pseudomembranous enterocolitis

Summary

Summary: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
  2. ncbi Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1254-60. 2005
  3. pmc Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que
    CMAJ 173:1037-42. 2005
  4. ncbi A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use
    Carlene A Muto
    Division of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:273-80. 2005
  5. ncbi Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe
    E J Kuijper
    Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:2-18. 2006
  6. ncbi Development of a new PCR-ribotyping method for Clostridium difficile based on ribosomal RNA gene sequencing
    P Bidet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 175:261-6. 1999
  7. ncbi Measures to control and prevent Clostridium difficile infection
    Dale N Gerding
    Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S43-9. 2008
  8. pmc Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:409-15. 2006
  9. pmc Clostridium difficile infections in a Canadian tertiary care hospital before and during a regional epidemic associated with the BI/NAP1/027 strain
    Annie Claude Labbe
    Department of Microbiology, Hopital Maisonneuve Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3180-7. 2008
  10. pmc Prevalence of PCR ribotypes among Clostridium difficile isolates from pigs, calves, and other species
    Kevin Keel
    Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1963-4. 2007

Detail Information

Publications270 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
    ..We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those produced by non-epidemic strains...
  2. ncbi Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1254-60. 2005
    ..In 2003, a total of 55% of patients with CDAD at our hospital had received fluoroquinolones in the preceding 2 months. It has been suggested that massive use of proton pump inhibitors might have facilitated this epidemic...
  3. pmc Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que
    CMAJ 173:1037-42. 2005
    ..The effects of this epidemic on mortality and duration of hospital stay remain unknown. We measured these effects among patients admitted to a hospital in Quebec during 2003 and 2004...
  4. ncbi A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use
    Carlene A Muto
    Division of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:273-80. 2005
    ..difficile infections; of these, 26 resulted in colectomy and 18 resulted in death. We conducted an investigation of a large C. difficile outbreak in our hospital to identify risk factors and characterize the outbreak...
  5. ncbi Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe
    E J Kuijper
    Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:2-18. 2006
    ..Depending on the nature of the notifications received, countries should implement laboratory-based or patient-based surveillance systems in specific, targeted populations...
  6. ncbi Development of a new PCR-ribotyping method for Clostridium difficile based on ribosomal RNA gene sequencing
    P Bidet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 175:261-6. 1999
    ..This typing method has evidenced major qualities such as easiness, rapidity and reproducibility. However, its discriminatory power has to be evaluated to validate its importance as a typing tool for C. difficile...
  7. ncbi Measures to control and prevent Clostridium difficile infection
    Dale N Gerding
    Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S43-9. 2008
    ..The efficacy of metronidazole or vancomycin prophylaxis to prevent CDI in patients who are receiving other antimicrobials is unproven, and treatment with these agents is ineffective against C. difficile in asymptomatic carriers...
  8. pmc Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:409-15. 2006
    ..Clinicians should be aware of the increasing risk for CDAD and make efforts to control transmission of C. difficile and prevent disease...
  9. pmc Clostridium difficile infections in a Canadian tertiary care hospital before and during a regional epidemic associated with the BI/NAP1/027 strain
    Annie Claude Labbe
    Department of Microbiology, Hopital Maisonneuve Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3180-7. 2008
    ..Stringent antibiotic stewardship measures, combined with aggressive infection control, are required to curtail the epidemic of C. difficile infections...
  10. pmc Prevalence of PCR ribotypes among Clostridium difficile isolates from pigs, calves, and other species
    Kevin Keel
    Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1963-4. 2007
    ..Porcine isolates comprised four PCR ribotypes, but one, ribotype 078, predominated (83%). This was also the most common ribotype (94%) among 33 calf isolates but was rarely identified in other species...
  11. pmc Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for investigation of Clostridium difficile transmission in Hospitals
    Jane W Marsh
    Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Research Unit, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Medical Center, Division of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 865 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2558-66. 2006
    ..Thus, MLVA is an objective, portable genotyping method that permits reliable detection of C. difficile outbreaks and can aid epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial transmission...
  12. ncbi Clinical recognition and diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection
    John G Bartlett
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S12-8. 2008
    ..Often overlooked aspects of this diagnosis are high white blood cell counts (which are sometimes in the leukemoid range) and hypoalbuminemia...
  13. ncbi Secular trends in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile disease in the United States, 1987-2001
    Lennox K Archibald
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1585-9. 2004
    ..CDAD predominated in general hospitals versus other facility types, and rates were significantly higher during winter versus nonwinter months (P<.01). Thus, prevention efforts should be targeted to high-risk groups in these settings...
  14. ncbi European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): data review and recommendations for diagnosing Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI)
    M J T Crobach
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:1053-66. 2009
    ..This approach resulted in non-significant improvements, and emphasizes the need for better diagnostic tests. Further studies to validate the applicability of two-step testing, including assessment of clinical features, are required...
  15. pmc tcdC genotypes associated with severe TcdC truncation in an epidemic clone and other strains of Clostridium difficile
    Scott R Curry
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, PA 15261, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:215-21. 2007
    ..Further investigations are required to determine the effect of this and other tcdC genotypes on toxin production and clinical disease...
  16. ncbi Clostridium difficile: an important pathogen of food animals
    J Glenn Songer
    Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Anaerobe 12:1-4. 2006
    ..difficile alone, while an additional quarter of affected piglets may have had mixed infections. C. difficile may be the most important uncontrolled cause of neonatal diarrhea in pigs...
  17. ncbi Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals
    S Johnson
    Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Chicago Health Care System, Lakeside Division, and Northwestern University Medical School, IL 60611, USA
    N Engl J Med 341:1645-51. 1999
    ..Since frequent use of clindamycin was associated with the outbreak in one of the hospitals, we examined the resistance genes of the epidemic-strain isolates and studied the role of clindamycin use in these outbreaks...
  18. ncbi Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a plea for culture
    Michel Delmée
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Microbiology Unit, Avenue Hippocrate, 54 90, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Med Microbiol 54:187-91. 2005
    ....
  19. pmc Analysis of Clostridium difficile isolates from nosocomial outbreaks at three hospitals in diverse areas of Japan
    H Kato
    Department of Bacteriology, School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1391-5. 2001
    ....
  20. ncbi Increasing prevalence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis in hospitalized patients in the United States
    Rocco Ricciardi
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Arch Surg 142:624-31; discussion 631. 2007
    ....
  21. pmc Fulminant Clostridium difficile: an underappreciated and increasing cause of death and complications
    Ramsey M Dallal
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Ann Surg 235:363-72. 2002
    ..To review the epidemiology and characteristics of patients who died or underwent colectomy secondary to fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis...
  22. ncbi Proton pump inhibitor therapy is a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea
    K A Yearsley
    Department of Adult Medicine, Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, South Wales, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24:613-9. 2006
    ..Previous studies investigating a possible link between acid suppression therapy and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea have reported conflicting results...
  23. ncbi Recommendations for surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    L Clifford McDonald
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:140-5. 2007
    ..However, the understanding of the magnitude of and reasons for this change is currently hampered by the lack of standardized surveillance methods...
  24. ncbi Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1591-7. 2005
    ..Clinicians who treat patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in Quebec, Canada, have noted an apparent increase in the proportion of patients who experience relapse...
  25. ncbi Bacteremia with a large clostridial toxin-negative, binary toxin-positive strain of Clostridium difficile
    Briony Elliott
    Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia
    Anaerobe 15:249-51. 2009
    ..2-kb element unrelated to the PaLoc was found inserted within the PaLoc integration site. The clinical relevance of the isolate could not be determined...
  26. ncbi Epidemiological features of Clostridium difficile-associated disease among inpatients at children's hospitals in the United States, 2001-2006
    Jason Kim
    Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 122:1266-70. 2008
    ..Whether similar phenomena are occurring among children remains unknown. Our study describes the epidemiological features of C difficile-associated disease in hospitalized children...
  27. pmc Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078: an emerging strain in humans and in pigs?
    Abraham Goorhuis
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1157; author reply 1158. 2008
  28. ncbi Health care costs and mortality associated with nosocomial diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile
    Lorraine Kyne
    Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:346-53. 2002
    ..On the basis of the findings of this study, a conservative estimate of the cost of this disease in the United States exceeds $1.1 billion per year...
  29. ncbi Changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in children
    Lacey Benson
    Case Western School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:1233-5. 2007
    ..To determine temporal trends in the incidence rate for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in a pediatric patient population...
  30. ncbi Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: predictors of severity in patients presenting to the emergency department
    Christopher N Andrews
    Department of Medicine, St Paul s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver
    Can J Gastroenterol 17:369-73. 2003
    ..Experiences with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) were reviewed to determine predictors of severity in patients presenting from the community...
  31. ncbi Analysis of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile strains
    S H Cohen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious and Immunologic Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:659-63. 2000
    ..Further studies are needed to define the role of individual genes in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea...
  32. ncbi Rapid diagnosis of toxinogenic Clostridium difficile in faecal samples with internally controlled real-time PCR
    R J Van den Berg
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:184-6. 2006
    ....
  33. ncbi [A case of pseudomembranous enterocolitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]
    Kazue Fujita
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, Kawasaki Hospital
    Kansenshogaku Zasshi 78:905-9. 2004
    ..MRSA enterocolitis can occur in patients with antibiotic-related diarrhea, and physicians should be aware of its rapid clinical course and possible lethal outcome...
  34. ncbi Albumin, length of stay, and proton pump inhibitors: key factors in Clostridium difficile-associated disease in nursing home patients
    Farrah Ibrahim J Al-Tureihi
    Parker Jewish Institute for Health Care and Rehabilitation, New Hyde Park, NY 11040, USA
    J Am Med Dir Assoc 6:105-8. 2005
    ..To identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in nursing home patients...
  35. ncbi Narrative review: the new epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated enteric disease
    John G Bartlett
    Department of Medicine, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Ann Intern Med 145:758-64. 2006
    ....
  36. ncbi Relatively poor outcome after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis with metronidazole
    Daniel M Musher
    Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1586-90. 2005
    ..In recent years, the rate of response to treatment with this drug has appeared to be much lower...
  37. ncbi Clostridium difficile
    L Kyne
    Harvard Medical School, Gerontology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 30:753-77, ix-x. 2001
    ..Ultimately, active or passive immunization against C. difficile may be an effective means of controlling the growing problem of nosocomial C. difficile diarrhea and colitis...
  38. ncbi Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection amongst ICU and burn patients in Kuwait
    V O Rotimi
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, 13110 Safat, Kuwait
    Med Princ Pract 11:23-8. 2002
    ..To prospectively study the prevalence of nosocomially acquired Clostridium difficile, a major cause of diarrhoea in hospitalized patients, in the intensive care units (ICUs) and burn unit (BUs) of three teaching hospitals in Kuwait...
  39. pmc Increase in deaths related to enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile in the United States, 1999-2002
    Diane K Wysowski
    Public Health Rep 121:361-2. 2006
  40. ncbi Clostridium difficile colitis: an increasingly aggressive iatrogenic disease?
    Arden M Morris
    Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7183, USA
    Arch Surg 137:1096-100. 2002
    ..The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile colitis is increasing in frequency, with worsening patient outcomes...
  41. pmc Clostridium difficile colitis in patients after kidney and pancreas-kidney transplantation
    K Keven
    Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, MUH 7 South, 3459 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Transpl Infect Dis 6:10-4. 2004
    ..CDC should be considered as a diagnosis in transplant patients with history of diarrhea after antibiotic use, and should be treated aggressively before the infection becomes complicated...
  42. pmc Molecular analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 isolates from Eastern and Western Canada
    Duncan R MacCannell
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2147-52. 2006
    ..PCR ribotype 027 strains appear to be widely distributed, to predate the Montreal outbreak, and to have measurable community presence in Western Canada...
  43. pmc Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
    Daniel E Voth
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005
    ..Collectively, the present review provides a comprehensive update on TcdA and TcdB's mechanism of action as well as the role of these toxins in disease...
  44. ncbi Multilocus sequence analysis and comparative evolution of virulence-associated genes and housekeeping genes of Clostridium difficile
    Ludovic Lemee
    Groupe de Recherche sur les Antimicrobiens et les Micro organismes GRAM EA 2656, IFR 23, Universite de Rouen, Faculte de Medecine Pharmacie, F 76183 Rouen Cedex, France
    Microbiology 151:3171-80. 2005
    ..difficile, whereas flagellin, cwp66 and slpA genes may undergo recombination events and/or environmental selective pressure...
  45. pmc Characterization of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients in Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2006
    H Martin
    Department of Clinical Studies, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2999-3004. 2008
    ..8%) isolates. While a large number of ribotypes were found, a few predominated across the province. The high prevalence and wide distribution of ribotype 027/NAP1 are disconcerting in view of the severity of disease associated with it...
  46. ncbi The emerging infectious challenge of clostridium difficile-associated disease in Massachusetts hospitals: clinical and economic consequences
    Judith A O'Brien
    Caro Research Institute, Concord, MA, 01742, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:1219-27. 2007
    ..To estimate the clinical and economic burden of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in Massachusetts over 2 years...
  47. ncbi Historical perspectives on studies of Clostridium difficile and C. difficile infection
    John G Bartlett
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S4-11. 2008
    ..These concerns persist today...
  48. pmc Increase in Clostridium difficile-related mortality rates, United States, 1999-2004
    Matthew D Redelings
    Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1417-9. 2007
    ..7 per million population in 1999 to 23.7 per million in 2004. Increased rates may be due to emergence of a highly virulent strain of C. difficile. Rates were higher for whites than for other racial/ethnic groups...
  49. pmc Molecular analysis of the pathogenicity locus and polymorphism in the putative negative regulator of toxin production (TcdC) among Clostridium difficile clinical isolates
    Patrizia Spigaglia
    Laboratory of Bacteriology and Medical Mycology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3470-5. 2002
    ..It is possible that different TcdC variants affect toxin production differently, a hypothesis with important implications for the pathogenic potential of variant C. difficile strains...
  50. ncbi Colonization for the prevention of Clostridium difficile disease in hamsters
    Susan P Sambol
    Infectious Disease Section, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Chicago Health Care System, Lakeside Division, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1781-9. 2002
    ....
  51. pmc Typing and subtyping of Clostridium difficile isolates by using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis
    Renate J van den Berg
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1024-8. 2007
    ..MLVA is a highly discriminatory genotyping method and a new tool for subtyping of newly emerging variants of C. difficile...
  52. ncbi Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated infections
    F Barbut
    Research Group on Clostridium difficile, Center Hospitalo-Universitaire Saint-Antoine, , , Paris, France
    Clin Microbiol Infect 7:405-10. 2001
    ..C. difficile is a common cause of infectious diarrhea and should be therefore systematically investigated in patients with nosocomial diarrhea...
  53. ncbi Treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease: old therapies and new strategies
    Saima Aslam
    Medical Service Infectious Disease Section, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:549-57. 2005
    ..Hospital infection control and pertinent use of antibiotics can limit the spread of CDAD. A vaccine directed against C difficile toxin may eventually offer a solution to the CDAD problem...
  54. pmc Typing Clostridium difficile strains based on tandem repeat sequences
    N Henning Zaiss
    Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany
    BMC Microbiol 9:6. 2009
    ..Genotyping of epidemic Clostridium difficile strains is necessary to track their emergence and spread. Portability of genotyping data is desirable to facilitate inter-laboratory comparisons and epidemiological studies...
  55. pmc Increase in adult Clostridium difficile-related hospitalizations and case-fatality rate, United States, 2000-2005
    Marya D Zilberberg
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01032, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:929-31. 2008
    ..The incidence of adult CDAD hospitalizations doubled from 5.5 cases per 10,000 population in 2000 to 11.2 in 2005, and the CDAD-related age-adjusted case-fatality rate rose from 1.2% in 2000 to 2.2% in 2004...
  56. ncbi Clostridium difficile infection: a surgical disease in evolution
    Joshua L Hermsen
    Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin Madison College of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, H4 736 CSC, Madison, WI 53792 7375, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 12:1512-7. 2008
    ..However, such studies commonly lack denominators over which to index this rise. There is also concern in the literature that disease virulence is increasing...
  57. ncbi Gastrointestinal complications in the neutropenic patient: characterization and differentiation with abdominal CT
    Iain D C Kirkpatrick
    Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Health Sciences Centre, 820 Sherbrook St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3A 1R9
    Radiology 226:668-74. 2003
    ..To characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings of gastrointestinal complications in neutropenic patients and to identify CT features that can help differentiate these complications...
  58. ncbi A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile
    Sophia V Kazakova
    Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Arch Intern Med 166:2518-24. 2006
    ..We investigated this outbreak to determine risk factors and transmission settings...
  59. pmc Clostridium difficile ribotype 027, toxinotype III, the Netherlands
    Ed J Kuijper
    Department of Medical Microbiology, National Reference Library for Clostridium difficile, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:827-30. 2006
    ..One hospital experienced at the same time a second outbreak due to a toxin A-negative C. difficile PCR ribotype 017 toxinotype VIII strain. The outbreaks are difficult to control...
  60. ncbi Antimicrobial susceptibility of polymerase chain reaction ribotypes of Clostridium difficile commonly isolated from symptomatic hospital patients in the UK
    R John
    Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, NPHS Microbiology Cardiff, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK
    J Hosp Infect 61:11-4. 2005
    ..Resistance to these agents may have played a part in their selection as the most common strains of C. difficile found in UK hospitals...
  61. ncbi Impact of a reduction in the use of high-risk antibiotics on the course of an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated disease caused by the hypervirulent NAP1/027 strain
    Louis Valiquette
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 45:S112-21. 2007
    ..The inefficacy of infection control measures targeting transmission through hospital personnel might be a result of their implementation late in the epidemic, when the environment was heavily contaminated with spores...
  62. pmc Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat an
    George Killgore
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:431-7. 2008
    ..All techniques appear to be capable of detecting outbreak strains, but only REA and MLVA showed sufficient discrimination to distinguish strains from different outbreaks...
  63. pmc gyrA and gyrB mutations are implicated in cross-resistance to Ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin in Clostridium difficile
    Larbi Dridi
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Universite Paris VI, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3418-21. 2002
    ..In conclusion, decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in C. difficile is rare in France and is associated with the occurrence of a gyrA or gyrB mutation...
  64. pmc Use of highly discriminatory fingerprinting to analyze clusters of Clostridium difficile infection cases due to epidemic ribotype 027 strains
    W N Fawley
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 46:954-60. 2008
    ..MLVA was far superior to PFGE for analyzing clusters of CDI both within and between institutions. Further study is needed to examine whether subtypes of C. difficile ribotype 027 affect outcome...
  65. ncbi First isolation of Clostridium difficile 027 in Japan
    H Kato
    Department of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Infection Control, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
    Euro Surveill 12:E070111.3. 2007
  66. ncbi Increase in Clostridium difficile-related hospitalizations among infants in the United States, 2000-2005
    Marya D Zilberberg
    School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:1111-3. 2008
    ..Because incidence of hospitalizations with other infectious enteritides has remained essentially stable, this growth in CDAD cannot be explained by a gastroenteritis reporting bias...
  67. ncbi Fatal pseudomembranous colitis associated with a variant clostridium difficile strain not detected by toxin A immunoassay
    S Johnson
    Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Chicago Health Care System-Lakeside, 333 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Ann Intern Med 135:434-8. 2001
    ..CONCLUSIONS: Toxin A variant strains of C. difficile cause serious disease and are undetectable in clinical laboratories that use only toxin A immunoassays for C. difficile testing...
  68. ncbi First isolation of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027, toxinotype III in Belgium
    Rafael Joseph
    Jan Yperman Ziekenhuis, Leper, Belgium
    Euro Surveill 10:E051020.4. 2005
  69. ncbi Clinical aspects of rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis
    Si Wook Jung
    Divisions of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea
    J Clin Gastroenterol 41:38-40. 2007
    ..PMC recurred in 1 patient after retreatment with rifampicin. Our findings suggest that patients who are treated with antituberculosis agents, who develop acute diarrhea during or after therapy, should be evaluated for PMC...
  70. ncbi Specific risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a prospective, multicenter, case control evaluation
    Kimi S Vesta
    University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy, Oklahoma City, OK 73190 5040, USA
    Am J Infect Control 33:469-72. 2005
    ..C difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) occurs when patients have a reduction in their natural gastrointestinal flora that allows for the proliferation of and toxin production by C difficile...
  71. pmc Comparison of PCR-ribotyping, arbitrarily primed PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing Clostridium difficile
    P Bidet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Hopital Saint Antoine, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Universite Paris 6, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2484-7. 2000
    ..We conclude that PCR-ribotyping offers the best combination of advantages as an initial typing tool for C. difficile...
  72. pmc Evaluation of repetitive element sequence-based PCR as a molecular typing method for Clostridium difficile
    Patrizia Spigaglia
    Bacteriology and Medical Mycology Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2454-7. 2003
    ..A high correspondence between pattern differentiations produced by rep-PCR and PFGE was observed, whereas PCR ribotyping showed a lower level of discriminatory power...
  73. ncbi Successful treatment of fulminant Clostridium difficile infection with fecal bacteriotherapy
    David M You
    Ann Intern Med 148:632-3. 2008
  74. ncbi Descriptive study of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea
    Mark H Wilcox
    Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Old Medical School, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:882-4. 2004
    ..Clostridium difficile diarrhoea (CDD) cases treated with intravenous immunoglobulin during a 2 year period were reviewed to determine disease severity and response to treatment...
  75. ncbi Clostridium difficile: changing epidemiology and new treatment options
    Ed J Kuijper
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:376-83. 2007
    ..The review summarizes changes in the epidemiology and treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease...
  76. ncbi Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Sandra Dial
    Division of Critical Care and Respiratory and Clinical Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
    JAMA 294:2989-95. 2005
    ..Recent reports suggest an increasing occurrence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. We assessed whether the use of gastric acid-suppressive agents is associated with an increased risk in the community...
  77. ncbi Prospective study of Clostridium difficile infections in Europe with phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of the isolates
    F Barbut
    Microbiology Unit, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, France
    Clin Microbiol Infect 13:1048-57. 2007
    ..Ongoing epidemiological surveillance of cases of CDAD, with periodic characterisation of the strains involved, is required to detect clustering of cases in time and space and to monitor the emergence of specific highly virulent clones...
  78. ncbi A modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol for subtyping previously non-PFGE typeable isolates of Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 001
    M Gal
    Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, NPHS Microbiology Cardiff, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XW, Wales, UK
    J Hosp Infect 61:231-6. 2005
    ..Modified PFGE is an appropriate method for subtyping C. difficile PCR ribotype 001 that could be used to improve epidemiological investigations...
  79. pmc Multiplex PCR targeting tpi (triose phosphate isomerase), tcdA (Toxin A), and tcdB (Toxin B) genes for toxigenic culture of Clostridium difficile
    Ludovic Lemee
    Groupe de Recherche sur les Antimicrobiens et les Microorganismes, Universite de Rouen, UFR Medecine Pharmacie, and Service de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, France
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5710-4. 2004
    ..5 and 92.5% of the samples, respectively. The multiplex PCR toxigenic culture scheme described here allows combined diagnosis and toxigenic type characterization for human and animal C. difficile intestinal infections...
  80. ncbi Management and outcomes of a first recurrence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in Quebec, Canada
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 42:758-64. 2006
    ....
  81. pmc Are broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease?
    Irfan A Dhalla
    Department of Medicine, Unversity of Toronto, Ontario M4E 3E9, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3216-9. 2006
    ..difficile-associated disease requiring hospitalization among patients prescribed gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin compared to levofloxacin...
  82. pmc Use of a selective enrichment broth to recover Clostridium difficile from stool swabs stored under different conditions
    Luis G Arroyo
    Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5341-3. 2005
    ..TCCFB was superior to CCFA and AS-BA, and neither the storage time nor the storage temperature affected the recovery rate...
  83. ncbi Comparative analysis of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates belonging to different genetic lineages and time periods
    Patrizia Spigaglia
    Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Med Microbiol 53:1129-36. 2004
    ....
  84. ncbi Epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection and diarrhea in HIV infected inpatients
    Joseph J Pulvirenti
    Cook County Hospital, Rush Medical College, Hektoen Institute, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44:325-30. 2002
    ..02) and received more antibiotics (p =.002). C. difficile was frequently present in our HIV infected patients, especially those with advanced HIV disease, but appeared to have little impact on morbidity or mortality...
  85. ncbi [Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in the Netherlands 2005-present and the emergence of other subtypes]
    D W Notermans
    Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding, Postbus 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 152:1937-40. 2008
    ..Notably, ribotype 078, which appears to be associated with livestock, is becoming increasingly common...
  86. pmc Prevalence and genetic characterization of toxin A variant strains of Clostridium difficile among adults and children with diarrhea in France
    Frederic Barbut
    Research Group on Clostridium difficile, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2079-83. 2002
    ..This result underlines the need for testing stool by the cytotoxicity assay in patients with a high suspicion of C. difficile-associated diarrhea but a negative immunoassay for toxin A...
  87. ncbi Morbidity, mortality, and healthcare burden of nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in Canadian hospitals
    Mark A Miller
    SMBD Jewish General Hospital and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 23:137-40. 2002
    ..To assess the healthcare burden, morbidity, and mortality of nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (N-CDAD) in Canadian hospitals...
  88. ncbi Nosocomial outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea due to a clindamycin-resistant enterotoxin A-negative strain
    E J Kuijper
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:528-34. 2001
    ..7 kb was found in the toxin A gene. Cytotoxin B had an unusual effect on cell culture assays that, at first, was not recognized as Clostridium difficile specific but could be neutralized with anti-Clostridium difficile B cytotoxin...
  89. pmc Impact of emergency colectomy on survival of patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain
    Francois Lamontagne
    University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada
    Ann Surg 245:267-72. 2007
    ..To determine whether emergency colectomy reduces mortality in patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD), and to identify subgroups of patients more likely to benefit from the procedure...
  90. pmc Clostridium difficile in discharged inpatients, Germany
    Ralf Peter Vonberg
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:179-80. 2007
  91. ncbi Clinical features of Clostridium difficile-associated infections and molecular characterization of strains: results of a retrospective study, 2000-2004
    Frederic Barbut
    Service de Microbiologie, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, 75012, France
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:131-9. 2007
    ..Recent outbreaks of severe cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) reported in North America, the United Kingdom, and The Netherlands have emphasized the importance of an ongoing epidemiological surveillance of CDAD...
  92. ncbi Clostridium difficile infection in patients with neutropenia
    M Gorschlüter
    Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 33:786-91. 2001
    ..Oral metronidazole can be recommended as initial drug of choice for treatment of patients with neutropenia who have hematologic malignancies and CDAD...
  93. ncbi Evaluation of real-time PCR and conventional diagnostic methods for the detection of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in a prospective multicentre study
    Renate J van den Berg
    Department of Medical Microbiology, E4 67, Centre of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Med Microbiol 56:36-42. 2007
    ..It was also concluded that diagnosis of patients with diarrhoea who have been hospitalized for more than 72 h should focus mainly on the detection of C. difficile, irrespective of the physician's request...
  94. ncbi Risk factors for severity and relapse of pseudomembranous colitis in an elderly population
    M Moshkowitz
    Department of Gastroenterology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Colorectal Dis 9:173-7. 2007
    ..To evaluate the outcome of elderly patients with PMC, and to try to identify risk factors that might influence mortality or relapse...
  95. ncbi Clostridium difficile--Associated diarrhea: A review
    E Mylonakis
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Gray-Jackson 504, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Intern Med 161:525-33. 2001
    ..Measures for preventing the spread of the pathogen, appropriate diagnostic testing, and treatment may avert morbidity and mortality due to C difficile-associated diarrhea...
  96. pmc ICD-9 codes and surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Erik R Dubberke
    Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1576-9. 2006
    ..The correlation between toxin assay results and ICD-9 codes was good (K = 0.72, p<0.01). The sensitivity of the ICD-9 codes was 78% and the specificity was 99.7%...
  97. ncbi Proton pump inhibitors and hospitalization for Clostridium difficile-associated disease: a population-based study
    Donna O Lowe
    Department of Pharmacy Services, University Health Network, University of Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1272-6. 2006
    ..Whether outpatient PPI use influences the risk of hospital admission for CDAD among older patients who have recently been treated with antibiotics is unknown...
  98. ncbi The spectrum of pseudomembranous enterocolitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea
    Brian W Hurley
    Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 13400 E Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
    Arch Intern Med 162:2177-84. 2002
    ..Preventive measures of adequate infection control and judicious use of antibiotics are necessary means in attempting to control the spread of C difficile infection. Attempts at making an effective human vaccine are currently under way...
  99. ncbi Update of Clostridium difficile-associated disease due to PCR ribotype 027 in Europe
    E J Kuijper
    National Reference Laboratory for Clostridium difficile, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Euro Surveill 12:E1-2. 2007
    ..Preliminary data indicated that type 027 was already present in historical isolates collected in Sweden between 1997 and 2001...
  100. ncbi Severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: evaluation of a CDAD severity grading system
    Erik R Dubberke
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:208-11. 2007
    ..Patients with severe CDAD had significantly shorter median survival times and more adverse outcomes than patients with mild or moderate CDAD...
  101. ncbi A case of Clostridium difficile-associated disease due to the highly virulent clone of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027, March 2007 in Germany
    N H Zaiss
    Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany
    Euro Surveill 12:E071115.1. 2007

Research Grants41

  1. Development of Vaccines against Clostridium difficile Infection
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficile infection, reduce the severity, or eliminate an ongoing chronic disease. ..
  2. Evaluation of a new class of antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile
    SAUL R contact TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Clostridium difficile Toxin Gene Regulation
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Epithelium, dendritic cells, and Clostridium difficile associated colitis
    Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We believe that such an understanding will help us to design better immune interventions against CDI and other intestinal inflammatory diseases. ..
  5. Novel, Non-antibiotic Therapy for Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease
    Dangshe Ma; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this project, we seek to complete key studies to ready our antitoxin antibodies for clinical testing while providing fundamental insight into C. difficile toxicity and its inhibition. ..
  6. Structural mechanisms of Clostridium difficile pathogenesis
    DANA BORDEN LACY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficile a significant public health concern. The goal of the proposed project is to identify the structural and molecular mechanisms by which the two primary toxins, TcdA and TcdB, disrupt host cell function. ..
  7. Aerobic Growth of Anaerobic Pathogens
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, we will seek to uncover the biochemical mechanisms by which the oxe gene products prevent survival and growth in low levels of oxygen. The results are expected to reveal a novel and surprising aspect of anaerobic growth. ..
  8. Ultrasensitive quantitative digital ELISA for C. difficile toxins in stool
    Nira Pollock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ultimately, this work has the potential to lead to a paradigm shift in the way we diagnose and manage CDI. ..
  9. Regulation of Clostridium difficile Colonization Factors
    Rita Tamayo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficile controls colonization of the host and may reveal targets for inhibition of intestinal colonization to thereby prevent disease. ..
  10. Oral Immunotherapy for C. difficile Disease via Bacteria
    Thomas Parks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The genetically modified lactobacilli will then be manufactured and formulated in an oral dosage form for human clinical studies using Osel's proprietary technology. ..
  11. ISOLATION OF TOXINS FROM C. DIFFICILE & C. SORDELLII
    Tracy Wilkins; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..As the sequence of toxin B becomes available we will analyze it in the same manner. We will continue our collaborative efforts on the mechanism of action of the toxins and continue to be a source of pure toxins and specific antibodies...
  12. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXINS
    Charles Faust; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Finally, in vitro mutagenesis of cloned toxin genes will be used to produce altered toxins in E. coli and their toxigenic function will be studied...
  13. STUDIES ON CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN B
    Rodney Tweten; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This will be done by loading erythrocyte ghost with the toxin B derivative and fusing the loaded erythrocyte ghosts with target cells via viral hemagglutinin driven fusion...
  14. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN GENES
    LYCURGUS MULDROW; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..ln future studies this data will provide recombinant peptides for immunologic, toxic and binding studies, and may contribute to the development of diagnostic procedures for C. difficile induced PMC...
  15. BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY IN C DIFFICILE INTESTINAL DISEASE
    Rial Rolfe; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Specific Aim number 2 will examine in vivo properties of C. difficile bacteriophage and their efficacy in the treatment and prevention of C. difficile-associated intestinal disease employing a hamster animal model. ..
  16. NOVEL MAGAININ DRUGS FOR PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS
    W Maloy; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..This project may yield important gastrointestinal drugs with improved potency against C. difficile and excellent market potential. It will also advance the fields of peptide antibiotics and host defense therapy...
  17. MOLECULAR & BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF C DIFFICILE TOXIN B
    UDOUDO EKANEMESANG; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The investigations presented in this proposal would provide information not only on mechanisms of clostridial toxins which do not have ADP-ribosyltransferase activity but also on the dynamics of actin organization and regulation. ..
  18. Immunomodulation in infectious diarrhea
    Jan Michael Klapproth; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For example, C. difficile toxin A and B are implicated in the development of pseudomembranous enterocolitis, and cholera toxin functions as an adjuvant in oral immunization...
  19. Functional analysis of C. perfringens epsilon toxin
    J Songer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This information can be used to model the mode of action of ETX, and to define regions of the molecule that could be targeted for immunoprophylaxis and treatment. ..
  20. AGING AND THE HUMAN ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO C. DIFFICILE
    Lorraine Kyne; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Bacterial DnaA Initiator Protein: A Target for Novel Antibiotics
    Michelle Butler; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This proposal describes a new type of screening assay that can identify inhibitors of DnaA, a previously unexploited protein involved in the initiation of DNA synthesis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. PREVENTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL DISEASE IN HIV INFECTION
    MARY MCELLISTREM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..All patients who exhibit a greater that 3-fold transient rise in HIV-1 RNA levels 2 and 4 weeks postimmunization will be evaluated by Fisher's Exact and McNemar's Tests. ..
  23. Protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis in the gut
    Maria Abreu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The support from this R03 will permit me to successfully compete for an R01 and make the transition to an independent investigator. ..
  24. DEVELOPMENT OF INHIBITORS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS DNA REPLICATION
    Michelle Butler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In Phase II, we will optimize the most promising compounds to develop novel leads and candidate drugs for pre-clinical testing in animal models of infection. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. A NOVEL THERAPY FOR RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
    Michelle Butler; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The goal is to file an IND within three years of initiation of the Phase I SBIR studies. ..
  26. Immune Response to Clostridium difficile
    Ciaran Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These specific aims are designed to advance further our knowledge of the immunobiology of C. difficile toxin-induced diarrhea and the mechanisms of immune protection in humans. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. Role of TLR4 in Acute and Chronic Murine Colitis
    Maria Abreu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will use the support from this R21 to generate robust animal models that establish the requirement for TLR4 in the initiation and perpetuation of intestinal inflammation. ..
  28. DEVELOPMENT OF SCREENS FOR BACILLUS ANTHRACIS TARGETS
    Michelle Butler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In Phase II, we will optimize the most promising compounds to develop novel leads and candidate drugs for pre-clinical testing in animal models of infection. ..
  29. BACTERIAL DNA POLYMERASES: TARGET FOR NOVEL ANTIBIOTICS
    Michelle Butler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The SAR development and in vitro and in vivo characterization studies are the subject of this Phase II application. ..
  30. Clinical Approaches to Ileal Pouch Dysfunction
    Bo Shen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The AIMS of study are to 1) investigate visceral hypersensitivity using barostat examination of the pouch; 2) conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of amitriptyline in IPS. ..
  31. GROWTH AND DEATH SIGNALS IN THE PROSTATE
    Maria Abreu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..After this three year period of training, I will return to gastrointestinal research with the support of my co-sponsor and begin to develop intestinal models to study normal and pathologic states of apoptosis. ..
  32. C. difficile Toxin Membrane Test with Magnetic Particles
    ROBERT CARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..perfringens enterotoxin, another cause of AAD. The technology developed in this project will be widely applicable for the development of new highly sensitive stool antigen tests. ..
  33. Rural Trial of Clinic Order Entry with Decision Support
    Matthew Samore; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The cost impact of the intervention will be measured to allow a comprehensive assessment of the value of this HIT. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. PATHOGENIC MECHANISMS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI GASTRITIS
    Ciaran Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Identifying H.pylori virulence factors which modulate host immune and inflammatory responses and determining their mechanisms of action are key to targeting new management strategies for this highly prevalent pathogen. ..
  35. MECHANISMS OF LEUKOCYTE RECRUITMENT IN IBD
    Ciaran Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..An in-depth, mechanistic understanding of the regulation of ENA-78 gene expression in human enterocytes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to IBD. ..
  36. Palliative Oxygen for the Relief of Breathlessness
    Amy Abernethy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results will also advance a long-standing international debate about the role of palliative oxygen for intractable dyspnea and it's funding. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Creation and demonstration of a palliative care research cooperative group
    Jean S Kutner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  38. Mucin-degrading microflora for prophylactic antibiotics
    ROBERT CARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..difficile, and reduces the incidence of C. difficile- induced antibiotic-associated diarrhea. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. Efficient Mechanism of Gene Transfer in B. fragilis
    David Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR IN SALMONELLA PATHOGENESIS
    Ferric Fang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..