community acquired infections

Summary

Summary: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus
    M C Enright
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3FY
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1008-15. 2000
  2. ncbi Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 44:S27-72. 2007
  3. pmc Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study
    W S Lim
    Respiratory Infection Research Group, Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Thorax 58:377-82. 2003
  4. ncbi Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Binh An Diep
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 367:731-9. 2006
  5. ncbi Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States
    R Monina Klevens
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    JAMA 298:1763-71. 2007
  6. ncbi Comparison of community- and health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection
    Timothy S Naimi
    Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, USA
    JAMA 290:2976-84. 2003
  7. ncbi Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 genotype as a major cause of health care-associated blood stream infections
    Ulrich Seybold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:647-56. 2006
  8. ncbi Health care--associated bloodstream infections in adults: a reason to change the accepted definition of community-acquired infections
    N Deborah Friedman
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center and Durham Regional Hospital, Box 3605, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Ann Intern Med 137:791-7. 2002
  9. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
    Francois Vandenesch
    INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
  10. ncbi Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Sandra Dial
    Division of Critical Care and Respiratory and Clinical Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
    JAMA 294:2989-95. 2005

Detail Information

Publications297 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Multilocus sequence typing for characterization of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible clones of Staphylococcus aureus
    M C Enright
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3FY
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1008-15. 2000
    ..MLST provides an unambiguous method for assigning MRSA and MSSA isolates to known clones or assigning them as novel clones via the Internet...
  2. ncbi Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults
    Lionel A Mandell
    McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 44:S27-72. 2007
  3. pmc Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study
    W S Lim
    Respiratory Infection Research Group, Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Thorax 58:377-82. 2003
    ..A multicentre study was conducted to derive and validate a practical severity assessment model for stratifying adults hospitalised with CAP into different management groups...
  4. ncbi Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Binh An Diep
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 367:731-9. 2006
    ..Our aim was to sequence its genome and compare it with those of other strains of S aureus to try to identify genes responsible for its distinctive epidemiological and virulence properties...
  5. ncbi Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States
    R Monina Klevens
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    JAMA 298:1763-71. 2007
    ..As the epidemiology of infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) changes, accurate information on the scope and magnitude of MRSA infections in the US population is needed...
  6. ncbi Comparison of community- and health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection
    Timothy S Naimi
    Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, USA
    JAMA 290:2976-84. 2003
    ..However, MRSA has emerged in patients without established risk factors (community-associated MRSA)...
  7. ncbi Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 genotype as a major cause of health care-associated blood stream infections
    Ulrich Seybold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:647-56. 2006
    ..Whether community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotypes (e.g., USA300) are a major cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and health care-associated infections has been poorly defined...
  8. ncbi Health care--associated bloodstream infections in adults: a reason to change the accepted definition of community-acquired infections
    N Deborah Friedman
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center and Durham Regional Hospital, Box 3605, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Ann Intern Med 137:791-7. 2002
    ..Bloodstream infections occurring in persons residing in the community, regardless of whether those persons have been receiving health care in an outpatient facility, have traditionally been categorized as community-acquired infections...
  9. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence
    Francois Vandenesch
    INSERM E0230, Lyon, France
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:978-84. 2003
    ..Within each continent, the genetic background of CA-MRSA strains did not correspond to that of the hospital-acquired MRSA...
  10. ncbi Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Sandra Dial
    Division of Critical Care and Respiratory and Clinical Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
    JAMA 294:2989-95. 2005
    ..Recent reports suggest an increasing occurrence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. We assessed whether the use of gastric acid-suppressive agents is associated with an increased risk in the community...
  11. ncbi Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells and the diagnosis of pneumonia
    Sebastien Gibot
    Service de Reanimation Medicale, Hopital Central, Nancy, France
    N Engl J Med 350:451-8. 2004
    ..The presence of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) in bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid from patients receiving mechanical ventilation may be an indicator of pneumonia...
  12. pmc Study of community acquired pneumonia aetiology (SCAPA) in adults admitted to hospital: implications for management guidelines
    W S Lim
    Respiratory Infection Research Group, Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Thorax 56:296-301. 2001
    ..Atypical pathogens are more common in younger patients. They should also be covered in all patients with severe pneumonia and younger patients with non-severe infection...
  13. ncbi Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an evolutionary, epidemiologic, and therapeutic odyssey
    Stan Deresinski
    Division of Infectious Disease and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:562-73. 2005
    ..This has led to an important change in the choice of antibiotics in the management of community-acquired infections and has also led to the development of novel antimicrobials...
  14. ncbi Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a meta-analysis of prevalence and risk factors
    Cassandra D Salgado
    University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:131-9. 2003
    ..24%). Effective control of dissemination of MRSA throughout the community likely will require effective control of nosocomial MRSA transmission...
  15. pmc Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: global differences in clinical patterns
    Wen Chien Ko
    National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Taiwan
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:160-6. 2002
    ..A distinctive form of K. pneumoniae infection, often causing liver abscess, was identified, almost exclusively in Taiwan...
  16. pmc Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospital nursery and maternity units
    Simona Bratu
    State University of New York Downstate, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:808-13. 2005
    ..CA-MRSA strain MW2 has been present in this region at least since 1999. This study documents the spread of this strain among healthy newborns at 1 hospital...
  17. ncbi Severe sepsis in community-acquired pneumonia: when does it happen, and do systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria help predict course?
    Tony Dremsizov
    606 Scaife Hall, The CRISMA Laboratory, Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3550 Terrace St, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
    Chest 129:968-78. 2006
    ....
  18. ncbi Trends in hospitalizations for pneumonia among persons aged 65 years or older in the United States, 1988-2002
    Alicia M Fry
    Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 294:2712-9. 2005
    ..Pneumonia causes significant mortality and morbidity among persons aged 65 years or older. However, few studies have explored trends according to age groups, which may affect intervention strategies...
  19. ncbi A U.S. population-based survey of Staphylococcus aureus colonization
    Philip L Graham
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University and New York Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Ann Intern Med 144:318-25. 2006
    ..The epidemiology of staphylococcal colonization and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is changing, and little is known from the national perspective...
  20. ncbi Validation of a predictive rule for the management of community-acquired pneumonia
    A Capelastegui
    Service of Pneumology, Hospital de Galdakao, E 48960 Galdakao, Bizkaia, Spain
    Eur Respir J 27:151-7. 2006
    ..The new score can also be used as a severity adjustment measure...
  21. ncbi Pneumonia: still the old man's friend?
    Vladimir Kaplan
    Room 604, Scaife Hall, Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Arch Intern Med 163:317-23. 2003
    ..However, the long-term survival of those discharged alive is less clear. We sought to determine long-term survival of patients hospitalized with CAP and compare the outcome with controls hospitalized for reasons other than CAP...
  22. pmc Health care-associated pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia: a single-center experience
    Scott T Micek
    Department of Pharmacy, Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:3568-73. 2007
    ..Health care providers should differentiate patients with HCAP from those with CAP in order to provide more appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy...
  23. ncbi CRB-65 predicts death from community-acquired pneumonia
    T T Bauer
    HELIOS Clinic Emil v Behring, Respiratory Diseases Clinic Heckeshorn, Berlin, Germany
    J Intern Med 260:93-101. 2006
    ..The study was performed to validate the CURB, CRB and CRB-65 scores for the prediction of death from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in both the hospital and out-patient setting...
  24. pmc Common community acquired infections and subsequent risk of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    Lesley A Anderson
    Centre for Public Health, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
    Br J Haematol 147:444-9. 2009
    ..CLL patients and 122,531 frequency-matched controls were identified in order to evaluate several community acquired infections associated with subsequent CLL risk...
  25. ncbi Health care-associated pneumonia requiring hospital admission: epidemiology, antibiotic therapy, and clinical outcomes
    Jordi Carratala
    Infectious Disease Service, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Feixa Llarga s n, 08907 L Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain
    Arch Intern Med 167:1393-9. 2007
    ..However, limited data exist to validate this entity. We aimed to ascertain the epidemiology, causative organisms, antibiotic susceptibilities, and outcomes of and empirical antibiotic therapy for HCAP requiring hospitalization...
  26. ncbi Are community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains replacing traditional nosocomial MRSA strains?
    Kyle J Popovich
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, and Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:787-94. 2008
    ..We describe the epidemiology of hospital-onset community-associated MRSA bloodstream infections using phenotypic and genotypic analysis...
  27. ncbi Timing of antibiotic administration and outcomes for Medicare patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia
    Peter M Houck
    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
    Arch Intern Med 164:637-44. 2004
    ..Pneumonia accounts for more than 600 000 Medicare hospitalizations yearly. Guidelines have recommended antibiotic treatment within 8 hours of arrival at the hospital...
  28. ncbi Community-acquired pneumonia in children
    Kenneth McIntosh
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:429-37. 2002
  29. ncbi Hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: age- and sex-related patterns of care and outcome in the United States
    Vladimir Kaplan
    Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness Laboratory, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:766-72. 2002
    ..The sex differences are of concern and require further investigation...
  30. ncbi Three-year surveillance of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in children
    Sheldon L Kaplan
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1785-91. 2005
    ..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates are increasingly frequent causes of skin and soft-tissue infections or invasive infections in many communities...
  31. ncbi Community and hospital spread of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the UK
    N Woodford
    Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division Colindale, Health Protection Agency, London
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:735-43. 2004
    ..e. MICs of cefotaxime > or = 8-fold higher than MICs of ceftazidime. Many were referred as being from community patients. We examined 291 CTX-M-producing isolates from the UK and investigated the genetic basis of their phenotype...
  32. ncbi Staphylococcal resistance revisited: community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus--an emerging problem for the management of skin and soft tissue infections
    E Anne Eady
    School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 16:103-24. 2003
    ....
  33. ncbi Hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: Has resistance to antibiotics decreased?
    Xavier Valles
    Institut Clinic de Pneumologia i Cirurgia Toracica, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain
    Chest 130:800-6. 2006
    ..Design and setting: We performed a prospective study of all well-defined pneumococcal CAP hospitalizations in the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (Spain) over 2 years of follow-up, and results were compared with a previous study...
  34. ncbi Early mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: causes and risk factors
    C Garcia-Vidal
    Infectious Disease Service, Hospital University of Bellvitge, Feixa Llarga s n 08907 L Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain
    Eur Respir J 32:733-9. 2008
    ..Pneumococcal bacteraemia and discordant antibiotic therapy, mainly due to lack of coverage against Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also significant risk factors...
  35. ncbi Characteristics of bacteremia between community-acquired and nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae infection: risk factor for mortality and the impact of capsular serotypes as a herald for community-acquired infection
    Ren Wen Tsay
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Tri Service General Hospital, No 325, Section 2, Cheng Kung Road, Neihu, 114 Taipei, Taiwan
    Arch Intern Med 162:1021-7. 2002
    ..Although several epidemiological surveys of Klebsiella clinical isolates have been performed, few studies have correlated the clinical isolate with disease...
  36. ncbi Community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to an intensive care unit: a descriptive study
    Thomas J Marrie
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Medicine (Baltimore) 86:103-11. 2007
    ..Severe CAP requiring admission to the ICU is common, and the decision about which patients to admit often requires clinical judgment that in many cases appears at odds with various validated pneumonia severity scoring systems...
  37. ncbi Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients
    Yves Gillet
    Division of Paediatric Intensive Care, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
    Lancet 359:753-9. 2002
    ..We aimed to assess the clinical features of these eight cases, and those of other cases identified prospectively, and to compare them with the characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by PVL-negative strains...
  38. ncbi Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: trends in the hospital and community settings
    Husam S Khanfar
    Department of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Dhahran Health Centre, Saudi Aramco Company, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
    J Infect Dev Ctries 3:295-9. 2009
    ..To assess the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella strains in nosocomial and community-acquired infections...
  39. ncbi Epidemiology and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia
    Lionel A Mandell
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Henderson Site, 711 Concession Street, 40 Wing, 5th Floor, Room 503, Hamilton, ON Canada L8V 1C3
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:761-76, vii. 2004
    ..This article discusses the epidemiology and bacterial causes of CAP in immunocompetent adults and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus...
  40. pmc Risk prediction with procalcitonin and clinical rules in community-acquired pneumonia
    David T Huang
    Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness Laboratory, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 52:48-58.e2. 2008
    ..Our objective is to describe the pattern of procalcitonin in community-acquired pneumonia and determine whether procalcitonin provides prognostic information beyond the Pneumonia Severity Index and CURB-65...
  41. ncbi The relation between hyperglycemia and outcomes in 2,471 patients admitted to the hospital with community-acquired pneumonia
    Finlay A McAlister
    2E3 24 WMC, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7
    Diabetes Care 28:810-5. 2005
    ..To examine whether hyperglycemia at the time of presentation was associated with outcomes in patients admitted to non-intensive care settings with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
  42. ncbi Assessment of pneumonia severity: a European perspective
    S Ewig
    Eur Respir J 27:6-8. 2006
  43. ncbi Sepsis severity predicts outcome in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia
    B Schaaf
    Medical Clinic III, University of Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Eur Respir J 30:517-24. 2007
    ..The prediction of survival in the intermediate-risk group might be more accurate with the sepsis score. Pre-hospital antibiotic treatment was associated with less severe disease...
  44. pmc The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus?
    H F Chambers
    University of California San Francisco and San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:178-82. 2001
    ..aureus decades ago. Even though the origin (hospital or the community) of the emerging MRSA strains is not known, the prevalence of these strains in the community seems likely to increase substantially...
  45. pmc Prospective comparison of three predictive rules for assessing severity of community-acquired pneumonia in Hong Kong
    Shin Yan Man
    Accident and Emergency Medicine Academic Unit, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Trauma and Emergency Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
    Thorax 62:348-53. 2007
    ..Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading infectious cause of death throughout the world, including Hong Kong...
  46. pmc Epidemiology and outcome of nosocomial and community-onset bloodstream infection
    D J Diekema
    Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3655-60. 2003
    ..0001). Although accounting for about half of all bloodstream infections, nosocomial bloodstream infections account for most of the mortality and costs associated with bloodstream infection...
  47. ncbi Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in three communities
    Scott K Fridkin
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 352:1436-44. 2005
    ..Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in patients who do not have the established risk factors. The national burden and clinical effect of this novel presentation of MRSA disease are unclear...
  48. ncbi Community-acquired legionella pneumonia in elderly patients: characteristics and outcome
    Nieves Sopena
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital Badalona, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Am Geriatr Soc 55:114-9. 2007
    ..To compare the risk factors, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Legionella pneumophila in elderly (aged > or =65) and younger patients...
  49. pmc Community-wide outbreaks of clonally related CTX-M-14 beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains in the Calgary health region
    Johann D D Pitout
    Division of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, 9 3535 Research Rd NW, Calgary, Alberta T2L 2K8, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2844-9. 2005
    ..Further studies are warranted to investigate whether community-onset diseases caused by ESBL-producing E. coli are related to a point source or transmission within the community...
  50. ncbi A novel methicillin-resistance cassette in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates of diverse genetic backgrounds
    Robert S Daum
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1344-7. 2002
    ..SCCmec type IV is present on the genome of CA-MRSA isolates. Its relatively small size and presence in isolates of diverse genetic backgrounds suggest that it may spread among S. aureus isolates...
  51. ncbi Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya
    James A Berkley
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    N Engl J Med 352:39-47. 2005
    ..We studied every acute pediatric admission to a rural district hospital in Kenya to examine the prevalence, incidence, types, and outcome of community-acquired bacteremia...
  52. ncbi Hydrocortisone infusion for severe community-acquired pneumonia: a preliminary randomized study
    Marco Confalonieri
    Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, 34100 Trieste, Italy
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171:242-8. 2005
    ..01), MODS score (p = 0.003), and delayed septic shock (p = 0.001). Hydrocortisone treatment was associated with a significant reduction in length of hospital stay (p = 0.03) and mortality (p = 0.009)...
  53. pmc Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections
    Kristian Kofoed
    Clinical Research Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Kettegaard Alle 30, DK 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark
    Crit Care 11:R38. 2007
    ..Combinations of markers, as opposed to single ones, may improve diagnosis and thereby survival. We therefore compared the diagnostic characteristics of novel and routinely used biomarkers of sepsis alone and in combination...
  54. ncbi A new multiplex PCR for easy screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec types I-V
    K Boye
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
    Clin Microbiol Infect 13:725-7. 2007
    ..SCCmec type IV was by far the most common SCCmec type among both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA isolates in Denmark...
  55. ncbi Candida as a risk factor for mortality in peritonitis
    Philippe Montravers
    Département d Anesthesie Réanimation DAR, CHU Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Universite Paris VII, France
    Crit Care Med 34:646-52. 2006
    ..The current study tried to differentiate the pathogenic role of Candida in these two clinical settings and assess its importance on outcome...
  56. pmc Effectiveness of discontinuing antibiotic treatment after three days versus eight days in mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia: randomised, double blind study
    Rachida el Moussaoui
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands
    BMJ 332:1355. 2006
    ....
  57. ncbi Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA
    Tadashi Baba
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Lancet 359:1819-27. 2002
    ..By contrast with hospital-acquired MRSA, community-acquired MRSA is more susceptible to non b-lactam antibiotics. We investigated the high virulence potential of certain strains of this bacterium...
  58. ncbi Pneumonia in the very old
    Jean Paul Janssens
    Division of Lung Diseases and Department of Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:112-24. 2004
    ....
  59. ncbi Reappraisal of community-acquired bacteremia: a proposal of a new classification for the spectrum of acquisition of bacteremia
    Yardena Siegman-Igra
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel
    Clin Infect Dis 34:1431-9. 2002
    ..There is a conceptual and practical need for such a new classification...
  60. pmc Community acquisition of gentamicin-sensitive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southeast Queensland, Australia
    G R Nimmo
    Microbiology Department, Queensland Health Pathology Service, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba 4102, Australia
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3926-31. 2000
    ..Community-acquired GS-MRSA strains were not related to nosocomial GR-MRSA or WA-MRSA, but phage typing results suggest that they are related to GS-MRSA previously reported in New Zealand...
  61. pmc Dissemination of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in the community
    Keiko Okuma
    Department of Bacteriology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 40:4289-94. 2002
    ..They multiplied much faster than health-care-associated MRSA and were resistant to fewer non-beta-lactam antibiotics. They seem to have been derived from more diverse S. aureus populations than health-care-associated MRSA strains...
  62. ncbi Risk factors for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men
    Nolan E Lee
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1529-34. 2005
    ..We performed a matched case-control study of 35 case patients and 76 control subjects. CA-MRSA skin infections were associated with high-risk sex and drug-using behaviors and with environmental exposures but not with immune status...
  63. ncbi Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a Memphis, Tennessee Children's Hospital
    Steven C Buckingham
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:619-24. 2004
    ..An epidemiologic investigation was performed because of a perceived increase in infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among children in the greater Memphis area...
  64. ncbi Procalcitonin kinetics in the prognosis of severe community-acquired pneumonia
    Nicolas Boussekey
    Tourcoing Hospital, Intensive Care and Infectious Disease Unit, 135 rue du Président Coty BP 619, 59208, Tourcoing Cedex, France
    Intensive Care Med 32:469-72. 2006
    ..We analyzed the relationship between PCT kinetics and outcome in ICU patients with severe CAP...
  65. pmc Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a paradigm of adaptive power
    Herminia De Lencastre
    Laboratory of Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 10:428-35. 2007
    ..Then, in the late 1990s, just as effective hygienic and antibiotic use policies managed to bring down the frequency of MRSA in hospitals of several countries, MRSA strains began to show up in the community...
  66. ncbi Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA 300 clone as the predominant cause of skin and soft-tissue infections
    Mark D King
    Emory University School of Medicine and Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
    Ann Intern Med 144:309-17. 2006
    ..Studies have shown that community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes S. aureus skin and soft-tissue infection in selected populations...
  67. ncbi Bridges from hospitals to the laboratory: genetic portraits of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones
    Marta Aires de Sousa
    Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 40:101-11. 2004
    ..Many questions concerning this extraordinarily versatile and threatening pathogen remain unanswered, needing future investigation..
  68. pmc Widespread skin and soft-tissue infections due to two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring the genes for Panton-Valentine leucocidin
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2080-4. 2004
    ..0001). There is evidence of clonal replacement over the period from 1999 to 2002, with one of these two clonal groups being supplanted by the other...
  69. ncbi Effects of systemic steroids in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia
    C Garcia-Vidal
    Service of Infectious Diseases, pl 12, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, c Feixa Llarga s n, 08907 L Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
    Eur Respir J 30:951-6. 2007
    ..Severity of community-acquired pneumonia remains the most important risk factor associated with increased mortality...
  70. ncbi Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis
    Diederik van de Beek
    Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 351:1849-59. 2004
    ..We conducted a nationwide study in the Netherlands to determine clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis...
  71. ncbi Effect of increasing the intensity of implementing pneumonia guidelines: a randomized, controlled trial
    Donald M Yealy
    University of Pittsburgh and the Veterans Affairs Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15240, USA
    Ann Intern Med 143:881-94. 2005
    ..Despite the development of evidence-based pneumonia guidelines, limited data exist on the most effective means to implement guideline recommendations into clinical practice...
  72. ncbi Microbiological testing and outcome of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia
    Jordi Rello
    Critical Care Department, Joan XXIII University Hospital, Tarragona, Spain
    Chest 123:174-80. 2003
    ..The study documents the impact of microbiological investigations on therapeutic decisions and outcome in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP)...
  73. pmc Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory parameters in community-acquired pneumonia
    Beat Muller
    Departments of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Petersgraben 4, CH 4031, Basel, Switzerland
    BMC Infect Dis 7:10. 2007
    ..This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory biomarkers for CAP...
  74. ncbi Type 2 diabetes and pneumonia outcomes: a population-based cohort study
    Jette B Kornum
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
    Diabetes Care 30:2251-7. 2007
    ..We sought to examine whether type 2 diabetes increases risk of death and complications following pneumonia and to assess the prognostic value of admission hyperglycemia...
  75. ncbi High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in emergency department skin and soft tissue infections
    Bradley W Frazee
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Alameda County Medical Center Highland Campus, Oakland, CA 94602, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 45:311-20. 2005
    ....
  76. pmc Phenotypic prediction rule for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Kyle Popovich
    Rush University Medical Center, Stroger Hospital of Cook County, 637 S Wood St, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2293-5. 2007
    ..We assessed the performance characteristics of a rule using the antimicrobial phenotype to predict genotype. This rule could be applied for epidemiologic purposes to describe the trend in CA-MRSA infections over time...
  77. pmc Characterization of a strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus widely disseminated in the United States
    Fred C Tenover
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:108-18. 2006
    ..Comparative genomics between USA300-0114 and three other S. aureus lineages (USA100, USA400, and USA500) defined a set of USA300-0114-specific genes, which may facilitate the strain's pathogenesis within diverse environments...
  78. pmc Community-acquired versus nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: clinical features, treatment outcomes, and clinical implication of antimicrobial resistance
    Cheol In Kang
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 21:816-22. 2006
    ..Antimicrobial resistance was a widespread nosocomial problem and also identified in community-acquired infections...
  79. ncbi Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA): an emerging pathogen in infective endocarditis
    B Cherie Millar
    Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratory, Department of Bacteriology, Belfast City Hospital, Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AD, Northern Ireland, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:1-7. 2008
    ....
  80. ncbi Influenza vaccination and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent elderly people: a population-based, nested case-control study
    Michael L Jackson
    Group Health Center for Health Studies, Seattle, WA 98101 1448, USA
    Lancet 372:398-405. 2008
    ..We therefore assessed whether influenza vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent elderly people after controlling for health status indicators...
  81. ncbi Inadequate antimicrobial treatment of infections: a risk factor for hospital mortality among critically ill patients
    M H Kollef
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Chest 115:462-74. 1999
    ..To evaluate the relationship between inadequate antimicrobial treatment of infections (both community-acquired and nosocomial infections) and hospital mortality for patients requiring ICU admission...
  82. ncbi Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin
    Susan Boyle-Vavra
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Lab Invest 87:3-9. 2007
    ..The second aim is to outline the progress in understanding the role of PVL in CA-MRSA pathogenesis...
  83. ncbi Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients in Asian countries: a prospective study by the Asian network for surveillance of resistant pathogens
    Jae Hoon Song
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon Dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul 135 710, South Korea
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 31:107-14. 2008
    ..05). The current data provide relevant information about pathogen distribution and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens of CAP as well as clinical outcomes of illness in Asian countries...
  84. ncbi Epidemiology and outcomes of health-care-associated pneumonia: results from a large US database of culture-positive pneumonia
    Marin H Kollef
    Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Chest 128:3854-62. 2005
    ..Accumulating evidence suggests that health-care-associated infections are distinct from those that are truly community acquired...
  85. ncbi Guidelines for the selection of anti-infective agents for complicated intra-abdominal infections
    Joseph S Solomkin
    Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0558, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:997-1005. 2003
  86. ncbi Characteristics of patients with healthcare-associated infection due to SCCmec type IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Susan L Davis
    Anti Infective Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and the School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 27:1025-31. 2006
    ..The objective of the present study was to characterize the epidemiology of and clinical outcomes associated with SCCmec-IV MRSA infection acquired in the healthcare setting, compared with infection caused by MRSA of other SCCmec types...
  87. pmc Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay
    Xiao Xue Ma
    Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:973-6. 2005
    ..The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene...
  88. ncbi Acute phase reactants and cytokine levels in unilateral community-acquired pneumonia
    Mustafa Kolsuz
    Tuberculosis Control Dispensary, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey
    Respiration 70:615-22. 2003
    ..Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract initiates an acute inflammatory response. Regulation of the inflammatory response in bacterial pneumonia depends on a complex interaction between immune cells and inflammatory cytokines...
  89. pmc Virulence characteristics of Klebsiella and clinical manifestations of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections
    Victor L Yu
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:986-93. 2007
    ..001). Differences in clinical features of bacteremic infection with K. pneumoniae are due to the virulence factors expressed by the organism...
  90. ncbi Diagnostic test for etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia
    John G Bartlett
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 2191, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 18:809-27. 2004
    ..New tests that merit use in selected patients are the urinary antigen assay for S pneumoniae and the PCR test for L pneumophila. Anticipated developments in the near future are PCR tests for detection of C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae...
  91. ncbi A case-control study of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection
    M H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:388-96. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
  92. ncbi Testing strategies in the initial management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia
    Joshua P Metlay
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 9th Floor, University and Woodland Avenues, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Ann Intern Med 138:109-18. 2003
    ....
  93. ncbi Body site colonization in patients with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other types of S. aureus skin infections
    E S Yang
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 16:425-31. 2010
    ..aureus infections. The relatively high prevalence of non-nasal colonization may play a key role in CA-MRSA transmission and acquisition of infection...
  94. pmc Human metapneumovirus as a cause of community-acquired respiratory illness
    Joanne Stockton
    Public Health Laboratory Service Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:897-901. 2002
    ..2%) patients. HMPV appears to be associated with community-acquired ARTI. The extent of illness and possible complications related to this new human virus need to be clarified...
  95. ncbi Roles of 34 virulence genes in the evolution of hospital- and community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Binh An Diep
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:1495-503. 2006
    ..The extent to which the horizontal transfer of virulence genes has contributed to the emergence of contemporary virulent strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospital and community settings is poorly understood...
  96. pmc Risk factors of treatment failure in community acquired pneumonia: implications for disease outcome
    R Menendez
    Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain
    Thorax 59:960-5. 2004
    ..A study was undertaken to quantify the incidence of failure of empirical treatment in CAP, to identify risk factors for treatment failure, and to determine the implications of treatment failure on the outcome...
  97. pmc Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease defined by prescription for oral vancomycin therapy
    Sandra Dial
    Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Que
    CMAJ 175:745-8. 2006
    ..In this study we re-examined a previously reported association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and the development of community-acquired CDAD, this time using an alternative case definition of the disease...
  98. ncbi Severe community-acquired pneumonia: assessment of microbial aetiology as mortality factor
    F Paganin
    Service de Pneumologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Centre Hospitalier Departmental Félix Guyon, GHSR, BP 350, St Pierre, Reunion, France
    Eur Respir J 24:779-85. 2004
    ..7) were independent factors related to death. In conclusion, the present study found that the microbial aetiology, Klebsiella pneumoniae, was an independent risk factor for mortality in severe community-acquired pneumonia...
  99. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia during the 2006 to 2007 influenza season
    Alexander J Kallen
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 53:358-65. 2009
    ..In response to a number of cases reported to public health authorities in early 2007, additional case reports were solicited nationwide to better define S. aureus community-acquired pneumonia during the 2006 to 2007 influenza season...
  100. ncbi A worldwide perspective of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia
    Forest W Arnold
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:1086-93. 2007
    ..In different regions of the world, monotherapy with a beta-lactam antimicrobial is common...
  101. ncbi Heterosexual transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Heather A Cook
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:410-3. 2007
    ..This report documents an important and previously unrecognized means of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization and transmission for these potentially invasive strains...

Research Grants66

  1. A randomized trial of influenza vaccination of Hutterite children
    Mark Loeb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that the trial we propose will lead to important data that can inform policy on influenza immunization strategy. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FUNGURIA IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS
    Loren Miller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Community-Associated MRSA
    SANJAY SHUKLA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will determine the presence or absence of 40 different virulence factor genes in all 320 isolates listed in aim 2 and determine evolution of virulence factor genes in contemporary CA-MRSA. ..
  4. Impact of statins and ACE inhibitors on outcomes for pneumonia and sepsis
    Eric Mortensen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  5. Innate Immunity and exacerbations of COPD
    Sanjay Sethi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The overall goal of this research is to identify specific aspects of the innate defense of the lung that determine the frequency of exacerbations in COPD that will serve as potential therapeutic targets to reduce exacerbations. ..
  6. REGULATION OF NEUTROPHIL OXIDATIVE RESPONSES IN TRAUMA
    Joseph Solomkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Together, these studies will define potential points for therapeutic intervention and provide important insight into regulation of the acute inflammatory response. ..
  7. Functional Senescence of Innate Immunity and Pneumonia
    Kevin High; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These data are essential to design meaningful studies using the case-control method, the most effective means of studying the link between immune senescence and infection risk. ..
  8. ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON THYMIC IMMUNE RESPONSE TO HAART
    Maria Jose Miguez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Impact of Hand Hygiene Guideline on Infections and Costs
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. The impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumonia hospitalizations
    CARLOS GRIJALVA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We propose the use of NIS and SID for the evaluation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program, using an innovative approach. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Brucella, Aging and Role of IL-17 in Host Defense
    Kevin High; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The data generated in this proposal will form the foundation of future R01 proposals aimed at enhancing immunity vs. intracellular pathogens in our aging population. ..
  12. Heavy Drinking & Coronary Disease: Acute/Chronic Effects
    Kenneth Mukamal; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These results may prove to have important biological, clinical, and public health implications for the care of CHD. ..
  13. Staff Hand Hygiene and Nosocomial Infections in Neonates
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  14. HOME HYGIENE INTERVENTION
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Logistic regression, Liang-Zeger regression, and Chi Square analyses will be used to test differences in rates of transmission of symptoms and changes in quantity, types and resistance patterns of microbial flora of the hands. ..
  15. Stopping URIs and FLU in the Family: the Stuffy Trial
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  16. HAEMOPHILUS ANTIGEN REGULATION OF INFLAMMATION IN COPD
    Sanjay Sethi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Identification of the integral bacterial and host components that contribute to immune-mediated inflammation in COPD will ultimately lead to novel therapeutic strategies to alter disease progression and improve outcome in COPD. ..
  17. Interdisciplinary Research:Antimicrobial Resistance(RMI)
    Elaine Larson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the final year, plans for a sustainable Consortium on antimicrobial resistance will be formalized. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease
    Kenneth Jay Mukamal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, we will examine how a derived dietary antioxidant score, based upon measured oxidative potential of specific foods using the ferric-reducing/antioxidant power method, is related to PAD. ..
  19. DIETARY FATTY CONTROL OF INFLAMMATION
    Kevin High; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Health relateness: Answering these fundamental questions will shed critical light on the feasibility of utilizing dietary fatty acids to regulate AA metabolism and related clinical disorders. ..
  20. Susceptibility Testing, Treatment Choices, and Outcomes of MDR-GNB Infections
    Lisa Saiman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Carefully conducted observational studies and clinically relevant in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, hold the greatest promise to improve the treatment of patients infected with mutidrug-resistant organisms. ..
  21. Antioxidant-based mechanisms used by staphyloccocus aureus to evade host defenses
    George Y Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Significance: The proposed research will address fundamental questions about S. aureus-host interaction, and uncover novel therapeutic approaches toward treatment of S. aureus diseases. ..
  22. Sixth International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium
    ANN FALSEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Orgin of multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This knowledge should lead to the implementation of improved control of drug-resistant infectious diseases. ..
  24. Genetic Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Immune Dysfunction in Autism & ASD
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Device use in Nursing Homes: Reducing Risk of Infection
    Lona Mody; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. MODELING TREATMENT USE & EFFECTIVENESS IN MENTAL ILLNESS
    Sharon Lise Normand; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The methodological advances from this research will enable researchers, policy makers, and methodologists to better characterize factors impacting technology innovation/exnovation and to expand the inferences for usual care. ..
  27. Incident HIV Infection and Immune Response to Hepatitis C Virus
    Andrea Cox; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This, along with excellent mentorship and the supportive and rich environment at JHU, will provide Dr. Cox with the skills she needs to develop into an independent researcher studying HIV/HCV coinfection immunology. ..
  28. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INFORMANT DATA IN PSYCHIATRY
    SHARON LISE TERESA NORMAND; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These novel and innovative methods will improve the assessment of treatment effects and will contribute to improving the health of the population. ..
  29. STATISTICAL ISSUES IN AIDS RESEARCH
    Thomas Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Research into optimal designs of Phase HE "Intermediate Trials" of candidate HIV vaccines will also be continued. ..
  30. WGA Study to Identify Genetic Variants Associated with CV Events in CHS
    Bruce Psaty; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed three-part study is efficient, has excellent power to detect small to modest-sized hazard ratios, provides a large sample of WG scans for aim 2, and includes an external replication. (End of Abstract) ..
  31. Genetic Basis of Virulence of Community MRSA Clone USA300
    Henry F Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By knocking each of these genes out and testing for loss of virulence, we hope to learn which genes code for virulence. Once these genes are identified, strategies to block their effects may be developed. ..
  32. Predicting Patient Outcomes from Clinical and Genome-Wide Data
    Gregory F Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  33. PATHOGENIC MECHANISMS IN UTI
    Walter Stamm; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Face Page .................................................................................................. 1 B. Description, ..
  34. Environmental Effects on Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients
    Christopher Goss; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our proposal will also enhance our understanding of lung growth in CF and represents the initial phase of a program to understand environmental effects on CF lung disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Novel Application of Infection Control Strategies to Limit Transmission of ESBL'S
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Spread of Community-Acquired MRSA Among Household Contacts
    Robert S Daum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  37. MRSA Colonization and Control in the Cook County Jail - R01
    Robert Daum; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We hope that the Cook County jail will become a model jail for the control of MRSA and other resistant bacteria. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Rapid Analysis of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness
    Edward Belongia; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Interim and annual estimates of VE with 95% confidence intervals will be provided to CDC, including overall VE and VE for each of the priority age groups. ..
  39. Clinical Impact of Quinolone-Resistant E.coli carriage
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. CONTROL OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA
    PEDRO PIEDRA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. Trends in and Outcomes of Medication Use in Older Adults
    Bruce Psaty; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Psychosocial Issues in Umbilical Cord Blood Donation
    Galen Switzer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Gordon Research Conference on Staphylococcal Diseases
    BRIGITTE BERGER BACHI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..S. This will afford a unique and rich opportunity for fellowship and scientific exchange between young and established investigators in the field. ..
  44. Role of Genomic Imprinting in Developmental Neurotoxici*
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..2. To utilize high throughput methods to examine patterns of DNA methylation in candidate genes in sperm and zygote in order to detect the presence of male-mediated effects on imprinted genes involved in early development. ..
  45. IMMUNE RESPONSES TO P FALCIPARUM IN HIGHLAND KENYA
    Chandy John; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..falciparum antigens to susceptibility to infection and disease is important in the evaluation of these antigens as malaria vaccine candidates. ..
  46. MATERNAL HEALTH STATUS AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES
    Jennifer Haas; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Such interventions should begin from the premise that improved maternal and infant outcomes can only come from improved maternal health. ..
  47. EFFECTS OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS ON CLINICAL REASONIN
    Gregory Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Under the second aim of our proposed work, we will create and maintain our set of 36 clinical cases as a reusable, calibrated resource for other researchers. ..
  48. AN EMPIRIC RISK STRATIFICATION RULE FOR HEART FAILURE
    DONALD YEALY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. MUTATIONS, HORMONE THERAPY, AND VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM
    Bruce Psaty; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  50. QUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN NOSOCOMIAL URINARY INFECTIONS
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  51. FLAGELLIN GLYCOSYLATION AND VIRULENCE OF P. AEROGINOSA
    Reuben Ramphal; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The existence of a central gene product involved in these could prove to be of great significance in controlling virulence. ..
  52. Genital Ulcer Disease and HIV Transmission
    Jeanne Sheffield; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The pursuit of these aims will further elucidate the cellular and molecular bases of the interrelationship between GUD and HIV-1 transmission, particularly in women. ..
  53. Impact of Gender on Infected Hospitalized Patients
    Robert Sawyer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Data obtained from this research will be used to design interventional studies utilizing hormonal manipulation, i. e., replacement or blockade, to improve outcomes from otherwise lethal infectious diseases. ..
  54. ANTIOXIDANT GENES OF MYCOBACERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
    Lee Riley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  55. Alternative endpoints for plague challenge models
    Richard Frothingham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will use the data generated to refine our hypotheses and to pursue further funding to complete Aim 3. ..
  56. Duke University Center for Translational Research
    Richard Frothingham; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  57. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Prothrombotic Variants
    Bruce Psaty; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Power for primary and secondary aims is excellent. Information from this project may help physicians counsel women about HRT to maximize either effectiveness, or safety, or both. ..
  58. Long-Term Outcomes of NO for Ventilated Premature Babies
    Derek Angus; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, our data will allow assessment of the robustness of early proxies for subsequent outcomes, key for future study design in this area. ..
  59. Testosterone Therapy After Hip Fracture in Elderly Women
    ELLEN BINDER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These data will be used to develop a full-scale proposal to test the long-term hypothesis that testosterone therapy combined with exercise training can improve physical function after a hip fracture. ..
  60. Improving Antibiotic Use in Acute Care Settings
    Ralph Gonzales; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Specific Aim 2: To evaluate the impact of a rapid diagnostic test for c-reactive protein on antibiotic use for adults with acute cough illness when added to a multidimensional intervention. ..
  61. CARDIOTOXICITY OF STREPTOCOCCAL PYROGENIC EXOTOXINS
    Patrick Schlievert; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  62. Risk factors for drug resistant pneumococcal bacteremia
    Joshua Metlay; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed study will maintain our enrollment over an additional three years in order to complete six-years of active enrollment and achieve the necessary sample size for the proposed molecular and geographic analyses. ..
  63. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of Novel Strategies to Reduce Inapprop
    JOSHUA P contact METLAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  64. PENICILLIN INTERACTIVE PROTEINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    Henry Chambers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To augment information about where PBPs localize, when they are expressed during the cell cycle will be determined by Northern blotting. ..