Genomes and Genes
drug induced abnormalities
Summary: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Publications203 found, 100 shown here
- A population-based case-control teratologic study of nitrazepam, medazepam, tofisopam, alprazolum and clonazepam treatment during pregnancyErika Eros
Department of Human Genetics and Teratology, National Center for Epidemiology, Budapest, Hungary
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 101:147-54. 2002..To study the association between nitrazepam, medazepam, tofisopam, alprazolum and clonazepam treatments during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities (CAs)...
- [Teratogenic effects of epilepsy and anti epileptic drugs]J Campistol
Servicio de Neurologia, Unitat Integrada de Pediatria Hospital Sant Joan de Déu Clíinic Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Espana
Rev Neurol 35:S135-43. 2002..In this paper we review the main studies on teratogenicity related to epilepsy and especially use of anti epileptic drugs (AED), with special emphasis on recently acquired knowledge regarding the new AED...
- [Effect of anti-epileptic drugs on human placenta and the fetus]Anna Semczuk-Sikora
Katedry i Kliniki Połoznictwa i Patologii Ciazy AM w Lublinie
Ginekol Pol 75:166-9. 2004..If a dosage of AEDs in pregnant women with epilepsy is reduced to a reasonable minimum and the monotherapy is preferred, the risk of congenital malformations in their offspring can be minimized...
- Neuropharmacology of drugs and alcohol in mother and fetusIrina Pollard
Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 12:106-13. 2007..As developmental injury is of significant social concern, the final section questions whether society provides adequate support for making appropriate and informed lifestyle choices to alleviate preventable transgenerational harm...
- Antidepressant drugs during pregnancy and infant congenital heart defectBengt Kallen
Reprod Toxicol 21:221-2. 2006
- Teratogenicity of sodium valproateRachel Alsdorf
Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, L 320, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Expert Opin Drug Saf 4:345-53. 2005..These efforts hope to enhance our understanding of AEDs and their associated risks by addressing past study limitations...
- Paroxetine and congenital malformations: meta-Analysis and consideration of potential confounding factorsBenjamin Bar-Oz
Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Clin Ther 29:918-26. 2007..Antidepressants have been commonly used by women of childbearing age. Recent studies suggest that paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), might specifically increase teratogenic risk...
- Long term health and neurodevelopment in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs before birthJ C S Dean
Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
J Med Genet 39:251-9. 2002..To investigate the frequency of neonatal and later childhood morbidity in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero...
- The teratogenicity of anticonvulsant drugs: a progress reportL B Holmes
Genetics and Teratology Unit, Pediatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Warren 801, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
J Med Genet 39:245-7. 2002
- First trimester exposure to paroxetine and risk of cardiac malformations in infants: the importance of dosageAnick Berard
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 80:18-27. 2007....
- Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and lactationPage B Pennell
Department of Neurology, Emory Epilepsy Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Neurology 61:S35-42. 2003....
- Foetal malformations and seizure control: 52 months data of the Australian Pregnancy RegistryF J E Vajda
The Australian Centre For Neuropharmacology, Raoul Wallenberg Centre, St Vincent s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria
Eur J Neurol 13:645-54. 2006..The choice of AED for pregnant women with epilepsy requires assessment of balance of risks between teratogenicity and seizure control...
- Continued occurrence of Accutane-exposed pregnanciesM A Honein
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
Teratology 64:142-7. 2001..The manufacturer began a Pregnancy Prevention Program (PPP) in 1988; however, exposed pregnancies continue to occur. In 1996, the manufacturer began a direct-to-consumer advertising campaign, raising concerns of more exposed pregnancies...
- Paroxetine and fluoxetine in pregnancy: a prospective, multicentre, controlled, observational studyOrna Diav-Citrin
The Israeli Teratogen Information Service, Israel Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel
Br J Clin Pharmacol 66:695-705. 2008..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the teratogenic risk of paroxetine and fluoxetine...
- Environmental causes of human congenital malformations: the pediatrician's role in dealing with these complex clinical problems caused by a multiplicity of environmental and genetic factorsRobert L Brent
Thomas Jefferson University, Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, Laboratory of Clinical and Environmental Teratology, Wilmington, Delaware 19899, USA
Pediatrics 113:957-68. 2004....
- NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of bisphenol ARobert E Chapin
Pfizer, Inc, Groton, CT, USA
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 83:157-395. 2008
- Use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy and the risk of birth defectsSura Alwan
Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
N Engl J Med 356:2684-92. 2007..Information regarding the safety of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in human pregnancy is sparse. Concern has been raised about the risk of congenital heart defects associated with the use of SSRIs in pregnancy...
- First-trimester use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and the risk of birth defectsCarol Louik
Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
N Engl J Med 356:2675-83. 2007..The risk of birth defects after antenatal exposure to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remains controversial...
- The teratogenicity of anticonvulsant drugsL B Holmes
Pediatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114 2696, USA
N Engl J Med 344:1132-8. 2001..However, whether the abnormalities are caused by the maternal epilepsy itself or by exposure to anticonvulsant drugs is not known...
- The longer term outcome of children born to mothers with epilepsyN Adab
Department of Neurological Science, The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lower Lane, Fazakerley, Liverpool, L9 7LJ, UK
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1575-83. 2004..To determine the prevalence of cognitive delay and possible associated dysmorphic features in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero...
- Malformation rates in children of women with untreated epilepsy: a meta-analysisShawn Fried
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Drug Saf 27:197-202. 2004..It is widely quoted that women with epilepsy have a higher than baseline risk for giving birth to a child with malformations, independent of the effects of antiepileptic drugs...
- Perception of teratogenic risk of common medicinesE Sanz
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 95:127-31. 2001..To assess the perception of the teratogenic risk of common medication by professionals and lay people...
- Increased rate of major malformations in offspring exposed to valproate during pregnancyD F Wyszynski
Genetics Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany St, L 320, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Neurology 64:961-5. 2005....
- Developmental toxicity of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists during human pregnancy: a report of 10 casesRaphael Serreau
Department of Pediatric Pharmacology and Pharmacogenetics, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
BJOG 112:710-2. 2005..Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (ARA). Interacted with the renin-angiotensin system, and the present study was undertaken to examine their fetal and neonatal toxicity when taken by the mother during pregnancy...
- Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of congenital malformationsPia Wogelius
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Epidemiology 17:701-4. 2006..Human data on the teratogenicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are limited. We examined the association between SSRI use during early pregnancy and the risk of congenital malformations in the offspring...
- Trends in adherence to a revised risk management program designed to decrease or eliminate isotretinoin-exposed pregnancies: evaluation of the accutane SMART programAllen Brinker
Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Drug Safety, Rockville, MD 20857, USA
Arch Dermatol 141:563-9. 2005....
- A case-control study of pesticides and fetal death due to congenital anomaliesE M Bell
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
Epidemiology 12:148-56. 2001..The odds ratios for all pesticide classes increased when exposure occurred within the same square mile of maternal residence...
- Outcome of pregnancy in women attending an outpatient epilepsy clinic: adverse features associated with higher doses of sodium valproateGeorge Mawer
Department of Neurosciences, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust, M13 0JH, Manchester, UK
Seizure 11:512-8. 2002..Severe adverse outcomes were found only in children exposed to sodium valproate at maternal doses above 1000 mg per day...
- Epilepsy and pregnancy: Report of an Epilepsy Research Foundation WorkshopCamilla Barrett
Epilepsy Research Foundation, W4 4XT, London, UK
Epilepsy Res 52:147-87. 2003..There is an urgent need to evaluate these risks and, with this in mind, several prospective registers have been set up to collect data from pregnancies in women with epilepsy...
- Use of antiepileptic drugs in pregnancyWilliam O Tatum
Tampa General Hospital and the University of South Florida, Department of Neurology, Tampa, c o 13801 Bruce B Downs Blvd, 401Tampa, FL, 33613 USA www wtatum com
Expert Rev Neurother 6:1077-86. 2006..Although no class 1 outcome data are available, prepregnancy counseling to optimize patient-specific treatment is recommended for women of childbearing potential with epilepsy...
- Preliminary results on pregnancy outcomes in women using lamotriginePatricia Tennis
Worldwide Epidemiology Department, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
Epilepsia 43:1161-7. 2002..This study presents results as of September 2001 on 168 outcomes exposed to LTG monotherapy and 166 outcomes after pregnancies exposed to LTG polytherapy during the first trimester...
- Teratogenicity of recently introduced medications in human pregnancyW Y Lo
Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Obstet Gynecol 100:465-73. 2002..To determine how long it takes after a new drug is marketed to establish whether or not its use by pregnant women is likely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk...
- The AED (antiepileptic drug) pregnancy registry: a 6-year experienceLewis B Holmes
Genetics and Teratology Unit, Pediatric Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
Arch Neurol 61:673-8. 2004..Pregnancy registries are a new method for assessing the fetal risks from exposures in pregnancy. We present the findings of the North American AED (antiepileptic drug) Pregnancy Registry for phenobarbital sodium-exposed pregnancies...
- CPD-Education and self-assessment: Epilepsy and pregnancyP Crawford
Consultant Neurologist, Director of the Special Centre for Epilepsy, York, UK
Seizure 10:212-9. 2001..Feeding difficulties, irritability and lethargy can occur. However, the benefits of breast feeding usually far outweigh any minor risks to the baby...
- Effect of dose on the frequency of major birth defects following fetal exposure to lamotrigine monotherapy in an international observational studyMarianne Cunnington
GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, Essex, United Kingdom
Epilepsia 48:1207-10. 2007..999, 95% CI 0.996-1.001). There was also no effect of dose, up to 400 mg/day, on the frequency of MBDs...
- Assessing epidemiological evidence for the teratogenic effects of anticonvulsant medicationsH Dolk
Department of Epidemiology and Health Services Research, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, UK
J Med Genet 39:243-4. 2002
- Antiepileptic drug therapy during pregnancy: the neurologist's perspectiveS Shorvon
Department of Clinical Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
J Med Genet 39:248-50. 2002
- Newer antidepressants in pregnancy and rates of major malformations: a meta-analysis of prospective comparative studiesThomas R Einarson
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ont, Canada
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:823-7. 2005..A substantial number of women of childbearing age suffer from depression. Despite this, relatively little is known about the safety of antidepressant use during pregnancy...
- Navigating toward fetal and maternal health: the challenge of treating epilepsy in pregnancyTorbjorn Tomson
Department of Neurology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden torbjorn tomson kus se
Epilepsia 45:1171-5. 2004....
- Developmental toxicity induced during early stages of mammalian embryogenesisJ C Rutledge
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA
Mutat Res 396:113-27. 1997..Pre-gastrulation teratology is a new area of investigation with relevance both to reproductive toxicology and to mammalian developmental biology...
- Pregnancy outcomes after maternal exposure to simvastatin and lovastatinPia S Pollack
Merck and Co, Inc Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486 0004, USA
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 73:888-96. 2005..Our objective was to determine the frequency of adverse outcomes after maternal exposure to simvastatin and/or lovastatin during pregnancy in postmarketing experience...
- Lamotrigine and the risk of malformations in pregnancyMarianne Cunnington
GlaxoSmithKline, Worldwide Epidemiology, Harlow, UK
Neurology 64:955-60. 2005..To report the frequency of major malformations in lamotrigine-exposed pregnancies from September 1, 1992, through March 31, 2004, in the International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry...
- Low dose methotrexate in the first trimester of pregnancy: results of a French collaborative studyBénédicte Lewden
Centre Antipoison, Centre de Pharmacovigilance, 162 Avenue Lacassagne, 69424 Lyon Cedex 03, France
J Rheumatol 31:2360-5. 2004..Secondary outcomes included the rate of miscarriage, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery...
- Gestational exposure to lovastatin followed by cardiac malformation misclassified as holoprosencephalyRobin J Edison
N Engl J Med 352:2759. 2005
- Developmental toxicity of ribavirin/IFalpha combination therapy: is the label more dangerous than the drugs?Janine E Polifka
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 67:8-12. 2003
- Inhibition of Angiotensin II receptors during pregnancy induces malformations in developing rat kidneySusana I Sánchez
Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigaciones Biológicas IMIBIO CONICET, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquímica y Farmacia Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ejercito de los Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, Argentina
Eur J Pharmacol 588:114-23. 2008..These observations confirm previous assumptions that in the developing kidney Angiotensin II exerts stimulatory effects through AT(1) receptors that might be counterbalanced by angiotensin AT(2) receptors...
- Risk of drug-induced congenital defectsMarco De Santis
Telefono Rosso Teratology Information Service, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Catholic University Sacred Heart, Largo A Gemelli 8, Rome 00168, Italy
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 117:10-9. 2004..Teratology Information Services can assist both physicians and patients when any doubt exists...
- Occupational exposure to pesticides and congenital malformations: a review of mechanisms, methods, and resultsA M Garcia
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Valencia, Spain
Am J Ind Med 33:232-40. 1998..Avoiding the main limitations of previous studies, some of the key elements for future research are presented...
- "Be smart, be safe, be sure". The revised Pregnancy Prevention Program for women on isotretinoinS E Perlman
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
J Reprod Med 46:179-85. 2001....
- Does the teratogenicity of isotretinoin outweigh its benefits?Amy Y Jordan
J Dermatolog Treat 16:190-2. 2005
- Can we ensure the safe use of known human teratogens? Introduction of generic isotretinoin in the US as an exampleMargaret A Honein
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Drug Saf 27:1069-80. 2004....
- Low dose weekly methotrexate in early pregnancy. A case series and review of the literatureM Ostensen
Center for Mothers with Rheumatic Disease, Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital of Trondheim, Norway
J Rheumatol 27:1872-5. 2000..To assess the teratogenic risk of low dose weekly pulses of methotrexate (MTX) inadvertently taken during the first trimester of pregnancy...
- The way women perceive teratogenic riskGideon Koren
The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Can J Clin Pharmacol 14:e10-6. 2007
- Teratogen risk counselling by internet: a prospective cohort studyJ Y Han
Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Cheil Hospital and Women s Health Care Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
J Obstet Gynaecol 25:427-31. 2005..6%. Of 67 babies born to mothers counselled by internet, major malformations were present in 1.5% ( p = 0.6). Teratogen-risk counselling by internet and clinic seems to have a similar efficacy in pregnancy outcome...
- Epilepsy in pregnancyTorbjorn Tomson
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
BMJ 335:769-73. 2007
- Preliminary evaluation of maternotoxic effect of Ascaris extract in miceJoanna Błaszkowska
Department of Medical Biology and Parasitology, Medical University, Lodz
Wiad Parazytol 49:187-94. 2003..02 g/kg/day (confidence interval 0.97-1.07 g/kg/day). ASE exerted embryotoxic effects: significantly decreased the number of surviving fetuses per litter and the mean body weight of fetuses, increased the number of fetal resorptions...
- Population-based case-control study of mebendazole in pregnant women for birth outcomesNandor Acs
Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, School of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 45:85-8. 2005..Thus, treatment with mebendazole during pregnancy did not indicate a teratogenic and fetotoxic risk to the embryo or fetus, though the numbers of treated cases and controls in this study were limited...
- Principles of human teratology: drug, chemical, and infectious exposureR Douglas Wilson
Philadelphia, PA, USA
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 29:911-26. 2007..To provide a teratology update for prescription and non-prescription drugs and infections during pregnancy...
- Obstetric risks for women with epilepsy during pregnancyPeter W Kaplan
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Epilepsy Behav 11:283-91. 2007..More detailed information and guidelines are available elsewhere...
- Cognitive/behavioral teratogenetic effects of antiepileptic drugsKimford J Meador
Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Epilepsy Behav 11:292-302. 2007..The risks of AEDs in humans are less clear, but recent studies raise concerns, especially for valproate. There is a critical need for well-designed systematic research to improve our understanding of AED effects on the fetal brain...
- Effect of Ascaris chymotrypsin inhibitor on fetal development of miceJoanna Błaszkowska
Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Medical University, Lodz, Poland
Wiad Parazytol 50:513-8. 2004..Congenital malformation (hydronephrosis) was noted in fetuses after injection of higher doses of the chymotrypsin inhibitor from Ascaris...
- Pregnancy outcomes during treatment with interferon beta-1a in patients with multiple sclerosisM Sandberg-Wollheim
Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
Neurology 65:802-6. 2005..Although patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are advised to stop interferon (IFN) beta-1a therapy before becoming pregnant, some patients become pregnant while on treatment...
- Comparison of the effect of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in various periods of mouse pregnancyJ Błaszkowska
Chair of Medical Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Lodz, 90 436 Lodz, Al Kosciuszki 85
Wiad Parazytol 47:699-704. 2001..Independent of the time of injection during gestation the inhibitor exhibited embriotoxic effects (e.g. decreased the number of live fetuses per litter and mean fetal weight)...
- Effects of commonly used antipsychotics (typical and atypical) in pregnancy and lactationMohammad Masud Iqbal
Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University Central New York Psychiatric Center, Syracuse, New York, USA
J La State Med Soc 157:94-7. 2005
- Ensuring the safe and effective use of medications during pregnancy: planning and prevention through preconception careJanet D Cragan
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS E 86, 1600 Clifton Road, N E, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Matern Child Health J 10:S129-35. 2006
- Risk minimization practices for pregnancy prevention: understanding risk, selecting toolsKathleen Uhl
US Food and Drug Administration, Office of Women s Health, Rockville, MD 20857, USA
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:337-48. 2007..This paper highlights general considerations in developing specific risk minimization programs to prevent fetal drug exposure including the relative advantages and disadvantages of each strategy...
- Neuroteratogens in man: an overview with special emphasis on the teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs in pregnancyAsher Ornoy
Laboratory of Teratology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Israeli Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel
Reprod Toxicol 22:214-26. 2006..Lamotrigine monotherapy in pregnancy seems to be relatively safe. In general, polytherapy is more dangerous to the fetus than monotherapy and, at least for VPA and lamotrigine, there seems to be a "threshold effect"...
- [Embryopathy due to valproic acid with severe malformations in the central nervous system]J M Pardal-Fernández
Servicio de Neurofisiologia, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain
Rev Neurol 42:336-40. 2006..Embryopathy due to valproate, also known as fetal valproate syndrome, is a well-known and documented example of these conditions...
- Pregnancy in recipients of solid organs--effects on mother and childDianne B McKay
Department of Immunology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif 92037, USA
N Engl J Med 354:1281-93. 2006
- Gadolinium periconceptional exposure: pregnancy and neonatal outcomeM De Santis
Telefono Rosso Teratology Information Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86:99-101. 2007....
- Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part 3: teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in ratsR A Isbrucker
Burdock Group, 888 17th Street, N W, Suite 810, Washington, DC 20006, USA
Food Chem Toxicol 44:651-61. 2006..The lowest dose was considered the overall no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). As dams consumed twice the amount of feed during the crucial lactation period, the NOAEL was equivalent to 200 mg/kg/day EGCG preparation...
- Teratogenic effects of the interaction acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol: morphologic and morphometric evaluation of the lingual epithelium in rat fetusesS A Marinho
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14040 904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
Anat Histol Embryol 36:14-8. 2007..On the other hand, ASA did not influence the effects of ethanol in both epithelial layers of the lingual mucosa, when the nuclear shape, cell volume or epithelial layers thickness were evaluated...
- [Birth defects' occurrence in offspring of mothers taking 1st trimester medication in the Czech Republic in 1996-2004]A Sipek
Ustav pro péci o matku a díte, Praha
Ceska Gynekol 71:284-91. 2006..An analysis of birth defects incidence in offspring of mothers taking 1st trimester medication in the Czech Republic in 1996-2004...
- Antiepileptic medication during pregnancy: does fetal genotype affect outcome?Diane E Atkinson
Division of Human Development, The Medical School, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 OJH, United Kingdom
Pediatr Res 62:120-7. 2007..Identification of a hierarchy of haplotypes ranging from susceptible to protective of congenital abnormalities could assist genetic counseling, in assessing fetal risks from exposure to AEDs...
- Teratogenic potential of vaginal metronidazole treatment during pregnancyZoltán Kazy
Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, Torokvesz Lejto 32, 1026 Budapest, Hungary
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 123:174-8. 2005..To study the human teratogenic potential of vaginal metronidazole treatment during pregnancy...
- Antiepileptic drugs and neurodevelopmentGholam K Motamedi
Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Neurology, PHC 7, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 6:341-6. 2006..Prospective clinical studies seem necessary in order to better understand the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of in utero exposure to AEDs...
- Preliminary evaluation of maternotoxic effect of Ascaris alpha-chymotrypsin inhibitor in miceJ Błaszkowska
Chair of Medical Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Lodz, 90 436 Lodz, Al Kosciuszki 85
Wiad Parazytol 47:705-10. 2001..There is a linear interrelationship between the logarithm of the doses of the inhibitor and mortality of pregnant mice. The DL50 value of the inhibitor for female was 116 mg/kg/day (confidence interval: 95.5-140.0 mg/kg/day)...
- Different embryo-fetal toxicity effects for three VLA-4 antagonistsF Crofts
Department of Drug Safety Evaluation, Aventis Inc, Bridgewater, New Jersey 08807, USA
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 71:55-68. 2004..Objectives of the current study were to assess and compare the teratogenic potential of three VLA-4 antagonists...
- Use of phenytoin in pregnancy for epileptic seizure prevention: a case reportKelly E Fitzgerald
J Midwifery Womens Health 49:145-7. 2004..Appropriate midwifery care of women with epilepsy includes consultation and co-management with an obstetrician and a neurologist. The clinical course of a woman with epilepsy taking phenytoin is presented...
- A population-based case-control teratological study of oral nystatin treatment during pregnancyAndrew E Czeizel
Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, Department of Human Genetics and Teratology, National Center for Epidemiology Budapest, Hungary
Scand J Infect Dis 35:830-5. 2003..The conclusion of the study is that treatment with oral nystatin during pregnancy presents little teratogenic risk to the foetus, but the possible association between hypospadias and nystatin needs further study...
- Levetiracetam monotherapy during pregnancy: a case seriesLucretia Long
Department of Neurology, Division of Epilepsy, Ohio State University, 1654 Upham Drive, 417 Means Hall, Columbus, OH 43210 1250, USA
Epilepsy Behav 4:447-8. 2003..This case series summarizes the clinical outcomes of three women with epilepsy, all of whom took levetiracetam as monotherapy during pregnancy...
- Effects of aspirin consumption during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes: meta-analysisEran Kozer
Department of Paediatrics, The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 68:70-84. 2003..We assessed the effects and safety of aspirin treatment during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal outcomes...
- Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluationsJulie R Thibodeaux
Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
Toxicol Sci 74:369-81. 2003..Our results demonstrate both maternal and developmental toxicity of PFOS in the rat and mouse...
- Effects of in utero exposure to finasteride on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male ratChristopher J Bowman
CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
Toxicol Sci 74:393-406. 2003..In summary, prenatal exposure to finasteride specifically inhibited DHT-mediated development with little to no change in T-mediated development...
- Critical period for a teratogenic VLA-4 antagonist: Developmental effects and comparison of embryo drug concentrations of teratogenic and non-teratogenic VLA-4 antagonistsF Crofts
Department of Drug Safety Evaluation, Aventis Inc, Bridgewater, New Jersey 08807, USA
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 71:69-79. 2004..Objectives of the current study were to determine the critical period for inducing IVL984-related embryo-fetal effects, and to test the hypothesis that these effects were due to higher embryo drug concentrations...
- Immunosuppression in pregnancy: choices for infant and maternal healthVincent T Armenti
Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Drugs 62:2361-75. 2002..A balance of good maternal and graft outcome with the lowest risk of fetal toxicity must be the goal of management...
- Drugs in pregnancy. Anticonvulsants and drugs for neurological diseaseS A Lowe
Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, Australia
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 15:863-76. 2001..Information is provided about the use of drugs to control symptoms and prevent disease progression in these disorders during pregnancy...
- Neurodevelopmental effects of antiepileptic drugsKimford J Meador
Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street BA3410, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2:373-8. 2002..Prenatal folate and multivitamins should also be given routinely to women of childbearing age who require AED therapy...
- [Malformations in the offspring of pregnant women with epilepsy. Presentation of an international registry of antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy (EURAP)]D Battino
Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italia
Rev Neurol 34:476-80. 2002..Wide participation from interested physicians is essential for the achievement of the study objectives, which are expected to lead to important advances in pre pregnancy counselling and overall clinical management of women with epilepsy...
- Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy: teratology in adolescent medicine practiceLaurie H Seaver
Greenwood Genetic Center, South Carolina 29646, USA
Adolesc Med 13:269-91, vi. 2002....
- [Incidence of congenital defects in the children of mothers who used medications in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Czech Republic 1996-2001]A Sipek
Ustav pro péci o matku a díte, Institut postgraduálního vzdĕlávání ve zdravotnictví, Katedra gynekologicko porodnická, Praha
Ceska Gynekol 68:401-19. 2003..Analysis of the results from registration of congenital defects in children of mothers taking therapeutic drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy and comparison with a control group in the Czech Republic in the period of 1996-2001...
- Reproductive health effects and teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugsPeter W Kaplan
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, B Bldg, 1 North, Rm 125, 4940 Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Neurology 63:S13-23. 2004..Moreover, because AEDs are increasingly being used in therapy for other conditions such as migraine, bipolar disorder, and pain, it is not only the treatment of women with epilepsy that will be affected by these concerns...
- Newer antidepressants in pregnancy: prospective outcome of a case seriesFusun Yaris
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, TR 61187 Trabzon, Turkey
Reprod Toxicol 19:235-8. 2004..The aim of the present study is to contribute the data to the limited knowledge available in the literature regarding human pregnancy...
- Drug exposure in pregnant womenA E Czeizel
Foundation for the Communication Control of Hereditary Diseases, Budapest, Hungary
Lupus 13:740-5. 2004..Medical doctors and other experts therefore need more education to know the principles and findings of modern human teratology because it may help us to have a better balance between the risk and benefit of drug use during pregnancy...
- Safety of haloperidol and penfluridol in pregnancy: a multicenter, prospective, controlled studyOrna Diav-Citrin
Israeli Teratogen Information Service, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
J Clin Psychiatry 66:317-22. 2005..To assess the safety of the butyrophenone neuroleptics haloperidol and penfluridol in pregnancy...
- Antibiotic therapy in pregnancy and lactationA Reali
Neonatal Pathology and Intensive Care Unit, University of Cagliari, Italy
J Chemother 17:123-30. 2005..This review focuses on the most frequently used antibiotics during pregnancy and lactation and presents useful suggestions for daily practice. Drugs that must be avoided are clearly underlined...
- 2D and 3D assessment of neuropathology in rat brain after prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol, a model for developmental neurotoxictyDidima M G de Groot
TNO Quality of Life, Utrechtseweg 48, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
Reprod Toxicol 20:417-32. 2005....
- Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolismFranciszek Kokot
Department of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland
Pol Arch Med Wewn 118:431-4. 2008..Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis...
- Somatosensory evoked potentials in epileptic children treated with carbamazepine or valproate in monotherapy - a preliminary studyK Sendrowski
Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
Adv Med Sci 55:212-5. 2010....
- Thymus function in drug-induced lupusR L Rubin
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
Lupus 10:795-801. 2001..Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus...
- Safety of the traditional Korean herbal medicine CGX: a 6-month repeated-dose study in ratsJang Woo Shin
Liver and Immunology Research Center, Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience of Daejeon University, 22 5, Daeheung dong, Jung Gu, Daejeon 301 724, Republic of Korea
J Ethnopharmacol 128:221-9. 2010..CGX is a traditional Korean herbal medicine used to treat chronic liver diseases...
- Intrabody Therapy in Drosophila for Huntington's DiseaseWILLIAM WOLFGANG; Fiscal Year: 2006..If successful this will provide validation of intrabodies as disease therapeutics and impetus to proceed to preclinical testing in vertebrate models of HD. ..
- ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHYKELLEY ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 1992..Finally, in part IV of the project the mechanisms of the arrhythmia will be investigated by examining the response to pacing maneuvers and by determination of the electrical activation sequence using a multisite computer mapping system...
- Teratology Society 47th Annual Meeting: Student and Postdoctoral Travel AwardsMichael Collins; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Prenatal TCDD and postnatal autoimmune diseaseSteven Holladay; Fiscal Year: 2007..The collective experiments are designed to detect alterations in fetal immune development caused by TCDD that underlie the worsened postnatal (postpubertal) autoimmune disease caused by this chemical. ..
- Murine strain sensitivity to cadmium teratogenesisMichael Collins; Fiscal Year: 2005..An additive oligogenic model involving nine genes for the induction of the forelimb defect has been proposed. ..
- Self-administration of abused inhalants in miceScott Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Fetal DNA oxidation and repair in neurodegenerationPeter Wells; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will provide mechanistic insight into the fetal origin of environmentally-induced neurodevelopmental defects, and the role of DNA repair activity as a risk factor. ..
- A Preclinical Model of Adolescent Toluene Abuse in RatsScott Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2005..The model also has the potential to assist in devising effective treatments and prevention strategies for adolescent inhalant abuse. ..
- 2005 Teratology Society MeetingMichael Collins; Fiscal Year: 2005..Funds to help support and encourage student-fellow attendance at the Teratology Society 2005 Annual Meeting will enhance the quality of the meeting and the experience of the student and postdoctoral fellow attendees. ..
- Student and Postdoctoral Travel Awards for the 2006 MeetingMichael Collins; Fiscal Year: 2006..to defray part of the cost of travel awards, which will be granted to students and postdoctoral fellows presenting their research finding at the 2006 Teratology Society Annual Meeting [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Behavioral Effects of Gestational Inhalant Abuse in RatsScott Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2006..Finally, this research has the potential to assist in the design of effective treatments for inhalant abuse. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cadmium Teratogenesis to murine strains proteomicsMichael Collins; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- RELAPSE OF BIPOLAR DISORDER DURING PREGNANCYAdele Viguera; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Teratology Society 48th Annual Meeting: Student and Postdoctoral Travel AwardsMichael Collins; Fiscal Year: 2008..Travel awards will be granted to students and postdoctoral fellows presenting their research findings at the 2008 Teratology Society Annual Meeting. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- IMMUNE PROTECTION AGAINST MNU-INDUCTED DIGITAL DEFECTSMARY PRATER; Fiscal Year: 2006..This research under the guidance of Drs. Steven Holladay and Eric Wong at Virginia Tech...
- Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs IIKimford Meador; Fiscal Year: 2009..The NEAD study has an invaluable cohort, and the results of this continuation proposal will impact the clinical management of women receiving these medications, and improve the health of their children. ..
- FAS Prevention: A Trial of the IOM ModelPhilip May; Fiscal Year: 2009..Selective and universal prevention use: screening for alcohol abuse;targeted messages to change norms and KABB;policy advocacy;and community education and dialogue. ..
- Epileptogenicity in the Developing BrainRaman Sankar; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our findings will provide the basis for future neuroprotective interventions targeting the developing brain at different stages of status epilepticus in order to interrupt the course of the epileptogenic process. ..
- ETHANOL EFFECTS ON NEUROTRANSMISSIONFulton Crews; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- MOLECULAR MECHANISMS IN DIABETIC EMBRYOPATHYCLAUDIA T KAPPEN; Fiscal Year: 2010..These experiments will generate new and comprehensive insights into the function of pancreatic transcription factors and their pathogenic potential in metabolic disease and fetal development. ..
- Vanadocenes as a New Class of Spermicidal DrugsOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- GENETIC REGULATION OF FOLATE RESPONSIVE BIRTH DEFECTSRichard Finnell; Fiscal Year: 2009..The hypothesis that the Folbp1 receptor functions in complexes with other proteins within the lipid raft of the cell membrane to act as a signaling molecule challenges existing preconceptions concerning the function of this protein. ..
- Gene Environment Interaction in Head and Neck CancerAndrew Olshan; Fiscal Year: 2005..The proposed study should contribute knowledge on gene-environment interactions for cancer of the head and neck, but also for other tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers and possibly cancers of unknown etiology. ..
- Neurobehavioral Teratology Society: Symposium on Pesticides and MetalsSusan Schantz; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Inhibins and Environmental Estrogens in Ovarian DiseaseLouis Guillette; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mixture Toxicity - Evaluation of an Improved MethodologyDOUGLAS DAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2008..Environmental releases of these chemicals are possible, which could also affect public health. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Ontogeny of Drug Bioactivation and Idiosyncratic ADRsJAMES LEEDER; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Overcoming Barriers to Depression Recognition in CancerSteven Passik; Fiscal Year: 2007..This will allow us to study how best to utilize screening information as well as how these various approaches interact with patient characteristics (both psychological and demographic). ..
- RSA Lecture SeriesJennifer Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Trial of FAS Prevention and Diagnosis Among IndiansPhilip May; Fiscal Year: 2008..The proposed renewal will ensure sufficient time to test the IOM model of prevention while advancing science in several other ways. ..
- SCORE PROGRAM AT STILLMAN COLLEGEJarnail Singh; Fiscal Year: 2008..This, in turn, will enhance students' college experience and motivate more minority students to pursue graduate degrees in the sciences. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Metabolomics: Markers of Drug-Induced Liver Injury(RMI)Susan Sumner; Fiscal Year: 2008..The signals defining these patterns will be identified using GC-MS, NMR, and LC-MS/MS methods and then assigned to biochemical pathways for defining the relevancy of the marker profiles to mode of action. ..
- PATHOGENESIS OF ANTICONVULSANT HYPERSENSITIVITY SYNDROMEJAMES LEEDER; Fiscal Year: 2003..It is anticipated that the basic experimental paradigm employed for these studies can also be applied to other idiosyncratic toxicities with suspected drug bioactivation and immune etiologies. ..
- GSTs: Oxidative Stress in Early AtherosclerosisPaul Boor; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- CASE CONTROL STUDY OF RISK FACTORS FOR WILMS TUMORAndrew Olshan; Fiscal Year: 2002..This study will provide important new advances in our understanding of Wilms tumor given the study size, quality of exposure assessment, and incorporation of clinical and biological markers of etiologic heterogeneity. ..
- FOLATE RECEPTORS IN CRANIOFACIAL MALFORMATIONSRichard Finnell; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- FLP-102: Rationally Engineered Antiviral ProteinOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003..The preclinical data on FLP-102 will be essential to further explore the utility of this novel recombinant PAP mutant for Phase II. ..
- PHI 346: A Novel Dual-Function MicrobicideOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003..Following successful completion of the Phase I in vivo efficacy studies, gel formulation of PHI-346 will be further explored as a vaginal dual-function microbicide in Phase II. ..
- METVAN: A Novel Anticancer AgentOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003..The knowledge gained from these studies described under Specific Aims 1-2 is expected to facilitate the design of innovative treatment regimens employing METVAN for metastatic breast cancer and brain tumor patients. ..
- PHI-443: Novel Non-Spermicidal Anti-HIV MicrobicideOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003..Specific Aims 1 and 2 may provide the foundation for the clinical development of PHI-443 in Phase II studies as a safe, effective broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicide without conception-inhibiting functions. ..
- MRI/S in Children with Prenatal Alcoholic ExposureSusan Astley; Fiscal Year: 2004..A pilot feasibility study will also be conducted to determine if fMRI can be effectively administered to this population. ..
- PAH/Metal exposure and effects assessment in ChattanoogaSean Richards; Fiscal Year: 2004..5) Quantify the potential for the residents of South Chattanooga to be exposed and affected by PAHs and metals present in area soil by using the data generated in this study in a probabilistic risk assessment. ..
- Redox control of Nrf2/ARE by thioredoxin and GSHJason Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2005..The roles of GSH and cytosolic and nuclear TRX during NRF2 activation and binding will provide an essential foundation for future developmental toxicology. ..
- Antisense Antiviral Agent for West Nile InfectionsPatrick Iversen; Fiscal Year: 2005..Aim 3: Investigate cellular drug transport, protein binding, and physical characteristics, as well as establish a formulation for future animal pharmacokinetic and toxicology studies. ..
- Melanoma PathogenesisLinda Titus Ernstoff; Fiscal Year: 2006..e., slide preparation) of pathology specimens, and the refinement of laboratory techniques for analyzing chromosome 9p21 alterations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Functional measure of 3rd trimester FASD: neonatal sheepTIMOTHY CUDD; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- NOVEL CONTRACEPTIVES WITH ANTI-HIV ACTIVITYOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2001..The preclinical data on in vivo efficacies of WHI-05 and WHI-07 will be essential to further explore the utility of these novel drugs for clinical studies in human patients. ..
- Stampidine: A Novel Broad-Spectrum Anti-HIV MicrobicideOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2005..Specific Aims 1 and 2 may provide the foundation for the clinical development of STAMP in Phase II studies as a safe, effective broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicide without conception-inhibiting functions. ..
- Phase II SBIR: WHI-07: A Novel Dual-Function MicrobicideOSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS IN TESTIS DEVELOPMENTMichael Skinner; Fiscal Year: 2007..It is anticipated that the observations will lead to the design of future: therapeutic treatments for male infertility. ..
- Analysis of High-Dimensional Environmental Health DataBrent Coull; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Fetal & Adolescent Nicotine Effects on CNS 5HT SystemsTheodore Slotkin; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- SERTOLI CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND TESTIS DEVELOPMENTMichael Skinner; Fiscal Year: 2002..Therefore, observations from the current proposal on transcriptional regulation of Sertoli cell differentiation will provide a better understanding of normal and abnormal testis development and function. ..
- Mechanisms of myometrial healing and regenerationCatalin Buhimschi; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Molecular mechanism of ADNF and ADNP peptides in neuroprotection to alcoholYoussef Sari; Fiscal Year: 2008..This data will shed light on the mechanisms governing brain ontogeny and will pave the path toward potential therapeutics against developmental insults associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Prenatal Ultrasound And Birth DefectsDOROTHY WALLER; Fiscal Year: 2008..Estimates of sensitivity and specificity will be calculated for each of 38 different categories of malformations. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- TCDD Impairs Prostate Development: Cyp2c39 & RetinoidsCHAD VEZINA; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- AMELIORATION OF FETAL ALCOHOL EFFECTSJOHN HANNIGAN; Fiscal Year: 2004..The results could have direct implications for the development of effective and appropriate treatments for FAS/ARNDs in children. ..
- Genome-wide discovery of beta cell gene control elementsClaudia Kappen; Fiscal Year: 2004..Together, our studies will show how speck gene expression is achieved in beta cells and provide a framework to integrate gene transcription and beta cell biology. ..
- Genetic dissection of skeletal patterningClaudia Kappen; Fiscal Year: 2006..The identification of modifier loci that act on skeletal patterning will reveal new molecular mechanisms in skeletal development and has important implications for the evolution of vertebrate body plans. ..
- MECHANISMS OF CHLORPYRIFOS DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITYTheodore Slotkin; Fiscal Year: 2004..Molecular mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity can be determined and linked to eventual alterations in behavioral performance. ..
- FOLATE AND HOX GENES IN CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENTClaudia Kappen; Fiscal Year: 2003..Knowledge about the interactions of genes with environmental factors will be important for designing therapeutic strategies and preventive measures against craniofacial defects. ..
- DRUGS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADRENERGIC NERVOUS SYSTEMTheodore Slotkin; Fiscal Year: 2003....