plateletpheresis

Summary

Summary: The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Extracellular accumulation of bioactive substances during preparation and storage of various platelet concentrates
    L Edvardsen
    Surgical Immunology Laboratory, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
    Am J Hematol 67:157-62. 2001
  2. ncbi Paired comparison of Gambro Trima Accel versus Baxter Amicus single-needle plateletpheresis
    Edwin A Burgstaler
    Division of Transfusion Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Transfusion 44:1612-20. 2004
  3. ncbi Prospective, paired crossover comparison of multiple, single-needle plateletpheresis procedures with the Amicus and Trima Accel cell separators
    Stefano Fontana
    Department of Hematology and Central Hematology Laboratory, Division of Transfusion Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
    Transfusion 46:2004-10. 2006
  4. ncbi Pasteurella multocida bacteremia in asymptomatic plateletpheresis donors: a tale of two cats
    Barbara J Bryant
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1184, USA
    Transfusion 47:1984-9. 2007
  5. ncbi Therapeutic plateletpheresis in a case of symptomatic thrombocytosis in chronic myeloid leukemia
    Beenu Thakral
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    Ther Apher Dial 8:497-9. 2004
  6. ncbi Effect of plateletpheresis on complete blood count values using three different cell separator systems in healthy donors
    Cengiz Beyan
    Department of Hematology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Etlik, 06018 Ankara, Turkey
    Transfus Apher Sci 29:45-7. 2003
  7. ncbi Sustained decreases in platelet count associated with multiple, regular plateletpheresis donations
    E F Lazarus
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1184, USA
    Transfusion 41:756-61. 2001
  8. ncbi A randomized comparison of plateletpheresis with the same donors using four blood separators at a single blood center
    Grace C Tenorio
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Apher 17:170-6. 2002
  9. ncbi Hemoglobin and platelet count effect on platelet yields in plateletpheresis
    Susana Guerrero-Rivera
    Departamento de Hematologia, Hospital de Especialidades Bernardo Sepúlveda, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, Mexico
    Arch Med Res 34:120-3. 2003
  10. ncbi Plateletpheresis efficiency: a comparison of the spectra LRS and AMICUS separators
    R J Benjamin
    Dana Farber Partners CancerCare and the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Transfusion 39:895-9. 1999

Detail Information

Publications196 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Extracellular accumulation of bioactive substances during preparation and storage of various platelet concentrates
    L Edvardsen
    Surgical Immunology Laboratory, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
    Am J Hematol 67:157-62. 2001
    ..However, a substantial storage time dependent platelet derived bioactive substance accumulation takes place in all platelet concentrates tested, presumably due to platelet disintegration...
  2. ncbi Paired comparison of Gambro Trima Accel versus Baxter Amicus single-needle plateletpheresis
    Edwin A Burgstaler
    Division of Transfusion Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Transfusion 44:1612-20. 2004
    Gambro BCT recently introduced the Trima Accel Version 5 (TR) plateletpheresis machine. Platelet (PLT) yields, collection efficiencies (CEs), numbers of white blood cells (WBCs), and processing times of the TR versus the Amicus (Version 2...
  3. ncbi Prospective, paired crossover comparison of multiple, single-needle plateletpheresis procedures with the Amicus and Trima Accel cell separators
    Stefano Fontana
    Department of Hematology and Central Hematology Laboratory, Division of Transfusion Medicine, Inselspital, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
    Transfusion 46:2004-10. 2006
    ..The Baxter Amicus Version 2.51 (A) and the Gambro BCT Trima Accel Version 5.0 (T) cell separators may produce multiple platelet (PLT) concentrates within a single donation...
  4. ncbi Pasteurella multocida bacteremia in asymptomatic plateletpheresis donors: a tale of two cats
    Barbara J Bryant
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1184, USA
    Transfusion 47:1984-9. 2007
    ..Two cases of Pasteurella multocida bacteremia in asymptomatic plateletpheresis donors are reported...
  5. ncbi Therapeutic plateletpheresis in a case of symptomatic thrombocytosis in chronic myeloid leukemia
    Beenu Thakral
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    Ther Apher Dial 8:497-9. 2004
    ..A 67% global reduction in the platelet count from 1553 x 10(9)/L to 513 x 10(9)/L after two therapeutic plateletpheresis procedures was seen...
  6. ncbi Effect of plateletpheresis on complete blood count values using three different cell separator systems in healthy donors
    Cengiz Beyan
    Department of Hematology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Etlik, 06018 Ankara, Turkey
    Transfus Apher Sci 29:45-7. 2003
    The aim of this study is to investigate changes of CBC values after plateletpheresis in healthy and volunteer donors by using three different cell separator systems...
  7. ncbi Sustained decreases in platelet count associated with multiple, regular plateletpheresis donations
    E F Lazarus
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1184, USA
    Transfusion 41:756-61. 2001
    ..decreases in platelet counts have been documented to occur in donors undergoing single and serial short-term plateletpheresis collections...
  8. ncbi A randomized comparison of plateletpheresis with the same donors using four blood separators at a single blood center
    Grace C Tenorio
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Apher 17:170-6. 2002
    At one blood center, each of 20 donors underwent plateletpheresis on four blood cell separators in random order. We compared the CS3000+, Amicus V 2...
  9. ncbi Hemoglobin and platelet count effect on platelet yields in plateletpheresis
    Susana Guerrero-Rivera
    Departamento de Hematologia, Hospital de Especialidades Bernardo Sepúlveda, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, Mexico
    Arch Med Res 34:120-3. 2003
    ..In this study, our main objective was to identify donor laboratory and clinical factors that showed some influence on platelet yield obtained by apheresis...
  10. ncbi Plateletpheresis efficiency: a comparison of the spectra LRS and AMICUS separators
    R J Benjamin
    Dana Farber Partners CancerCare and the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Transfusion 39:895-9. 1999
    Optimizing the yields of plateletpheresis by increasing collection efficiencies may provide several benefits: to patients, by increasing the dose in single-donor platelet (SDP) units; to the collection center, by increasing the percentage ..
  11. ncbi Preparation of highly concentrated and white cell-poor platelet-rich plasma by plateletpheresis
    R Zimmermann
    Department of Transfusion Medicine and Haemostaseology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander Universitaet Erlangen Nuernberg, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Vox Sang 95:20-5. 2008
    ..Contaminating white blood cells (WBC) contribute remarkably to the overall growth factor content of locally applicable platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or platelet (PLT) gel and change the relative proportions of the contained growth factors...
  12. ncbi Repeat whole-blood and plateletpheresis donors:unreported deferrable risks, reactive screening tests, andresponse to incentive programs
    S A Glynn
    Westat, Rockville, Maryland 20850-2062, USA
    Transfusion 41:736-43. 2001
    BACKGROUND: Evaluating plateletpheresis (PPH) and repeat community whole-blood (RWB) donors' responses to donation incentive programs is essential for developing effective donor retention programs...
  13. ncbi Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis after transfusion of a plateletpheresis concentrate: benefit of donor evaluation
    Wesley T Stevens
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Transfusion 46:649-51. 2006
    ..Although identifying the cause of contamination is most often viewed in the context of recipient safety, this case illustrates the importance of a thorough evaluation on donor safety...
  14. ncbi Comprehensive analysis of citrate effects during plateletpheresis in normal donors
    C D Bolan
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Transfusion 41:1165-71. 2001
    Although plateletpheresis procedures are generally well tolerated, the clinical and metabolic consequences associated with rapid infusion of up to 10 g of citrate are underappreciated, and a comprehensive description of these events is ..
  15. ncbi The Harvest Smart PRePTM system versus the Friadent-Schütze platelet-rich plasma kit
    Gernot Weibrich
    Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    Clin Oral Implants Res 14:233-9. 2003
    ..The Friadent-Schütze PRP kit offers a slight advantage in the resulting PRP platelet concentration. However, this is easily compensated for in the Smart PRePTM system by reducing the volume of the resulting PRP...
  16. ncbi Binding of activated platelets to WBCs in vivo after transfusion
    Kai Gutensohn
    Department of Transfusion Medicine Transplantation Immunology, University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf, University of Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Transfusion 42:1373-80. 2002
    ..In this in vivo study, the binding of platelets to WBCs was analyzed following transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs)...
  17. ncbi Platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat and apheresis: biochemical and functional differences
    M Bock
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Transfus Med 12:317-24. 2002
    ..from whole blood by differential centrifugation (buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates--PCs) or by plateletpheresis (apheresis-derived platelet concentrates--APCs)...
  18. ncbi In vitro evaluation of prestorage pooled leukoreduced whole blood-derived platelets stored for up to 7 days
    N M Heddle
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Canadian Blood Services, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 45:904-10. 2005
    ..The in vitro quality of pre-storage pooled PLTs stored for up to 7 days was assessed...
  19. ncbi Effects of a new pathogen-reduction technology (Mirasol PRT) on functional aspects of platelet concentrates
    S Perez-Pujol
    Hemotherapy Hemostasis Service, CDB, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Spain
    Transfusion 45:911-9. 2005
    ..Several strategies are being developed to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission associated with platelet (PLT) transfusion...
  20. ncbi Hyperconcentrated platelets stored in additive solution: aspects on productivity and in vitro quality
    J Ringwald
    Department for Transfusion Medicine and Haemostaseology, University Hospital of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Vox Sang 89:11-8. 2005
    ..We used the TRIMA, with software version 4 (TRIMA V4), to collect such DPs and investigated the in vitro quality of these PLTs when stored in the new modified PAS-III (PAS-IIIM)...
  21. ncbi Amotosalen photochemical inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in human platelet concentrates
    D Pinna
    AIDS Immunopathogenesis Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
    Transfus Med 15:269-76. 2005
    ..2. Potent inactivation of SARS-CoV therefore extends the capability of the INTERCEPT Blood System in inactivating a broad spectrum of human pathogens including recently emerging respiratory viruses...
  22. ncbi Cytokine levels as performance indicators for white blood cell reduction of platelet concentrates
    Meenu Wadhwa
    Division of Immunobiology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3QG, UK
    Vox Sang 83:125-36. 2002
    ....
  23. ncbi Evaluation of platelet parameters in healthy apheresis donors using the ADVIA 120
    Ahmet Ifran
    Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Haematology, 06010 Etlik Ankara, Turkey
    Transfus Apher Sci 33:87-90. 2005
    ..We conclude that no remarkable changes were noted except the reduction in platelet numbers and plateletcrit which were expected to return to normal values in a few days...
  24. ncbi Freezing human platelets with 6 percent dimethyl sulfoxide with removal of the supernatant solution before freezing and storage at -80 degrees C without postthaw processing
    C Robert Valeri
    Naval Blood Research Laboratory, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Transfusion 45:1890-8. 2005
    ..Platelets (PLTs) can be frozen with 6 percent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at -80 degrees C for up to 2 years. This method has been modified by concentrating the PLTs and removing the supernatant before freezing...
  25. ncbi Comparison of three different preparations of platelet concentrates for growth factor enrichment
    Thorsten R Appel
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Clin Oral Implants Res 13:522-8. 2002
    ..The laboratory system may offer an alternative if an intraoperative system is not available...
  26. ncbi Platelet activation during plasma-reduced multicomponent PLT collection: a comparison between COBE Trima and Spectra LRS turbo cell separators
    Paolo Perseghin
    Clinical Pathology Department Immunohematolgy Unit, University of Milanco Biccoca San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Milan, Italy
    Transfusion 44:125-30. 2004
    ..We investigated whether this collection modality could induce more PLT activation compared to standard plateletpheresis.
  27. ncbi Prophylactic platelet transfusions: which dose is the best dose? A review of the literature
    Alan T Tinmouth
    University of Ottawa Centre for Transfusion Research, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
    Transfus Med Rev 17:181-93. 2003
    ..Future large clinical trials of platelet dose, which examine these critical outcomes, are required. Only with these results can the optimal platelet dose be determined...
  28. ncbi Washing platelets with new additive solutions: aspects on the in vitro quality after 48 hours of storage
    Jürgen Ringwald
    Department of Transfusion Medicine and Haemostaseology, University Hospital of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Transfusion 46:236-43. 2006
    ..New PLT additive solutions (PASs) contain such substrates and might be used alternatively. The in vitro quality of apheresis PCs washed with Composol-PS or modified PAS-III (PAS-IIIM) stored up to 48 hours after wash was compared...
  29. ncbi Preparation and storage of white blood cell-reduced split apheresis platelet concentrates for pediatric use
    Pieter F van der Meer
    Sanquin Blood Bank Northwest Region, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Transfusion 45:223-7. 2005
    ..The aim was to investigate PCs, WBC reduced and bacterially screened, from single-donor apheresis procedures, divided in 3 or 4 pediatric units and stored up to 5 days...
  30. ncbi Seven-day storage of apheresis platelets: report of an in vitro study
    Larry J Dumont
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Transfusion 43:143-50. 2003
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the allowable platelet content limits for apheresis platelets stored for 7 days in a platelet storage bag (COBE ELP, Gambro BCT)...
  31. ncbi [Investigation of relationship between concentrated platelets and basic platelets in donors]
    Z C Wang
    Department of Blood Transfution, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008
    Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 26:77-8. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: There is positiver relationship between the harvest rate of concentrated platelets and basic platelets, and the transportation of blood does not effect the harvest rate of platelets...
  32. ncbi Implementation of the INTERCEPT Blood System for Platelets into routine blood bank manufacturing procedures: evaluation of apheresis platelets
    K Janetzko
    Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immunology, Red Cross Blood Service Baden Württemberg Hessen, University of Heidelberg, Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
    Vox Sang 86:239-45. 2004
    ..To facilitate implementation of this technique into routine blood bank manufacturing procedures, this study evaluated the impact of different time settings of photochemical treatment on in vitro platelet function...
  33. ncbi Automated preparation of platelet concentrates from pooled buffy coats using the Gambro OrbiSac system
    H Gulliksson
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Soder Hospital, Huddinge University Hospital, 11883 Stockholm, Sweden
    Transfus Apher Sci 29:11-2. 2003
  34. ncbi The selection of donors in multicomponent collection management
    Pietro Bonomo
    Immunohaemotological and Transfusional Medicine Service, Civile M P Arezzo Hospital, Piazza Igea 1, 97100 Ragusa, Italy
    Transfus Apher Sci 30:55-9. 2004
    ..With the use of parameters based on donor hematological and physical characteristics we can move from the concept of tailored transfusions to the concept of tailored donations thereby ensuring donor safety and meeting patient needs...
  35. ncbi Six years' experience of using the BacT/ALERT system to screen all platelet concentrates, and additional testing of outdated platelet concentrates to estimate the frequency of false-negative results
    C P Larsen
    Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    Vox Sang 88:93-7. 2005
    ..Approximately 1 in every 2000 units of platelets is contaminated with bacteria. The BacT/ALERT automated blood culture system can be used to screen platelet concentrates (PCs) for bacterial contamination...
  36. ncbi Estimation and predictive use of the corrected count increment--a proposed clinical guideline
    Lucille Wood
    Department of Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Incorporating the Searll Laboratory for Research in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Constantiaberg Medi Clinic, P O Box 294, Burnham Road, Plumstead, Cape Town 7800, South Africa
    Transfus Apher Sci 32:117-24. 2005
    ..Usage is under evaluated and, accordingly, current practice has been scrutinised and a guideline proposed that is applicable to user and vendor alike...
  37. ncbi Platelet storage lesion: an update on the impact of various leukoreduction processes on the biological response modifiers
    Jerard Seghatchian
    Blood Component Technology and Thrombosis Haemostasis Consultancy, 50 Primrose Hill Road, London NW3 3AA, UK
    Transfus Apher Sci 34:125-30. 2006
    ..The results obtained from three plateletpheresis technologies are compared with data from a "like with like" study on buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates,..
  38. ncbi Growth factor levels in platelet-rich plasma and correlations with donor age, sex, and platelet count
    Gernot Weibrich
    Department for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany
    J Craniomaxillofac Surg 30:97-102. 2002
    ..Platelet-rich plasma contains autologous thrombocyte growth factors and might be promising for acceleration of dentoalveolar bone regeneration. In this study, it was analysed for platelet counts and growth factor concentrations...
  39. ncbi A critical comparison of platelet preparation methods
    Ralph R Vassallo
    American Red Cross Blood Services Penn Jersey Region, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19123, USA
    Curr Opin Hematol 13:323-30. 2006
    Platelet concentrates may be prepared from whole blood or by plateletpheresis. Currently, the non-evidence-based preponderance of apheresis units in the United States and the 50: 50 ratio in Europe may not optimize the gifts of whole-..
  40. ncbi In vivo efficacy of shipped HLA-matched platelets
    Salim A Haddad
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Transfusion 46:1306-10. 2006
    ..PLTs are routinely shipped for transfusion to thrombocytopenic patients, however. There is a concern that PLT concentrates may be adversely affected during the shipping process...
  41. ncbi Viability and function of 8-day-stored apheresis platelets
    Sherrill J Slichter
    Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, Washington 98104 1256, USA
    Transfusion 46:1763-9. 2006
    ..Methods of bacterial detection and pathogen inactivation of platelets (PLTs) may allow extended storage of PLTs as long as PLT quality is maintained...
  42. ncbi Bacterial screening of apheresis platelets and the residual risk of septic transfusion reactions: the American Red Cross experience (2004-2006)
    Anne F Eder
    Biomedical Services, Medical Office, National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Washington, DC 20006, USA
    Transfusion 47:1134-42. 2007
    ..The American Red Cross initiated systemwide bacterial testing of all apheresis platelet (PLT) collections in March 2004, yet continues to receive reports of septic reactions after transfusion of screened components...
  43. ncbi Use of the DiaMed Impact R to test platelet function in stored platelet concentrates
    A Morrison
    Products and Components R and D Group, National Science Laboratory, Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service, 21 Ellen s Glen Road, Edinburgh, UK
    Vox Sang 93:166-72. 2007
    ..The machine is designed to use whole blood and the aim of this study was to determine if it could be used to assess platelet function in platelet concentrates (PC)...
  44. ncbi In vitro and in vivo effects of potassium and magnesium on storage up to 7 days of apheresis platelet concentrates in platelet additive solution
    B Diedrich
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Vox Sang 94:96-102. 2008
    ..Beside methods of bacterial detection, addition of magnesium and potassium to the platelet storage solution (SSP+) may further improve the quality of platelets with extended storage...
  45. ncbi Effects of high-yield thrombocytapheresis on the quality of platelet products
    Friedgard Julmy
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
    Transfusion 48:442-50. 2008
    ..Therefore, efforts to improve plateletpheresis yield, allowing apheresis products to be split into 2 or more units, are valuable strategies...
  46. ncbi Survival and recovery of apheresis platelets stored in a polyolefin container with high oxygen permeability
    S Ezuki
    Division of Blood Transfusion and Transplantation Immunology, Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Fukushima, Japan
    Vox Sang 94:292-8. 2008
    ..We compared a new polyolefin container with enhanced oxygen permeability (PO-80; Kawasumi, Tokyo, Japan) to a widely used alternative (PL2410; Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA)...
  47. ncbi Concentration changes to counteract the effects of bacteriological sampling on PLT yields
    Edwin A Burgstaler
    Division of Transfusion Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN 55905, USA
    J Clin Apher 23:74-81. 2008
    ..0 x 10(11) PLT (LYP) and decrease the incidence of multiple PLT products. To determine the effects of sampling and subsequent modifications in collections on PLT yield and adverse reactions, a retrospective analysis was performed...
  48. ncbi Use of random versus apheresis platelet concentrates
    G Andreu
    Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, 6 rue Alexandre Cabanel, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Transfus Clin Biol 14:514-21. 2007
    ..Finally, the cost of the components, much higher for APC may be considered...
  49. ncbi Efficacy evaluation of current and future platelet transfusion products
    Jaroslav G Vostal
    Laboratory of Cellular Hematology, Division of Hematology, OBRR, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 1448, USA
    J Trauma 60:S78-82. 2006
  50. ncbi Paired in vitro and in vivo comparison of apheresis platelet concentrates stored in platelet additive solution for 1 versus 7 days
    Agneta Shanwell
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Transfusion 46:973-9. 2006
    ..The quality of platelets (PLTs) stored for 1 versus 7 days was compared by in vitro analyses and in vivo recovery and survival in blood donors...
  51. ncbi In vivo recovery and survival of apheresis and whole blood-derived platelets: a paired comparison in healthy volunteers
    Donald M Arnold
    Canadian Blood Services, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 46:257-64. 2006
    ..As suggested by a recent clinical trial, platelet recovery may be better preserved with apheresis platelet preparations than with platelets prepared from whole blood by the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) method...
  52. ncbi Treating thrombocytopenia with pathogen-reduced platelets
    S Gerald Sandler
    Curr Hematol Rep 5:53-4. 2006
  53. ncbi A platelet quality assessment scheme for comparing the performance of quality monitoring laboratories in the UK National Blood Service
    Jerard Seghatchian
    National Blood Service London and South East Zone, Colindale, UK
    Transfus Apher Sci 26:83-90. 2002
    ..At day 5, mean results were often significantly different to previous days. Improved performance target (+/-15%) will allow identification of non-conformers...
  54. ncbi The quality of MCS+ version C2 double dose platelet concentrate with leucodepletion through a continuous filtration process
    J Seghatchian
    National Blood Service, London and South East, Colindale, UK
    Transfus Apher Sci 26:37-41. 2002
    ..Our new protocol allows a wide range of donors to be selected and the highest percentage of products to meet the UK specification with consistency. It is recommended that it can be used for double dose platelets with routine SPM...
  55. ncbi Successful removal of Chlamydia pneumoniae from plateletpheresis products collected using automated leukoreduction hemapheresis techniques
    Wilmore Webley
    Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    J Clin Apher 21:195-201. 2006
    ..Matched pre-apheresis peripheral blood (PB) samples and product samples obtained from healthy plateletpheresis donors were analyzed for the presence and potential infectivity of Cp organisms by direct smear inspection ..
  56. ncbi Influence of storage time on activation of platelets collected with CS 3000 Plus and Cobe Spectra using platelet storage containers
    Sim Kutlay
    Apheresis Unit, Department of Hematology Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
    Ther Apher 6:82-5. 2002
    ..37 x 10(3)/microl and 0.42 x 10(3)/microl, respectively, and there was no relation between WBC concentration and increase in CD62 expression. Both kinds of equipment were found to be similar according to in vitro activation markers...
  57. ncbi Storage of single donor platelet concentrates: paired comparison of storage as single or double concentrates
    A Glaser
    Department of Transfusion Medicine and Haemostaseology, , Erlangen, Germany
    J Clin Apher 16:148-54. 2001
    Modern cell separators allow the collection of two plateletpheresis concentrates (PCs) at one session. This study evaluates the quality of PCs stored as double concentrates in standard storage containers of two manufacturers...
  58. ncbi Pathogen inactivation of platelets with a photochemical treatment with amotosalen HCl and ultraviolet light: process used in the SPRINT trial
    Alvaro Pineda
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Transfusion 46:562-71. 2006
    ..The system comprises PLT additive solution (PAS III), amotosalen HCl, a compound adsorption device (CAD), a microprocessor-controlled ultraviolet A light source, and a commercially assembled system of interconnected plastic containers...
  59. ncbi Platelet-rich plasma: harvesting with a single-spin centrifuge
    Ben W Eby
    J Oral Implantol 28:297-301. 2002
    ..In this study, an average of a 358% increase in platelet concentration was achieved...
  60. ncbi Screening for platelet antibodies in adult idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a comparative study using solid phase red cell adherence assay and flow cytometry
    Jeong Shi Lin
    Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, R O C
    J Chin Med Assoc 69:569-74. 2006
    ..Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder caused by antiplatelet autoantibodies. In this study, we compared 2 methods for screening serum platelet antibodies in patients with ITP...
  61. ncbi Current topics on centrifugal plasmapheresis technologies
    S Omokawa
    Division of Transfusion Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Japan
    Ther Apher 5:264-9. 2001
    ..In platelet transfusion practice, a platelet concentrate product derived plateletpheresis from a single donor is preferable to minimize and to prevent adverse transfusion reactions...
  62. pmc Ten-year follow-up of unrelated volunteer granulocyte donors who have received multiple cycles of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor and dexamethasone
    Karen Quillen
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Warren G Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Transfusion 49:513-8. 2009
    ..The short-term side effects of G-CSF are well studied, but the potential long-term effects of repeated G-CSF stimulation in unrelated volunteer granulocyte donors have not been reported...
  63. ncbi [Application of thrombelastography in evaluation of platelet function during storage]
    Yang Yu
    Department of Blood Transfusion, Center for Clinical Transfusion Medicine, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
    Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 16:926-9. 2008
    ..12 units plateletpheresis were randomly selected and stored at 20 to 24 degrees C with agitation...
  64. ncbi Acute and transient decrease in neutrophil count in transfusion-related acute lung injury: cases at one hospital
    Mayumi Nakagawa
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Transfusion 44:1689-94. 2004
    ..Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare but serious complication of blood transfusion. The syndrome is characterized by new acute lung injury developing during or within 6 hours of blood transfusion...
  65. ncbi Generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by HLA Class II antibody-containing plasma unit that was associated with severe nonhemolytic transfusion reactions
    Hisako Sakagawa
    Japanese Red Cross, Hokkaido Red Cross Blood Center, and Aiiku Hospital, Sapporo, Japan
    Transfusion 47:154-61. 2007
    ..The activation of monocytes by HLA Class II antibody may play an important role in the etiology of TRALI...
  66. ncbi [Anesthesia for treatment of cardiac aspergillosis in a patient with thrombocytopenia and the judicious use of aprotinin.]
    Raquel Reis Soares
    Biocor Instituto
    Rev Bras Anestesiol 57:672-7. 2007
    ..The objective of this report was to present the case of a patient with severe thrombocytopenia undergoing cardiac surgery in which consultation with Hematology and adequate planning were responsible for the success of the procedure...
  67. ncbi The transfusion needs of an autologous bone marrow transplant patient with IgA deficiency
    C E Meena-Leist
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky, USA
    Transfusion 39:457-9. 1999
    ..The situation is further complicated when the patient is IgA deficient with circulating anti-IgA...
  68. ncbi Acute myelogenous leukemia associated with extreme symptomatic thrombocytosis and chromosome 3q translocation: case report and review of literature
    Victor T Chang
    Section of Hematology Oncology, VA Health Care System of New Jersey, and Department of Medicine, UMDNJ NJMS, Newark, New Jersey 07018, USA
    Am J Hematol 72:20-6. 2003
    ..Platelet count was 3.5 x 10(6)/microL, and despite plateletpheresis, the patient required left-leg amputation...
  69. ncbi CMV antibody prevalence and seroincidence in plateletpheresis donors
    Caroline E Boeke
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Clin Apher 23:63-5. 2008
    To determine the prevalence and seroincidence of CMV seropositivity in plateletpheresis donors of different ages and gender.
  70. ncbi Study of iron stores in regular plateletpheresis donors
    E A Page
    National Blood Service, Tooting, London, UK
    Transfus Med 20:22-9. 2010
    b>Plateletpheresis donors will lose up to 100 mL of blood at each donation, leading to concern that they may become iron deficient, particularly if donating at the maximum allowed frequency under National Blood Service policy of every 2 ..
  71. pmc Quiescent platelets stimulate angiogenesis and diabetic wound repair
    Giorgio Pietramaggiori
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Surg Res 160:169-77. 2010
    ..Platelets partake in hemostasis, wound healing, and tumor growth. Although platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) has been used in surgery for several years, its mechanism of action and application methods are still poorly characterized...
  72. ncbi Noninfectious transfusion of platelets donated before detection of human immunodeficiency virus RNA in plasma
    Ulrich Kalus
    Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Transfusion 49:435-9. 2009
    ..It is unknown whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be transmitted via blood products donated after primary HIV-1 infection before the detection of viral RNA in plasma...
  73. ncbi Studies on the improvement of leucodepletion performance of the Haemonetics MCS+ for production of leucodepleted platelet concentrate
    J Seghatchian
    National Blood Service North London, Colindale Avenue, Colindale, London NW9 5BG, UK
    Platelets 12:298-301. 2001
    ..an in-line, negatively charged LRF6H leucodepleting filter became an essential part of the Haemonetics MCS+ plateletpheresis system. A larger-scale (968) study using the standard protocol revealed a 2...
  74. ncbi Quality and clinical response to transfusion of prestorage white cell-reduced apheresis platelets prepared by use of an in-line white cell-reduction system
    M Elfath
    American Red Cross and the Department of Pathology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk 23510, USA
    Transfusion 39:960-6. 1999
    ..This study evaluated the quality and clinical effectiveness of white cell (WBC)-reduced apheresis platelets collected by the use of a new technology, fluidized particle-bed separation...
  75. ncbi The safety profile of automated collections: an analysis of more than 1 million collections
    Thomas B Wiltbank
    United Blood Services, Arizona Region, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
    Transfusion 47:1002-5. 2007
    ..Recent technology allows for the collection of 2-unit red cells (RBCs) and single-unit RBCs plus plasma or platelets (PLTs)...
  76. ncbi [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany]
    Sabine Ritter
    Abteilung für Infektionsepidemiologie, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, BRD
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 51:915-25. 2008
    ..9 per year for whole blood donations, 11.9 for plasmapheresis and 4.0 for plateletpheresis. With the exception of the latter, men donated more frequently than women...
  77. pmc Emergency therapeutic leukapheresis in a case of acute myeloid leukemia M5
    Sudha Ranganathan
    Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad
    Asian J Transfus Sci 2:18-9. 2008
    Cell separators in India are routinely used for plateletpheresis, peripheral blood stem cell collections and therapeutic plasma exchange...
  78. ncbi High-throughput multiplex single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis for red cell and platelet antigen genotypes
    G A Denomme
    Research and Development, Canadian Blood Services, the Toronto Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 45:660-6. 2005
    ..An alternative strategy is to screen blood for these antigens with genomic DNA and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  79. pmc Comparison of plateletpheresis on three continuous flow cell separators
    Anita Tendulkar
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai 400 012, India
    Asian J Transfus Sci 3:73-7. 2009
    ..An efficient cell separator is a prerequisite for an optimally functioning apheresis setup. Donor blood count may undergo a temporary reduction after the procedure...
  80. ncbi Aortic valve replacement for a patient with essential thrombocythemia: a case report
    Susan Jones Englert
    HCA Fresenius Medical Care, Extracorporeal Alliance, Wesley Medical Center, Wichita, Kansas 67230, USA
    J Extra Corpor Technol 36:166-8. 2004
    ..Based on current knowledge of pathophysiology and review of the literature, plateletpheresis should be the current management of essential thrombocythemia.
  81. ncbi Functional characteristics of apheresis-derived platelets treated with ultraviolet light combined with either amotosalen-HCl (S-59) or riboflavin (vitamin B2) for pathogen-reduction
    S M Picker
    Transfusion Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany
    Vox Sang 97:26-33. 2009
    ..To examine if different pathogen-reduction technologies (PRTs) induce different degrees of platelet (PLT) storage lesion...
  82. ncbi Growth factor levels in the platelet-rich plasma produced by 2 different methods: curasan-type PRP kit versus PCCS PRP system
    Gernot Weibrich
    Department for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17:184-90. 2002
    ..Two methods for extracting PRP directly by the surgeon are currently available; this study was conducted to compare the growth factor levels in the resulting PRP...
  83. ncbi Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates prepared by different methods: results of standardized sterility testing in Germany
    G Walther-Wenke
    Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Red Cross Donor Service West, Munster, Germany
    Vox Sang 90:177-82. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to present and evaluate the results of sterility testing of platelet concentrates (PCs) prepared by different methods...
  84. ncbi Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate exposure of apheresis donors is procedure-related
    Volker Weisbach
    Transfusion 46:1457-8; author reply 1459. 2006
  85. ncbi A single institutional experience with 43 pregnancies in essential thrombocythemia
    C A Wright
    Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Eur J Haematol 66:152-9. 2001
    ..In addition, our experience does not support the use of prophylactic platelet apheresis during delivery...
  86. ncbi [Evaluation of two methods for counting residual white blood cells in thrombocytaphoresis concentrates]
    Yong Jun Wang
    Blood Center of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310006, China
    Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 14:614-6. 2006
    ..8 to 10 WBC/microl (P > 0.05). In conclusion, flow-cytometry and Nageotte methods can be used for quality control of WBC-reduced blood components...
  87. ncbi The contribution of platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta1, and insulin-like growth factor-I in platelet-rich plasma to the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells
    Yoichiro Ogino
    Section of Removable Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Japan
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 101:724-9. 2006
    ..These results show the beneficial abilities of PRP in the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells from the standpoint of growth factors, including the contribution of each factor...
  88. ncbi Value of anaerobic culture in bacterial surveillance program for platelet concentrates
    C K Lee
    Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Center of Infection and Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
    Transfusion 48:2606-11. 2008
    ..With more countries implementing routine aerobic and anaerobic cultures of PCs, a prospective study was conducted to determine the value of anaerobic culture to STABC...
  89. ncbi Effect of thrombocytapheresis on blood rheology in healthy donors: role of nitric oxide
    Melek Bor-Kucukatay
    Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Kinikli, 20070 Denizli, Turkey
    Transfus Apher Sci 39:101-8. 2008
    ....
  90. ncbi Prospective evaluation of platelets prepared by single and random methods during 5 days of storage: aspects related to quality and quantity
    Bekir Kocazeybek
    Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology Department, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Turkey
    Transfus Apher Sci 26:29-34. 2002
    ..In our study, it was determined that in spite of the optimal storage conditions, the aggregation response of the PCs decreased significantly, whereas, the numerical values changed little during the storage period...
  91. pmc Screening plateletpheresis donors for HLA antibodies on two high-throughput platforms and correlation with recipient outcome
    Karen Quillen
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 02118, USA
    Transfusion 51:504-10. 2011
    ....
  92. ncbi A new flow cytometric method for simultaneous measurement of residual platelets and RBCs in plasma: validation and application for QC
    P Jilma-Stohlawetz
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Vienna, Austria
    Transfusion 41:87-92. 2001
    ..Guidelines for the preparation of FFP in Austria and Germany require the quantification of residual RBCs in plasma. However, currently there is no validated method for enumeration of RBC counts as low as 1 x 10(9) per L...
  93. ncbi Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets?
    R N I Pietersz
    Sanquin Blood Bank North West Region, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Transfus Apher Sci 41:115-9. 2009
    ..In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control...
  94. ncbi Evaluation of the Mirasol pathogen [corrected] reduction technology system against Babesia microti in apheresis platelets and plasma
    Laura Tonnetti
    Transmissible Diseases Department, Jerome H Holland Laboratory, American Red Cross, Rockville, Maryland 20855, USA
    Transfusion 50:1019-27. 2010
    ..Thus, we evaluated the ability of the Mirasol pathogen reduction technology (PRT; CaridianBCT), which uses riboflavin (RB) and ultraviolet (UV) light, to diminish the presence of B. microti in apheresis plasma and platelets (PLTs)...
  95. pmc Effect of storage on levels of nitric oxide metabolites in platelet preparations
    Ji Won Park
    Molecular Medicine Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Transfusion 53:637-44. 2013
    ..We also tested whether the material of PLT storage containers affects nitrite content since many plastic materials are known to contain and release nitrite...
  96. pmc Two septic transfusion reactions presenting as transfusion-related acute lung injury from a split plateletpheresis unit
    Mark D Rollins
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Crit Care Med 40:2488-91. 2012
    ..The sepsis in both cases resulted from transfusion of two split products from a single contaminated plateletpheresis unit...
  97. ncbi Maxillary sinus augmentation with anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss) and autologous platelet-rich plasma: preliminary clinical and histologic evaluations
    Carlo Maiorana
    Oral Surgery, University of Milan School of Dentistry, Italy
    Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 23:227-35. 2003
    ....
  98. ncbi Early storage lesions in apheresis platelets are induced by the activation of the integrin αIIbβ₃ and focal adhesion signaling pathways
    Thomas Thiele
    Institut für Immunologie und Transfusionsmedizin, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Germany
    J Proteomics 76:297-315. 2012
    ..Integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling cause irreversible early storage lesions in apheresis platelets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics...
  99. ncbi Recruitment of voluntary non-remunerated apheresis donors: the second five years' experience in Shenzhen
    Ling kui Kong
    Department of Apheresis, Shenzhen Blood Center, Shenzhen 518035, PR China
    Transfus Apher Sci 30:101-4. 2004
    ..Ninety percent of the donors registered for plateletapheresis do donate and none of the twenty-three non-related donors with matched HLA genotypes broke their promise to donate their peripheral stem cells...
  100. ncbi Quality of platelet concentrates derived by platelet rich plasma, buffy coat and Apheresis
    Eugenia Vasconcelos
    Centro Regional de Sangue de Lisboa, Instituto Português do Sangue, Lisboa, Portugal
    Transfus Apher Sci 29:13-6. 2003
    ..Some types of methodologies, such as BC derived-PC, appear to have a higher rate of bacterial contamination...
  101. ncbi Evaluation of donor factors contributing to plateletpheresis yields among apheresis platelet donors
    William J Woodall
    Department of Pathology, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Blood Donor Center, Orange, California, USA
    J Clin Apher 29:139-47. 2014
    The University of California, Irvine Blood Donor Center operates a plateletpheresis donor program utilizing the Amicus Cell Separator. Plateletpheresis donors may donate one or more apheresis platelet (PLT) units per collection event...

Research Grants17

  1. NEUROLOGIC DISEASE AND THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
    William Parker; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..amounts of human mitochondria (25-40 mg mitochondrial protein) from patient platelets collected by plateletpheresis. Using this method we have been able to employ standard but previously unusable biochemical methods...
  2. Platelet transcriptome analysis from small blood volumes
    DMITRI GNATENKO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..initial proof-of-principle supporting this research direction, current platelet isolation procedures require plateletpheresis and relatively cumbersome purification methods for optimal determinations, limiting wider applicability...
  3. NATIONAL RESEARCH DEMONSTRATION CENTER IN TRANSFUSION
    Sherrill Slichter; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..altruistic behavior of donors and how this can be used to identify committed donors for special requirements (plateletpheresis and bone marrow donations); education of donors to these special requirements; integration of new technology ..
  4. NOVEL APPROACHES TO IMPROVE AND EXTEND PLATELET STORAGE
    Sherrill Slichter; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  5. VIRUS PHOTOINACTIVATION--DIMETHYLMETHYLENE BLUE IN RBC
    Stephen Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A Phase II effort will be focused on the development of a prototype instrumentation and clinical testing of multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. ..
  7. Diagnosis of Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Patients
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The impact of this is the improved ability to control the disease and fewer untreated patients returning to the general population to infect others and spread the disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Rapid Diagnostic Testing of Urinary Tract Infections
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A follow-on effort will focus on the development of prototype instrumentation and testing of other clinically relevant multi-drug resistant organisms. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. Rapid Detection of Bacterial Contamination in Platelets
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Feasibility of the diagnostic tool will be demonstrated with several of the clinically significant bacterial strains which are often implicated in transfusion-related sepsis. ..
  10. Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Protein-Ligand Interactions
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The Phase II effort will focus on the development of a microfluidic flow cell and a technical demonstration of the binding of a relevant ligand-protein system. ..
  11. Rapid Detection of Bacterial Contamination in Platelets
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed rapid test will enable the detection of viable contaminant bacteria in platelet supplies in near-real time both insuring their safe use and extending their useable life-span. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSE TO HPV 16
    Mayumi Nakagawa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  13. The Role of VDR in PTH and Vitamin D3(D3) Synergy
    Tara Aghaloo; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will help understand the mechanisms of PTH and D3 synergy through VDR and their effects on osteoblastic differentiation and function. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. Curcumin/Bioperine in Multiple Myeloma
    Saroj Vadhan Raj; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Knowledge gained from these studies may provide useful information on how best to use these natural products in the treatment of cancer. ..
  15. Pediatric Clinical Research Scholar Program - Washington
    Naomi Luban; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..