diphtheria

Summary

Summary: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A diphtheria outbreak in Assam, India
    Lahari Saikia
    Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh 786002, Assam, India
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41:647-52. 2010
  2. pmc Poor immune responses to a birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine
    Natasha B Halasa
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Pediatr 153:327-32. 2008
  3. ncbi Resurgence of diphtheria in the vaccination era
    N Khan
    Indian J Med Microbiol 25:434. 2007
  4. ncbi Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported b
    Katrina Kretsinger
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 55:1-37. 2006
  5. ncbi Transplacental transport of IgG antibodies specific for pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C is lower in preterm compared with term infants
    Jolice P van den Berg
    Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:801-5. 2010
  6. ncbi A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use
    K S Wagner
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 28:14-20. 2009
  7. ncbi Cellular immunity as a potential cause of local reactions to booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis antigens
    David W Scheifele
    Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:985-9. 2009
  8. pmc Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: reemergence of a pandemic disease
    C R Vitek
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 4:539-50. 1998
  9. ncbi Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations
    Odile Launay
    Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Hum Vaccin 5:341-6. 2009
  10. pmc Pangenomic study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that provides insights into the genomic diversity of pathogenic isolates from cases of classical diphtheria, endocarditis, and pneumonia
    Eva Trost
    Institut für Genomforschung und Systembiologie, Centrum für Biotechnologie, Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany
    J Bacteriol 194:3199-215. 2012

Detail Information

Publications282 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A diphtheria outbreak in Assam, India
    Lahari Saikia
    Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh 786002, Assam, India
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41:647-52. 2010
    Between May and July 2009 there was a small outbreak of diphtheria in adults in Assam, India, with 13 confirmed cases, 8 males and 5 females. The mean age of the confirmed patients was 21.8 +/- 10.5 years...
  2. pmc Poor immune responses to a birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine
    Natasha B Halasa
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    J Pediatr 153:327-32. 2008
    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an additional birth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP).
  3. ncbi Resurgence of diphtheria in the vaccination era
    N Khan
    Indian J Med Microbiol 25:434. 2007
  4. ncbi Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported b
    Katrina Kretsinger
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 55:1-37. 2006
    On June 10, 2005, a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) formulated for use in adults and adolescents was licensed in the United States for persons aged 11-64 years (ADACEL, manufactured by ..
  5. ncbi Transplacental transport of IgG antibodies specific for pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C is lower in preterm compared with term infants
    Jolice P van den Berg
    Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:801-5. 2010
    ....
  6. ncbi A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use
    K S Wagner
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 28:14-20. 2009
    b>Diphtheria treatment requires early administration of diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), an immunoglobulin preparation that neutralises circulating diphtheria toxin...
  7. ncbi Cellular immunity as a potential cause of local reactions to booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis antigens
    David W Scheifele
    Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:985-9. 2009
    Booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines restore waning serum antibody values but frequently cause local inflammation...
  8. pmc Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: reemergence of a pandemic disease
    C R Vitek
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 4:539-50. 1998
    The massive reemergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union marked the first large-scale diphtheria epidemic in industrialized countries in 3 decades...
  9. ncbi Antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis among healthy adults vaccinated according to the French vaccination recommendations
    Odile Launay
    Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Hum Vaccin 5:341-6. 2009
    ..sero-epidemiological study, we investigated humoral immunity to three vaccine-preventable diseases--tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis--among 331 adults (aged 18-60 years) attending vaccination centres for travellers and who had been ..
  10. pmc Pangenomic study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that provides insights into the genomic diversity of pathogenic isolates from cases of classical diphtheria, endocarditis, and pneumonia
    Eva Trost
    Institut für Genomforschung und Systembiologie, Centrum für Biotechnologie, Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany
    J Bacteriol 194:3199-215. 2012
    ..diphtheriae is one of the most prominent human pathogens and the causative agent of the communicable disease diphtheria. The genomes of 12 strains isolated from patients with classical diphtheria, endocarditis, and pneumonia were ..
  11. ncbi A 5-year follow-up on antibody response after diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in hemodialysis patients
    S Kruger
    Institute of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and Department of Internal Medicine I, Medical University Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Am J Kidney Dis 38:1264-70. 2001
    ..An impaired vaccination response rate has been reported for vaccines against hepatitis B, influenza, tetanus, diphtheria, and others...
  12. ncbi Tdap5 vaccine (Covaxis): a review of its use as a single-booster immunization for the prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in children (aged 4 years), adolescents, and adults
    Lesley J Scott
    Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, Auckland, New Zealand
    BioDrugs 24:387-406. 2010
    Covaxis (also licensed as Triaxis or Adacel in individual countries) is a combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, five component acellular pertussis (namely detoxified pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and ..
  13. ncbi Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate
    Mario T Schellenberger
    Institute of Immunology, LNS CRP Santé, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 240:37-45. 2009
    ..develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine...
  14. ncbi Predictors of outcome in patients with diphtheria receiving intensive care
    M Jayashree
    Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India
    Indian Pediatr 43:155-60. 2006
    Forty eight patients with a clinical diagnosis of diphtheria, admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital, from December 1994 to 2002, were analyzed retrospectively with respect to demographic ..
  15. ncbi Successful control of epidemic diphtheria in the states of the Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: lessons learned
    S Dittmann
    International Immunization Consulting, 12681 Berlin, Germany
    J Infect Dis 181:S10-22. 2000
    Epidemic diphtheria reemerged in the Russian Federation in 1990 and spread to all Newly Independent States (NIS) and Baltic States by the end of 1994...
  16. ncbi The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in the vaccine era
    A Galazka
    National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
    J Infect Dis 181:S2-9. 2000
    The epidemic of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union has drawn attention to our incomplete understanding of the epidemiology of diphtheria...
  17. ncbi Decennial administration of a reduced antigen content diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine in young adults
    Jussi Mertsola
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Clin Infect Dis 51:656-62. 2010
    Booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria at 10-year intervals is commonly recommended...
  18. ncbi Classical diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in Germany: amino acid sequence differences between diphtheria toxins from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans
    Andreas Sing
    Clin Infect Dis 40:325-6. 2005
  19. ncbi Microneedle arrays for the transcutaneous immunization of diphtheria and influenza in BALB/c mice
    Z Ding
    Department of Drug Delivery Technology, Leiden Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Control Release 136:71-8. 2009
    ..Here we investigated in mouse the immune responses after TCI using two model antigens, diphtheria toxoid (DT) and influenza subunit vaccine...
  20. ncbi Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in German blood donors
    Arne Aue
    Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Med Microbiol Immunol 192:93-7. 2003
    After the recent diphtheria epidemics in Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, we re-evaluated the diphtheria and tetanus immunity of 321 German blood donors (192 men and 129 women)...
  21. pmc Age-specific seroprevalence of poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies in Spain
    I Pachón
    National Centre for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Public Health, Madrid, Spain
    Epidemiol Infect 129:535-41. 2002
    ..in Spain, with the main aim of estimating the population's immunity against poliomyelitis, tetanus and diphtheria. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, covering the population aged 2-39 years...
  22. ncbi A modified vaccine reduces the rate of large injection site reactions to the preschool booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine: results of a randomized, controlled trial
    David W Scheifele
    Canadian Association for Immunization Research and Evaluation CAIRE and the Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:1059-66. 2005
    Large injection site reactions commonly follow booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines at 4-6 years of age. A vaccine with lower diphtheria and pertussis dosage (Tdap) might be better tolerated for this dose...
  23. ncbi Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccines given separately or combined for booster dosing at 4-6 years of age
    Steven Black
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:341-6. 2008
    In the United States, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and inactivated poliovirus (IPV) booster vaccinations are recommended for children 4-6 years of age...
  24. ncbi Self-reported history of vaccination and disease and immunity against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella among Spanish military recruits
    Alejandro Arteaga
    Unidad de Docencia e Investigacion en Medicina Preventiva y Salud Publica, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Alcorcon, Madrid, Spain
    Hum Vaccin 6:198-201. 2010
    This study aims to evaluate the immune status against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella in military recruits and the validity of self-reporting of their disease and vaccination history...
  25. ncbi Implications of the diphtheria epidemic in the Former Soviet Union for immunization programs
    A Galazka
    National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
    J Infect Dis 181:S244-8. 2000
    The massive diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union provides important lessons for all diphtheria immunization programs: It is important to achieve a high level of childhood immunization, maintain immunity against diphtheria in ..
  26. ncbi Serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in the United States
    Geraldine M McQuillan
    Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    Ann Intern Med 136:660-6. 2002
    ..Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccine are useful to evaluate the success of immunization programs and to identify susceptible subgroups...
  27. pmc Nontoxigenic corynebacterium diphtheriae: an emerging pathogen in England and Wales?
    M Reacher
    Public Health Laboratory Service, London, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 6:640-5. 2000
    ..K. or non-U.K. residents. The upward trend in nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae probably represented increased ascertainment, although dissemination of a particular strain or clone may have been a factor...
  28. ncbi Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b
    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins
    Assessoria Clínica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103:711-8. 2008
    ..double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and ..
  29. ncbi Epidemiology of three cases of severe diphtheria in Finnish patients with low antitoxin antibody levels
    J Lumio
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Finland
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:705-10. 2001
    During the 1990-1998 diphtheria epidemic in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, more than 150,000 infections and 5,000 deaths occurred...
  30. ncbi Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil
    M I S Dinelli
    Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Pedro de Toledo 781, 04039 032 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 40:259-63. 2007
    Tetanus and diphtheria vaccines are of special concern in adolescents because boosters are necessary for adequate maintenance of protection and are often omitted...
  31. pmc Preventing the preventable through effective surveillance: the case of diphtheria in a rural district of Maharashtra, India
    Revati K Phalkey
    Institute of Public Health Former Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg D 69120, Germany
    BMC Public Health 13:317. 2013
    Epidemic diphtheria is still poorly understood and continues to challenge both developing and developed countries...
  32. ncbi Diphtheritic polyneuropathy: clinical analysis of severe forms
    M A Piradov
    Institute of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Volokolamskoye Shosse 80, 123367 Moscow, Russia
    Arch Neurol 58:1438-42. 2001
    Diphtheritic polyneuropathy (DP) is a dangerous complication of diphtheria, especially its severe forms with bulbar, respiratory tract, and circulatory disturbances...
  33. ncbi Diphtheria in Thailand in the 1990s
    P Tharmaphornpilas
    Field Epidemiology Training Program, Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    J Infect Dis 184:1035-40. 2001
    b>Diphtheria remains endemic in developing countries, but there are limited published data on the subject. Thailand's diphtheria surveillance data are relatively complete and may give a fuller picture of the situation in similar countries...
  34. pmc Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the adult tetanus-diphtheria vaccine. How many doses are necessary?
    J M Bayas
    Adult Vaccination Center, Preventive Medicine Department, UASP IDIBAPS, Clinic Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
    Epidemiol Infect 127:451-60. 2001
    The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the tetanus-diphtheria adult type vaccine was compared in two groups: group I (n = 201, 18-30 years old, presumably vaccinated with the DTP vaccine) and group II (n = 147, > or = 45 years old, ..
  35. ncbi Comparative seroepidemiology of diphtheria in six European countries and Israel
    P Di Giovine
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Epidemiol Infect 141:132-42. 2013
    Serological surveys for diphtheria were conducted in six European countries including Czech Republic, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Slovakia and one country outside Europe, Israel...
  36. ncbi Re-emergence of diphtheria and pertussis: implications for Nigeria
    A E Sadoh
    Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
    Vaccine 30:7221-8. 2012
    In the prevaccine era pertussis and diphtheria were responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children...
  37. pmc Molecular characterization of diphtheria toxin repressor (dtxR) genes present in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated in the United Kingdom
    Aruni De Zoysa
    Respiratory and Systemic Infection Laboratory, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:223-8. 2005
    ..diphtheriae strains if they possessed functional diphtheria toxin repressor (dtxR) genes. We studied the predominant strain of nontoxigenic C...
  38. ncbi Differences in persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between children with rheumatic disease and healthy controls: a retrospective cross-sectional study
    Marloes W Heijstek
    Department of Paediatric Immunology, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann Rheum Dis 71:948-54. 2012
    To compare the persistence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies between patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and healthy controls.
  39. ncbi Vaccination of adults 65 years of age and older with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)): results of two randomized trials
    Wayde M Weston
    GSK Biologicals, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA
    Vaccine 30:1721-8. 2012
    ..Pertussis can cause significant morbidity in elderly patients, who can also transmit this disease to infants and young children. There is little data available on the use of acellular pertussis vaccines in recipients ≥65 years of age...
  40. pmc Assessment of serologic immunity to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis after treatment of Korean pediatric hematology and oncology patients
    Hyo Jin Kwon
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 27:78-83. 2012
    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients...
  41. ncbi Clinical study of transcutaneous vaccination using a hydrogel patch for tetanus and diphtheria
    Sachiko Hirobe
    Laboratory of Biotechnology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1 6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Vaccine 30:1847-54. 2012
    ..present study, we performed a clinical study to apply our TCI formulation for vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria in human...
  42. pmc Diphtheria in the postepidemic period, Europe, 2000-2009
    Karen S Wagner
    Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:217-25. 2012
    b>Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere...
  43. ncbi Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine
    A Tomovici
    Sanofi Pasteur Limited, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3T4, Canada
    Vaccine 30:2647-53. 2012
    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier ..
  44. ncbi Comparative seroepidemiology of pertussis, diphtheria and poliovirus antibodies in Singapore: waning pertussis immunity in a highly immunized population and the need for adolescent booster doses
    F Y Lai
    Public Health Group, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Singapore
    Vaccine 30:3566-71. 2012
    We assessed the seroepidemiology of pertussis, diphtheria and poliovirus antibodies in a cohort of highly immunized children, together with the burden of these diseases in Singapore.
  45. ncbi Diphtheria remains a threat to health in the developing world--an overview
    Ana Luiza Mattos-Guaraldi
    Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av 28 de setembro 87, fundos, 3o andar, 20551 030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98:987-93. 2003
    Changes in the epidemiology of diphtheria are occurring worldwide. A large proportion of adults in many industrialized and developing countries are now susceptible to diphtheria...
  46. ncbi Importance of timing of maternal combined tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization and protection of young infants
    C Mary Healy
    Center for Vaccine Awareness and Research, Texas Children s Hospital, Houston, Texas
    Clin Infect Dis 56:539-44. 2013
    ..Pertussis booster vaccine (Tdap) recommendations assume that pertussis-specific antibodies in women immunized preconception, during, or after previous pregnancies persist at sufficient levels to protect newborn infants...
  47. ncbi Short-term booster effect of diphtheria toxoid in initially long-term protected individuals
    Elena Danilova
    Institute of Medicine, Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Norway
    Vaccine 23:1446-50. 2005
    ..of this study was to investigate the booster antibody response in individuals with initially high levels of diphtheria antitoxin...
  48. ncbi Spotlight on Tdap₅ vaccine (Covaxis®) as a single-booster immunization for the prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis: in children (aged ≥4 years), adolescents, and adults
    Lesley J Scott
    Adis, a Wolters Kluwer Business, 41 Centorian Drive, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, New Zealand
    Paediatr Drugs 13:133-5. 2011
    ..e. combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, five component acellular pertussis [namely detoxified pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, ..
  49. ncbi Immunity to diphtheria among refugees in southern Italy
    Maria Chironna
    Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health Hygiene Section, University of Bari, Policlinico Piazza G Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy
    Vaccine 21:3157-61. 2003
    This study assessed the immune status against diphtheria of a sample of refugees (mainly Kosovars and Kurds) in southern Italy (Puglia). The 54.8% of 1128 subjects showed full protection against diphtheria, 30...
  50. ncbi Diphtheria, pertussis, and measles in Portugal before and after mass vaccination: a time series analysis
    M C Gomes
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Portugal
    Eur J Epidemiol 15:791-8. 1999
    Techniques of time series analysis were used to examine historical records of the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, and measles, and of deaths by measles in Portugal during the twentieth century...
  51. ncbi Diphtheria immunization rates and the effect of several sociodemographic factors on immunization of children in eastern Turkey
    Arik Adem
    Departments of Pediatrics, Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey
    Pediatr Int 45:461-6. 2003
    One of the aims of the World Health Organization is to eliminate diphtheria in all countries. Thus, it is important to achieve a high level of childhood immunization...
  52. ncbi Induction of systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice immunized intranasally with aluminium-non-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid together with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant
    M Isaka
    Department of Microbiology, Nagoya City University Medical School, Mizuho ku, Nagoya, Japan
    Vaccine 18:743-51. 1999
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of changing the immunization procedure of diphtheria toxoid (DT) from intramuscular or subcutaneous injection to intranasal administration...
  53. ncbi Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of three-dose primary and booster vaccination with combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-reduced antigen content Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Filipino children
    Salvacion R Gatchalian
    Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, DOH Compound, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines
    Hum Vaccin 6:664-72. 2010
    ..To evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2.5 vaccine containing low thiomersal and reduced quantities of Hib polysaccharide (PRP)...
  54. ncbi Are we hitting immunity targets? The 2006 age-specific seroprevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus in Belgium
    H Theeten
    Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Epidemiol Infect 139:494-504. 2011
    ..Immunoglobulins against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and diphtheria at all available ages (1-65 years), and against tetanus in >40-year-olds, were measured by ELISA...
  55. ncbi Reactogenicity of meningococcal C conjugate vaccines when administered at the same time as, or a month prior to or after, tetanus and diphtheria booster vaccinations
    Jo Southern
    Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, Colindale, London, UK
    Hum Vaccin 2:237-42. 2006
    This single blind study was conducted to address safety concerns regarding coadministration of diphtheria/ tetanus (DT,Td) boosters and meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccines containing diphtheria or tetanus conjugate proteins.
  56. ncbi Seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis and diphtheria among healthy adults in China
    Qi Zhang
    Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, State Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 5, Changping, Beijing 102206, PR China
    J Infect 63:441-6. 2011
    ..In China, booster vaccinations against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis are not used in adults, and little is known about pertussis incidence in the age group...
  57. ncbi Fatal case of diphtheria in an unvaccinated infant in Finland
    Jukka Lumio
    Tampere University Hospital, PO Box 2000, FIN 33521 Tampere, Finland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:844-6. 2003
  58. ncbi [Adverse events following diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccinations and factors associated with severity]
    Fabiana Ramos Martin de Freitas
    Programa de Pós Graduação, Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo
    Rev Saude Publica 41:1032-41. 2007
    To analyze adverse events following vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (AEFV-DPT) and to investigate factors associated with event severity.
  59. ncbi Diphtheria: the patch remains
    Raj Nandi
    Department of Otolaryngology, The Princess Margaret Hospital, Swindon, UK
    J Laryngol Otol 117:807-10. 2003
    This study analysed the number of patients admitted with diphtheria to a teaching hospital in the state of Assam in India over a period of five years and compared the disease characteristics and management with outcomes and incidences of ..
  60. ncbi Anti-diphtheria antibody seroprotection rates are similar 10 years after vaccination with dTpa or DTPa using a mathematical model
    Brigitte Cheuvart
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rue de l Institut 89, B 1330 Rixensart, Belgium
    Vaccine 23:336-42. 2004
    The reduced antigen content diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (dTpa) vaccine (Boostrixtrade mark) has been shown to induce a strong booster response to all the vaccine components in 4-6 year olds...
  61. ncbi Oral vaccination against diphtheria using polyacryl starch microparticles as adjuvant
    Niclas Rydell
    Department of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutics, University of Uppsala, P O Box 580, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    Vaccine 22:1265-74. 2004
    ..This study investigated the use of polyacryl starch microparticles as adjuvant for oral vaccination against diphtheria. Diphtheria toxin or cross-reacting material (CRM197) were covalently conjugated to the microparticles and fed ..
  62. ncbi Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin
    Niclas Rydell
    Department of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutics, University of Uppsala, P O Box 580, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Vaccine 23:2775-83. 2005
    ..In this investigation, polyacryl starch microparticles were conjugated to diphtheria toxin cross-reacting material (CRM197) as a mucosal adjuvant for oral or intranasal immunisation of mice...
  63. pmc Immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of diphtheria toxin: description and multicenter evaluation in areas of low and high prevalence of diphtheria
    K H Engler
    Central Public Health Laboratory, Public Health Laboratory Service, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 40:80-3. 2002
    An immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test was developed for the detection of diphtheria toxin by using an equine polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for fragment A of the ..
  64. pmc Corynebacterium ulcerans Diphtheria in Japan
    Akio Hatanaka
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:752-3. 2003
  65. ncbi Acellular pertussis vaccine boosters combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid boosters for adolescents: safety and immunogenicity assessment when preceded by different 5-dose DTaP/DTwP schedules
    Michael E Pichichero
    Microbiology and Immunology, Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 672, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 45:613-20. 2006
    A sixth dose of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adolescents might produce a differing reactogenicity and/or immunogenicity response depending on the composition of the 5 prior doses of DTaP or DT-whole cell ..
  66. ncbi Respiratory diphtheria among highly vaccinated military trainees in Latvia: improved protection from DT compared with Td booster vaccination
    Chima Ohuabunwo
    National Environmental Health Center, Riga, Latvia
    Scand J Infect Dis 37:813-20. 2005
    An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred among highly-vaccinated trainees at a Latvian military academy in August-September 2000...
  67. pmc Attitudes of US obstetricians toward a combined tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine for adults
    Sarah J Clark
    Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2006:87040. 2006
    To describe obstetricians' perspectives related to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of mothers and other adults in close contact with infants.
  68. ncbi Diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antibody values in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) after treatment according to Co-ALL 05/92
    G Calaminus
    Department for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Muenster
    Klin Padiatr 219:355-60. 2007
    ..b>Diphtheria (D) and Tetanus (T) antibodies are known to appear within 3 to 6 months after end of treatment as a sign of ..
  69. ncbi A study on the protection of hemodialysis patients against diphtheria and tetanus
    Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb
    Shiraz University of Medical Science, Internal Medicine Department, Shiraz, Iran
    Ren Fail 31:904-9. 2009
    ..We found out that only 16% of our hemodialysis patients were immune to diphtheria (19% of the control group), and this rate for tetanus was 24% (48.2% in the healthy control)...
  70. ncbi Lack of serologic immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in children after thoracic transplantation
    Simon Urschel
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Intensive Care, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Transpl Int 23:619-27. 2010
    ..We found protective antibody levels against diphtheria in 74% of patients, against tetanus in 22%, against Haemophilus influenzae type b in 30% and against ..
  71. pmc The changing age structure of diphtheria patients: evidence for the effectiveness of EPI in the Sudan
    B P Loevinsohn
    Expanded Programme on Immunization, Ministry of Health, Sudan
    Bull World Health Organ 68:353-7. 1990
    During an outbreak of diphtheria in Khartoum, Sudan, in 1988, only 19.1% of patients admitted to hospital were under 5 years of age...
  72. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of diphtheria
    T Popovic
    Epidemic Investigations Laboratory, Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:S168-77. 2000
    ..Molecular analysis revealed that no amino acid substitutions have occurred in the diphtheria toxin gene of the epidemic clone strains, reaffirming the use of the current vaccine as the single most ..
  73. ncbi An increase in non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections in Poland--molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains isolated from past outbreaks and those currently circulating in Poland
    Aleksandra Anna Zasada
    Department of Bacteriology, National Institute of Public Heath National Institute of Hygiene, Chocimska 24, 00 791 Warsaw, Poland
    Int J Infect Dis 14:e907-12. 2010
    ..diphtheriae strains isolated from infections that have occurred over recent years and C. diphtheriae strains isolated from diphtheria cases from past outbreaks in Poland.
  74. ncbi Humoral immunity to diphtheria, tetanus, measles, and hemophilus influenzae type b in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and response to re-vaccination
    Emine Zengin
    Department of Pediatric Hematology, Kocaeli University, School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 53:967-72. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)...
  75. pmc Immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in adults
    Jung Hyun Choi
    Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 25:1727-32. 2010
    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus (Td) vaccine in adults over 40 yr old who had never received a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination...
  76. ncbi A study on determinants of occurrence of complications and fatality among diphtheria cases admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata
    Haldar Anima
    Department of Community Medicine, Burdwan Medical College
    J Commun Dis 40:53-8. 2008
    This was a hospital-based case series study of diphtheria patients admitted to ID & BG Hospital of Kolkata from May 2004 to April 2005. A total of 107 patients were included in the study...
  77. pmc Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS (®)) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio (®)) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age
    Vincent Gajdos
    Pediatric Department, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Clamart Cedex, Universite Paris, France
    Hum Vaccin 7:549-56. 2011
    ..comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to ..
  78. ncbi Resurgence of diphtheria in Malegaon & Dhule regions of north Maharashtra
    M N Dravid
    Indian J Med Res 127:616-7. 2008
  79. ncbi Administration of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine to parents of high-risk infants in the neonatal intensive care unit
    Andrew M Dylag
    Stony Brook University Medical Center, Health Sciences Center Tower, 11th Floor, 060, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Pediatrics 122:e550-5. 2008
    Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination is recommended for adults who are in contact with infants who are younger than 12 months and in the NICU...
  80. ncbi Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Boostrix®): a review of its properties and use as a single-dose booster immunization
    Paul L McCormack
    Adis, Auckland, New Zealand
    Drugs 72:1765-91. 2012
    Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap; Boostrix®) is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in individuals from age four years onwards in ..
  81. ncbi Bacteriological & epidemiological characteristics of diphtheria cases in & around Delhi -a retrospective study
    N C Sharma
    Laboratory Department, Maharishi Valmiki Infectious Diseases Hospital, Delhi, India
    Indian J Med Res 126:545-52. 2007
    b>Diphtheria infections caused by the different toxigenic biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are endemic in Delhi. Information on biochemical identification, toxigenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility to this bacterium is scanty...
  82. ncbi An open-label, randomized, multicenter study of the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine given concomitantly with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis vaccine in healthy adol
    Timo Vesikari
    Vaccine Research Centre, University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:314-8. 2010
    ..In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of GARDASIL administered concomitantly with REPEVAX (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and poliomyelitis vaccine).
  83. ncbi Epidemiology and control of diphtheria in the Republic of Moldova, 1946-1996
    M Magdei
    Director General s Office, Ministry of Health, National Scientific and Practical Center for Preventive Medicine, Chisinau, Moldova
    J Infect Dis 181:S47-54. 2000
    In 1994-1996, the Republic of Moldova was stricken with an epidemic of diphtheria after >30 years of routine diphtheria immunization and the near absence of the disease for nearly 20 years...
  84. ncbi Diphtheria in the eighties: experience in a south Indian district hospital
    P V Havaldar
    Department of Paediatrics, JN Medical College, Belgaum
    J Indian Med Assoc 90:155-6. 1992
    Epidemiological and clinical analysis of 228 cases of diphtheria treated during a 10-year period from 1980-1989 is presented. No statistically significant change in the incidence over a decade was noticed. A high percentage of cases (44...
  85. ncbi Control of diphtheria: guidance for consultants in communicable disease control. World Health Organization
    J M Bonnet
    Brent and Harrow Health Authority, London
    Commun Dis Public Health 2:242-9. 1999
    These guidelines for the control and management of diphtheria are intended for consultants in communicable disease control and regional epidemiologists in England and Wales...
  86. pmc Screening and toxigenic corynebacteria spread
    Natasha S Crowcroft
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:520-1. 2006
  87. ncbi Diphtheria among alcoholic urban adults. A decade of experience in Seattle
    J P Harnisch
    Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington
    Ann Intern Med 111:71-82. 1989
    ..001), and were significantly correlated with ages 60 years or more. Preferential use of erythromycin for diphtheria and pyodermas preceded plasmid-mediated resistance to erythromycin in C. diphtheriae...
  88. pmc International external quality assurance for laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria
    S E Neal
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Diphtheria and Streptococcal Infections, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 47:4037-42. 2009
    The diphtheria surveillance network (DIPNET) encompassing National Diphtheria Reference Centers from 25 European countries is a Dedicated Surveillance Network recognized by the European Commission...
  89. ncbi Seroprevalence and determinants of diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis antibodies among adults in Berlin, Germany
    K Stark
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
    Vaccine 17:844-50. 1999
    The immunity levels against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis were investigated among blood donors (n = 2079) in Berlin...
  90. pmc Persistence of diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003-2006
    Sailaja Bitragunta
    National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India and Fever Hospital, Hyderabad, India
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1144-6. 2008
    During 2003-2006, diphtheria rates in Hyderabad, India, were higher among persons 5-19 years of age, women, and Muslims than among other groups. Vaccine was efficacious among those who received >/=4 doses...
  91. pmc Significant systemic and mucosal immune response induced on oral delivery of diphtheria toxoid using nano-bilosomes
    Anshuman Shukla
    Drug Delivery Research Group, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences UGC Centre of Advanced Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
    Br J Pharmacol 164:820-7. 2011
    Over the last decade apprehension has been growing over the effectiveness of existing parenteral vaccines for diphtheria and has created an interest in the development of a mucosally active vaccine...
  92. pmc Protective levels of diphtheria-neutralizing antibody induced in healthy volunteers by unilateral priming-boosting intranasal immunization associated with restricted ipsilateral mucosal secretory immunoglobulin a
    Kingston H G Mills
    Immune Regulation Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Infect Immun 71:726-32. 2003
    ..Using the genetically inactivated mutant diphtheria toxoid CRM(197) in a bioadhesive polycationic polysaccharide chitosan delivery system, we found that a single ..
  93. ncbi Diphtheria in the United Kingdom, 1986-2008: the increasing role of Corynebacterium ulcerans
    K S Wagner
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1519-30. 2010
    b>Diphtheria is an uncommon disease in the UK due to an effective immunization programme; consequently when cases do arise, there can be delays in diagnosis and case-fatality rates remain high...
  94. ncbi Risk of diphtheria among schoolchildren in the Russian Federation in relation to time since last vaccination
    C R Vitek
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Lancet 353:355-8. 1999
    Between 1990 and 1996, more than 110,000 cases and 2900 deaths from diphtheria were reported in the Russian Federation...
  95. pmc Human clinical isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans collected in Canada from 1999 to 2003 but not fitting reporting criteria for cases of diphtheria
    Leanne M Dewinter
    National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3R2
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3447-9. 2005
    ..diphtheriae as a serious blood-borne pathogen. Seven percent of C. diphtheriae and 100% of C. ulcerans isolates produced diphtheria toxin, demonstrating that toxigenic corynebacteria continue to circulate.
  96. ncbi Investigations of 2 cases of diphtheria-like illness due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans
    Tejpratap S P Tiwari
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:395-401. 2008
    We present 2 case reports in the United States and investigations of diphtheria-like illness caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans...
  97. ncbi Epidemic diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union: implications for diphtheria control in the United States
    A Golaz
    Child Vaccine Preventable Disease Branch, Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:S237-43. 2000
    The re-emergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union in the 1990s raised global awareness of the potential for resurgent disease in countries with long-standing immunization programs...
  98. ncbi Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary immunization with a hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine coadministered with two doses of a meningococcal C-tetanus toxoid conjug
    Juan C Tejedor
    Mostoles Hospital, Madrid, Spain
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:713-20. 2006
    ....
  99. ncbi Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India
    Sonal Saxena
    Associate Professor, Flat No 6, Deluxe Apartments, B 5, Vasundhara Enclave, Delhi 110096, India
    Trop Doct 39:160-3. 2009
    Widespread childhood immunization with DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) has largely eradicated diphtheria and tetanus from many countries...
  100. ncbi Diphtheria toxin IgG levels in military and civilian blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    F A B Speranza
    Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 43:120-3. 2010
    ..In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30...
  101. ncbi The diphtheria and pertussis components of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine should be genetically inactivated mutant toxins
    John B Robbins
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:81-8. 2005
    ..of cellular with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines has considerably reduced the systemic reactions observed with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine but has not eliminated the extensive swelling (sometimes involving an entire ..

Research Grants72

  1. Mechanism of Translation Elongation Factor 2 Inhibition by Bacterial Toxins
    Terri Goss Kinzy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Toxins produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria toxin) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (exotoxin A) both result in host cell death by the inhibition of protein synthesis...
  2. The Role of Fibrocytes in Liver Fibrosis
    Tatiana Kisseleva; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ablation of fibrocytes in vivo is achieved by overexpression of Diphtheria toxin-a (DTA) or receptor (DTR) in Collagen-a1(I)+CD45+ fibrocytes...
  3. CONTROL OF BACTERIAL TOXINS BY VIRUSES AND PLASMIDS
    Randall K Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Diphtheria, which re-emerged as a major epidemic disease in Russia andthe Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union during the 1990s, is a paradigm for toxin-mediated bacterial disease...
  4. Developing diagnostic and therapeutic stem cells for cancer therapy
    Khalid A Shah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..collaboration with Rich lab (B&W Hospital, Boston) and engineer MSC expressing EGFR-NB and IL13R-targeted Diphtheria toxin (DT) which is known to induce cell death by inhibition of protein synthesis through ADP-ribosylation of ..
  5. Toxoid adjuvant CRM197 production in a stable reduced genome E. coli strain
    Frederick R Blattner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this Phase I project the advantages of the system will be applied to production of a diphtheria toxoid known as CRM197...
  6. Neurogenic inflammation and psoriasiform dermatitis
    NICOLE LEANNE WARD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..designed to compartmentalize skin specific immunomodulatory responses utilizing T cell-deficient mice and diphtheria toxin receptor inducible DC-depleted mice coupled to SP- and CGRP-receptor deficient mice...
  7. Role of Cytokine-Induced Inflammation in Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes
    Michael A Hill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxin induced deletion of macrophages (db/db x CD11b-DTR;this is a mouse model which expresses the human diphtheria toxin receptor [DTR] under the control of the CD11b promoter...
  8. Diphthamide biosynthesis
    Hening Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..residue (but not the unmodified histidine residue) is specifically recognized by bacterial toxins, including diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A...
  9. Immunotoxicity in Humans with Lifetime Exposure to Ocean Pullutants
    PHILIPPE ADAM GRANDJEAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The investigators will also determine the immune response in adults aged 28 to a booster dose (diphtheria and tetanus) and to vaccination with new antigens (hepatitis A and B)...
  10. Stem/progenitor cells of the chondrocyte and osteoblast lineage in vivo
    Noriaki Ono; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..understand the role of these cells during skeletal development, the CreERt mice will be crossed with inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR) mice...
  11. Validity of Self-Reported Adult Vaccination Status
    SHARON L ROLNICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many of the vaccinations, such as tetanus/diphtheria, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and the hepatitis A and hepatitis B series, may have been administered 10-..
  12. Research on inhalation toxicology of environmental chemicals
    ROBERT O'CONNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..smoke), and approximately 7 biological compounds (lipopolysaccharide, cancer stem cells, dendritic cells, diphtheria toxin, hyaluronan binding protein, liposomes, house dust extract)...
  13. Novel transgenic reporter/deleter allele for Type I taste cells
    Sue Kinnamon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further, we will develop the methodology to specifically ablate type I taste cells, using the diphtheria toxin receptor targeted to Type I taste cells...
  14. New Thoughts on Parietal Epithelial Cells
    Stuart Shankland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Podocyte apoptosis and thus loss will be induced in two mouse models (diphtheria-toxin receptor specifically in podocytes;anti-podocyte antibody)...
  15. Identifying Host-Factors Required for Toxin Entry and Toxicity
    ERIK HETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Many bacterial pathogens produce toxins that cause serious disease including cholera, tetanus, botulism, diphtheria, and anthrax and often share key steps in cell entry and cell death processes that rely on host proteins...
  16. Functional Connectivity of the Hypocretin/Orexin System
    Thomas S Kilduff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lastly, we will exploit a newly created transgenic mouse in which conditional expression of diphtheria toxin A (DTA) occurs specifically in Hcrt neurons to establish and validate a novel mouse model of human ..
  17. CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS: CENTRAL CARDIOVASCULAR CONTROL
    Arthur D Loewy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cell ablation experiments in which the HSD2-containing of the NTS neurons will be selectively destroyed with diphtheria toxin, and then, these rats will be tested for salt and water intake...
  18. Mechanisms of Acceptance in Mouse Renal Allografts
    Robert B Colvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acceptance of MHC-mismatched mouse renal allografts was shown to depend exquisitely on Foxp3 cells using diphtheria toxin (DT) to transiently deplete circulating and intragraft Foxp3 cells in B6...
  19. Hair Cell Regeneration: Molecular Regulation
    Jennifer S Stone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a new transgenic mouse (Pou4f3DTR) in which selective hair cell loss can be induced by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT)...
  20. Role of B-cells and CNS antibodies in modulating chronic microglial activation
    James R Lokensgard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The final set of experiments will use Foxp3 promoter-GFP- and Foxp3-DTR (diphtheria toxin receptor) expressing transgenic animals to investigate how Breg cells promote CD4(+) lymphocyte transition ..
  21. Identification, Development and Function of Rapidly Adapting Mechanoreceptors
    Wenqin Luo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, I propose to develop new tactile discrimination behavior assays and a somatosensory neuron specific diphtheria toxin (DTA) mouse line to test the in vivo functions of RA mechaoreceptors during tactile discrimination...
  22. Serotonergic modulation of claustro-cortical circuits
    Jay A Gingrich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test whether these tools can be used to ablate CL neurons with diphtheria toxin as the simplest way to target CL function...
  23. Mechanisms of Ischemic Kidney Injury and Repair
    JOSEPH VINCENT BONVENTRE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore primary damage to the PT using transgenic animals expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor leads to inflammation, fibrosis, vascular rarefaction and glomerulosclerosis...
  24. Role of the Hippo Pathway in Pancreas Development
    Nicholas George; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using an inducible model of Diphtheria toxin-mediated Beta-cell destruction, we will test the effect of Yap knockout on Beta-cell recovery...
  25. Tanycytes and Nonthyroidal Illness
    RONALD MICHAEL LECHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ablate alpha and/or beta n vivo by developing double transgenic mice after crossing with a Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mouse line...
  26. Immunization Delivery in Obstetrics and Gynecology Settings
    Amanda F Dempsey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..there are two newer vaccines available that are of major import for younger women of reproductive age, tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) and Human Papilloma Virus vaccine (HPV)...
  27. Antigen processing of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
    John R Schreiber; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Using the seven valent Pn capsular PS that is covalently linked to CRM197 (a non toxic form of diphtheria toxin) that is widely used in the United States, we have found that the PS transits the APC with the carrier ..
  28. Oxytocin and Oxytocin Neurons in the Hypothalamic Regulation of Feeding
    Bassil M Kublaoui; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cross Oxt-cre and Oxt-ires-cre mice with iDTR mice, which will be used to specifically ablate Oxt neurons using diphtheria toxin...
  29. Cell-Cell Interactions In The Retinal Vasculature
    PATRICIA ANN D'AMORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A transgenic model in which diphtheria toxin is used to selectively delete pericytes will serve as a positive control...
  30. Perivascular macrophages endothelial interactions at the blood labyrinth barrier
    Xiao Rui Shi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The transgenic mice encode a diphtheria toxin receptor providing a system for transient depletion of PVMs...
  31. Training Grant Pediatric Infectious Diseases: Viral Infections in Children
    Yvonne A Maldonado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Infections such as diphtheria, peri:ussis, and tetanus, now largely unseen even in developing areas of the world, were major killers before ..
  32. Interplay Between Pathogenic and Regulatory T Cells in EAE
    Estelle Bettelli; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..generated an IL-17F RFP/DTR mouse in which Th17 cells can be deleted at any given time through the injection of diphtheria toxin and we will be able to determine the role of Th17 at different stages of the disease...
  33. Adaptive immunity against Pneumocystis
    Chad Steele; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..murina infection. In other studies, employing CD19-DTR mice, which are CD19-Cre mice crossed with Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice, we found that CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses were attenuated in the lymph ..
  34. Identification, Development and Function of Rapidly Adapting Mechanoreceptors
    Wenqin Luo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, I propose to develop new tactile discrimination behavior assays and a somatosensory neuron specific diphtheria toxin (DTA) mouse line to test the in vivo functions of RA mechaoreceptors during tactile descrimination...
  35. Modulation of Dopaminergic VTA Neurons by Urotensin II
    STEWART DONALDSON CLARK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The candidate has also shown utility of a fusion of diphtheria toxin with Ull...
  36. Immune Induction to Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2
    Akiko Iwasaki; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in which the promoter region of the CD301b gene, specifically expressed by the SMDCs, will be used to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor- GFP fusion molecule...
  37. Kisspeptin/Kiss1r in the Female Neuroendocrine Axis
    Robert A Steiner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GFP and tdTomato for recording in slice preparations;2) ablate specific neurons through the use of selective diphtheria toxin receptor expression;3) map the afferent inputs to Kiss1 neurons with retrograde tracing by introducing a ..
  38. Development of a Novel RA/Atherosclerosis Mouse Model
    HARRIS R PERLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An adoptive transfer model in which macrophages are specifically depleted using a CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor construct will be used to test whether macrophages are required for the development of arthritis ..
  39. Modeling HTLV-1 infection and cellular immune response in HLA-A2-transgenic mice
    Zafar K Khan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Murine cells, unlike simian and human cells, are generally refractive to diphtheria toxin (DT)...
  40. T lymphocyte-induced glial activation during CNS immune reconstitution disease
    James R Lokensgard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will employ Foxp3-DTR (diphtheria toxin receptor) expressing transgenic mice to determine the effect of depleting Tregs from CD3(+) T-cells prior ..
  41. ACUTE PANCREATITIS
    Michael Steer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a conditional and targeted technique for selectively depleting mouse monocytes-macrophges by administering diphtheria toxin (DT) to mice transgenically modified to express the human receptor for DT (hDTR)...
  42. Modulation of Dopaminergic VTA Neurons by Urotensin II
    STEWART DONALDSON CLARK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To facilitate our studies we have developed and validated a fusion of diphtheria toxin with UN (Dtx-Uli)...
  43. Trafficking and Function of Central Nervous System Resident Regulatory T Cells
    Rachel Niec; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using mice that express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor exclusively in Treg cells, I will use diphtheria toxin to deplete Treg cells and examine CNS ..
  44. School Mandates for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Use of an Agent-Based Model
    David Mendez; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and utilization of, three adolescent-targeted vaccines: HPV, Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap)...
  45. Capsule conjugate vaccines against ETEC and Campylobacter
    Patricia Guerry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is evidence that a vaccine consisting of a C. jejuni capsule conjugated to CRM197, a diphtheria toxoid used in licensed conjugate vaccines, was protective against diarrheal disease in non-human primates (NHP)...
  46. Dissecting Dendritic Cell Function in Autoimmune Diabetes
    JONATHAN DAVID KATZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the control of diabetogenic T cells remain unsolved. Using a diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation model, we found that the myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) subset acts to promote T1D by ..
  47. Pilus Assembly in Gram-Positive Bacteria
    Hung Ton-That; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria. C...
  48. Tumor exosomes as agents of genetic change
    XANDRA OWENS BREAKEFIELD; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cells a selective, "easy target" for different biotinylated-imaging agents (for diagnostics) or biotinylated-diphtheria toxin (for therapy) complexed to streptavidin which binds with extremely high affinity to biotin (Kd = 10-15) ..
  49. GATING OF PROTEIN CHANNELS IN LIPID BILAYER MEMBRANES
    Alan Finkelstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the ? -barrel channel formed by PA63, and the channels formed by colicin Ia, colicin A, and the T-domain of diphtheria toxin...
  50. MUC1-Targeted Nanotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer
    Jordan M Winter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using this approach, delivery of diphtheria toxin A (DTA) placed under the control of a cancer-specific promoter resulted in tumor shrinkage in pre-clinical ..
  51. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENESIS
    ROBERT JOHN COLLIER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Toxins that modify targets within the cytosol of mammalian cells are crucial virulence factors in anthrax, diphtheria, botulism, cholera and many other bacterial diseases...
  52. Mixed-Ligand Targeting of a Nano-Pharmaceutical Against GBM Stem Cells
    Steven L Armentrout; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the three targeting structures (hypothetically the mix-ligand construct) wil be further functionalized with a diphtheria toxin derivative and the result tested for efficacy against BTSC and safety against three normal cell lines via ..
  53. Adaptive immune mechanism in acute H. pylori infection
    John Kao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..pylori. 3. Determine the functional significance of DCs in H. pylori gastritis. Transgenic mice with diphtheria toxin-sensitive DCs will be used to assess the effect of transient DC depletion during acute and chronic H...
  54. Intersectional genetic dissection of spinal circuits processing pain and itch
    Qiufu Ma; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The first is an intersectional DTR mouse in which the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) protein is only expressed after FlpO- and Cre- mediated removal of two stop cassettes...
  55. In vivo and in vitro Characteization of BMI1 + Intestinal Stem Cells
    Calvin J Kuo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the Bmi1+ ISC to intestinal regeneration after radiation or R-spondin treatment will be assessed by diphtheria toxin-mediated lineage ablation...
  56. MECHANISMS OF ANTIGEN INDUCED TOLERANCE IN THE LUNG
    Anuradha Ray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using Foxp3 reporter mice in conjunction with CD11c-DTR mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor on CD11c cells, we have established a system to determine which dendritic cell (DC) subsets ..
  57. Development of VesiVax Carbohydrate Conjugation Chemistry
    Gary Fujii; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CALVs containing a Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist or to a protein scaffold based on the mutant of diphtheria toxin known as CRM197 engineered to have a C-terminal cysteine residue (CRM197-Cys)...
  58. Eosinophil Recruitment and Activation in Solid Tumors
    James Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e., Diphtheria Toxin A) exclusively in eosinophil-lineage cells and provides a unique opportunity to define eosinophil ..
  59. pH-Triggered Membrane Insertion of Proteins
    DOUGLAS TOBIAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is focused on deciphering the molecular mechanism of pH-dependent refolding and membrane insertion of the diphtheria toxin T-domain (DTT), which is considered to be a paradigm for cell entry of other toxins (e.g...
  60. Mechanisms of acceptance of mouse renal allografts
    Robert Colvin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Foxp3+ cells will be deleted systemically and in the graft with using the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mouse with DTR expressed from the foxp3 promoter in conjunction with GFP...
  61. Conditional ablation of stellate cells to determine their role in pancreatitis an
    Rosa F Hwang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mice by using a gene promoter that is specific for PSCs and forcing only these cells to express a receptor for Diphtheria toxin (DTR). When diphtheria toxin (DT) is given to the mice, all cells that express DTR will be eliminated...
  62. Improving Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents
    Kevin J Dombkowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, implementation of the "adolescent platform" of vaccines, which includes the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate (MCV4), human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccines (for females) ..
  63. GATING AND TRANSLOCATION IN THE DIPHTHERIA TOXIN CHANNEL
    Bruce Kagan; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The diphtheria toxin (DT) channel is the prototype for this class of channels...
  64. NEW CHEMICAL APPROACHES TO ADP-RIBOSYL TRANSFER
    James Slama; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A subunits of cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin...
  65. Identification of small molecule furin-like protease inhibitors
    JULIA COPPOLA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furin-like proteases activate bacterial toxins found in anthrax, shigella, botulinum, pseudomonas, and diphtheria. Inhibition of furin-like proteolytic activity has been shown to halt toxicity of bacterial toxins, infectivity ..
  66. A Potential Zebrafish Model of Glaucoma by Genetic Ablation and Modification of t
    Xinping Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..transgenic fish will be produced by inserting three types of genes into the fish genome: a toxic gene (diphtheria toxin A, DTA), the E...
  67. GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TARGETED TOXINS FOR LEUKEMIA
    John Murphy; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..encoding cell specific growth factors which are fused in correct translational reading frame to a truncated diphtheria toxin structural gene...
  68. Molecular Requirements for Recombinant Cytotoxins Efficacy
    Waldemar Debinski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cytotoxins will be composed of genetically engineered forms of IL13and a derivative of another bacterial toxin, Diphtheria toxin, DT390...
  69. Diphtheria & Anthrax Toxins: Mechanisms of Cell Entry
    John Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The catalytic domains of diphtheria toxin, anthrax toxins (protective antigen [PA]...
  70. CONTROL OF BACTERIAL TOXINS BY VIRUSES AND PLASMIDS
    Randall Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..pathogens produce closely related, iron-activated, global regulatory proteins that govern virulence: the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) and the iron-dependent regulator (IdeR), respectively...
  71. Effectiveness of Hospital-Based Program for Vaccination of Birth Mothers and Hous
    Sylvia Yeh; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..persons who have close contact with young infants receive influenza vaccine as well as combined tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and reduced dose acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap)...
  72. Diphtheria fusion protein therapy of AML
    ARTHUR FRANKEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have produced a diphtheria fusion protein (DT388GMCSF) consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to ..