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cryptococcosis, atypical mycobacterial infection, and cytomegalovirus infection...
  91. ncbi Metabolites released by Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and var. gattii differentially affect human neutrophil function
    Lesley Wright
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Level 3, ICPMR Building, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
    Microbes Infect 4:1427-38. 2002
    ..Overall, we found that vgs was potentially less pro-inflammatory than vns. Inhibition of neutrophil function by products of CNVG may promote survival of extracellular organisms, and local multiplication to form cryptococcomas...
  92. pmc Estimating the relative contributions of virulence factors for pathogenic microbes
    Erin E McClelland
    Department of Medicine, 702 Golding, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Infect Immun 74:1500-4. 2006
    ....
  93. pmc Prevalence of the VNIc genotype of Cryptococcus neoformans in non-HIV-associated cryptococcosis in the Republic of Korea
    Young Hwa Choi
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    FEMS Yeast Res 10:769-78. 2010
    ..Of the 78 strains isolated from patients diagnosed with cryptococcosis between 1990 and 2008, 96% were C. neoformans serotype A, mating type MATalpha and molecular type VNI...
  94. ncbi Role of laccase in the biology and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Xudong Zhu
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Chicago Medical Center, University of Illinois, 808 S Wood St, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    FEMS Yeast Res 5:1-10. 2004
    ..we examine the structural, biological and genetic features of the enzyme and its role in the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. Laccase is expressed in C...
  95. pmc Role of IL-17A on resolution of pulmonary C. neoformans infection
    Karen L Wozniak
    Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e17204. 2011
    ..studies evaluated the role of interleukin (IL)-17A in the induction of protective immunity against pulmonary cryptococcosis in mice. Protection against pulmonary infection with C...
  96. pmc Effect of cytokine interplay on macrophage polarization during chronic pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans
    Shikha Arora
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0642, USA
    Infect Immun 79:1915-26. 2011
    ..This cytokine interplay modulates Mac differentiation, including generation of an intermediate caMac/aaMac phenotype, which in turn may support chronic "steady-state" fungal infection and the resultant ABPM pathology...
  97. pmc A major role for capsule-independent phagocytosis-inhibitory mechanisms in mammalian infection by Cryptococcus neoformans
    Cheryl D Chun
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 2200, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:243-51. 2011
    ..This genetic dissection provides evidence that capsule-independent antiphagocytic mechanisms are pivotal for successful mammalian infection by C. neoformans...
  98. pmc The relative susceptibility of mouse strains to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection is associated with pleiotropic differences in the immune response
    Oscar Zaragoza
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Infect Immun 75:2729-39. 2007
    ....
  99. ncbi Neutropenia alters lung cytokine production in mice and reduces their susceptibility to pulmonary cryptococcosis
    Aron J Mednick
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
    Eur J Immunol 33:1744-53. 2003
    ..Our results support the emerging concept that neutrophils play an important function in modulating the development of the immune response...
  100. ncbi Cryptococcus gattii in the United States: clinical aspects of infection with an emerging pathogen
    J R Harris
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:1188-95. 2011
    ..We describe this outbreak and compare clinical aspects of infection in the United States among patients infected with different Cg genotypes...
  101. ncbi Dynamic changes in the morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans during murine pulmonary infection
    M Feldmesser
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Microbiology 147:2355-65. 2001
    ..The results indicate that the population of C. neoformans cells in tissue is in a highly dynamic state, implying that the immune system must confront cells with varying characteristics during the course of infection...

Research Grants66

  1. Identification of new compounds against fungal microbes
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Public health relevance. Cryptococcosis and PCP are significant public health problems not only in the US, but also globally...
  2. Novel Antifungal Therapeutic Approaches
    Joseph Heitman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Finally, drugs, analogs, and combinations will be tested in animal models of cryptococcosis and candidiasis...
  3. Prospective Cohort Study of Cryptococcosis
    PETER RICHARD WILLIAMSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study represents our first concerted effot to describe clinical features of this important emerging outbreak in the U.S. Our long-term goal is to generate the information needed to effectively prevent and treat this infection. ..
  4. Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus Spores
    Christina M Hull; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this region 13-44% of HIV/AIDS-related deaths are due to cryptococcosis, and mean survival times are on the order of a few weeks after onset...
  5. The CryptoART Study: Decreasing mortality associated with initiation of antiretro
    CHIRATIDZO ELLEN NDHLOVU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis and tuberculosis are the leading causes of death in patients with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan, including patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  6. IMMUNE RESPONSE TO CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
    STUART MICHAEL LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, there are problems with using MP as a vaccine. First, in murine models of cryptococcosis, vaccination with antigen preparations, including those containing MP, generally results in only partial ..
  7. Discovery and evaluation of fungicidal anti-cryptococcal molecules
    Damian J Krysan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..efficacy of toremifene (alone and in combination with fluconazole) will be evaluated using a mouse model of cryptococcosis (Aim 4)...
  8. Discovering a Combination Therapeutic Approach to Use in the Treatment of Cryptoc
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcosis is a devastating opportunistic infection caused primarily by Cryptococcus neoformans...
  9. Host sphingolipids and fungal infection
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..affect their response to the fungus, and thus, determine whether they can or cannot control the development of cryptococcosis. One of the host sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes shown to regulate immune responses is sphingomyelin ..
  10. Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia in HIV-Infected Patients in the United Stat
    Michele W Tang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S. and 20-90% in resource-limited settings. Cryptococcosis can exist as a latent infection with an average cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity of 21 days prior to ..
  11. HOST FACTORS IN CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTION
    DEEPA LATHA SRIKANTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Cryptococcosis is contracted by inhalation of the infectious particle, which leads to a primary pulmonary infection. C...
  12. Trial for the Optimal Timing of HIV Therapy after Cryptococcal Meningitis
    David R Boulware; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An estimated 1 million cases of cryptococcosis occur worldwide annually. The optimal time to start HIV therapy is unknown...
  13. Improving Diagnostics and Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV/AIDS-related Meningitis
    David R Boulware; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In his trial, we will also assess for risk factors for adverse neurocognitive outcomes in persons with cryptococcosis. Hypotheses: 1...
  14. A NOVEL SCREEN FOR ANTIFUNGALS THAT TARGET CHITOSAN BIOSYNTHESIS
    Jennifer K Lodge; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent studies have indicated that there are over 1,000,000 new cases of cryptococcosis in the world each year, which results in over 600,000 deaths. New agents to treat Cryptococcus are needed...
  15. PROTECTIVE ANTIBODIES FOR CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
    Arturo Casadevall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cryptococcosis is a major cause of mortality in patients with AIDS, causing over 600,000 deaths per year worldwide...
  16. B cell subsets and immunity to cryptococcosis
    Liise Anne Pirofski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Currently, the only known risk factor for HIV-associated cryptococcal disease (cryptococcosis, CD) is profound loss of CD4T cells, but this cannot discriminate HIV-infected (HIV+) patients who will ..
  17. HOST FACTORS IN CRYPTOCOCCAL PATHOGENESIS
    Tamara L Doering; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Cryptococcosis has a tremendous impact on human health, causing over one million cases of meningitis and 625,000 deaths ..
  18. Operational Research for cryptococcal antigen screening to improve ART survival
    DAVID BISAGAYA MEYA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Uganda, cryptococcosis accounts for 30% of mortality in AIDS patients after starting ART...
  19. STUDIES OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS ASSOCIATED WITH AIDS
    Thomas G Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The natural reservoir of C. neoformans is exogenous, and cryptococcosis is acquired by inhalation of the desiccated yeast cells or basidiospores, which leads to dissemination and ..
  20. Evaluation of a public health strategy to improve survival of HIV-infected patien
    Chau Van Vinh Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The will also allow us to improve laboratory capacity to diagnose cryptococcosis using an antigen-based assay, and conduct implementation science to evaluate best practices in rolling out ..
  21. Sphingolipid-mediated fungal pathogenesis
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This implies that the physiopathology of cryptococcosis is determined by fungal growth that can occur in an intracellular compartment (e.g...
  22. Pheromones and Titan Cell Production in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kirsten Nielsen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..titan cell production can be targeted in new and innovative approaches for the prevention and treatment of cryptococcosis. We plan to test our central hypothesis and accomplish the objective of this application by pursuing the ..
  23. Role of phagocytosis in pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neorformans
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by which App1 regulates phagocytosis, and 2) determine the role and function of Ap1 in the outcome of cryptococcosis. These studies will produce new insights into the mechanisms of pathogenicity of C...
  24. Virulence Factor Trafficking in Cryptococcus
    Peter Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Furthermore, groups classically at risk for cryptococcosis, the elderly, transplant recipients and those immunosuppressed with steroids or chemotherapy, are continually ..
  25. 8th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by applicant): This proposal requests partial support for the 8th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis (ICCC) to be held in Charleston, SC, USA, May 1-5, 2011...
  26. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Epidemiological studies show that cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor in cryptococcosis and other opportunistic fungal infections, and >85% of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis are cigarette ..
  27. 2012 Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology Gordon Research Conference
    Judith G Berman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of fungi in human disease, including three of the most important diseases of transplant patients, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis, as well as systemic fungal diseases such as histoplasmosis...
  28. CRYPTOCOCCAL INTERACTIONS WITH HOST CELLS
    Tamara L Doering; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long-term goal of our studies is to understand the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. This application focuses on a fundamental part of this process, the interactions of this facultative ..
  29. Amphotericin B Analogs
    Charles Hutchinson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..B (AMB) continues to be an important drug for invasive aspergillosis, candidemia, mucormycosis, fusariosis and Cryptococcosis meningitis because of its potency, broad spectrum of activity and the low incidence of drug resistance ..
  30. MURINE MODEL OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION INDUCED CMV RETINITIS
    Patrick Cleveland; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..retinal pathologies are produced by the many opportunistic ocular infections, including cytomegalovirus (CM), Cryptococcosis, Toxoplasmosis, Candida, Mycobacterium, herpes simplex herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, ..
  31. A NOVEL TARGET FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    Corey Nislow; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..from Applicant's Abstract): The increase in opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis, zygomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and Aspergillus and Fusarium infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS ..
  32. New methods for the early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections
    Maurizio Del Poeta; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Invasive fungal infections, such as cryptococcosis, candidiasis and aspergillosis, have dramatically emerged in the last two decades and are associated with very poor prognosis...
  33. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    Sudha Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The susceptibility of immunocompromised patients to cryptococcosis may be related to intrinsic defects in the functions of phagocytic cells combined with impaired T cell ..
  34. T CELLS AND IMMUNITY TO CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
    JUNEANN MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening disease caused by the ubiquitous, encapsulated fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans...
  35. Cryptococcus gatti mating 1oci; mapping and gene study
    Vishnu Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) causes cryptococcosis, a fungal meningoencephalitis. The pathogen has genetically distinct varieties (var. grubii, var. neoformans, and var. gattii) and mating types (MATalpha and MATalpha)...
  36. Actin-binding proteins as novel antifungal targets
    Corey Nislow; Fiscal Year: 2001
    The increase in opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis, zygomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and Aspergillus and Fusarium infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AJDS patients, the elderly, surgical ..
  37. Lysine Biosynthesis in Yeast
    Paul Cook; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..fumigatus (responsible for aspergillosis), and Cryptococcus neoformans [unreadable] (responsible for cryptococcosis)...
  38. Chromosome copy number variation and AIDS-associated cryptococcosis
    James W Kronstad; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..neoformans by testing variants in a mouse model of cryptococcosis. We will also determine whether growth of the pathogen in the host influences the frequency of copy number ..
  39. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--OXIDATIVE KILLING MECHANISMS
    Vishnu Chaturvedi; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..in monocyte and neutrophil functions combined with impaired T cell responses predispose HIV patients to cryptococcosis. However, it is not know how human phagocytes oxidatively kill C...
  40. AN AIDS-RELATED CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS GENOME CENTER
    Ronald Davis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Cryptococcus neoformans is the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, one of the most serious fungal diseases worldwide. Although C...
  41. LACCASE REGULATION AND VIRULENCE IN CRYPTOCOCCUS
    James Cook; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..neoformans and may provide additional drug development targets for the treatment and prevention of cryptococcosis.
  42. A link between mating pheromone sensing and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kirsten Nielsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..One important aspect of cryptococcosis is the ability of C. neoformans cells to cross the blood-brain barrier...
  43. How is Cryptococcus resistant ot echinocandins?
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Currently, the majority of human patients with cryptococcosis have diseases or treatments that cause suppression of cell-mediated immunity...
  44. 6th International Conf. on Cryptococcus & Cryptococcosis
    STUART LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of this proposal is to request partial support for "The 6th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis" which will be held June 24-28, 2005 at the Boston Marriott Long Wharf Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts...
  45. GENOME ANALYSIS OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS
    Claire Fraser Liggett; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Investigator's Abstract): Cryptococcus neoformans is the etiologic agent of cryptococcosis, one of the most serious global fungal disease and one of the most common pathogens isolated from the central nervous system in the ..
  46. HOST FACTORS IN CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTION
    Tamara L Doering; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The long-term goal of our studies is to understand the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. The proposed studies will elucidate a crucial aspect of pathogenesis that determines survival and ..
  47. Amphotericin B Nanodisks and Cryptococcal Meningitis
    Robert Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..enhanced biological activity and determine the in vivo efficacy of ampB-Nanodisks in an animal model of cryptococcosis. We anticipate the results obtained will lead to new treatment options for AIDS related cryptococcal ..
  48. Identification of Antifungal Targets Using Proteomics
    JENNIFER LODGE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The most common clinical presentations are meningoencephalitis and pulmonary cryptococcosis. Available antifungal agents, directed against the ergosterol pathway, are inadequate for continued safe and ..
  49. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--EPITOPE ANTIBODIES & STRUCTURE
    Robert Cherniak; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Neoformans. This information will be used to foster more precise investigations of the pathology, treatment, mechanisms of virulence, and prevention of cryptococcosis.
  50. MACROPHAGE INTERACTIONS WITH C. NEOFORMANS
    STUART LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Prevention of cryptococcosis requires an immune response composed initially of innate defenses and then, if unsuccessful, acquired immunity...
  51. (1. CHLOROQUINE AS IMMUNOTHERAPTY FOR CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
    STUART LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The overall aim of this work is to define the specific mechanisms involved in host defense against cryptococcosis with a view to developing new immunotherapeutic approaches to treatment and prevention...
  52. NATURAL CELL-MEDIATED RESISTANCE IN CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
    JUNEANN MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..These studies should provide new and significant information on the mechanisms of natural cell mediated resistance in cryptococcosis.
  53. A novel recombinant vaccine against Cryptococcus.
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..During the last 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of cryptococcosis throughout the world that mirrors the increase in not only HIV infections, but also in the growing number of ..
  54. IL-16 in Pulmonary Cryptococcosis
    Hardy Kornfeld; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The project will contribute new basic knowledge about the role of IL-16 in immunity, and it will provide additional understanding of protective immunity against the important AIDS co-pathogen C. neoformans. ..
  55. Oral AmB for the treatment of fungal infection
    Raphael Mannino; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..invasive fungal infections: Disseminated candidiasis, disseminated aspergillosis, and central nervous system cryptococcosis. The overall objective of this SBIR Phase II is to further develop this new AmB cochleate formulation for the ..
  56. PATHOGENESIS OF C NEOFORMANS PERSISTENCE
    David Goldman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..capsulatum and M. tuberculosis. Nevertheless, the most commonly studied animal models of pulmonary cryptococcosis involve acute infection in susceptible mice and hence are inadequate to study the pathogenesis of persistent, ..
  57. Ras signaling in C.neoformans virulence and development
    J Alspaugh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The relevance of genes identified by any of these approaches will be assessed by gene disruption and analysis of the resulting mutant strain both in vitro as well as in vivo in animal models of cryptococcosis.
  58. PATHOGENESIS OF CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS INFECTIONS
    David Goldman; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Over the past year Dr. Goldman has developed various rat models of cryptococcosis and these offfer significant advantages over existing animal systems...
  59. CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Inflammation in the CNS
    Karen Aguirre; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Murine cryptococcosis is an easily manipulated model system with which this laboratory has had significant success in understanding ..
  60. EXPERIMENTAL CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
    LORRAINE FRIEDMAN; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Results will be evaluated in relation to other closely related capsulated yeasts and components thereof. One of the important modes of animal inoculation will be by exposure to aerosols...
  61. GENETIC & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF VIRULENCE IN C NEOFORMANS
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is our hypothesis that beginning to understand the genetic regulation of C. neoformans during infection through this proposal will be a powerful tool to find targets to interrupt pathogenesis. ..
  62. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS--A MODEL FOR PATHOGENIC FUNGI
    John Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This program emphasizes a focus on a single pathogen with a basic but broad-spectrum and highly interactive genomic approach to scientific investigations which can be extrapolated to other fungi. ..
  63. C. Neoformans Infection in Organ Transplant Recipients
    Nina Singh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..transplant recipients have emerged as a leading and growing group of immunocompromised patients at risk for cryptococcosis. The immunosuppressive agents employed in transplant recipients have antifungal in vitro against C. neoformans...
  64. Aspergillosis: Engineering Antibody for Diagnosis
    Marta Feldmesser; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The availability of reagents that have potential to improve both sensitivity and specificity of galactomannan detection would be a significant advance. ..
  65. Monoclonal antibodies for invasive aspergillosis
    Marta Feldmesser; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To determine the biological activity of MAbs generated in Aim 2 in murine models of invasive aspergillosis. It is anticipated that this study will identify important targets for further investigation. ..