pneumococcal infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Sustained reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in the era of conjugate vaccine
    Tamara Pilishvili
    Division of Bacterial Diseases and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:32-41. 2010
  2. ncbi Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease
    D Bogaert
    Laboratory of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:144-54. 2004
  3. pmc Serotype replacement in disease after pneumococcal vaccination
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Lancet 378:1962-73. 2011
  4. ncbi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
  5. ncbi Herd immunity and serotype replacement 4 years after seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales: an observational cohort study
    Elizabeth Miller
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:760-8. 2011
  6. ncbi Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya
    James A Berkley
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    N Engl J Med 352:39-47. 2005
  7. pmc Genome sequence of Avery's virulent serotype 2 strain D39 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and comparison with that of unencapsulated laboratory strain R6
    Joel A Lanie
    Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Jordan Hall 142, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Bacteriol 189:38-51. 2007
  8. ncbi Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group
    S Black
    Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:187-95. 2000
  9. ncbi Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype- and clone-specific differences in invasive disease potential
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Academic Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, John Radcliffe Hospital and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 187:1424-32. 2003
  10. pmc Improved detection of nasopharyngeal cocolonization by multiple pneumococcal serotypes by use of latex agglutination or molecular serotyping by microarray
    Paul Turner
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1784-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications313 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Sustained reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease in the era of conjugate vaccine
    Tamara Pilishvili
    Division of Bacterial Diseases and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:32-41. 2010
    ..Changes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence were evaluated after 7 years of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use in US children...
  2. ncbi Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease
    D Bogaert
    Laboratory of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:144-54. 2004
    ..The treatment of pneumococcal infections is complicated by the worldwide emergence in pneumococci of resistance to penicillin and other ..
  3. pmc Serotype replacement in disease after pneumococcal vaccination
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Lancet 378:1962-73. 2011
    ..We conclude by discussing the future potential for serotype replacement in disease and the need for continuing surveillance...
  4. ncbi The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease
    Aras Kadioglu
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:288-301. 2008
    ..In this Review, we describe how S. pneumoniae uses its armamentarium of virulence factors to colonize the upper and lower respiratory tracts of the host and cause disease...
  5. ncbi Herd immunity and serotype replacement 4 years after seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales: an observational cohort study
    Elizabeth Miller
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:760-8. 2011
    ..We assess the effect of the PCV7 vaccination on VT and NVT disease in England and Wales...
  6. ncbi Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya
    James A Berkley
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    N Engl J Med 352:39-47. 2005
    ..We studied every acute pediatric admission to a rural district hospital in Kenya to examine the prevalence, incidence, types, and outcome of community-acquired bacteremia...
  7. pmc Genome sequence of Avery's virulent serotype 2 strain D39 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and comparison with that of unencapsulated laboratory strain R6
    Joel A Lanie
    Department of Biology, Indiana University Bloomington, Jordan Hall 142, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Bacteriol 189:38-51. 2007
    ....
  8. ncbi Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group
    S Black
    Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:187-95. 2000
    ....
  9. ncbi Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype- and clone-specific differences in invasive disease potential
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Academic Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, John Radcliffe Hospital and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 187:1424-32. 2003
    ....
  10. pmc Improved detection of nasopharyngeal cocolonization by multiple pneumococcal serotypes by use of latex agglutination or molecular serotyping by microarray
    Paul Turner
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1784-9. 2011
    ..Sweep serotyping is cost-effective and field deployable but may fail to detect serotypes at low abundance, whereas microarray serotyping is more costly and technology dependent but may detect these additional minor carried serotypes...
  11. ncbi Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Moe H Kyaw
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:1455-63. 2006
    ..We examined the effect of this vaccine on invasive disease caused by resistant strains...
  12. pmc Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection
    Richard Malley
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1966-71. 2003
    ..We conclude that the interaction of pneumolysin with TLR4 is critically involved in the innate immune response to pneumococcus...
  13. ncbi Clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in older US adults
    Derek Weycker
    Policy Analysis Inc PAI, Brookline, MA 02445, United States
    Vaccine 28:4955-60. 2010
    ..7 billion and $1.8 billion, respectively. Pneumococcal disease remains a substantial burden among older US adults, despite increased coverage with PPV23 and indirect benefits afforded by PCV7 vaccination of young children...
  14. ncbi A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection
    Keith P Klugman
    Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 349:1341-8. 2003
    ..We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa...
  15. pmc Biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae: role of choline, extracellular DNA, and capsular polysaccharide in microbial accretion
    Miriam Moscoso
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    J Bacteriol 188:7785-95. 2006
    ..Those results, in turn, may provide insight into strategies to prevent pneumococcal colonization of its human host...
  16. pmc Cellular effectors mediating Th17-dependent clearance of pneumococcal colonization in mice
    Zhe Zhang
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6076, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:1899-909. 2009
    ..Our findings demonstrate that monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils recruited to the mucosal surface are key effectors in clearing primary and secondary bacterial colonization, respectively...
  17. ncbi Report from a WHO Working Group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:e1-11. 2003
    ..Numerous studies evaluating the efficacy of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines are being conducted or planned throughout the world. Some of these studies are evaluating the effect of vaccine on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage...
  18. pmc Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is correlated with the severity of H1N1 pandemic influenza
    Gustavo Palacios
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e8540. 2009
    ..Furthermore, no evidence was found for increased frequency of risk factors for H1N1pdm disease...
  19. ncbi Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1737-46. 2003
    ..In early 2000, a protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine targeting seven pneumococcal serotypes was licensed in the United States for use in young children...
  20. pmc Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease in England: a cross-sectional study
    Stefan Flasche
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 8:e1001017. 2011
    ....
  21. pmc Pre-vaccination nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in a Nigerian population: epidemiology and population biology
    Ifedayo M O Adetifa
    Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 7:e30548. 2012
    ..This study was carried out to describe the pre vaccination epidemiology and population biology of pneumococcal carriage in Nigeria...
  22. ncbi Temporal trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal serotypes over 7 decades
    Zitta B Harboe
    National Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Center, Department of Bacteriology, Mycology, and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Clin Infect Dis 50:329-37. 2010
    b>Pneumococcal infections have historically played a major role in terms of morbidity and mortality...
  23. pmc A new pneumococcal serotype, 11E, has a variably inactivated wcjE gene
    Juan J Calix
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:29-38. 2010
    ..We propose to name the 11Aalpha subtype as serotype 11A and the 11Abeta subtype as 11E, a new serotype. Our findings also suggest that the diversity of pneumococcal capsules is much greater than was previously recognized...
  24. ncbi An outbreak of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in northern Ghana with features that are characteristic of Neisseria meningitidis meningitis epidemics
    Julia Leimkugel
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 192:192-9. 2005
    ..These epidemics are generally caused by Neisseria meningitidis, an organism that is considered to be uniquely capable of causing meningitis epidemics...
  25. pmc Pneumococcal serotypes and mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based cohort study
    Zitta B Harboe
    Department of Bacteriology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen
    PLoS Med 6:e1000081. 2009
    ..Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)...
  26. ncbi Inhibition of pulmonary antibacterial defense by interferon-gamma during recovery from influenza infection
    Keer Sun
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208, USA
    Nat Med 14:558-64. 2008
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma, although probably facilitating induction of specific anti-influenza adaptive immunity, suppresses innate protection against extracellular bacterial pathogens in the lung...
  27. pmc Pneumolysin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes proinflammatory cytokines independently of TLR4
    Edel A McNeela
    Adjuvant Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001191. 2010
    ..Furthermore, NLRP3 was required for protective immunity against respiratory infection with S. pneumoniae. These results add significantly to our understanding of the interactions between PLY and the immune system...
  28. ncbi Serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in The Gambia 1996-2003
    Richard A Adegbola
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1128-35. 2006
    ..To describe the characteristics of pneumococcal isolates obtained from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia...
  29. ncbi Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Gambian villages: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1468-76. 2010
    ..pneumoniae in rural Africa and a baseline for evaluating the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the region...
  30. ncbi Epidemiological differences among pneumococcal serotypes
    William P Hausdorff
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, King of Prussia, PA 19406 2772, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:83-93. 2005
    ....
  31. pmc Evaluation and improvement of real-time PCR assays targeting lytA, ply, and psaA genes for detection of pneumococcal DNA
    Maria Da Gloria S Carvalho
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2460-6. 2007
    ....
  32. ncbi Temporal and geographic stability of the serogroup-specific invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Academic Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 190:1203-11. 2004
    ..There was no evidence of any temporal change or major geographical differences in serotype- or serogroup-specific invasive disease potential...
  33. pmc Clustering of serotypes in a longitudinal study of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in three day care centres
    Tuija Leino
    National Public Health Institute KTL, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Infect Dis 8:173. 2008
    ..Here we report the first longitudinal study of pneumococcal carriage that records serotype specific exposure to pneumococci simultaneously within the two most important mixing groups, families and day care facilities...
  34. ncbi Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination, 1998-2004
    Lauri A Hicks
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1346-54. 2007
    ..The benefits may be offset by increases in disease due to serotypes not included in the vaccine (hereafter, "nonvaccine serotypes"). We evaluated the effect of PCV7 on incidence of disease due to nonvaccine serotypes...
  35. ncbi Burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and serotype distribution among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in young children in Europe: impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and considerations for future conjugate vaccines
    Daniel J Isaacman
    Global Medical Affairs, Vaccines, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc, Collegeville, PA, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 14:e197-209. 2010
    ..The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008...
  36. ncbi Pneumococcal serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance in Chinese children hospitalized for pneumonia
    Kai Hu Yao
    Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Vaccine 29:2296-301. 2011
    ..The use of PCV7 has the potential to prevent a substantial number of pneumococcal infections. However, PCV13 is likely to prevent more episodes of pneumococcal disease in China because of the high ..
  37. pmc Denmark14-230 clone as an increasing cause of pneumococcal infection in Portugal within a background of diverse serotype 19A lineages
    Sandra I Aguiar
    Instituto de Microbiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 48:101-8. 2010
    ....
  38. pmc Niche and neutral effects of acquired immunity permit coexistence of pneumococcal serotypes
    Sarah Cobey
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 335:1376-80. 2012
    ..Our model can be used to explain the effects of pneumococcal vaccination and indicates general factors that regulate the diversity of pathogens...
  39. ncbi Prospective study of prognostic factors in community-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal disease in 5 countries
    M Kalin
    Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 182:840-7. 2000
    ..Differences of disease severity and of frequencies and impact of underlying chronic conditions were factors of probable importance for different outcomes...
  40. pmc Synergistic stimulation of type I interferons during influenza virus coinfection promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in mice
    Shigeki Nakamura
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6076, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:3657-65. 2011
    ....
  41. pmc Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after start of vaccination program, the Netherlands
    Judith Spijkerman
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:584-91. 2011
    ..PCV7 serotypes were largely replaced by non-PCV7 serotypes. Disappearance of PCV7 serotypes in parents suggests strong transmission reduction through vaccination...
  42. ncbi Impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children with acute otitis media
    Robert Cohen
    ACTIV Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne, Paris, France
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:297-301. 2012
    ..This program was used in 2010-2011 to assess the effect of the implementation of PCV13 on PNP carriage in young children with AOM...
  43. pmc Ten years of surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae during the era of antiretroviral scale-up and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi
    Dean B Everett
    Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, Chichiri, Blantyre, Malawi
    PLoS ONE 6:e17765. 2011
    ..To document trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in a central hospital in Malawi during the period of national scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis...
  44. ncbi Global status of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: evidence, policies, and introductions
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:236-41. 2010
    ..This study reviews the status of vaccine use globally and the evidence base that supports policy recommendations for use of these vaccines in children...
  45. pmc Influenza enhances susceptibility to natural acquisition of and disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in ferrets
    Jonathan A McCullers
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1287-95. 2010
    ..Overall, these data argue that the relationship between respiratory viral infections, acquisition of pneumococci, and development of disease in humans needs further study to be better understood...
  46. pmc Interleukin-17A mediates acquired immunity to pneumococcal colonization
    Ying Jie Lu
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000159. 2008
    ..We conclude that IL-17A mediates pneumococcal immunity in mice and probably in humans; its elicitation in vitro could help in the development of candidate pneumococcal vaccines...
  47. ncbi Efficacy of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against acute otitis media
    J Eskola
    National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    N Engl J Med 344:403-9. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: The heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine is safe and efficacious in the prevention of acute otitis media caused by the serotypes included in the vaccine...
  48. pmc Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000476. 2009
    ....
  49. pmc Switch from planktonic to sessile life: a major event in pneumococcal pathogenesis
    Marco R Oggioni
    Laboratorio di Microbiologia Molecolare e Biotecnologia, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena, Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 61:1196-210. 2006
    ..During bacteraemic sepsis pneumococci resemble planktonic growth, while during tissue infection, such as pneumonia or meningitis, pneumococci are in a biofilm-like state...
  50. pmc Continued impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on carriage in young children
    Susan S Huang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA 92868, USA
    Pediatrics 124:e1-11. 2009
    ....
  51. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 46:807-14. 2008
    ..To prepare for national introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants...
  52. pmc The prevalence and risk factors for pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx among children in Kilifi District, Kenya
    Osman Abdullahi
    Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 7:e30787. 2012
    ..We studied the epidemiology of carriage among children 3-59 months old before vaccine introduction in Kilifi, Kenya...
  53. ncbi A multilocus sequence typing scheme for Streptococcus pneumoniae: identification of clones associated with serious invasive disease
    M C Enright
    Wellcome Trust Centre for the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Microbiology 144:3049-60. 1998
    ..A Web site for the molecular characterization of pneumococci by MLST is available (http ://mlst.zoo.ox.ac.uk)...
  54. ncbi Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among adult patients in barcelona before and after pediatric 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction, 1997-2007
    Carmen Ardanuy
    Microbiology Department, Institut d Investigacio Biomedica de Bellvitge, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain
    Clin Infect Dis 48:57-64. 2009
    ..Little is known about the incidence of IPD after PCV7 licensure in Europe. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of IPD among adults in the PCV7 era...
  55. ncbi A Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity island encoding an ABC transporter involved in iron uptake and virulence
    J S Brown
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
    Mol Microbiol 40:572-85. 2001
    ..This probable pathogenicity island (PPI-1) is the first to be described for S. pneumoniae, and its acquisition is likely to have played a significant role in the evolution of this important human pathogen...
  56. pmc Evidence that pneumococcal serotype replacement in Massachusetts following conjugate vaccination is now complete
    William P Hanage
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Epidemics 2:80-4. 2010
    ..For other serotypes, the future course of replacement disease remains to be determined...
  57. ncbi Safety, tolerability, and immunologic noninferiority of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine given with routine pediatric vaccinations in Germany
    Dorothee M Kieninger
    Arztin für Kinder und Jugendmedizin, Zentrum für Kinder und Jugendmedizin der Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz KOR, Mainz, Germany
    Vaccine 28:4192-203. 2010
    ..Vaccines were comparable with regard to safety. PCV13 should be as effective as PCV7 in preventing pneumococcal disease caused by the common serotypes and may provide protection against the additional serotypes...
  58. pmc Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network
    L McGee
    MRC SAIMR Wits Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 39:2565-71. 2001
    ..This network can serve as a prototype for the collaboration of scientists in identifying clones of important human pathogens and as a model for the development of other networks...
  59. pmc Characterization of the genetic lineages responsible for pneumococcal invasive disease in Portugal
    I Serrano
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, Lisbon, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 43:1706-15. 2005
    ..This study provides a characterization of the pneumococcal population associated with invasive disease that will be useful for detecting potential selective effects of the novel conjugate vaccine...
  60. pmc Community-based outbreaks in vulnerable populations of invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 5 and 8 in Calgary, Canada
    Otto G Vanderkooi
    University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
    PLoS ONE 6:e28547. 2011
    ..Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically occur within institutions. Beginning in 2005, we detected an increase in serotype (ST) 5 and ST8 IPD cases, predominantly in homeless persons living in an open community...
  61. ncbi Impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on bacterial nasopharyngeal carriage
    Roman Prymula
    Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    Vaccine 29:1959-67. 2011
    ..Primary and booster vaccination with PHiD-CV reduced NPC of VT in the second year of life and tended to slightly increase that of NVT in line with previous experience with the 7-valent PCV...
  62. ncbi Population snapshot of emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in the United States, 2005
    Matthew R Moore
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1016-27. 2008
    ..To understand this increase, we characterized serotype 19A isolates recovered during 2005...
  63. pmc Clonal evolution leading to maintenance of antibiotic resistance rates among colonizing Pneumococci in the PCV7 era in Portugal
    Alexandra S Simões
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Rua da Quinta Grande, 6, Oeiras, 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2810-7. 2011
    ..In the era of PCVs, antimicrobial resistance remains a problem among the carried pneumococci. Continuous surveillance is warranted to evaluate serotype and clonal shifts leading to maintenance of antimicrobial resistance...
  64. ncbi The effect of routine vaccination on invasive pneumococcal infections in Canadian children, Immunization Monitoring Program, Active 2000-2007
    Julie A Bettinger
    Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Vaccine 28:2130-6. 2010
    ..Cefotaxime/ceftriaxone resistance remained unchanged at 2% of isolates annually. Universal pneumococcal conjugate infant immunization programs have dramatically decreased cases of invasive pneumococcal disease...
  65. pmc 7-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales: is it still beneficial despite high levels of serotype replacement?
    Yoon Hong Choi
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e26190. 2011
    ..However, recent surveillance data show a more rapid replacement of PCV7 IPD cases by non-PCV7 IPD cases than was seen in the US...
  66. pmc FcgammaRIIb balances efficient pathogen clearance and the cytokine-mediated consequences of sepsis
    Menna R Clatworthy
    The Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, CB2 2XY, UK
    J Exp Med 199:717-23. 2004
    ..We propose that FcgammaRIIb controls the balance between efficient pathogen clearance and the cytokine-mediated consequences of sepsis, with potential therapeutic implications...
  67. pmc Carried pneumococci in Massachusetts children: the contribution of clonal expansion and serotype switching
    William P Hanage
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:302-8. 2011
    ..Vaccination against 7 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae has led to the near extinction of vaccine serotypes in both disease and asymptomatic carriage. In carriage, vaccine serotypes have been replaced by nonvaccine serotypes...
  68. pmc T(H)17-based vaccine design for prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization
    Kristin L Moffitt
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, MA 02115, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:158-65. 2011
    ..protein-based pneumococcal vaccine offers a major advancement for preventing life-threatening pneumococcal infections, particularly in developing nations...
  69. ncbi Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococcal serotype 19A strains
    Elske J M van Gils
    University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 304:1099-106. 2010
    ..Because spontaneous fluctuations in time and antibiotic selective pressure may have induced this serotype 19A increase, controlled studies are needed to assess the role of PCV-7...
  70. ncbi Immunization of humans with recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A (rPspA) elicits antibodies that passively protect mice from fatal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae bearing heterologous PspA
    D E Briles
    Departments of Microbiology and Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:1694-701. 2000
    ..pneumoniae expressing either family 1 or 2 PspAs and with strains of all 3 capsular types tested: 3, 6A, and 6B. These studies suggest that PspA may have efficacy as a human vaccine...
  71. pmc Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in Europe
    Nienke van de Sande-Bruinsma
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1722-30. 2008
    ..Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe...
  72. ncbi Pattern of accessory regions and invasive disease potential in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    C Blomberg
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden
    J Infect Dis 199:1032-42. 2009
    ..The invasive disease potential (IDP) of Streptococcus pneumoniae differs between serotypes, but the reason for this is unknown...
  73. ncbi Antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing rural Malawian children
    Daniel R Feikin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PHS DHHS, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:564-7. 2003
    ..Forty-three percent of isolates were serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and 37% were vaccine-related serotypes, particularly 6A and 19A...
  74. ncbi The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor translocates pneumococci across human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells
    J R Zhang
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Cell 102:827-37. 2000
    ..These results suggest that pneumococci are a novel example of a pathogen co-opting the pIg transcytosis machinery to promote translocation across a mucosal barrier...
  75. ncbi Effectiveness of the new serotypes in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Elizabeth Miller
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Services, Colindale, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 29:9127-31. 2011
    ..VE for serotypes 1 and 3 was 62% and 66% respectively although confidence intervals spanned zero. IPD due to PCV13-only serotypes halved in children under 2 years in the study period...
  76. ncbi Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Canada, 1998-2007: update from the Calgary-area Streptococcus pneumoniae research (CASPER) study
    James D Kellner
    University of Calgary, Alberta Children s Hospital, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 49:205-12. 2009
    ..Routine infant vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) began in the Calgary Health Region (Alberta, Canada) in 2002. We measured the impact of this vaccine program on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)...
  77. pmc Effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2 years after its introduction, the Netherlands
    Gerwin D Rodenburg
    Wilhelmina Children s Hospital University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:816-23. 2010
    ..IPD rates did not change for other age groups. In the Netherlands, PCV-7 offered high protection against vaccine-serotype IPD in vaccinated children, but increases of non-vaccine-serotype IPD reduced net vaccine benefits...
  78. pmc Role of conjugative elements in the evolution of the multidrug-resistant pandemic clone Streptococcus pneumoniaeSpain23F ST81
    Nicholas J Croucher
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:1480-9. 2009
    ..was among the first recognized pandemic clones and was responsible for almost 40% of penicillin-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States in the late 1990s...
  79. ncbi Clonal and capsular types decide whether pneumococci will act as a primary or opportunistic pathogen
    K Sjostrom
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden
    Clin Infect Dis 42:451-9. 2006
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The role of the different capsular and clonal types in invasive disease severity remains to be defined...
  80. pmc Evaluation of a medium (STGG) for transport and optimal recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions collected during field studies
    K L O'Brien
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1021-4. 2001
    ..Recovery of pneumococci after storage of NP material in STGG medium at -70 degrees C is at least as good as that from direct plating. Storage at -20 degrees C is also acceptable. Storage at 4 degrees C for 5 days is not ideal...
  81. pmc Plasminogen- and fibronectin-binding protein B is involved in the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human epithelial cells
    Salvatore Papasergi
    Elie Metchnikoff Department, Universita di Messina, Messina I 98125, Italy
    J Biol Chem 285:7517-24. 2010
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that, by directly interacting with fibronectin, PfbB significantly increases the ability of S. pneumoniae to adhere to human epithelial cells...
  82. pmc Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in children, South Korea
    Eun Hwa Choi
    Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:275-81. 2008
    ..005 for trend). This study demonstrates that the expansion of multidrug-resistant ST320 was responsible for the increase in serotype 19A before PCV7 use...
  83. pmc Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults
    James P Watt
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 N Washington St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4974-6. 2004
    ..Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults...
  84. pmc Multiple colonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
    Silvio D Brugger
    Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e11638. 2010
    ..We studied the epidemiology of cocolonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7)...
  85. pmc New patterns in the otopathogens causing acute otitis media six to eight years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Janet R Casey
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:304-9. 2010
    ....
  86. pmc Dynamic models of pneumococcal carriage and the impact of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease
    Alessia Melegaro
    DONDENA Centre for Research on Social Dynamics, Bocconi University, Via Guglielmo Rontgen, Milan, Italy
    BMC Infect Dis 10:90. 2010
    ..However the long term effects of PCV are still unclear, as beneficial direct and herd immunity effects might be countered by serotype replacement...
  87. pmc Revisiting pneumococcal carriage by use of broth enrichment and PCR techniques for enhanced detection of carriage and serotypes
    Maria da Gloria Carvalho
    Streptococcus Laboratory, Respiratory Disease Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop C02, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1611-8. 2010
    ..A PCR-based approach that employed a broth enrichment step appeared to best enhance the detection of mixed serotypes and low-density pneumococcal carriage...
  88. ncbi Invasive disease and paediatric carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ghana
    Eric S Donkor
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
    Scand J Infect Dis 42:254-9. 2010
    ..The high multiple drug resistance of the organism observed heightens the public health burden, which may be controlled by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to a large extent...
  89. ncbi Community-wide vaccination with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate significantly alters the microbiology of acute otitis media
    Stan L Block
    Kentucky Pediatric Research, Inc, Bardstown, KY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:829-33. 2004
    ....
  90. ncbi Changes in pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotypes carried by vaccinated and unvaccinated day-care centre attendees in Portugal, a country with widespread use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    R Sá-Leão
    Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:1002-7. 2009
    ..Rates of antibiotic resistance remained unchanged due to a balance between reduction in VT and an increase in antimicrobial-resistant NVT...
  91. ncbi Effect of reduced-dose schedules with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in children: a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 302:159-67. 2009
    ..The effects of reduced-dose schedules of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) on pneumococcal carriage in children are largely unknown, although highly relevant in the context of subsequent herd effects...
  92. ncbi Capsular serotype-specific attack rates and duration of carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a population of children
    Karen L Sleeman
    University Department of Paediatrics, Oxford Vaccine Group, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 194:682-8. 2006
    ....
  93. pmc The descriptive epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults in Kilifi district, Kenya
    Osman Abdullahi
    Wellcome Trust Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:59-64. 2008
    ..In East Africa we do not know how these pathogens are transmitted between population subgroups nor which serotypes circulate commonly...
  94. ncbi Post-PCV7 changes in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes in 16 Massachusetts communities, 2001 and 2004
    Susan S Huang
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Pediatrics 116:e408-13. 2005
    ..Analysis of colonizing serotypes among healthy children in the community provides critical data on such changes...
  95. pmc Identification of a Candidate Streptococcus pneumoniae core genome and regions of diversity correlated with invasive pneumococcal disease
    Caroline Obert
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Infect Immun 74:4766-77. 2006
    ..In conclusion, RDs are unequally distributed between invasive and noninvasive isolates, RD8a and RD10 are correlated with the propensity of an isolate to cause IPD, and PsrP is required for full virulence in mice...
  96. ncbi Safety and antibody response, including antibody persistence for 5 years, after primary vaccination or revaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and older adults
    Daniel M Musher
    Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:516-24. 2010
    ..This study assessed antibody levels for 5 years after primary vaccination or revaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PN23)...
  97. ncbi Impact of different case definitions for acute otitis media on the efficacy estimates of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Arto Palmu
    National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland Tampere School of Public Health, Tampere, Finland
    Vaccine 26:2466-70. 2008
    ..We were not able to show that the differences between the study results would be due to the case definitions used...
  98. ncbi Results of a cohort model analysis of the cost-effectiveness of routine immunization with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of those aged > or =65 years in the Netherlands
    Mark H Rozenbaum
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Clin Ther 32:1517-32. 2010
    ..Community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease are common among older people (ie, those aged > or =65 years). A new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) is under study in the Netherlands...
  99. pmc Effects of community-wide vaccination with PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in the Gambia: a cluster-randomized trial
    Anna Roca
    Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia
    PLoS Med 8:e1001107. 2011
    ..Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia...
  100. ncbi Changing serotypes causing childhood invasive pneumococcal disease: Massachusetts, 2001-2007
    Katherine K Hsu
    Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:289-93. 2010
    ..Statewide surveillance was begun in October 2001 to monitor incidence of invasive disease, serotypes causing disease, antimicrobial susceptibility, and risk features associated with ongoing childhood invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)...
  101. pmc Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia
    Sun Young Kim
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Center for Health Decision Science, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 10:260. 2010
    ..Our objective was to assess the potential impact of PCVs of different valences in The Gambia...

Research Grants63

  1. Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Infections
    Natalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The long-term goal of this proposal is the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial-induced ear infections. These infections are the most common illnesses in infants and young children. ..
  2. Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Infections
    Natalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Otitis media-associated pneumococcal genes
    Honggao Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mucosal inflammation and disease derived from pneumococcal infections are caused by high bacterial burden in the middle ear and other organs. Successful growth of S...
  4. Targeting Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in Otitis Media
    Honggao Yan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop diagnostic tools for otitis media (OM) and other pneumococcal infections and research tools for studying pneumococcal pathogenesis...
  5. Synthetic saccharides to study immunological properties of Streptococcus pneumoni
    Alexei V Demchenko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SPn6B may lead to a weak cross-protection against 6C and could result in an outbreak of 6C-derived pneumococcal infections, just as it previously occurred for serotype SPn19A...
  6. Cytokine-stimulated systemic defenses during pneumococcal pneumonia
    Joseph P Mizgerd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This new knowledge will guide further studies aiming to identify people who are especially susceptible and bacteria that are especially virulent, in order to better prevent and treat pneumococcal infections.
  7. Detection &Use of Novel Therapeutics to Stimulate NLRP3 Activity in the Elderly
    HEATHER WINONA STOUT-DELGADO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Influenza viral infections and secondary pneumococcal infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality involving approximately five million people worldwide, with the highest ..
  8. Elderly Immune Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide
    M A JULIA WESTERINK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Globally, pneumococcal infections have been estimated to cause 1.2 million deaths per year...
  9. Glucose regulation of bacterial virulence in diabetes and hyperglycemia
    JANET L YOTHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..useful and relevant model, as: 1) diabetes and other hyperglycemic conditions lead to increased risk from pneumococcal infections;2) glucose regulates the expression of virulence factors important in the transition of S...
  10. REGULATION OF PROTECTIVE HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE BY PD-1
    Karen M Haas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The knowledge gained from these studies may lead to improved vaccines that provide enhanced protection against pneumococcal infections currently threatening global public health.
  11. Impact of PCV on disease and colonization among Native American communities
    KATHERINE LOUISE O'BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pneumococcus has developed resistance to antibiotics making it increasingly difficult to treat pneumococcal infections. Within the United States some Native American groups, like the Navajo and the White Mountain Apache ..
  12. PENICILLIN RESPONSE GENES IN DRUG-RESISTANT PNEUMOCOCCI
    Alexander Tomasz; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..clones to spread over large geographic distances, to cause a high proportion of upper respiratory pneumococcal infections, and to extensively colonize healthy children...
  13. Colorado Emerging Infections Program
    Kenneth A Gershman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Core Surveillance (ABCs), including MRSA surveillance and supplemental surveillance for invasive pneumococcal infections in children 24-59 months of age;2) Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance (FoodNet), including completion ..
  14. Pneumococcal transmission in urban environments
    Joshua Metlay; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Critical to the successful implementation of prevention and treatment strategies for pneumococcal infections has been the availability of epidemiological data identifying high risk populations for infection as ..
  15. PROPHOLAXIS OF H. INFLUENZAE AND OTHER INFECTIONS
    Mathuram Santosham; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..There was also a suggestion that BPIG may protect against pneumococcal infections. There were not sufficient number of cases however, to draw firm conclusions, since majority of ..
  16. VACCINE EFFICACY IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE
    Thomas Adamkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. AGE ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN B LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION
    Subbarao Bondada; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens are important for protection against pneumococcal infections but are absent in neonates and are reduced in the aged...
  18. PNEUMOCOCCAL CELL SURFACE PROTECTION ELICITING MOLECULES
    LARRY MCDANIEL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    lt is well known that antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides can he highly protective against pneumococcal infections. Unfortunately, these polysaccharides arc not immunogenic in young children and vaccines composed of them ..
  19. MUCOSAL DEFENSE BY IGA AGAINST S PNEUMONIAE
    Edward Janoff; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We propose to characterize the mechanisms of control of pneumococcal infections operative at the initial steps in their pathogenesis from nasopharyngeal colonization to aspiration into ..
  20. Characterization of a Novel Diagnostic Test for Pneumococcal Infection
    FRANCES EUN HYUNG LEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pneumoniae infection early in the illness at a time when management decisions are being considered would be a significant advance. This grant will study the antibody secreting cells as a novel test during acute pneumococcal infections.
  21. Role of RANTES in Pneumococcal Immunopathogenesis
    James Lillard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g., psaA-) and rough EF3030 strains. This study will provide important and new information regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that RANTES uses to induce protective immunity against pneumococci. ..
  22. COMPREHENSIVE SICKLE CELL CENTER
    Tim Townes; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..the effects of oxygen radicals in sickle cells disease (3) to develop better strategies for preventing pneumococcal infections by vaccination and (4) to elucidate the natural history and risk factors for development of chronic renal ..
  23. UAB/BVAMC Clinical Center in COPD
    Mark Dransfield; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..responsiveness to the pneumococcal vaccine with the long term goal of using this information to reduce pneumococcal infections and related exacerbations in COPD patients...
  24. PROTEIN-POLYSACCHARIDE PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATE VACCINES
    RONALD EBY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..that such a vaccine will reduce significantly the morbidity and mortality associated with invasive pneumococcal infections and also have a great impact on the morbidity and costs associated with otitis media in the infant ..
  25. Pneumococcal immunization through a novel mechanism
    Richard Malley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BACTERIAL PATHOGENESIS
    David Briles; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The MCBP advisory committee will advise the trainees in their research and training programs and in their search for a job or postdoctoral position at the completion of their MCBP training. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Pneumolysin, Innate and Acquired Immunity to Pneumococci
    Richard Malley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The establishment of a link between the innate and the acquired arm of the immune response to pneumococcus may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms by which immunity to pneumococcus is acquired. ..
  28. PREVENTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV INFECTION
    MARY MCELLISTREM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..All patients who exhibit a greater that 3-fold transient rise in HIV-1 RNA levels 2 and 4 weeks postimmunization will be evaluated by Fisher's Exact and McNemar's Tests. ..
  29. Epidemiologic Methods: Resistant Nosocomial Infections
    Marc Lipsitch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This will in turn lead to better practices to reduce the incidence of ARNI. ..
  30. Optimal Strategies for PID Prevention and Management
    Kenneth Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. In Vivo Virulence Gene Expression in Acute Otitis Media
    Ha Sheng Li Korotky; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The information gained from this study holds a promise for clinical molecular diagnostics and therapy by targeted gene interruptions of virulence. ..
  32. Appropriate Pneumococcal Vaccination in Infants in Fiji
    Fiona Russell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of this study will form the basis of an effectiveness evaluation following the pilot introduction of pneumococcal immunization into Fiji in 3-5 years time. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Competition Among Bacterial Resiratory Pathogens
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Future strategies to decrease disease burden by reducing carriage could result from a greater understanding of interactions between species. ..
  34. CONTROL OF AUTOLYSIS IN PNEUMOCOCCI
    Elaine Tuomanen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. BACTERIAL PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE AND PATHOGENESIS
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 3 will determine the effects of the immune response to ChoP on colonization, where our findings demonstrate that expression of ChoP is most important to pathogenesis. ..
  36. B7 COSTIMULATION RESPONSE TO EXTRACELLULAR BACTERIA
    CLIFFORD SNAPPER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These experiments will provide insight into the mechanism of why B7-1 vs. B7-2 blockade differentially influences the R36A response. ..
  37. DENDRITIC AND T CELLS IN ANTI-BACTERIAL lg RESPONSES
    Clifford M Snapper; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF THE HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE
    CLIFFORD SNAPPER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will elucidate key parameters that underlie the molecular basis of Ig switching. ..
  39. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and old adults
    MOON NAHM; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..with completely human reagents, and by measuring the capacity of the immune sera to protect mice against pneumococcal infections;1b) by analyzing the sera from a previous study of 5-valent PCV to determine the opsonic capacities and ..
  40. Neonatal Immunization with Acellular Pertussis Vaccines
    Natasha Halasa; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  41. Genetic and Environmental Factors in PCV7 Vaccine Effect
    Barbara Mahon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Mahon's capability to independently extend this research to address genetic issues in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases ..
  42. co-Trimoxazole in Zambian Infants (TZI)
    CHRISTOPHER GILL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. Using MEPS Data to Inform Public-Plan Consumerism
    Matthew Davis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Findings will have immediate relevance for implementation of the HOA projects and other consumerism efforts. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Novel Targets for Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Philip Lister; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Rural Trial of Clinic Order Entry with Decision Support
    Matthew Samore; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The cost impact of the intervention will be measured to allow a comprehensive assessment of the value of this HIT. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. Healthy Homes & Community for High Point Families
    James Krieger; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Throughout these activities, the project will support the capacity of residents to assess, understand and address environmental issues affecting High Point in order to become empowered to act on them. ..
  47. New Methods for Evaluating Interobserver Agreement
    Michael Haber; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Existing and new agreement indices will be compared and linked. All the proposed methods will be applied to real data sets from the behavioral and biomedical sciences. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. Immunology and Microbial Disease Training Grant
    DENNIS METZGER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  49. Center for Clinical and Translational Science Advancement at Emory
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    MAMIE COATS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will help physicians predict which S. pneumoniae infections will progress to become HUS and avoid practices that exacerbate HUS. ..
  51. Recommendations of Inpatient Geriatrics Consultation
    Michael Weiner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  52. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF BACTERIAL HYALURONATE LYASE ENZYME
    MARK JEDRZEJAS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results will enhance our knowledge about mechanisms involved in the action of the enzyme and in the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae bacteria. ..
  53. Envirnomental Health Specialist Network
    RICHARD NORMAN DANILA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Host Genetic Factors in the HIV Virus Life-Cycle and HIV Disease Progression
    Jairam Lingappa; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. 'Lyme disease: A possible test for cure
    MARIO PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Cure of LD will be assessed objectively (by culture and PCR) both in rhesus monkeys (chronic LD) and in mice (acute LD). Correlation between LD cure and anti-C6 Ab titers will be evaluated. ..
  56. Subglottic Stenosis and Laryngotracheal Mucosal Healing
    PATRICIA HEBDA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  57. Individualized Interventions to Improve Asthma Adherence
    Andrea Apter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of PS. ..
  58. Genotypes of Helicobacter Pylori in West Africa
    Richard Adegbola; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..pylori colonization in West Africa differ from those seen in industrialized nations, and enable the development of appropriate treatment strategies for communities such as The Gambia. ..
  59. Molecular bssis of mef-mediated antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    David S Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pneumoniae. ..
  60. Healthy Homes II: Environmental/Clinical Asthma Control
    James Krieger; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  61. CELL TO CELL SIGNALING IN MYCOBACTERIA
    MOSES LUTAAKOME JOLOBA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This will enrich our knowledge on mycobacterial biology and may reveal novel drug and vaccine targets. ..
  62. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of Novel Strategies to Reduce Inapprop
    JOSHUA P contact METLAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  63. True prevalence of pre-existing reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance in tre
    Rafael Campo; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Most importantly, unrecognized resistance might impair the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, and its timely identification could lead to better treatment outcomes. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..