- The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases
Jonathan R Carapetis
Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Lancet Infect Dis 5:685-94. 2005
..On a global scale, GAS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. These data emphasise the need to reinforce current control strategies, develop new primary prevention strategies, and collect better data from developing countries...
- Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease--revised guidelines from CDC, 2010
Jennifer R Verani
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, MS C 23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
MMWR Recomm Rep 59:1-36. 2010
..In the absence of a licensed GBS vaccine, universal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis continue to be the cornerstones of early-onset GBS disease prevention...
- Group B streptococcal disease in infants aged younger than 3 months: systematic review and meta-analysis
Karen M Edmond
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Lancet 379:547-56. 2012
..However, estimates of disease burden in many countries outside of these regions is not available. We aimed to examine the current global burden of invasive disease and the serotype distribution of group B streptococcus isolates...
- Genetic basis for the beta-haemolytic/cytolytic activity of group B Streptococcus
C A Pritzlaff
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0672, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Mol Microbiol 39:236-47. 2001
..coli. We conclude that cylE probably represents the structural gene for the GBS haemolysin/cytolysin, a novel bacterial toxin...
- Molecular insight into invasive group A streptococcal disease
Jason N Cole
Department of Pediatrics, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, 92093 0687, USA
Nat Rev Microbiol 9:724-36. 2011
..Understanding the molecular basis and mechanism of initiation for streptococcal invasive disease may expedite the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment and control of severe invasive GAS diseases...
- Group B streptococcal infections in elderly adults
Morven S Edwards
Section of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Clin Infect Dis 41:839-47. 2005
..The safety and immunogenicity of GBS serotype V-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy elderly persons suggest the potential for vaccination as an approach to prevention of invasive GBS infections in elderly persons...
- Increasing burden of invasive group B streptococcal disease in nonpregnant adults, 1990-2007
Tami H Skoff
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Clin Infect Dis 49:85-92. 2009
..We used population-based surveillance to examine trends in adult GBS disease during the period 1990-2007 and to describe the epidemiology of adult GBS disease to guide prevention efforts...
- A multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme for Streptococcus agalactiae genotyping
Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, UFR de Medecine, EA 3854 Bactéries et risque materno fœtal, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 136 Agents Transmissibles et Infectiologie, Tours, France
BMC Microbiol 11:171. 2011
..We describe here a genotyping method based on multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) applied to a population of S. agalactiae strains of various origins characterized by MLST and serotyping...
- Rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance in the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis
Matthew T G Holden
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 4:e6072. 2009
..suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood...
- SalK/SalR, a two-component signal transduction system, is essential for full virulence of highly invasive Streptococcus suis serotype 2
Department of Microbiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
PLoS ONE 3:e2080. 2008
..However, the molecular pathogenesis of this new emerging pathogen is still poorly understood...
- Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2
Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute for Medicine of Nanjing Command, Nanjing, China
PLoS Med 3:e151. 2006
- Streptococcus suis: a new emerging or an old neglected zoonotic pathogen?
Streptococcus suis Research Laboratory and International Reference Laboratory for S suis Serotyping, Departement de Pathologie et Microbiologie, Universite de Montreal, CP 5000, St Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada
Future Microbiol 5:371-91. 2010
..In this article we critically review the present knowledge on S. suis infection in humans, we discuss the hypotheses that may explain the 2005 outbreak and the repercussion of such an episode on the scientific community...
- Survey of the incidence and aetiology of mastitis on dairy farms in England and Wales
A J Bradley
School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford
Vet Rec 160:253-7. 2007
..Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-positive staphylococci together accounted for 10 per cent of the samples with high somatic cell counts; 39 per cent produced no bacterial growth...
- Rise and persistence of global M1T1 clone of Streptococcus pyogenes
Ramy K Aziz
Department of Microbiologyand Immunology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Emerg Infect Dis 14:1511-7. 2008
The resurgence of severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in the 1980s is a typical example of the reemergence of an infectious disease...
- Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Infectious Diseases Society of America
Alan L Bisno
Department of Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL 33125, USA
Clin Infect Dis 35:113-25. 2002
- Extracellular deoxyribonuclease made by group A Streptococcus assists pathogenesis by enhancing evasion of the innate immune response
Center for Human Bacterial Pathogenesis Research, Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1679-84. 2005
..We conclude that extracellular DNase activity made by GAS contributes to disease progression, thereby resolving a long-standing question in bacterial pathogenesis research...
- Streptococcus suis infections in humans: the Chinese experience and the situation in North America
Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie Porcine CRIP, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, 3200 rue Sicotte, St Hyacinthe, Quebec, J2S 2M2, Canada
Anim Health Res Rev 8:29-45. 2007
..Here, we review the epidemiological, clinical and immunopathological features of S. suis infection in humans...
- Variation in the group B Streptococcus CsrRS regulon and effects on pathogenicity
Sheng Mei Jiang
Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Bacteriol 190:1956-65. 2008
..Such variation is likely to play an important role in strain-specific adaptation of GBS to particular host environments and pathogenic potential in susceptible hosts...
- GI-type T4SS-mediated horizontal transfer of the 89K pathogenicity island in epidemic Streptococcus suis serotype 2
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Mol Microbiol 79:1670-83. 2011
..This is the first demonstration of horizontal transfer of a Gram-positive PAI mediated by a GI-type T4SS. We propose that these genetic events are important in the emergence, pathogenesis and persistence of epidemic S. suis 2 strains...
- Sword and shield: linked group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin and carotenoid pigment function to subvert host phagocyte defense
George Y Liu
Department of Pediatrics, The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14491-6. 2004
..Together, these data suggest a mechanism by which the linked cylE-encoded phenotypes, betaH/C (sword) and carotenoid (shield), act in partnership to thwart the immune phagocytic defenses...
- M protein, a classical bacterial virulence determinant, forms complexes with fibrinogen that induce vascular leakage
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University, Tornavagen 10, S 221 84 Lund, Sweden
Cell 116:367-79. 2004
..In addition, M protein/fibrinogen complexes were identified in tissue biopsies from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis and STSS, further underlining the pathogenic significance of such complexes in severe streptococcal infections.
- Plasminogen is a critical host pathogenicity factor for group A streptococcal infection
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Science 305:1283-6. 2004
..In addition, local fibrin clot formation may be implicated in host defense against microbial pathogens...
- Quorum sensing and biofilm formation in Streptococcal infections
Dennis G Cvitkovitch
Room 449A, Dental Research Institute, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1G6, Canada
J Clin Invest 112:1626-32. 2003
..These quorum-sensing systems are primarily made of small soluble signal peptides that are detected by neighboring cells via a histidine kinase/response regulator pair...
- Superantigen gene profile diversity among clinical group A streptococcal isolates
Biomedical Laboratory Science, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 54:236-44. 2008
..The 22 smeZ alleles were generally linked to the emm-genotype. The results of the investigation show that superantigen gene profiling is useful for tracking spread of clones in the community...
- Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Stanford T Shulman
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ann and Robert H Lurie Children s Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Clin Infect Dis 55:1279-82. 2012
..Penicillin or amoxicillin remain the treatments of choice, and recommendations are made for the penicillin-allergic patient, which now include clindamycin...
- Getting under the skin: the immunopathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes deep tissue infections
Karolinska Institutet, Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
Clin Infect Dis 51:58-65. 2010
..We review here the host-pathogen interactions in the tissue milieu and discuss the use of intravenous immunoglobulin as potential adjunctive therapy in these life-threatening infections...
- M1T1 group A streptococcal pili promote epithelial colonization but diminish systemic virulence through neutrophil extracellular entrapment
Laura E Crotty Alexander
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
J Mol Med (Berl) 88:371-81. 2010
- The epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infection and potential vaccine implications: United States, 2000-2004
Rosalyn E O'Loughlin
Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Clin Infect Dis 45:853-62. 2007
..We report the current epidemiologic characteristics of invasive GAS infections and estimate the potential impact of a multivalent GAS vaccine...
- Interactions between endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates and human endothelial cells
Institut fur Laboratoriums und Transfusionsmedizin, Herz und Diabeteszentrum Nordrhein Westfalen, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany
BMC Microbiol 10:78. 2010
..gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus endothelial infection. In addition, the strains were analyzed for the presence of the three virulence factors gtf, pilB, and fimB by PCR...
- Avian influenza virus, Streptococcus suis serotype 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and beyond: molecular epidemiology, ecology and the situation in China
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology CASPMI, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS, Beijing 100101, The People s Republic of China
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:2725-37. 2009
..All of these pathogens occur in Southeast Asia, including China, with severe consequences; therefore, we discuss the issues in this article by addressing the situation of the zoonotic threat in China...
- Highly frequent mutations in negative regulators of multiple virulence genes in group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome isolates
Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000832. 2010
..7%). The results of the present study suggest that mutations in the negative regulators csrS/csrR and rgg of S. pyogenes are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of STSS, as they lead to the overproduction of multiple virulence factors...
- Thermosensitive suicide vectors for gene replacement in Streptococcus suis
Molecular Bacteriology Section, National Institute of Animal Health, 3 1 5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 0856, Japan
Plasmid 46:140-8. 2001
..suis and other streptococci of veterinary importance by means of allelic exchange of the genes of interest via homologous recombination...
- Serotype IX, a Proposed New Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype
Hans Christian Slotved
Neisseria and Streptococcus Reference Laboratory, Department for Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
J Clin Microbiol 45:2929-36. 2007
..They all share the same, unique partial cps sequence. These results indicate that these eight isolates represent a new S. agalactiae serotype, which we propose should be designated serotype IX...
- Plasminogen binding by group A streptococcal isolates from a region of hyperendemicity for streptococcal skin infection and a high incidence of invasive infection
Fiona C McKay
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
Infect Immun 72:364-70. 2004
..Despite considerable amino acid sequence variation within the A1 repeat region of PAM where the plasminogen-binding domain maps, the critical lysine residue was conserved...
- Streptococcus suis: an emerging human pathogen
Heiman F L Wertheim
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, National Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hanoi, Vietnam
Clin Infect Dis 48:617-25. 2009
..Meningitis and sepsis are the most common clinical manifestations of S. suis infection; hearing loss is a frequent complication. In this article, we provide an overview of the emergence and clinical manifestations of S. suis infection...
- Mode of delivery and other maternal factors influence the acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in infants
Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010 4086, USA
J Dent Res 84:806-11. 2005
..Analysis of the data demonstrated the possible perinatal influences on infants' acquisition of a member of the cariogenic microbiota, and its potential effect on caries outcome...
- Multilocus sequence types associated with neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis and meningitis in Canada
Shannon D Manning
Department ofPediatrics and Human Development, Microbial Evolution Laboratory, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, E Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
J Clin Microbiol 47:1143-8. 2009
..Further research is required to better understand why strains belonging to the ST-17 phylogenetic lineage are more likely to cause both LOD and meningitis and may provide clues into the pathogenesis of these conditions...
- Evaluation of universal antenatal screening for group B streptococcus
Melissa K Van Dyke
Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
N Engl J Med 360:2626-36. 2009
..In 2002, national guidelines recommended universal late antenatal screening of pregnant women for colonization with group B streptococcus to identify candidates for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis...
- Molecular complexity of successive bacterial epidemics deconvoluted by comparative pathogenomics
Stephen B Beres
Department of Pathology, The Methodist Hospital, Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4371-6. 2010
..We conclude that enhanced understanding of bacterial epidemics requires a deep-sequencing, geographically centric, comparative pathogenomics strategy...
- Clinical and microbiological characteristics of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Lund University Hospital USIL, Lund, Sweden
J Clin Microbiol 47:1155-65. 2009
..pyogenes within Europe and encourages future surveillance by the notification of cases and the characterization of strains, which are important for vaccination strategies and other health care issues...
- Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of group B Streptococcus virulence
Heather C Maisey
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
Expert Rev Mol Med 10:e27. 2008
..An understanding of the complex interplay between Group B Streptococcus and host provides valuable insight into pathogen evolution and highlights molecular targets for therapeutic intervention...
- Comparative proteome analysis of secreted proteins of Streptococcus suis serotype 9 isolates from diseased and healthy pigs
Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Diagnostic and Immunology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, PR China
Microb Pathog 45:159-66. 2008
..These findings contribute to the understanding of SS9 pathogenic mechanisms...
- Dissection of the molecular basis for hypervirulence of an in vivo-selected phenotype of the widely disseminated M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus bacteria
Rita G Kansal
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38104, USA
J Infect Dis 201:855-65. 2010
..Correction of the covS mutation in AP bacteria reverted them back to the WT phenotype. Our data confirm that covS plays a direct role in regulating GAS virulence...
- Neutrophil-derived hyperresistinemia in severe acute streptococcal infections
Department of Medicine F59, Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
J Immunol 183:4047-54. 2009
..activation and degranulation as important contributors to disease pathology in invasive group A streptococcal infections has recently been emphasized...
- Molecular pathogenesis of neonatal group B streptococcal infection: no longer in its infancy
Kelly S Doran
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Mol Microbiol 54:23-31. 2004
..Appreciation of the formidable array of GBS virulence factors underscores why this bacterium remains at the forefront of neonatal pathogens...
- The cation-uptake regulators AdcR and Fur are necessary for full virulence of Streptococcus suis
Department de Genètica i Microbiologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Vet Microbiol 144:246-9. 2010
..Our data provide evidence that the adcR and fur genes play important roles in the oxidative stress response of S. suis as well as in the full virulence of this bacterium...
- A fibrinogen receptor from group B Streptococcus interacts with fibrinogen by repetitive units with novel ligand binding sites
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Ulm, Germany
Mol Microbiol 46:557-69. 2002
- Distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine and human hosts
Department of Food Science, 413 Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
J Clin Microbiol 43:5899-906. 2005
..agalactiae appears to include both clonal spread of resistant strains as well as horizontal gene transfer...
- Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
BMC Public Health 9:437. 2009
- Phylogenetic relationships among Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from piscine, dolphin, bovine and human sources: a dolphin and piscine lineage associated with a fish epidemic in Kuwait is also associated with human neonatal infections in Japan
Joyce J Evans
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Aquatic Animal Health Research Laboratories, Chestertown, MD 21620, USA
J Med Microbiol 57:1369-76. 2008
..Comparative genomics of piscine, human and bovine GBS could help clarify those genes important for host tropism, the emergence of unique pathogenic clones and whether these hosts act as reservoirs of one another's pathogenic lineages...
- Streptococcus australis meningitis
Departement de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire CHRU Brest, France
J Med Microbiol 60:1701-4. 2011
..We report a case of meningitis due to Streptococcus australis, a species of oral streptococcus. Accurate identification was performed by various molecular techniques...
- Invasive group B streptococcal infection in infants, Malawi
Katherine J Gray
Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Programme of Clinical Tropical Research, Blantyre, Malawi
Emerg Infect Dis 13:223-9. 2007
..Effective locally relevant prevention strategies are needed...
- Nosocomial spread of multidrug-resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility belonging to clonal complex 1
Department of Bacteriology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4 7 1 Musashi murayama, Tokyo 208 0011, Japan
J Antimicrob Chemother 67:849-56. 2012
..Multiple group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) were recovered from several patients, hence a probable nosocomial transmission of PRGBS in a hospital setting was suspected...
- Characterization and functional analysis of atl, a novel gene encoding autolysin in Streptococcus suis
Cun Xiang Ju
Key Lab of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China
J Bacteriol 194:1464-73. 2012
..It takes part in cell autolysis, separation of daughter cells, biofilm formation, fibronectin-binding activity, cell adhesion, and pathogenesis of HA9801...
- Streptococcus agalactiae in adults at Chiang Mai University Hospital: a retrospective study
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
BMC Infect Dis 11:149. 2011
..This study describes the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of S. agalactiae infection in adult patients in northern Thailand...
- Complete genome sequence and immunoproteomic analyses of the bacterial fish pathogen Streptococcus parauberis
Seong Won Nho
College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam 660 701, South Korea
J Bacteriol 193:3356-66. 2011
..The work also provides a better understanding of the physiology and evolution of a significant representative of the Streptococcaceae...
- Serine-rich repeat proteins and pili promote Streptococcus agalactiae colonization of the vaginal tract
Tamsin R Sheen
Department of Biology and Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
J Bacteriol 193:6834-42. 2011
..Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment...
- Multi high-throughput approach for highly selective identification of vaccine candidates: the Group A Streptococcus case
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Mol Cell Proteomics 11:M111.015693. 2012
..This approach may find general application as an accelerated and highly accurate path to bacterial vaccine discovery...
- Group B Streptococcus: global incidence and vaccine development
Atul Kumar Johri
School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
Nat Rev Microbiol 4:932-42. 2006
..This Review highlights efforts towards this goal and describes a template that can be followed to develop vaccines against other bacterial pathogens...
- Streptococcus iniae capsule impairs phagocytic clearance and contributes to virulence in fish
Jeffrey B Locke
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
J Bacteriol 189:1279-87. 2007
..In summary, we report a genetically defined study on the role of capsule in S. iniae virulence and provide preliminary analysis of S. iniae capsular polysaccharide sugar components...
- Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of group B streptococcal isolates in southern Brazil
Jussara K Palmeiro
Hospital de Clinicas, Departamento de Tocoginecologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
J Clin Microbiol 48:4397-403. 2010
..Furthermore, in a few cases, isolates from the same patients and possessing the same PFGE type were of different serotypes. These findings could be related to the occurrence of capsular switching by horizontal transfer of capsular genes...
- Group A Streptococcus emm gene types in pharyngeal isolates, Ontario, Canada, 2002-2010
Patrick R Shea
The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 17:2010-7. 2011
..We also discovered a striking increase in frequency of emm89 strains among isolates from patients with pharyngitis and invasive disease. These findings about the epidemiology of GAS are potentially useful for vaccine research...
- Distribution of pilus islands in Streptococcus agalactiae that cause human infections: insights into evolution and implication for vaccine development
E R Martins
Instituto de Microbiologia, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:313-6. 2013
..The stability and dominance of PI-1 and PI-2a in multiple serotypes and founder multilocus sequence types disseminated worldwide suggest it could be the PI combination present in ancestral GBS human pathogens...
- Invasive group a streptococcal disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management
Andrew C Steer
Centre for International Child Health, Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia
Drugs 72:1213-27. 2012
Invasive group A streptococcal infections are uncommon, although serious, infections with high case fatality rates...
- Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence
I Hsuan Lin
Institute of Biomedical Informatics, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
PLoS ONE 6:e20519. 2011
..gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops...
- Streptococcal mimicry and antibody-mediated cell signaling in the pathogenesis of Sydenham's chorea
Christine A Kirvan
California State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Sacramento, CA, USA
Autoimmunity 39:21-9. 2006
..A group of antibodies present in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS) were similar but not identical to the antibodies observed in chorea...
- The role of toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing, China
Vet Microbiol 156:147-56. 2012
..The data suggest that mechanisms of inflammation induced by S. suis strains differ where this will be useful in designing efficient strategies in combating streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome caused by the S. suis ST7 strains...
- Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus
Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, SE 751 89 Uppsala, Sweden
Vet Microbiol 124:219-29. 2007
..The real-time PCR system was found to be more sensitive than conventional cultivation as two additional field isolates of S. equi and four of S. zooepidemicus were detected...
- Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
B K Eriksson
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden
J Infect Dis 180:410-8. 1999
..Neutralization of SpeB was significantly lower in sera of patients with STSS than in sera from persons with bacteremia or erysipelas...
- The putative glycosyltransferase-encoding gene cylJ and the group B Streptococcus (GBS)-specific gene cylK modulate hemolysin production and virulence of GBS
Marie Pierre Forquin
Unité de Biologie des Bactéries Pathogènes à Gram Positif, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Infect Immun 75:2063-6. 2007
..cylJ, encoding a putative glycosyltransferase, and cylK, whose product is unknown, are both required for the full hemolytic/cytolytic activity, pigment formation, and virulence of GBS...
- Streptolysin O inhibits clathrin-dependent internalization of group A Streptococcus
Lauren K Logsdon
Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
MBio 2:e00332-10. 2011
..We conclude that SLO interferes with the internalization of GAS through local perturbation of the keratinocyte cell membrane and disruption of a clathrin-dependent uptake pathway...
- Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease in later life
Wendy E Hoy
Centre for Chronic Disease, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia
Kidney Int 81:1026-32. 2012
..Thus, PSGN contributes to the very serious burden of chronic kidney disease in this community. Rigorous strategies to prevent scabies and Group A streptococcal infections will reduce this burden.
- Isolation and characterization of alpha-enolase, a novel fibronectin-binding protein from Streptococcus suis
Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses du Porc GREMIP and Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie Porcine CRIP, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Microbiology 154:2668-79. 2008
- Streptococcus iniae: an aquatic pathogen of global veterinary significance and a challenging candidate for reliable vaccination
School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Vet Microbiol 122:1-15. 2007
..iniae and associated economic losses continue to increase, further work towards developing a reliable vaccine is essential. This would appear to require a much better understanding of cell-surface variability amongst S. iniae isolates...
- DNase Sda1 provides selection pressure for a switch to invasive group A streptococcal infection
Mark J Walker
School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
Nat Med 13:981-5. 2007
..The results provide a paradigm whereby natural selection exerted by the innate immune system generates hypervirulent bacterial variants with increased risk of systemic dissemination...
- Identification of novel LPXTG-linked surface proteins from Streptococcus gordonii
Julia R Davies
Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Odontology, Malmo University, Carl Gustavs väg 34, Malmö S 20506, Sweden
Microbiology 155:1977-88. 2009
..gordonii DL1 cell surface, the expression of which plays an important role in adhesion to epithelia and which represent likely candidates for novel virulence factors in S. gordonii...
- DNase Sda1 allows invasive M1T1 Group A Streptococcus to prevent TLR9-dependent recognition
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002736. 2012
..Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism of bacterial innate immune evasion based on autodegradation of CpG-rich DNA by a bacterial DNase...
- Virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of the infection caused by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis
Groupe de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses du Porc and Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie Porcine, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, 3200 rue Sicotte, CP5000, St Hyacinthe, Quebec, J2S 7C6, Canada
Future Microbiol 7:259-79. 2012
..suis infection has not yet been clearly established...
- Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes: prevalence, resistance determinants, and emm types
Athanasios G Michos
First Department of Pediatrics, Aghia Sophia Children s Hospital, Athens University, Greece
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 64:295-9. 2009
..8%), 12 (17.5%), 28 (13.8%). The observed antimicrobial resistance trends and the distribution of specific emm types have implications in guiding empiric therapy and in developing vaccine strategies to prevent GAS infections...
- Surveillance for hospital outbreaks of invasive group a streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada, 1992 to 2000
University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Ann Intern Med 147:234-41. 2007
..Streptococcus pyogenes can cause severe disease in the individual patient and dramatic hospital outbreaks...
- The human immune response to streptococcal extracellular antigens: clinical, diagnostic, and potential pathogenetic implications
Dwight R Johnson
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Clin Infect Dis 50:481-90. 2010
..Although the importance of immunologic confirmation of infection is widely accepted, the immediate and long-term immunokinetics of the human antibody response are incompletely documented and poorly understood...
- Novel clues on the specific association of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp gallolyticus with colorectal cancer
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
J Infect Dis 203:1101-9. 2011
..Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the virulence characteristics that distinguish this opportunistic pathogen from a panel of (closely related) intestinal bacteria...
- Immune activation and suppression by group B streptococcus in a murine model of urinary tract infection
Kimberly A Kline
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Infect Immun 79:3588-95. 2011
..These studies define several basic molecular and cellular events characterizing GBS UTI in an animal model, showing that GBS participates simultaneously in the activation and suppression of host immune responses in the urinary tract...
- Comparison of BD GeneOhm real-time polymerase chain reaction with chromogenic and conventional culture methods for detection of group B Streptococcus in clinical samples
Microbiology Department, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61:369-72. 2008
..5% versus 57% respectively, P < 0.02). After selective enrichment, 92.8% of GBS were isolated on chromID Strepto B compared with 89.2% isolated on sheep blood agar...
- Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates as determined by comparative genome hybridization
Astrid De Greeff
Infection Biology, Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR University and Research Centre, Edelhertweg 15, Lelystad, 8219 PH, The Netherlands
BMC Microbiol 11:161. 2011
..S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes...
- Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study
Ho Dang Trung Nghia
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
PLoS ONE 6:e17604. 2011
..Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease...
- The validity of a sore throat score in family practice
W J McIsaac
Family Medicine Centre, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ont
CMAJ 163:811-5. 2000
..The study also examined the potential impact of this clinical score on the prescribing of antibiotics in community-based family practice...
- Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus meningitis--a case report and review of the literature
D W Eyre
Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:1459-63. 2010
..Only 38% of patients made a complete recovery. Treatment regimes commonly included benzylpenicillin or a third-generation cephalosporin, with a mean treatment duration in survivors of 23 days...
- Burden of acute sore throat and group A streptococcal pharyngitis in school-aged children and their families in Australia
Margaret H Danchin
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Pediatrics 120:950-7. 2007
..The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, transmission, carriage, and risk factors for group A streptococcal pharyngitis in school-aged children and their families...
- Incidence and pathogenic effect of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae
Institute of Bacteriology, UPRES EA 3432, Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France
J Clin Microbiol 44:2240-1. 2006
..The pathogenic role of this organism was investigated with the mouse peritonitis/sepsis model. Our results show a low incidence (1/120 pneumococcal isolates) and a potential pathogenic effect for S. pseudopneumoniae...
- Highly penicillin-resistant multidrug-resistant pneumococcus-like strains colonizing children in Oeiras, Portugal: genomic characteristics and implications for surveillance
Alexandra S Simões
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras 2780 156, Portugal
J Clin Microbiol 48:238-46. 2010
..In our study, after correct identification of the penicillin-resistant true pneumococci, we found that penicillin resistance levels among pneumococci remained stable from 2003 to 2006...
- Diversity of group B streptococcus serotypes causing urinary tract infection in adults
Kimberly B Ulett
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
J Clin Microbiol 47:2055-60. 2009
..Erythromycin (39.5%) and clindamycin (26.4%) resistance was common. We conclude that a more diverse spectrum of GBS serotypes causes UTI than previously recognized, with the exception of nontypeable GBS...
- Group B streptococcus and early-onset sepsis in the era of maternal prophylaxis
Joyce M Koenig
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA
Pediatr Clin North Am 56:689-708, Table of Contents. 2009
..Modern technologies, such as those involving proteomics and genomic sequencing, are likely to hasten the development of a universal vaccine against GBS...
- In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from clinically healthy sows in China
College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
Vet Microbiol 131:386-92. 2008
..5% and 42.3%), ampicillin (4.0% and 29.9%) and ceftiofur (22.1% and 37.3%), respectively...
- Effects of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B on pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
J Formos Med Assoc 107:677-85. 2008
..Here, we review several publications and describe our current understanding of SpeB in GAS pathogenesis...
- Diversity and mobility of integrative and conjugative elements in bovine isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, and S. uberis
Unité Antibiorésistance et Virulence Bactériennes, Anses Lyon, 31 avenue Tony Garnier, F 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7957-65. 2010
..These ICEs could thus also be a vehicle for horizontal gene transfer between streptococci of animal and/or human origin...
- Response of swine spleen to Streptococcus suis infection revealed by transcription analysis
Unit of Animal Infectious Diseases, National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China
BMC Genomics 11:556. 2010
..Systematical information about host immune response to the infection is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of diseases...
- Clonal dissemination of human isolates of Streptococcus suis serotype 14 in Thailand
National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Tiwanon Road, Muang, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
J Med Microbiol 58:1508-13. 2009
..Because serotype 14 is becoming a more common cause of S. suis infections in humans, diagnostic tests for serotype 14 should be performed in South-East Asian countries...
- Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARgamma signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and
Kasey M Moyes
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, USA
BMC Genomics 10:542. 2009
..uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J...
- Streptococcus suis meningitis in adults in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai
Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Clin Infect Dis 46:659-67. 2008
..Streptococcus suis infection is an emerging zoonosis in Asia. We determined the detailed epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of S. suis meningitis in adults...
- Detection of large numbers of pneumococcal virulence genes in streptococci of the mitis group
Division of Infection and Immunity, University of Glasgow, B2 28, GBRC, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom
J Clin Microbiol 48:2762-9. 2010
..In contrast, the nanA gene sequences in the pneumococcus and streptococci from the mitis group are closely clustered together, sharing 99.4 to 99.7% sequence identity with pneumococcal nanA alleles...