anthrax

Summary

Summary: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Anthrax
    M Mock
    Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Annu Rev Microbiol 55:647-71. 2001
  2. ncbi Pathology of inhalational anthrax animal models
    N A Twenhafel
    Pathology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Vet Pathol 47:819-30. 2010
  3. ncbi Anthrax molecular epidemiology and forensics: using the appropriate marker for different evolutionary scales
    Paul Keim
    Keim Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 5640, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 4:205-13. 2004
  4. ncbi Raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalational anthrax
    Thi Sau Migone
    Human Genome Sciences, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    N Engl J Med 361:135-44. 2009
  5. pmc Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States
    J A Jernigan
    NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:933-44. 2001
  6. pmc Inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b-dependent resistance to anthrax is mediated by caspase-1, IL-1 signaling and neutrophil recruitment
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001222. 2010
  7. pmc Anthrolysin O and other gram-positive cytolysins are toll-like receptor 4 agonists
    Jin Mo Park
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Dept of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Exp Med 200:1647-55. 2004
  8. pmc An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users
    Caitlin W Hicks
    Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44122, USA
    Intensive Care Med 38:1092-104. 2012
  9. pmc Primary involvement of pharynx and peyer's patch in inhalational and intestinal anthrax
    Ian J Glomski
    Unité des Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 3:e76. 2007
  10. pmc Anthrax toxin targeting of myeloid cells through the CMG2 receptor is essential for establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections in mice
    Shihui Liu
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:455-62. 2010

Detail Information

Publications375 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Anthrax
    M Mock
    Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Annu Rev Microbiol 55:647-71. 2001
    Bacillus anthracis was shown to be the etiological agent of anthrax by R. Koch and L. Pasteur at the end of the nineteenth century. The concepts on which medical microbiology are based arose from their work on this bacterium...
  2. ncbi Pathology of inhalational anthrax animal models
    N A Twenhafel
    Pathology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Vet Pathol 47:819-30. 2010
    b>Anthrax is a lethal disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. There are three principal forms of the disease in humans-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational-depending on the route of exposure...
  3. ncbi Anthrax molecular epidemiology and forensics: using the appropriate marker for different evolutionary scales
    Paul Keim
    Keim Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 5640, USA
    Infect Genet Evol 4:205-13. 2004
    Precise identification of Bacillus anthracis isolates has aided forensic and epidemiological analyses of natural anthrax cases, bioterrorism acts and industrial scale accidents by state-sponsored bioweapons programs...
  4. ncbi Raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalational anthrax
    Thi Sau Migone
    Human Genome Sciences, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    N Engl J Med 361:135-44. 2009
    Inhalational anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is associated with high mortality primarily due to toxin-mediated injury...
  5. pmc Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States
    J A Jernigan
    NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:933-44. 2001
    From October 4 to November 2, 2001, the first 10 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional release of Bacillus anthracis were identified in the United States...
  6. pmc Inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b-dependent resistance to anthrax is mediated by caspase-1, IL-1 signaling and neutrophil recruitment
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001222. 2010
    Bacillus anthracis infects hosts as a spore, germinates, and disseminates in its vegetative form. Production of anthrax lethal and edema toxins following bacterial outgrowth results in host death...
  7. pmc Anthrolysin O and other gram-positive cytolysins are toll-like receptor 4 agonists
    Jin Mo Park
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Dept of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Exp Med 200:1647-55. 2004
    ..We also provide genetic evidence that ALO is required for induction of macrophage apoptosis in response to infection with live B. anthracis and that other CDC family members share the ability to activate TLR4...
  8. pmc An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users
    Caitlin W Hicks
    Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44122, USA
    Intensive Care Med 38:1092-104. 2012
    Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) can be highly lethal...
  9. pmc Primary involvement of pharynx and peyer's patch in inhalational and intestinal anthrax
    Ian J Glomski
    Unité des Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 3:e76. 2007
    Bacillus anthracis causes three forms of anthrax: inhalational, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous...
  10. pmc Anthrax toxin targeting of myeloid cells through the CMG2 receptor is essential for establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections in mice
    Shihui Liu
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:455-62. 2010
    Bacillus anthracis kills through a combination of bacterial infection and toxemia. Anthrax toxin working via the CMG2 receptor mediates lethality late in infection, but its roles early in infection remain unclear...
  11. pmc Cutting edge: resistance to Bacillus anthracis infection mediated by a lethal toxin sensitive allele of Nalp1b/Nlrp1b
    Jill K Terra
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 184:17-20. 2010
    ..Data presented here support a model whereby LT-mediated activation of Nlrp1b and subsequent lysis of macrophages is not a mechanism used by B. anthracis to promote virulence, but rather a protective host-mediated innate immune response...
  12. pmc Sepsis and pathophysiology of anthrax in a nonhuman primate model
    Deborah J Stearns-Kurosawa
    Department of Free Radical Biology and Aging Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Am J Pathol 169:433-44. 2006
    ..to bacterial sepsis assumed new relevance after the lethal bioterrorist attacks with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), a spore-forming, toxigenic gram-positive bacillus...
  13. ncbi Signaling pathways and genes that inhibit pathogen-induced macrophage apoptosis--CREB and NF-kappaB as key regulators
    Jin Mo Park
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Immunity 23:319-29. 2005
    ..Here we describe key roles for transcription factor CREB, a target for p38 signaling, and the plasminogen activator 2 (PAI-2) gene, a target for CREB, in maintenance of macrophage survival...
  14. pmc Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings
    Daniel B Jernigan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1019-28. 2002
    In October 2001, the first inhalational anthrax case in the United States since 1976 was identified in a media company worker in Florida...
  15. ncbi Rapidly progressive, fatal, inhalation anthrax-like infection in a human: case report, pathogen genome sequencing, pathology, and coordinated response
    Angela M Wright
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Methodist Hospital System, Houston, Texas, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 135:1447-59. 2011
    ..Sporadic reports have described rare, fulminant, and sometimes fatal cases of pneumonia in humans and nonhuman primates caused by strains of Bacillus cereus , a species closely related to Bacillus anthracis...
  16. pmc Dissemination bottleneck in a murine model of inhalational anthrax
    Roger D Plaut
    Division of Bacterial, Parasitic, and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Infect Immun 80:3189-93. 2012
    Inhalational anthrax is caused by the sporulating bacterium Bacillus anthracis...
  17. pmc Molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak among heroin users, Europe
    Erin P Price
    Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1307-13. 2012
    In December 2009, two unusual cases of anthrax were diagnosed in heroin users in Scotland...
  18. pmc Anthrax and the inflammasome
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Microbes Infect 14:392-400. 2012
    b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), a major virulence determinant of anthrax disease, induces vascular collapse in mice and rats...
  19. pmc BslA, the S-layer adhesin of B. anthracis, is a virulence factor for anthrax pathogenesis
    Justin Kern
    Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Mol Microbiol 75:324-32. 2010
    ..A surface adhesin of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, required to mediate these steps has not been discovered...
  20. pmc Monoclonal antibody therapies against anthrax
    Zhaochun Chen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 3:1004-19. 2011
    b>Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent...
  21. pmc A receptor-based switch that regulates anthrax toxin pore formation
    Rosemarie M Pilpa
    Nomis Center for Immunobiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002354. 2011
    ..In this paper, we sought to understand the mechanism that underlies the activity of the ANTXR2 anthrax toxin receptor-based switch that binds to domains 2 and 4 of the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit...
  22. pmc New insights into the biological effects of anthrax toxins: linking cellular to organismal responses
    Annabel Guichard
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0349, USA
    Microbes Infect 14:97-118. 2012
    The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) are essential virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection...
  23. ncbi Inhibition of anthrax toxins with a bispecific monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with edema factor as well as lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis
    Parul Kulshreshtha
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
    Mol Immunol 48:1958-65. 2011
    ..The results of this study suggest future application of this bispecific monoclonal antibody as passive immunization prophylactics in cases of B. anthracis exposure and infection...
  24. pmc GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro
    Alfred G Tamayo
    Section of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:1390-401. 2011
    b>Anthrax toxin is an A/B bacterial protein toxin which is composed of the enzymatically active Lethal Factor (LF) and/or Oedema Factor (EF) bound to Protective Antigen 63 (PA63) which functions as both the receptor binding and ..
  25. pmc Polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin that target host receptors
    Saleem Basha
    The Howard P Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13509-13. 2006
    ..We used phage display to identify a peptide that binds both anthrax-toxin receptors and attached this peptide to a synthetic scaffold...
  26. pmc A high-affinity monoclonal antibody to anthrax protective antigen passively protects rabbits before and after aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spore challenge
    Nehal Mohamed
    Elusys Therapeutics Inc, P O Box 102, 25 Riverside Drive, Pine Brook, NJ 07058, USA
    Infect Immun 73:795-802. 2005
    We have developed a therapeutic for the treatment of anthrax using an affinity-enhanced monoclonal antibody (ETI-204) to protective antigen (PA), which is the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins...
  27. ncbi A case of naturally acquired inhalation anthrax: clinical care and analyses of anti-protective antigen immunoglobulin G and lethal factor
    James J Walsh
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Guthrie Clinic, Sayre, PA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:968-71. 2007
    This report describes the first case of naturally acquired inhalation anthrax in the United States since 1976. The patient's clinical course included adjunctive treatment with human anthrax immunoglobulin...
  28. pmc Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis
    S L Welkos
    Infect Immun 51:795-800. 1986
    Animal species differ in their resistance both to infection by Bacillus anthracis and to anthrax toxin. A mouse model was developed to study the basis of the host differences and the pathogenesis of infection...
  29. pmc Anthrax toxin induces macrophage death by p38 MAPK inhibition but leads to inflammasome activation via ATP leakage
    Syed Raza Ali
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Immunity 35:34-44. 2011
    ..Prevention of cell death or ATP release through constitutive p38 or AKT activation interfered with inflammasome activation and IL-1β production, thereby compromising antimicrobial immunity...
  30. pmc In vitro and in vivo characterization of anthrax anti-protective antigen and anti-lethal factor monoclonal antibodies after passive transfer in a mouse lethal toxin challenge model to define correlates of immunity
    Herman F Staats
    Department of Pathology, Box 3712, DUMC, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5443-52. 2007
    ..Studies were performed to evaluate the ability of anthrax antiprotective antigen (anti-PA) and antilethal factor (anti-LF) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ..
  31. pmc Updating perspectives on the initiation of Bacillus anthracis growth and dissemination through its host
    Zachary P Weiner
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Infect Immun 80:1626-33. 2012
    Since 1957, it has been proposed that the dissemination of inhalational anthrax required spores to be transported from the lumena of the lungs into the lymphatic system...
  32. pmc Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis
    Jill K Terra
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002469. 2011
    b>Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis...
  33. pmc Susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin-induced rat death is controlled by a single chromosome 10 locus that includes rNlrp1
    Zachary L Newman
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000906. 2010
    b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a bipartite protease-containing toxin and a key virulence determinant of Bacillus anthracis...
  34. pmc Anthrax toxins suppress T lymphocyte activation by disrupting antigen receptor signaling
    Silvia Rossi Paccani
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Policlinico Le Scotte, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Exp Med 201:325-31. 2005
    b>Anthrax is an infection caused by pathogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, which secretes a three-component toxic complex consisting of protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF)...
  35. ncbi Contribution of toxins to the pathogenesis of inhalational anthrax
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    Pôle interactions hôte pathogènes, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, CRSSA, F 38702 La Tronche Cedex, France
    Cell Microbiol 9:555-65. 2007
    Inhalational anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease of considerable concern, especially as a potential bioterrorism agent...
  36. ncbi Anthrax, toxins and vaccines: a 125-year journey targeting Bacillus anthracis
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    CRSSA, Unité Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, BP 87, F 38702 La Tronche, France
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7:219-36. 2009
    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease that plagues both humans and various animal species...
  37. pmc Anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009-2010
    Apurba Chakraborty
    Centre for Communicable Diseases, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:703-10. 2012
    During August 2009-October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to ..
  38. pmc Lethality in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax is reduced by combining nuclear transport modifier with antimicrobial therapy
    Ruth Ann Veach
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e30527. 2012
    ..In the last ten years, bioterrorism has become a serious threat and challenge to public health worldwide. Pulmonary anthrax caused by airborne Bacillus anthracis spores is a life-threatening disease often refractory to antimicrobial ..
  39. ncbi Mechanisms of iron import in anthrax
    Erin Sarah Honsa
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Biometals 24:533-45. 2011
    ..Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, represents an excellent model organism to study iron acquisition processes owing to a multifaceted ..
  40. ncbi Mouse model characterisation for anthrax vaccine development: comparison of one inbred and one outbred mouse strain
    H C Flick-Smith
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK
    Microb Pathog 38:33-40. 2005
    In order to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of anthrax vaccine candidates a suitable small animal model is required...
  41. pmc Antibiotics cure anthrax in animal models
    Shay Weiss
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:1533-42. 2011
    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax...
  42. pmc Bacillus anthracis diversity in Kruger National Park
    K L Smith
    Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011 5640, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3780-4. 2000
    The Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, has a recorded history of periodic anthrax epidemics causing widespread disease among wild animals...
  43. pmc Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax-toxin-induced lethality
    Shihui Liu
    Microbial Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 501:63-8. 2013
    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal owing to the actions of two exotoxins: anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and oedema toxin (ET)...
  44. ncbi A review of cutaneous anthrax and its outcome
    Mehmet Doganay
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
    J Infect Public Health 3:98-105. 2010
    b>Anthrax is still an endemic disease in some countries in the world and has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with recent intentional outbreak...
  45. pmc Expression of either lethal toxin or edema toxin by Bacillus anthracis is sufficient for virulence in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax
    Julie A Lovchik
    Center for Infectious Disease and Immunity, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Infect Immun 80:2414-25. 2012
    ..The rabbit model of inhalational anthrax is an important tool in the assessment of potential therapeutics against Bacillus anthracis...
  46. ncbi Targeted expression of anthrax protective antigen by Lactobacillus gasseri as an anthrax vaccine
    Mansour Mohamadzadeh
    Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Future Microbiol 5:1289-96. 2010
    ..anthracis protective antigen (PA) genetically fused to a DC-binding peptide (DCpep) by Lactobacillus acidophilus induced mucosal and systemic immunity against B. anthracis challenge in mice...
  47. ncbi Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi*) and morphology cluster statistics
    Ian T Kracalik
    Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Geospat Health 7:111-26. 2012
    We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan...
  48. ncbi An evaluation model for syndromic surveillance: assessing the performance of a temporal algorithm
    David L Buckeridge
    Palo Alto Veterans Health Care, Palo Alto, California, USA
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54:109-15. 2005
    ..Despite considerable experience with implementing syndromic surveillance, limited evidence exists to describe the performance of syndromic surveillance systems in detecting outbreaks...
  49. pmc Evaluation and validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis
    Alex R Hoffmaster
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1178-82. 2002
  50. pmc Killing of macrophages by anthrax lethal toxin: involvement of the N-end rule pathway
    Katherine E Wickliffe
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Microbiol 10:1352-62. 2008
    Macrophages from certain inbred mouse strains are rapidly killed (< 90 min) by anthrax lethal toxin (LT)...
  51. pmc Diversity of Bacillus anthracis strains in Georgia and of vaccine strains from the former Soviet Union
    Maya Merabishvili
    The G Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology, 0160 Tbilisi, Georgia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5631-6. 2006
    Despite the increased number of anthrax outbreaks in Georgia and the other Caucasian republics of the former Soviet Union, no data are available on the diversity of the Bacillus anthracis strains involved...
  52. ncbi Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: a short history of anthrax
    Maxime Schwartz
    Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Mol Aspects Med 30:347-55. 2009
    The anthrax letters crisis, following the discovery of a major bacterial warfare program in the USSR and the realization that Irak had been on the verge of using anthrax as a weapon during the first Gulf war, had the consequence of ..
  53. pmc Four superoxide dismutases contribute to Bacillus anthracis virulence and provide spores with redundant protection from oxidative stress
    Robert J Cybulski
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 4799, USA
    Infect Immun 77:274-85. 2009
    ..anthracis protection against oxidative stress and enhance the pathogenicity of B. anthracis in the lung. We also surmise that the presence of four SOD alleles within the genome provides functional redundancy for this key enzyme...
  54. ncbi Molecular basis for improved anthrax vaccines
    Robert N Brey
    DOR BioPharma, Inc, 1691 Michigan Avenue, Suite 435, Miami, FL 33139, USA
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 57:1266-92. 2005
    The current vaccine for anthrax has been licensed since 1970 and was developed based on the outcome of human trials conducted in the 1950s...
  55. ncbi Preparedness for an anthrax attack
    David R Franz
    Midwest Research Institute, Frederick, MD, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:503-10. 2009
    ..or deliberate outbreak, no matter the agent - should serve as a foundation of preparation for the specific anthrax countermeasures. Because B...
  56. pmc Mucosal or parenteral administration of microsphere-associated Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protects against anthrax infection in mice
    Helen C Flick-Smith
    Dstl, Chemical and Biological Sciences, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 70:2022-8. 2002
    Existing licensed anthrax vaccines are administered parenterally and require multiple doses to induce protective immunity. This requires trained personnel and is not the optimum route for stimulating a mucosal immune response...
  57. ncbi A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax
    Jyotsna Gorantala
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
    Vaccine 29:4521-33. 2011
    The currently available anthrax vaccines are limited by being incompletely characterized, potentially reactogenic and have an expanded dosage schedule. Plant based vaccines offer safe alternative for vaccine production...
  58. ncbi Fatal inhalational anthrax in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman
    Lydia A Barakat
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Griffin Hospital, 130 Division St, Derby, CT 06418, USA
    JAMA 287:863-8. 2002
    We describe the 11th case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax reported in the United States. The presenting clinical features of this 94-year-old woman were subtle and nondistinctive...
  59. pmc Antibacterial role for natural killer cells in host defense to Bacillus anthracis
    Christine M Gonzales
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Infect Immun 80:234-42. 2012
    ..human and murine NK cells, in vitro assays, and in vivo NK cell depletion in a murine model of inhalational anthrax. Our results demonstrate potent antibacterial activity by human NK cells against B...
  60. pmc The role of HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes in variable antibody responses to anthrax vaccine adsorbed
    N M Pajewski
    Section on Statistical Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Genes Immun 12:457-65. 2011
    ..mediates heterogeneity in immune response to certain vaccines; however, no large study of genetic determinants of anthrax vaccine response has been described...
  61. pmc Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax
    Mark T Albrecht
    Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, 12300 Washington Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5425-33. 2007
    ..approach is passive immunization through the administration of antibodies that mitigate the biological action of anthrax toxin...
  62. ncbi Cutaneous anthrax associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and coagulopathy in a 7-month-old infant
    Abigail Freedman
    Department of Pediatrics, New York University Medical Center, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA
    JAMA 287:869-74. 2002
    A 7-month-old infant with cutaneous anthrax developed severe systemic illness despite early treatment with antibiotics. The infant displayed severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with renal involvement, coagulopathy, and hyponatremia...
  63. ncbi cAMP signaling by anthrax edema toxin induces transendothelial cell tunnels, which are resealed by MIM via Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization
    Madhavi P Maddugoda
    INSERM, U, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire, Nice, France
    Cell Host Microbe 10:464-74. 2011
    ..Thus, the balance between ET-induced TEM formation and resealing likely determines the integrity of the host endothelium barrier...
  64. pmc Protective antigen as a correlative marker for anthrax in animal models
    David Kobiler
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P O Box 19, Ness Ziona, Israel 74100
    Infect Immun 74:5871-6. 2006
    The most aggressive form of anthrax results from inhalation of airborne spores of Bacillus anthracis and usually progresses unnoticed in the early stages because of unspecific symptoms...
  65. pmc Anti-toxin antibodies in prophylaxis and treatment of inhalation anthrax
    Anette Schneemann
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Future Microbiol 4:35-43. 2009
    The CDC recommend 60 days of oral antibiotics combined with a three-dose series of the anthrax vaccine for prophylaxis after potential exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores...
  66. pmc Recombinant anthrax toxin receptor-Fc fusion proteins produced in plants protect rabbits against inhalational anthrax
    KEITH L WYCOFF
    Planet Biotechnology Inc, Hayward, CA 94545, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:132-9. 2011
    Inhalational anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ∼50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics...
  67. pmc Discriminating virulence mechanisms among Bacillus anthracis strains by using a murine subcutaneous infection model
    Hitendra S Chand
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Department of Pathology, MSC11 6020, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Infect Immun 77:429-35. 2009
    ..These experiments demonstrate that the dominant virulence factors used to establish infection by B. anthracis depend on the route of inoculation and the bacterial strain...
  68. pmc Heme transfer to the bacterial cell envelope occurs via a secreted hemophore in the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis
    Marian Fabian
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77096, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:32138-46. 2009
    ..Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax, secretes two NEAT (near iron transporter) proteins, IsdX1 and IsdX2, which scavenge heme from host hemoglobin ..
  69. pmc MyD88-dependent signaling protects against anthrax lethal toxin-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function
    Shu Okugawa
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, 33 North Drive, Bldg 33, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 79:118-24. 2011
    ..anthracis infection, knockout mice were challenged with nonencapsulated, toxigenic B. anthracis or with anthrax toxins. MyD88-deficient mice had increased susceptibility to B...
  70. pmc Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics
    James W Buehler
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1197-204. 2003
  71. ncbi The ecology of Bacillus anthracis
    Martin Hugh-Jones
    Department of Environmental Science, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 5705, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:356-67. 2009
    The global distribution of anthrax is largely determined by soils with high calcium levels and a pH above 6.1, which foster spore survival...
  72. pmc The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack: are prevention and postattack intervention programs justifiable?
    A F Kaufmann
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 3:83-94. 1997
    ..7 million per 100,000 persons exposed (brucellosis scenario) to $26.2 billion per 100,000 persons exposed (anthrax scenario)...
  73. pmc Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax
    Fabien Dumetz
    Pathogenesis of Bacterial Toxi Infections Laboratory, Pasteur Institute Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Am J Pathol 178:2523-35. 2011
    ..anthracis toxins in the infected host, suggesting a greater role than previously suspected for ET in anthrax and suggesting that therapeutic targeting of ET contributes to protection.
  74. pmc The genome and variation of Bacillus anthracis
    Paul Keim
    The Microbial Genetics and Genomics Center, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff AZ 86011 4073, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:397-405. 2009
    ..A notable example is found in the vrrC locus which is homologous to known DNA translocase genes from other bacteria...
  75. pmc Contribution of lethal toxin and edema toxin to the pathogenesis of anthrax meningitis
    Celia M Ebrahimi
    Department of Biology and Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr, San Diego, California 92182 4614, USA
    Infect Immun 79:2510-8. 2011
    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax disease in humans and animals...
  76. pmc The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids
    Silke R Klee
    Centre for Biological Security ZBS, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e10986. 2010
    b>Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene...
  77. pmc Bacillus anthracis-derived nitric oxide is essential for pathogen virulence and survival in macrophages
    Konstantin Shatalin
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1009-13. 2008
    ..b>Anthrax spores (Sterne strain) deficient in bNOS lose their virulence in an A/J mouse model of systemic infection and ..
  78. ncbi Systematic review: a century of inhalational anthrax cases from 1900 to 2005
    Jon Erik C Holty
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University, San Francisco, California 94305 5236, USA
    Ann Intern Med 144:270-80. 2006
    Mortality from inhalational anthrax during the 2001 U.S. attack was substantially lower than that reported historically.
  79. pmc Pathology and pathogenesis of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax
    Jeannette Guarner
    Infectious Diseases Pathology Activity, Division of Viral Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Pathol 163:701-9. 2003
    During October and November 2001, public health authorities investigated 11 patients with inhalational anthrax related to a bioterrorism attack in the United States...
  80. ncbi The use of a model of in vivo macrophage depletion to study the role of macrophages during infection with Bacillus anthracis spores
    Christopher K Cote
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Bacteriology Division, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Microb Pathog 37:169-75. 2004
    ..anthracis infection...
  81. pmc CA-074Me protection against anthrax lethal toxin
    Zachary L Newman
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 77:4327-36. 2009
    b>Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) activates the NLRP1b (NALP1b) inflammasome and caspase-1 in macrophages from certain inbred mouse strains, but the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood...
  82. ncbi Fatal inhalational anthrax with unknown source of exposure in a 61-year-old woman in New York City
    Bushra Mina
    Section of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital, 100 E 77th St, New York, NY 10021, USA
    JAMA 287:858-62. 2002
    A 61-year-old woman who was a New York City hospital employee developed fatal inhalational anthrax, but with an unknown source of anthrax exposure...
  83. pmc Exogenous gamma and alpha/beta interferon rescues human macrophages from cell death induced by Bacillus anthracis
    Jeffrey A Gold
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sackler Institute of Biomedical Studies, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Infect Immun 72:1291-7. 2004
    During the recent bioterrorism-related outbreaks, inhalational anthrax had a 45% mortality in spite of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, underscoring the need for better adjuvant therapies...
  84. pmc An anthrax lethal factor-neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects rats before and after challenge with anthrax toxin
    Nam Kyu Lim
    R and D Center, Aprogen, Inc, Bio Venture Center 311, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong Gu, Daejon
    Infect Immun 73:6547-51. 2005
    Lethal factor (LF) is a component of anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx). We generated anti-LF murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that show LeTx-neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo...
  85. ncbi A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis
    Raymond Schuch
    Laboratory of Bacteriql Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 418:884-9. 2002
    ..The lytic specificity of PlyG was also exploited as part of a rapid method for the identification of B. anthracis. We conclude that PlyG is a tool for the treatment and detection of B. anthracis...
  86. ncbi Ratio of lethal and edema factors in rabbit systemic anthrax
    Federica Dal Molin
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche CNR Istituto di Neuroscienze, Viale G Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy
    Toxicon 52:824-8. 2008
    ..two binary toxins: lethal toxin (PA + LF) and edema toxin (PA + EF) that play a major role in the pathogenesis of anthrax. Their activities can synergize or interfere among each other, depending on the cell type...
  87. ncbi Degradation of circulating von Willebrand factor and its regulator ADAMTS13 implicates secreted Bacillus anthracis metalloproteases in anthrax consumptive coagulopathy
    Myung Chul Chung
    National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, College of Sciences, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:9531-42. 2008
    Pathology data from the anthrax animal models show evidence of significant increases in vascular permeability coincident with hemostatic imbalances manifested by thrombocytopenia, transient leucopenia, and aggressive disseminated ..
  88. ncbi Anthrax toxin
    R John Collier
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 19:45-70. 2003
    b>Anthrax toxin consists of three nontoxic proteins that associate in binary or ternary combinations to form toxic complexes at the surface of mammalian cells...
  89. pmc Protective and immunochemical activities of monoclonal antibodies reactive with the Bacillus anthracis polypeptide capsule
    Thomas R Kozel
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology 320, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    Infect Immun 75:152-63. 2007
    ..antibody (MAb F26G3) reactive with the capsular polypeptide is protective in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax. The present study examined a library of six MAbs generated from mice immunized with gammaDPGA...
  90. pmc Endocytosis of the anthrax toxin is mediated by clathrin, actin and unconventional adaptors
    Laurence Abrami
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Faculty of Life Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000792. 2010
    The anthrax toxin is a tripartite toxin, where the two enzymatic subunits require the third subunit, the protective antigen (PA), to interact with cells and be escorted to their cytoplasmic targets...
  91. pmc mAbs to Bacillus anthracis capsular antigen for immunoprotection in anthrax and detection of antigenemia
    Thomas R Kozel
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5042-7. 2004
    ..As a consequence, neither the extent of gammaDPGA production during anthrax nor the protective activity of gammaDPGA Abs in inhalation anthrax are known...
  92. pmc Antiinflammatory cAMP signaling and cell migration genes co-opted by the anthrax bacillus
    Chun Kim
    Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:6150-5. 2008
    Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, avoids immune surveillance and commandeers host macrophages as a vehicle for lymphatic spreading. Here, we show that B...
  93. pmc Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-alpha-independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice
    Mahtab Moayeri
    National Institutes of Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:670-82. 2003
    Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor of anthrax and reproduces most of the laboratory manifestations of the disease in animals. We studied LT toxicity in BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice...
  94. ncbi Anthrax as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense
    T V Inglesby
    The Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 281:1735-45. 1999
    To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals following the use of anthrax as a biological weapon against a civilian population.
  95. pmc Capillary morphogenesis protein-2 is the major receptor mediating lethality of anthrax toxin in vivo
    Shihui Liu
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12424-9. 2009
    b>Anthrax toxin, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, gains entry into target cells by binding to either of 2 von Willebrand factor A domain-containing proteins, tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis ..
  96. pmc Investigation of new dominant-negative inhibitors of anthrax protective antigen mutants for use in therapy and vaccination
    Sha Cao
    National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Infect Immun 77:4679-87. 2009
    The lethal toxin (LeTx) of Bacillus anthracis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of anthrax. The protective antigen (PA) is a primary part of the anthrax toxin and forms LeTx by combination with lethal factor (LF)...
  97. pmc Mucosal immunization with a novel nanoemulsion-based recombinant anthrax protective antigen vaccine protects against Bacillus anthracis spore challenge
    Anna U Bielinska
    Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, University of Michigan, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0648, USA
    Infect Immun 75:4020-9. 2007
    The currently available commercial human anthrax vaccine requires multiple injections for efficacy and has side effects due to its alum adjuvant. These factors limit its utility when immunizing exposed populations in emergent situations...
  98. ncbi Cutaneous anthrax in Turkey: a review of 32 cases
    O Oncul
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
    Scand J Infect Dis 34:413-6. 2002
    b>Anthrax, caused by the Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is rarely seen in industrialized nations but is common in developing countries...
  99. pmc Protection against anthrax toxemia by hexa-D-arginine in vitro and in vivo
    Miroslav S Sarac
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Infect Immun 72:602-5. 2004
    The anthrax toxin protective antigen precursor is activated by proteolytic cleavage by furin or a furin-like protease...
  100. ncbi Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management
    Thomas V Inglesby
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2236-52. 2002
    ..To review and update consensus-based recommendations for medical and public health professionals following a Bacillus anthracis attack against a civilian population...
  101. ncbi A review of management practices for the control of anthrax in animals: the 2005 anthrax epizootic in North Dakota--case study
    M Ndiva Mongoh
    Natural Resources Management, College of Agriculture, Food Systems and Natural Resources, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
    Zoonoses Public Health 55:279-90. 2008
    Outbreaks of anthrax have diverse consequences on society. Establishing the appropriate control strategies is very important and crucial in reducing the socio-economic impact of the disease...

Research Grants81

  1. Nuclease-Resistant Aptamers to Botox and Anthrax Toxins
    John Bruno; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (provided by investigator): Botulinum toxin and anthrax are two likely bioweapons of choice in military attacks or terrorism against the United States...
  2. Anthrax vaccination by targeting spore germination
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..expressed during the germination stage of Bacillus anthracis may be an effective strategy to halt the growth of anthrax. Blocking the germination stage would prevent downstream events including the production of anthrax's three ..
  3. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In mid-2004, shortly after the US anthrax incidents, President Bush signed into effect Project BioShield, whose mission is to: "ensure that resources are ..
  4. Optimization of Neoglycoside Antibiotics for Nosocomial Pathogens and Select Agen
    Arnold Louie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to address this need and also to provide new products for the therapy of Select Agents, such as Plague, Anthrax and pathogens such as Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei...
  5. NOX1 and NOX2 as Therapeutic Targets in Influenza
    JOHN DAVID LAMBETH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similar changes occur with other pathogens including SARS-Coronavirus and anthrax, where host-directed therapies developed for influenza are also expected to be effective...
  6. Anthrax Toxins Impair Phagocyte Actin-based Motility
    Frederick Southwick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neutrophils and macrophages are often overwhelmed by systemic anthrax infection...
  7. Development of an effective therapy against post-exposure Anthrax
    Maurizio Pellecchia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Development of an effective therapy against post-exposure Anthrax. Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis...
  8. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to pose the greatest potential threat (Category "A" agents) include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), and a ..
  9. Analyzing Anthrax Toxins in Drosophilia
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By inhibiting endocytic recycling, anthrax toxins also reduce levels of cell adhesion molecules (e.g., cadherins) and signaling proteins (e.g...
  10. Regulatory targets and pathogenic mechanisms of anthrax edema factor
    Jin Mo Park; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces three toxin polypeptides: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF)...
  11. High-throughput multiplex microsphere screening for toxin protease inhibitors
    Steven W Graves; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this way, this proposal will discover important new compounds that can be the basis of new pharmaceuticals to treat Botulinum neurotoxin poisoning or late stage Anthrax infections.
  12. Development and testing of polyvalent anthrax toxin inhibitors
    JEREMY S MOGRIDGE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The objective of the proposed work is to develop an inhibitor of anthrax toxin that is effective in vivo and that is suitable for clinical use...
  13. Proteomics of RNA polymerase interactomes in pathogenic bacteria
    Evgeny Nudler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In a series of pilot experiments we have identified among RNA polymerase-binding proteins a major anthrax virulence factor, AtxA, a S...
  14. Immunobiology of Bacillus anthracis Spore-Host Interactions
    JOHN FRANKLIN KEARNEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to the germination of spores and outgrowth of the vegetative form within the host and thus prevent development of Anthrax. We have identified mouse cell types involved in initial B...
  15. Isolation of new phage enzymes to kill B. anthracis
    Vincent A Fischetti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ecological factors governing the occurrence and persistence of anthrax reservoirs in the environment remain obscure. A long-held belief that the growing, or vegetative, form of B...
  16. NLR Family Proteins: Mechanisms and Regulation
    John C Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in NALP1 have recently been linked to differential sensitivity to bacterial virulence factors, including anthrax toxin (Lethal Factor [LF]), a zinc metalloproteinase that depends on NALP1 for inducing Caspase-dependent killing ..
  17. pH Regulation in Bacillus subtilis (AREA R15)
    JOAN SLONCZEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..subtilis is a major model organism for gram-positive sporeformers such as B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, and the insecticide B. thuringiensis. Questions to address include: (1) How does B...
  18. Ciprofloxacin enhances DNA repair capacity after radiation combined injury
    JULIANN GONG KIANG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended CIP for anthrax treatment, and it is maintained in the National Stockpile for specific human use in the event of a national ..
  19. cGMP manufacturing of PBI-220, a broad spectrum immunoadhesin therapeutic against
    LLOYD M YU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..our lead biodefense countermeasure, PBI-220, a therapeutic for patients symptomatic for inhalational anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Category A pathogen...
  20. Inhibition of Anthrax Lethal Factor by alpha-defensins
    Wuyuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>Anthrax toxin consists of three proteins secreted by Bacillus anthracis - protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)...
  21. Role and function of Spx paralogs of Bacillus anthracis
    PETER A ZUBER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..subtilis ICEBs1 conjugative element. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The cause of Anthrax is the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis...
  22. Functional analysis of the Francisella capBCA gene locus
    Jing Ren Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..resembles the biosynthetic gene locus of the poly-3-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule in Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent. The B. anthracis capsule is a major virulence factor...
  23. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials Targeting the D-Alanine Pathway
    KAREN G ANTHONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be used to broaden the spectrum of activity of these agents against Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the causative agent of life threatening bacteremia...
  24. Structure and Function of the B. anthracis Exosporium
    Charles L Turnbough; Fiscal Year: 2010
    PROJECT SUMMARY Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a highly pathogenic bacterium considered to be a serious threat as an agent of bioterrorism...
  25. Identifying Host-Factors Required for Toxin Entry and Toxicity
    ERIK HETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Many bacterial pathogens utilize toxins to cause serious disease. For instance, anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is one of the primary virulence factors that Bacillus anthracis utilizes to subvert the host immune system and induce cell death,..
  26. Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Inhibition Study
    Elizabeth A Amin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) enzyme directly enables the Bacillus anthracis bacterium to evade host immunological mechanisms, leading to circulatory shock and death...
  27. Alternative approaches for NALT-based immunity to respiratory pathogens
    Prosper N Boyaka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, we have assessed the action of anthrax toxins on murine NALT...
  28. IND Enabling Studies for Small Molecule Anthrax Lethal Factor Inhibitors
    ALAN THOMAS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to identify a clinical candidate that demonstrates in vivo efficacy in animal models of post-exposure inhalation anthrax and has a safety profile suitable for use in humans as an antidote to anthrax lethal factor intoxication...
  29. Protective Effects of Anti-BclA Antibodies in Bacillus anthracis Infection
    JUAN B RODRIGUEZ BARRANTES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..drug strategy that would act prior to the germination of spores within the host and thus prevent development of Anthrax. In order to understand these interactions, most laboratories use A/J mice due to their natural susceptibility to ..
  30. High Throughput Crystallization / Imaging System
    Lawrence J Delucas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that involve developing inhibitors for protein targets associated with diseases such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, anthrax, plague, tularemia, viral influenza and tuberculosis...
  31. Receptor disulfide allosteric regulation of anthrax toxin action
    Jianjun Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) binds to cell surface receptor, enters cell through receptor mediated endocytosis, ..
  32. Multivalent Plague, Anthrax Vaccines Using Bacteriophage T4 Display
    Venigalla B Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The major goal of this proposal is to test this hypothesis and develop trivalent plague and multivalent plague-anthrax vaccines that can confer protection against Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, two Category A biodefense ..
  33. Novel Angiogenesis Inhibitors Targeting the Anthrax Toxin Receptors
    MICHAEL SEAN ROGERS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have discovered that anthrax protective antigen mutants (e.g...
  34. Interaction between B. cereus RecQ helicase and topoisomerase III
    Zhiyu Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RecQ helicase, some Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, encode multiple chromosomal copies of type IA topoisomerase (annotated as bcTopo I, bcTopo III? and bcTopo III? ..
  35. An integrated NMR/magnetic nanosensor system for detection of bacteria and toxins
    J Manuel Perez; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..paratuberculosis (MAP). As a toxin model, we will use anthrax toxin (AT), which is produced by another intracellular pathogen;B. anthracis...
  36. Final preclinical development of an immunoadhesin therapy for inhalation anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Description (provided by the applicant): Inhalational anthrax, caused by inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ~50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics...
  37. Structural Biology of Multifunctional Bacterial Phosphatases
    Matthew B Neiditch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For example, sporulation is repressed in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax, by Rap proteins encoded on its chromosome and virulence plasmid, pX01. This repression is required for B...
  38. Mechanism of Anthrax Lethal Factor Toxicity
    Usamah S Kayyali; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Anthrax poses a considerable public health burden because of its potential use as a biological weapon...
  39. Anthrax Toxin Receptor as a marker and target of breast cancer stem cells
    Harikrishna Nakshatri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our studies have identified a subpopulation of CD44? cells enriched for the expression of anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1)...
  40. Exposporium determinants of Bacillus anthracis
    George C Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gastrointestinal and pulmonary anthrax are associated with high mortality rates. The B...
  41. Conjugate Anthrax Vaccine with Dual Virulence Factor Specificity
    Lallan Giri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The anthrax letter attacks after September 11, 2001 demonstrated the ease of using the anthrax spore as a weapon in a bioterrorist attack...
  42. Biosynthesis & Function of a Bacillus anthracis-specific cell wall polysaccharide
    Russell W Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax in humans;as a bioterrorism agent the bacteria are a threat to public health...
  43. Discovery and Preclinical Development of Drugs for Anthrax, Plague and Tularemia
    Christie G Brouillette; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Infections of anthrax, plague, and tularemia are currently treated with existing antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and doxycycline...
  44. Antidotes to Anthrax Lethal Factor Intoxication
    ALAN THOMAS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) is a protein toxin introduced into the cells of mammalian hosts during infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis...
  45. One Health Innovation Fellowships for Zoonotic Disease Research In Mongolia
    GREGORY CHARLES GRAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..complex reasons, both humans and animals have suffered from increased zoonotic diseases, including brucellosis, anthrax, zoonotic influenza, rabies, and rickettsial diseases...
  46. Immune Responses to Biodefense Vaccines Early in Life
    Marcela F Pasetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Bioterrorism is no longer a threat in the United States, but a reality. In 2001, the spread of anthrax spores through the U.S. mail illustrated that deadly agents can be acquired and spread using relatively unsophisticated means...
  47. SURFACE PROTEIN ANCHORING IN GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A and D to form pili and explore the virulence attributes of these structures towards the establishment of anthrax-like disease...
  48. New Vaccine against Influenza
    Mingtao Zeng; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..conserved matrix protein 2 (M2) of H5N1 avian influenza A virus as an antigen delivered by a detoxified anthrax edema toxin...
  49. Phase I clinical trial of an immunoadhesin antitoxin for anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inhalational anthrax, caused by inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ~50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics...
  50. Regulation of endocytosis by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins
    LINDA A HICKE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..receptors, growth factor receptors, glucose transporters, ion channels, the aquaporin-2 water channel and the anthrax toxin receptor...
  51. Novel antiobiotic development for biodefense
    Michael E Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents for anthrax, tularemia and plague, respectively, are all classed as Category A agents due to their potential use in bioterrorism and biowarfare...
  52. Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Metalloproteinase
    Alan Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) is a metalloproteinase introduced into the cells of mammalian hosts during infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis...
  53. Emerging Infectious Diseases Training Program
    Kathleen A McDonough; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Syndrome (SARS), potential for a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic, and sobering reality of the 2001 anthrax attacks emphasize the danger to human health posed by infectious organisms, both natural and man-made...
  54. Countermeasures for Bioterroism Targeting Cellular Host Factors
    John C Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to use Anthrax as a well-established model of a Class A pathogen...
  55. Novel Therapy for Pulmonary Anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PBI) is developing a therapeutic recombinant protein, PBI-220, that neutralizes anthrax toxin in vitro and protects against inhalational anthrax in vivo...
  56. Identification of novel mammalian genes required for intoxication by antrax toxin
    G Jilani Chaudry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Anthrax toxin (AT) is crucial for the lethality of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax...
  57. Novel multivalent vaccine for anthrax and botulinum
    Mansour Mohamadzadeh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A new generation of mucosal vaccines is being developed using probiotic Lactobacillus (L.) strains expressing anthrax-protective antigen (PA) fusion protein...
  58. Role of RepX Protein in Replication/Partitioning of Anthrax Toxin Plasmid pXO1
    Saleem A Khan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Bacillus anthracis is an important human pathogen that is the etiological agent of anthrax in humans and a potential biological weapon. Two large plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, play a major role in the virulence of this organism...
  59. Environmental Health Programs through the Environmental Health Specialists Networ
    Guthrie S Birkhead; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Rabies Committee, and disease issues such as Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Giardiasis, West Nile virus, anthrax, and E. coli...
  60. A novel anti-spore nasal vaccine for protection from anthrax
    Amy Rasley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is a pressing national need for an improved vaccine against Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, that can be used for prophylactic mass inoculation as well as immediately after release of a biological weapon...
  61. Targeting Replication-Segregation of plasmid pX01 in Bacillus anthracis
    Debabrata RayChaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming pathogen, which causes lethal inhalation anthrax in humans. It has also gained recent notoriety as a potential biothreat weapon. A hallmark of B...
  62. GENE EXPRESSION DURING SPORULATION
    Patrick J Piggot; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..anthracis, Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, C. botulinum and C. difficile, the causes of anthrax, tetanus, gas gangrene, botulism and colitis following antibiotic therapy, respectively...
  63. FORESPORE ENGULFMENT DURING B SUBTILIS SPORULATION
    KIT J POGLIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..from the genera Bacillus and Clostridium produce unusually durable endospores that are the infectious agent of Anthrax and Botulism...
  64. Immunotherapeutics and vaccines against anthrax, plague and tularemia
    Zheng W Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Both cellular and humoral immune responses may play a role in immunity to anthrax, plague and tularemia...
  65. Combinatorial vaccines against anthrax and plague
    John Clements; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Until recently, anthrax was primarily a concern of individuals working in animal husbandry and military planners concerned about the potential use of anthrax spores as an agent of biological warfare...
  66. PRIMATE MODEL AND PATHOGENESIS OF ANTHRAX SEPSIS
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The threat of bioterrorism has become a reality since the attacks with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in the fall of 2001. The virulence of B.anthracis depends on a tripartite exotoxin and an anti-phagocytic bacterial capsule...
  67. Nisin as a decontaminant for B. anthracis spores on human skin
    Kenneth Alibek; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Spores carried on human skin not only pose the threat of developing into cutaneous anthrax, but can also be carried to other locations distant from the attack site thereby leading to further spore ..
  68. A Mechanistically Novel Antibiotic for Anthrax
    Edward Turos; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Anthrax is an infectious illness that has been known for many years, largely in rural settings, but since the terrorist attacks of 9-11, has recently emerged as a major national security concern...
  69. Diphtheria & Anthrax Toxins: Mechanisms of Cell Entry
    John Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The catalytic domains of diphtheria toxin, anthrax toxins (protective antigen [PA]...
  70. PGA antigenemia for early diagnosis of anthrax
    Thomas Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Success in treatment of anthrax is critically dependent on rapid diagnosis. As a consequence, there is an acute need for diagnostic tools that can be used in a first responder clinical setting where anthrax will be initially encountered...
  71. Immunoprotective monoclonals to B. anthracis spores
    ALISON O BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..sabotage was one positive outcome: not all of the 11 victims with the typically lethal inhalational form of anthrax died...
  72. Potentiating an anthrax DNA vaccine with electroporation
    Brian Livingston; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Anthrax, an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, became a pressing concern because of its potential biowarfare use, most likely via aerosolized anthrax spore dissemination, resulting in deadly inhalation anthrax...
  73. Blockade of Anthrax Cytotoxicity Using Furin Inhibitors
    Iris Lindberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The anthrax bacillus produces a three-component exotoxin of which an essential element for bioactivity is the protein known as protective antigen, or PA...
  74. Chemical Structure of Anthrax Spore Polysaccharide
    Julia Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The goal of our study is to determine the chemical structure of the outermost surface component of anthrax spores, exosporium polysaccharide (EPS)...
  75. Development of a device for rapid detection of anthrax
    David Dean; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with unique epitopes of Bacillus anthracis (the ethological agent of anthrax) but not with epitopes shared with closely related species in the highly monomorphic B. cereus family, of which B...
  76. CHARACTERIZATION OF B ANTHRACIS EXOSPORIUM PROTEINS
    CHARLES TURNBOUGH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..radical groups, many unfriendly to the United States and its allies, have added Bacillus anthracis, the cause of anthrax, to their arsenals of weapons of mass destruction...
  77. NOVEL IMMUNIZATION STRATEGIES AGAINST ANTHRAX
    LUCY FREYTAG; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Anthrax is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Disease in humans results from contact with infected animals, contaminated animal products or after exposure to accidentally or intentionally released spores of B...
  78. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor
    NORTON PEET; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..anthracis. Our strategy is to build effective anthrax therapeutics not by targeting the viability of the organism but by targeting the mechanism of pathogenesis ..
  79. Immunotherapy for Pulmonary Anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..recombinant protein that protects against the cellular toxicity associated with inhalational (pulmonary) anthrax. We will combine our experience in producing functional antibodies and immunoconjugates in transgenic plants with ..
  80. Immunological Secretomes of the Early Anthrax Infection
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the past years, we had established the proteomic techniques to identify novel anthrax antigens...
  81. Psoralen-Killed, Metabolically-Active Anthrax Vaccine
    Thomas Dubensky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The only licensed human anthrax vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA), was developed in the late 1950s and is poorly immunogenic...