rat bite fever
Summary: A syndrome characterized by recurring fever, rash, and arthralgias occurring days to weeks after a rat bite. The causative agents are either Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus.
- Streptobacillus moniliformis endocarditis: case report and reviewM E Rupp
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298 0049
Clin Infect Dis 14:769-72. 1992..Echocardiography demonstrated valvular vegetations in two of the four cases in which it was performed. Embolic phenomena are rare, and therapy with adequate doses of penicillin is usually curative...
- Rat-bite fever septic arthritis: illustrative case and literature reviewC Dendle
Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash Medical Centre, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25:791-7. 2006..The diagnosis should be considered when there is arthritis and a high synovial fluid cell count but no apparent organism, especially when the patient has had contact with rats...
- Rat bite fever and Streptobacillus moniliformisSean P Elliott
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 5073, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 20:13-22. 2007b>Rat bite fever, caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis, is a systemic illness classically characterized by fever, rigors, and polyarthralgias. If left untreated, it carries a mortality rate of 10%...
- A rare and serious consequence of a rat biteN D Downing
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Queen s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham, UK
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 83:279-80. 2001..with rat saliva or faeces can lead to infection with Streptobacillus moniliformis and the condition known as 'rat bite fever'...
- Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employeeSteve Shvartsblat
Department of Family Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA
Am J Ind Med 45:357-60. 2004b>Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population.
- Rat bite feverWim Gaastra
Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vet Microbiol 133:211-28. 2009b>Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S...
- Rat-bite fever (Streptobacillus moniliformis): a potential emerging diseaseM H Graves
State of California, Department of Health Services, Microbial Diseases Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94704, USA
Int J Infect Dis 5:151-5. 2001..To determine the relative prevalence of human infections attributable to Streptobacillus moniliformis in California over the past 3 decades...
- Rat bite fever without feverP Stehle
Department of Rheumatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Ann Rheum Dis 62:894-6. 2003b>Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite...
- Broad range polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of rat-bite fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformisC Berger
Division of Infectious Diseases, University Children s Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
Pediatr Infect Dis J 20:1181-2. 2001....
- Rat-bite fever in children: case report and reviewIfeoma C Ojukwu
Strong Children s Research Center, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York, USA
Scand J Infect Dis 34:474-7. 2002..Both responded promptly to antibiotic treatment. An additional 10 cases from a MEDLINE review (1960-2000) are reviewed. RBF must be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients with rashes and a history of exposure to rats...
- Rat bite fever: three case reports and a literature reviewLiane K Freels
University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 43:291-5. 2004
- Rat bite fever mimicking rheumatoid arthritisL Legout
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland
Scand J Infect Dis 37:532-3. 2005..The outcome was good after surgical debridment and rifampin-clindamycin combination during 4 weeks...
- Rat bite fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis in a child: human infection and rat carriage diagnosed by PCRJ M Andre
Service de Réanimation Pédiatrique, Hopital Debrousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69322 Lyon cedex 5, France
J Clin Pathol 58:1215-6. 2005..Streptobacillus moniliformis was identified after culture of the child's blister fluid and was detected in rat samples by molecular methods. Such detection in the pet of a human victim of rat bite fever has not been reported previously.
- Rat bite fever (Streptobacillus moniliformis) with septicemia in a childM Rygg
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital, Tromsø, Norway
Scand J Infect Dis 24:535-40. 1992..There was no history of rat bite. Her condition improved rapidly after treatment with penicillin and chloramphenicol, and she was discharged from hospital after 10 days without sequelae...
- Rat bite fever without the biteJ N Fordham
Department of Rheumatology, South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom
Ann Rheum Dis 51:411-2. 1992..The true diagnosis of rat bite fever due to Streptobacillus moniliformis was delayed because of difficulty in growing the organism, which has ..
- [Unexplained fever after exposure to rats: rat bite fever or Haverhill fever]Kim P G M Hurkens
Maastricht University Medical Centre, afd Algemene Interne Geneeskunde, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 154:A1365. 2010..caused by a Streptobacillus moniliformis infection, which led to the development of an illness called rat bite fever. S...
- Direct detection of indirect transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis rat bite fever infectionJoseph R Mackey
Department of Pediatrics, St Francis Medical Center, Peoria, Illinois, USA
J Clin Microbiol 52:2259-61. 2014....
- Streptobacillus moniliformis endocarditis: case report and review of literatureM Madhubashini
Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, 439 Cheran Nagar, Perumbakkam, Global Hospitals and Health City, Chennai 600100, Tamil Nadu, India Electronic address
Indian Heart J 65:442-6. 2013b>Rat bite fever is a rare infection and sometimes results in complications. This case report describes native mitral valve endocarditis in a 44-year-old male patient caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis...
- Septic arthritis and concern for osteomyelitis in a child with rat bite feverDustin D Flannery
Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware, USA
J Clin Microbiol 51:1987-9. 2013b>Rat bite fever is a rare infection usually caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. A case of septic arthritis and possible osteomyelitis as sequelae of rat bite fever in a pediatric patient is described.
- Rat bite fever: fever, arthritis, and rash in a 4-year-old boyBethany K H Lewis
Department of Dermatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
Pediatr Dermatol 29:767-8. 2012b>Rat bite fever is a rare but potentially fatal Gram-negative infection that predominantly affects populations with exposure to rats, notably children...
- The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growthAlan E Oestreich
Department of Radiology 5031, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
Skeletal Radiol 33:119-28. 2004..Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle.
- Rat bite fever in a pet loverB B Cunningham
Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA
J Am Acad Dermatol 38:330-2. 1998..Diagnosis was delayed because of difficulty in identifying the pathologic organism. She was successfully treated with 10 days of ceftriaxone...
- Rat bite fever as a presenting illness in a patient with AIDSR Chean
Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash Medical Centre, 246 Clayton Rd, Clayton, Vic, 3168, Australia
Infection 40:319-21. 2012..We describe the first case of septic arthritis due to the cause of rat bite fever (RBF), Streptobacillus moniliformis, confirmed by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, in a patient with newly ..
- Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis: a case of rat bite feverPo Lin Chen
Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, No 138, Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan
J Clin Microbiol 45:3125-6. 2007We report a case of rat bite fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis in Taiwan. It manifested as prosthetic valve endocarditis, which was cured by cardiac valve replacement and antimicrobial therapy...
- A teenager with fever, rash and arthritisSaif Albedwawi
Division of Infectious Diseases, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont
CMAJ 175:354. 2006
- Rat-bite fever: a cautionary taleRenukadas Sakalkale
Department of Medicine, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton
N Z Med J 120:U2545. 2007..He had been bitten by a rat a week earlier. Blood cultures grew Streptobacillus moniliformis, thus confirming the diagnosis. The literature on rat-bite fever is also reviewed...
- [Pet-rat bite fever and septic arthritis: molecular identification of Streptobacillus moniliformis]S Mignard
Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Chemin du Grand Revoyet, 69495 Pierre Benite, France
Med Mal Infect 37:293-4. 2007Pet-rat bite fever is a relatively rare disease consecutive to a rat bite or scratch. The authors report a case of septic arthritis following a pet rat bite...
- Rat-bite fever, CanadaMichael E Schachter
Emerg Infect Dis 12:1301-2. 2006
- A 26-year-old woman with a rash on her extremitiesRicha Tandon
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
Clin Infect Dis 43:1585-6, 1616-7. 2006
- Fulminant endocarditis caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis in a young manMarkus Kondruweit
Center of Cardiac Surgery, Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 134:1579-80. 2007
- Dogs as vectors of Streptobacillus moniliformis infection?Erik G H Wouters
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vet Microbiol 128:419-22. 2008b>Rat bite fever is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted through the bite of rats. One of the two etiological agents that cause rat bite fever is Streptobacillus moniliformis...
- The rise of the rats: A growing paediatric issueKarine Khatchadourian
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte Justine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec
Paediatr Child Health 15:131-4. 2010b>Rat bite fever (RBF), a systemic infection of Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus characterized by fever, arthralgias and petechial-purpuric rash on the extremities, carries a mortality rate of 7% to 10% if untreated...
- Rat bite fever, a fatal case of Streptobacillus moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old boyPriya Banerjee
Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland, 111 Penn St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
J Forensic Sci 56:531-3. 2011Streptobacillus moniliformis is the primary cause of rat bite fever in North America. Children under 12 years of age are primarily infected, presenting with an acute syndrome of fever, rash, and polyarthritis...
- Shell vial cell culture as a tool for Streptobacillus moniliformis "resuscitation"Severine Loridant
Unite de Recherche sur le Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, UMR 6236, Institut Federatif de Recherche 48, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France
Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:306-7. 2011..We describe here the first report of this disease in la Réunion and the first isolation using shell vial cell culture from a blood culture bottle with a bacterium suspected to be dead...
- A case of septic arthritis from rat-bite fever in Hawai'iJonathan Dworkin
University of Hawai i John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA
Hawaii Med J 69:65-7. 2010..Streptobacillus moniliformis is a zoonotic organism identified in the 20th century as the causative agent of most cases of rat bite fever outside of mainland Asia. There are no previously published cases of this pathogen in Hawai'i.
- North American zoonosesJay M Lieberman
Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano, California, USA
Pediatr Ann 38:193-8. 2009....
- [Clinical and epidemiological analysis of rat bites in Buenos Aires]Alfredo Seijo
Servicio de Zoonosis Hospital Francisco J Muñiz, Buenos Aires
Medicina (B Aires) 69:259-64. 2009..In 79% of the cases the rat bite was in the limbs and in 16% in the face. Five patients developed clinical manifestations of rat bite fever. We discuss the value of post exposition prophylaxis with antibiotics.
- Rat-bite fever identified by polymerase chain reaction detection of Streptobacillus moniliformis DNADaiki Nakagomi
Department of Dermatology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo shi, Yamanashi, Japan
J Dermatol 35:667-70. 2008..Although clinical symptoms initially remitted with minocycline therapy, they relapsed. Subsequent administration of piperacillin sodium resulted in complete disappearance of the high fever and arthralgia...
- [Animal bites and infection]N Boillat
Centre de maladies infectieuses et épidémiologie, Institut central des hôpitaux valaisans 86, avenue Grand Champsec, 1950, Sion
Rev Med Suisse 4:2149-52, 2154-5. 2008..The management of bite wounds includes prophylactic (antimicrobial prophylaxis, tetanus and rabies immunization) and therapeutic aspects (local treatment and antimicrobial therapy)...
- [What the practicing veterinarian should know about rat bite fever]Roland Abma
Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:668-70. 2008
- Isolation of Streptobacillus moniliformis from a pet ratNobuhito Hayashimoto
ICLAS Monitoring Center, Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Miyamae ku, Kanagawa, Japan
J Vet Med Sci 70:493-5. 2008..8%, respectively, to those of S. moniliformis in GenBank. Therefore, the isolate was identified as S. moniliformis. These results suggested the potential risk of rat-bite fever arising from pet rats in Japan...
- [Pathology of inoculation]Antoine Chaillon
Service de Medecine Interne et Maladies Infectieuses, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire, 37044 Tours
Rev Prat 58:213-21. 2008
- Detection of Streptobacillus spp. in feral rats by specific polymerase chain reactionMasanobu Kimura
Department of Veterinary Science, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
Microbiol Immunol 52:9-15. 2008..rattus (30/52). The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Streptobacillus spp. isolated from oral swabs of feral rats showed at least two different types of bacteria among isolates from R. norvegicus and R. rattus...
- Rat-bite fever presenting with rash and septic arthritisRajyani Kanechorn Na Ayuthaya
Department of Dermatology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
J Med Assoc Thai 88:S247-51. 2005..Here, the authors will provide details on the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management to aid prompt detection and treatment of the disease...
- Streptobacillus moniliformis: case report and review of the literatureJ Frans
Department of Microbiology, Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden, Leuven, Belgium
Acta Clin Belg 56:187-90. 2001Streptobacillus moniliformis is one of the causes of rat bite fever. The clinical and microbiological diagnosis of this rare infectious disease is often quite problematic...
- Streptobacillus moniliformis endocarditis in an HIV-positive patientT Rordorf
Dept of Medicine, Cantonal Hospital, Olten, Switzerland
Infection 28:393-4. 2000Streptobacillus moniliformis is the causative agent of rat bite fever, with endocarditis being a rare but well-documented complication. We report the case of an HIV-positive man who acquired S. moniliformis endocarditis through a rat bite...
- [Rat bite fever after a bite from a tame pet rat]B Schuurman
afd Interne Geneeskunde, Twee Stedenziekenhuis, Tilburg
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 142:2006-9. 1998..There was also severe arthralgia and asymmetric arthritis. The diagnosis was rat bite fever. The disease became manifest eight days after she was bitten by a pet rat...
- Streptobacillus moniliformis infection: 2 cases and a literature reviewL Hagelskjaer
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Viborg Hospital, Denmark
Scand J Infect Dis 30:309-11. 1998..One patient had a subcutaneous abscess requiring surgical treatment and the other streptobacillary rat bite fever. Streptobacillus moniliformis was isolated from pus and blood, respectively...
- [Rat-bite--an infant bitten by a rat]T Mathiasen
Børneafdelingen, Aalborg Sygehus Nord
Ugeskr Laeger 155:1475-6. 1993..She became seriously ill, but responded well to treatment with benzylpencillin. In the light of our case and previous publications, we recommend prophylactic penicillin to be given to infants after rat-bites...
- An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for monitoring rodent colonies for Streptobacillus moniliformis antibodiesR Boot
Department of Laboratory Animal Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Lab Anim 27:350-7. 1993..These studies and observations in naturally infected feral rats, confirmed that S. moniliformis is difficult to grow on primary isolation, and that the ELISA for S. moniliformis antibodies revealed more contaminated animals than culture...
- Streptobacillus moniliformis--a zoonotic pathogen. Taxonomic considerations, host species, diagnosis, therapy, geographical distributionM Wullenweber
Central Institute for Laboratory Animal Breeding, Dept Bacteriology and Hygiene, Hannover, Germany
Lab Anim 29:1-15. 1995....
- Rat-bite fever as a cause of septic arthritis: a diagnostic dilemmaR L Rumley
Section of Infectious Diseases, East Carolina University School of Medicine, Greenville, North Carolina 27858 4354
Ann Rheum Dis 46:793-5. 1987..The diagnosis was delayed, however, owing to the lack of an exposure history, atypical clinical presentation, and the unusual microbiologic characteristics shown by this organism...
- Rat-bite fever in a gerbil breederE G Wilkins
Public Health Laboratory, St Mary s Hospital, Portsmouth, U K
J Infect 16:177-80. 1988..A case of rat-bite fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis in a gerbil-breeder is described. Such a case has not been previously recorded...
- Fatal Streptobacillus moniliformis infection in a two-month-old infantM A Sens
Department of Pathology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston
Am J Clin Pathol 91:612-6. 1989..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the autopsy pathology findings of this agent...
- [Arthritis caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis: a case of fever induced by a rat bite]A Anglada
Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital General de Vic, Barcelona
Med Clin (Barc) 94:535-7. 1990..In our opinion, this is the first case of that condition reported in this country. We review the literature, and we insist on the need to inform the microbiologist of the clinical suspicion to achieve the etiological diagnosis...
- Rat bite fever in a Greek childK Konstantopoulos
Department of Medicine, Amaliada General Hospital, Greece
Scand J Infect Dis 24:531-3. 1992b>Rat bite fever was diagnosed in a 10-year-old boy in a rural area of south-west Greece...
- Rat bite fever: a case report of a KenyanK M Bhatt
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi
East Afr Med J 69:542-3. 1992b>Rat bite fever has not been reported from Kenya previously. A case of 17 year old Kenyan male who was diagnosed to have rat bite fever after a bite of domestic rat is described...
- [Rat-bite fever]N Grude
Telelab, Postboks 1868 Gulset, 3703 Skien
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 121:3057-8. 2001b>Rat bite fever and Haverhill fever are caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis which is part of the natural oral flora of rats and other rodents. Fever accompanied by headache, nausea and myalgia develops within ten days...
- Haverhill fever with spine involvementHani Abdulaziz
Division of Rheumatology, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
J Rheumatol 33:1409-10. 2006..Diagnosis can be particularly difficult in the absence of fever or obvious exposure to rodents, as in our case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the diagnosis of this potentially fatal infection, which is easily treatable...
- Rat-bite feverE van Nood
Department of Internal Medicine, Flevoziekenhuis, Almere, The Netherlands
Neth J Med 63:319-21. 2005..She possessed nine pet rats, and denied that she had been bitten. Blood culture was positive for Streptobacillus moniliformis, which can cause rat-bite fever. The patient fully recovered after treatment with clarithromycin...
- Spontaneous rat bite fever in non-human primates: a review of two casesC R Valverde
Department of Surgery and Radiology Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
J Med Primatol 31:345-9. 2002b>Rat bite fever is a worldwide zoonotic, non-reportable disease. This entity encompasses similar, yet distinct, disease syndromes caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus...
- Inappropriate footwear and rat-bite fever in an international travelerLiana Signorini
J Travel Med 9:275-6. 2002
- Suppurative polyarthritis following a rat biteB Yu Hor Thong
Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
Ann Rheum Dis 62:805-6. 2003
- Systemic vasculitis following an unreported rat biteR S Tattersall
Department of Rheumatology, Chesterfield and North Derbyshire Royal Hospital NHS Trust, UK
Ann Rheum Dis 62:605-6. 2003
- [Sodoku--a case report]S L Hinrichsen
Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 25:135-8. 1992..The organism was identified in darkfield examination of the ulcer exudate. Penicillin was the drug used with clinical improvement of symptoms...
- Human Tula virus infection or rat-bite fever?J Clement
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:332-3; author reply 334-5. 2003
- Bacteremia by Streptobacillus moniliformis: first case described in SpainL Torres
Department of Microbiology, Miguel Servet University Hospital, paseo Isabel la Catolica 1 3, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:258-60. 2003..Streptobacillus moniliformis was isolated in two sets of blood cultures. This case represents what is believed to be the first report of bacteremia due to Streptobacillus moniliformis in Spain...
- [Digital purpura revealing septicaemical rat-bite fever]V Georgescu
Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Porte Madeleine, CHR, 45032 Orleans
Ann Dermatol Venereol 129:1156-8. 2002..Infection with Streptobacillus moniliformis is an uncommon illness which can lead to death if untreated. We report the case in which initially cutaneous signs permitted diagnosis and further identification of the organism...
- A case of rat-bite feverD Kadan
Clinical School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Intern Med J 32:193-4. 2002
- PCR for the detection of Streptobacillus moniliformisR Boot
Section of Laboratory Animal Microbiology, Diagnostic Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Lab Anim 36:200-8. 2002..moniliformis is a Gram-negative bacterium found in various laboratory animal species and is the cause of rat bite fever and Haverhill fever in man...
- [Intermittent fever of infectious origin]Vincent Le Moing
Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales Hôpital Gui de Chauliac 34295 Montpellier
Rev Prat 52:139-44. 2002..Careful anamnesis and clinical examination as well as a few simple complementary investigations, preferably performed during a febrile episode, are often sufficient to set the limits of possible further more complex investigations...
- Streptobacillus moniliformis septic arthritis: a clinical entity distinct from rat-bite fever?Teresa K F Wang
Department of Microbiology, Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
BMC Infect Dis 7:56. 2007..Streptobacillus moniliformis is a zoonotic agent associated with rodent contacts. Although it is more commonly reported to cause rat-bite fever with reactive arthritides, it can also lead to pyogenic infection of the joints...