carcinogenicity tests

Summary

Summary: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Induction of thyroid and liver tumors by chronic exposure to 2-methylimidazole in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice
    P C Chan
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Arch Toxicol 82:399-412. 2008
  2. pmc Investigation of the mode of action underlying the tumorigenic response induced in B6C3F1 mice exposed orally to hexavalent chromium
    Chad M Thompson
    ToxStrategies, Inc, Katy, Texas 77494, USA
    Toxicol Sci 123:58-70. 2011
  3. pmc The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens
    James Huff
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1439-42. 2008
  4. ncbi Pyrrolizidine alkaloids--genotoxicity, metabolism enzymes, metabolic activation, and mechanisms
    Peter P Fu
    National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 36:1-55. 2004
  5. ncbi Tests for order restrictions in binary data
    S D Peddada
    Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Biometrics 57:1219-27. 2001
  6. ncbi Association of advanced chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) with renal tubule tumors and precursor hyperplasia in control F344 rats from two-year carcinogenicity studies
    Gordon C Hard
    Toxicol Pathol 40:473-81. 2012
  7. ncbi Chemically exacerbated chronic progressive nephropathy not associated with renal tubular tumor induction in rats: an evaluation based on 60 carcinogenicity studies by the national toxicology program
    Ronald L Melnick
    Ron Melnick Consulting, LLC, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA
    Toxicol Sci 128:346-56. 2012
  8. ncbi Re-evaluation of the kidney tumors and renal histopathology occurring in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin
    Gordon C Hard
    Private Consultant, 203 Paku Drive, Tairua 3508, New Zealand
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:600-8. 2007
  9. ncbi Histopathologic changes in the kidneys of male F344 rats from a 2-year inhalation carcinogenicity study of tetrahydrofuran: a pathology working group review and re-evaluation
    Richard H Bruner
    Biotechnics Inc, 401 Augusta Rd, Clemson, SC 29631, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 58:100-5. 2010
  10. pmc Key issues in the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonism and cell signaling in trichloroethylene toxicity
    Nagalakshmi Keshava
    National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1464-70. 2006

Detail Information

Publications206 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Induction of thyroid and liver tumors by chronic exposure to 2-methylimidazole in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice
    P C Chan
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Arch Toxicol 82:399-412. 2008
    ..Under these experimental conditions, carcinogenic activity of 2MI was demonstrated in male and female rats and mice...
  2. pmc Investigation of the mode of action underlying the tumorigenic response induced in B6C3F1 mice exposed orally to hexavalent chromium
    Chad M Thompson
    ToxStrategies, Inc, Katy, Texas 77494, USA
    Toxicol Sci 123:58-70. 2011
    ..Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice...
  3. pmc The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens
    James Huff
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1439-42. 2008
    ..New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay...
  4. ncbi Pyrrolizidine alkaloids--genotoxicity, metabolism enzymes, metabolic activation, and mechanisms
    Peter P Fu
    National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 36:1-55. 2004
    ..In this review, we present updated information on the metabolism, metabolizing enzymes, and the mechanisms by which pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert genotoxicity and tumorigenicity...
  5. ncbi Tests for order restrictions in binary data
    S D Peddada
    Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Biometrics 57:1219-27. 2001
    ..The procedure is illustrated through application to two data sets that correspond to three commonly encountered order restrictions: simple tree order, simple order, and down turn order...
  6. ncbi Association of advanced chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) with renal tubule tumors and precursor hyperplasia in control F344 rats from two-year carcinogenicity studies
    Gordon C Hard
    Toxicol Pathol 40:473-81. 2012
    ..The regulatory significance of this finding is that chemicals exacerbating CPN as their only renal effect are likely to show a numerical increase in RTT with dose, which does not represent a direct tumorigenic effect of the chemical...
  7. ncbi Chemically exacerbated chronic progressive nephropathy not associated with renal tubular tumor induction in rats: an evaluation based on 60 carcinogenicity studies by the national toxicology program
    Ronald L Melnick
    Ron Melnick Consulting, LLC, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA
    Toxicol Sci 128:346-56. 2012
    ....
  8. ncbi Re-evaluation of the kidney tumors and renal histopathology occurring in a 2-year rat carcinogenicity bioassay of quercetin
    Gordon C Hard
    Private Consultant, 203 Paku Drive, Tairua 3508, New Zealand
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:600-8. 2007
    ....
  9. ncbi Histopathologic changes in the kidneys of male F344 rats from a 2-year inhalation carcinogenicity study of tetrahydrofuran: a pathology working group review and re-evaluation
    Richard H Bruner
    Biotechnics Inc, 401 Augusta Rd, Clemson, SC 29631, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 58:100-5. 2010
    ..Neither condition has a pathologic counterpart in humans...
  10. pmc Key issues in the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonism and cell signaling in trichloroethylene toxicity
    Nagalakshmi Keshava
    National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1464-70. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi Renal histopathology in toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with tert-butyl alcohol administered in drinking water to F344 rats: a pathology working group review and re-evaluation
    Gordon C Hard
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 59:430-6. 2011
    ..The PWG concluded that both α(2u)-g nephropathy and exacerbated CPN modes of action were operative in TBA renal tumorigenicity in male rats, neither of which has relevance for human cancer risk...
  12. ncbi Development of human cell models for assessing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals
    Yaqin Pang
    Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat Sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, P R China
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 232:478-86. 2008
    ..Our findings provided direct evidence that a genetically modified human cell transformation model can be applied to the assessment of potent carcinogens...
  13. ncbi Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay with and without X-ray irradiation of feeder cells using Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and N-nitroso-N-methylnitroguanidine (MNNG)
    K Pant
    Genetic Toxicology Department, BioReliance Corporation, 14920 Broschart Road, Rockville, MD 20850, United States
    Mutat Res 698:6-10. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay with conditioned media (without X-ray irradiated feeder layer) using 2,4-diaminotoluene, 2,6-diaminotoluene and chloral hydrate
    Kamala Pant
    Genetic Toxicology Department, BioReliance, Rockville, MD 20850, United States
    Mutat Res 654:108-13. 2008
    ....
  15. ncbi Carcinogenicity assessments of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: a review of approved molecules and best practice recommendations
    John L Vahle
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 38:522-53. 2010
    ..If experimentation is considered warranted, it should be hypothesis driven and may include a variety of experimental models. Ultimately, it is important that preclinical data provide useful guidance in product labeling...
  16. ncbi Prediction of a carcinogenic potential of rat hepatocarcinogens using toxicogenomics analysis of short-term in vivo studies
    Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer
    Bayer HealthCare AG, Department of Molecular and Special Toxicology, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Mutat Res 637:23-39. 2008
    ..We would like to present this study as proof of the concept that a classification of carcinogens based on short-term studies may be feasible...
  17. ncbi IPCS conceptual framework for evaluating a mode of action for chemical carcinogenesis
    C Sonich-Mullin
    IPCS Harmonization Project, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Switzerland
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 34:146-52. 2001
    ..Another important but separate step is the assessment of relevance to humans. This is a priority area for future work in this project...
  18. ncbi Evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of insulin glargine (LANTUS) in rats and mice
    Ingo Stammberger
    Aventis Pharma Germany, Hattersheim, Germany
    Int J Toxicol 21:171-9. 2002
    ..In these studies, there were no neoplastic findings to indicate that insulin glargine had a systemic carcinogenic potential in mice or rats...
  19. ncbi Alternative models for carcinogenicity testing: weight of evidence evaluations across models
    S M Cohen
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology and the Eppley Institute for Research on Cancer, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha 68198 3135, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:183-90. 2001
    ..Like the 2-year bioassay, the results from these models need to be evaluated in conjunction with other information on a chemical in an overall weight-of-evidence, integrated analytical approach to assess risk for human exposures...
  20. ncbi CB6F1-rasH2 mouse: overview of available data
    T Usui
    Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki, Japan
    Toxicol Pathol 29:90-108. 2001
    ..The three non-genotoxic non-carcinogens that were tested also gave negative responses in the rasH2 model. This result provides confidence that the model is likely to have a low false-positive rate...
  21. ncbi SRC in human carcinogenesis
    Salvatore V Russello
    Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Biochemistry, Temple University School of Medicine, 3307 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Front Biosci 9:139-44. 2004
    ..Increased expression or activity of Src correlates with the stage and metastatic potential of some neoplasia...
  22. ncbi Detection of initiating as well as promoting activity of chemicals by a novel cell transformation assay using v-Ha-ras-transfected BALB/c 3T3 cells (Bhas 42 cells)
    Shin Asada
    Laboratory of Cell Toxicology, Hatano Research Institute, Food and Drug Safety Center, and Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Japan
    Mutat Res 588:7-21. 2005
    ..The present Bhas assays for the detection of either/both initiating and promoting activities of chemicals are sensitive and of high performance compared with other cell transformation assays...
  23. ncbi Background and framework for ILSI's collaborative evaluation program on alternative models for carcinogenicity assessment. International Life Sciences Institute
    D E Robinson
    International Life Sciences Institute, Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, Washington, DC 20005, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:13-9. 2001
    ..Beyond the data, the collaborative process by which the models were evaluated may also represent a prototype for assessing new methods in the future...
  24. ncbi A quantitative assessment of the carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium by the oral route and its relevance to human exposure
    Alan H Stern
    New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Science, 428 E State St, Trenton, NJ 08625, USA
    Environ Res 110:798-807. 2010
    ..The 2008 NTP chronic bioassay of sodium dichromate dihydrate in drinking water found clear evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents and allows a generalizable estimate of the human ingestion cancer potency of Cr(6+)...
  25. ncbi Application of toxicogenomics to study mechanisms of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity
    Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer
    Bayer HealthCare AG, Special Toxicology, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 186:36-44. 2009
    ..Furthermore, the potential for application of genomic approaches to hazard identification and risk assessment is explored...
  26. pmc A 2-year dose-response study of lesion sequences during hepatocellular carcinogenesis in the male B6C3F(1) mouse given the drinking water chemical dichloroacetic acid
    Julia H Carter
    Wood Hudson Cancer Research Laboratory, Newport, Kentucky 41071 4701, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:53-64. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi IPCS framework for analyzing the relevance of a cancer mode of action for humans
    Alan R Boobis
    Section of Experimental Medicine and Toxicology, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, United Kingdom
    Crit Rev Toxicol 36:781-92. 2006
    ..This might include data on the shape of the dose-response curve, identification of any thresholds and recognition of potentially susceptible subgroups, for example, the basis of genetic or life-stage differences...
  28. ncbi The carcinoGENOMICS project: critical selection of model compounds for the development of omics-based in vitro carcinogenicity screening assays
    Mathieu Vinken
    Department of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    Mutat Res 659:202-10. 2008
    ..Since selecting an appropriate set of chemicals is a frequent impediment in the early stages of similar research projects, the information provided in this paper might be extremely valuable...
  29. pmc Fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: the rainbow trout
    G S Bailey
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 104:5-21. 1996
    ..For some problems, fish models can provide wholly unique approaches...
  30. ncbi Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal
    J O'BRIEN
    Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Abbey Court, Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1, Ireland
    Food Chem Toxicol 44:1613-35. 2006
    ..The proposed approach is applicable to all substances in food that are DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens and enables the formulation of appropriate semi-quantitative advice to risk managers...
  31. pmc Workgroup report: National Toxicology Program workshop on Hormonally Induced Reproductive Tumors - Relevance of Rodent Bioassays
    Kristina A Thayer
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:1351-6. 2007
    ..Breakout group reports and additional information on the workshop, including participants, presentations, public comments and background materials, are posted on the NTP website...
  32. ncbi Risk assessment of substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic report of an International Conference organized by EFSA and WHO with support of ILSI Europe
    S Barlow
    Harrington House, 8 Harrington Road, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 6RE, United Kingdom
    Food Chem Toxicol 44:1636-50. 2006
    ..The MOE can be used for prioritisation of risk management actions but the conference recognised that it is difficult to interpret it in terms of health risk...
  33. ncbi Comparison of HepG2 and HepaRG by whole-genome gene expression analysis for the purpose of chemical hazard identification
    Danyel G J Jennen
    Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Sci 115:66-79. 2010
    ..Although, it should be noted that only five carcinogens were used in this study...
  34. pmc Is peroxisome proliferation an obligatory precursor step in the carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)?
    R L Melnick
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 109:437-42. 2001
    ....
  35. ncbi An industry perspective on the utility of short-term carcinogenicity testing in transgenic mice in pharmaceutical development
    Richard D Storer
    Dept of Safety Assessment, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 38:51-61. 2010
    ....
  36. ncbi Value of rodent carcinogenesis bioassays
    Jerrold M Ward
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 226:212. 2008
  37. ncbi Rat lung tumors induced by exposure to selected poorly soluble nonfibrous particles
    K J Nikula
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, PO Box 5890, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 12:97-119. 2000
    ....
  38. ncbi Evaluation of possible carcinogenic risk to humans based on liver tumors in rodent assays: the two-year bioassay is no longer necessary
    Samuel M Cohen
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 3135, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 38:487-501. 2010
    ..A similar process can be envisioned for other tissues for evaluation for carcinogenic potential...
  39. ncbi The syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay: review of the methods and results
    R J Mauthe
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT 06340 8014, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:138-46. 2001
    ..Based on these data, it is concluded that the SHE cell-transformation assay has utility for predicting the results of the rodent carcinogenesis bioassay but lacks the selectivity to distinguish between rodent and human carcinogens...
  40. pmc Key issues in the modes of action and effects of trichloroethylene metabolites for liver and kidney tumorigenesis
    Jane C Caldwell
    National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1457-63. 2006
    ....
  41. ncbi Chemically induced renal tubule tumors in the laboratory rat and mouse: review of the NCI/NTP database and categorization of renal carcinogens based on mechanistic information
    Edward A Lock
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom
    Crit Rev Toxicol 34:211-99. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi Human carcinogenic risk evaluation, part IV: assessment of human risk of cancer from chemical exposure using a global weight-of-evidence approach
    James S MacDonald
    Schering Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA
    Toxicol Sci 82:3-8. 2004
  43. pmc Validation of transgenic mice carrying the human prototype c-Ha-ras gene as a bioassay model for rapid carcinogenicity testing
    S Yamamoto
    School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Environ Health Perspect 106:57-69. 1998
    ..The rasH2 mouse appears to be a promising candidate as an animal model for development of a rapid carcinogenicity testing system...
  44. ncbi Alternative mouse models for carcinogenicity assessment: industry use and issues with pathology interpretation
    Gerald G Long
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana 46225, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 38:43-50. 2010
    ....
  45. ncbi Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens II. Further analysis of mammalian cell results, relative predictivity and tumour profiles
    David Kirkland
    Covance Laboratories Limited, Otley Road, Harrogate HG3 1PY, United Kingdom
    Mutat Res 608:29-42. 2006
    ..7 (for Ames+MLA+CA). Thus, all values were less than a meaningful RP of two, and indicate that it is not possible to predict outcome of the rodent carcinogenicity study when only 2/3 genotoxicity results are in agreement...
  46. ncbi Human carcinogenic risk evaluation, Part III: Assessing cancer hazard and risk in human drug development
    Abigail Jacobs
    Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    Toxicol Sci 81:260-2. 2004
    ..The results of carcinogenicity studies of approved products are published in the drug labeling and individual clinicians balance risk and benefit in making prescribing decisions...
  47. ncbi A review of the genotoxicity of marketed pharmaceuticals
    R D Snyder
    DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company, Stine Haskell Research Center, PO Box 50, H1 1710, Newark, DE 19714, USA
    Mutat Res 488:151-69. 2001
    ..Statistical analyses suggested that no combination of gene-tox assays provided a higher predictivity of rodent carcinogenesis than the bacterial mutagenicity test itself...
  48. ncbi Dietary controlled carcinogenicity study of chloral hydrate in male B6C3F1 mice
    Julian E A Leakey
    National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 193:266-80. 2003
    ..The study suggests that dietary control not only improves terminal survival and decreases interassay variation, but also can increase assay sensitivity by decreasing intra-assay variation...
  49. ncbi Value of GST-P positive preneoplastic hepatic foci in dose-response studies of hepatocarcinogenesis: evidence for practical thresholds with both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens. A review of recent work
    Hiroyuki Tsuda
    Experimental Pathology and Chemotherapy Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5 1 1, Tsukiji, Chuo Ku, Tokyo 104 0045, Japan
    Toxicol Pathol 31:80-6. 2003
    ....
  50. ncbi Animal carcinogenicity studies: 1. Poor human predictivity
    Andrew Knight
    Animal Consultants International, London SE11 4NR, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 34:19-27. 2006
    ..The EPA policy of erroneously assuming that tumours in animals are indicative of human carcinogenicity is implicated as a primary cause of these errors...
  51. ncbi Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards
    James Huff
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27514, USA
    Int J Occup Environ Health 13:446-8. 2007
    ..No study of long-term adverse occupational health effects on aspartame workers have been conducted. The FDA should consider sponsoring a prospective epidemiologic study of aspartame workers...
  52. ncbi Bioassays of shortened duration for drugs: statistical implications
    R L Kodell
    Division of Biometry and Risk Assessment, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Toxicol Sci 55:415-32. 2000
    ..For the 21-month stopping time, the results showed that, unless pure promotion can be ruled out a priori as a potential carcinogenic mode of action, the loss of power is too great to warrant early stopping...
  53. ncbi Mechanisms of extrahepatic tumor induction by peroxisome proliferators in male CD rats
    L B Biegel
    Covance Laboratories, Inc, 3301 Kinsman Boulevard, Madison, Wisconsin 53704, USA
    Toxicol Sci 60:44-55. 2001
    ..This study suggests that estradiol may play a role in enhancement of Leydig cell tumors in the rat, and that peroxisome proliferators may induce tumors via a non-LH type mechanism...
  54. ncbi Compendium of chemical carcinogens by target organ: results of chronic bioassays in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, and monkeys
    L S Gold
    Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3202, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:639-52. 2001
    ..Comparisons are provided of target organs for mutagens versus nonmutagens and rats versus mice...
  55. ncbi Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to aspartame administered in feed
    Fiorella Belpoggi
    Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center, European Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences B Ramazzini, 40010 Bentivoglio, Bologna, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1076:559-77. 2006
    ..05). The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM, in the tested experimental conditions, is a multipotential carcinogenic agent...
  56. ncbi Letter to U.S. FDA commissioner. Questions about the safety of the artificial sweetener aspartame
    Kamal M Abdo
    Int J Occup Environ Health 13:449-50. 2007
  57. ncbi ECVAM prevalidation of three cell transformation assays
    Philippe Vanparys
    Altoxicon BVBA, Vosselaar, Belgium
    ALTEX 28:56-9. 2011
    ..For the Balb/c 3T3 method, some clarifications and modifications to the protocol were needed to obtain reproducible results. Overall, three methods have shown to be valuable to detect rodent carcinogens...
  58. ncbi Establishing a laboratory animal model from a transgenic animal: RasH2 mice as a model for carcinogenicity studies in regulatory science
    K Urano
    Central Institute for Experimental Animals CIEA, 3 25 12 Tonomachi, Kawasaki ku, Kawasaki 210 0821, Japan
    Vet Pathol 49:16-23. 2012
    ..A better understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of the transgenic rasH2 mouse will result in greater and more efficient use of this animal model in the future...
  59. ncbi An update on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of marketed pharmaceuticals with reference to in silico predictivity
    Ronald D Snyder
    Mechanistic and Predictive Toxicology, Dept of Genetic Toxicology, Schering Plough Research Institute, Summit, New Jersey, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 50:435-50. 2009
    ....
  60. ncbi The utility of genetically modified mouse assays for identifying human carcinogens: a basic understanding and path forward. The Alternatives to Carcinogenicity Testing Committee ILSI HESI
    James Macdonald
    Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
    Toxicol Sci 77:188-94. 2004
    ..Based on the outcome of the workshop, various studies are proposed to provide data to improve the utility of currently available assays for cancer hazard identification and risk assessment purposes...
  61. ncbi A Bhas 42 cell transformation assay on 98 chemicals: the characteristics and performance for the prediction of chemical carcinogenicity
    Ayako Sakai
    Laboratory of Cell Carcinogenesis, Hatano Research Institute, Food and Drug Safety Center, Hadano, Kanagawa, Japan
    Mutat Res 702:100-22. 2010
    ..From overall results, we concluded that the accuracy of prediction of chemical carcinogenicity would be improved by introducing the Bhas 42 cell transformation assay into the battery of in vitro assays...
  62. ncbi Examination of percutaneous application in a 26-week carcinogenicity test in CB6F1-TG rasH2 mice
    Koji Urano
    Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki, Japan
    J Toxicol Sci 32:367-75. 2007
    ..possibility of expanding applications of rasH2 mice, which are genetically manipulated mice for short-term carcinogenicity tests, to percutaneous application...
  63. ncbi Use of IC tags in short-term carcinogenicity study on CB6F1 TGrasH2 mice
    Koji Urano
    Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Miyamae, Kawasaki, Japan
    J Toxicol Sci 31:407-18. 2006
    ..From these findings, it was concluded that the IC tag has no effect on a 26-week carcinogenicity test of rasH2 mice under the conditions of the present study...
  64. ncbi Classification of man-made vitreous fibers: Comments on the revaluation by an IARC working group
    P Wardenbach
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Safety and Health with Chemical and Biological Agents, Friedrich Henkel Weg 1 25, Dortmund 44149, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 43:181-93. 2005
    ..Having in mind the higher sensitivity of humans compared to rats after inhalation of asbestos, more emphasis should have been given to the carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection...
  65. ncbi A review of evidence leading to the prediction that 1,4-butanediol is not a carcinogen
    Richard D Irwin
    National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 26:72-80. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi Induction of LacZ mutations in Muta Mouse can distinguish carcinogenic from non-carcinogenic analogues of diaminotoluenes and nitronaphthalenes
    David Kirkland
    Covance Laboratories Ltd, Otley Road, Harrogate HG3 1PY, United Kingdom
    Mutat Res 608:88-96. 2006
    ..Robust carcinogenicity data are needed to determine whether 2-NNT can induce tumours in the liver and bladder...
  67. ncbi Absence of carcinogenic activity in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice following 103-week inhalation exposures to toluene
    James Huff
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Int J Occup Environ Health 9:138-46. 2003
    ..For mice, no biologically important increase was observed for any nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesion. Studies by others had reported carcinogenicity of toluene, especially for total malignant tumors...
  68. ncbi The IARC monographs program: changing attitudes towards public health
    Lorenzo Tomatis
    Int J Occup Environ Health 8:144-52. 2002
    ..If tests show those hypotheses to be incorrect, or if they do not account adequately for the wide range of susceptibility in humans, serious consequences for public health may follow...
  69. ncbi The utility of multiple-section sampling in the histopathological evaluation of the kidney for carcinogenicity studies
    S L Eustis
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709
    Toxicol Pathol 22:457-72. 1994
    ..For these sex-species groups, there were only two instances, both involving male mice, in which the additional data confirmed an association with kidney neoplasia...
  70. ncbi Regulating the cancer-inducing potential of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: some lessons from the 1970s and 1980s
    J Abraham
    Sociology Subject Group, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
    Soc Sci Med 46:39-51. 1998
    ..This takes the form of awarding the benefit of the many scientific doubts in carcinogenicity testing to manufacturers rather than to patients...
  71. ncbi A perspective on current and future uses of alternative models for carcinogenicity testing
    J I Goodman
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:173-6. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the involvement of the International Life Sciences Institute as the overall organizing, facilitating umbrella was crucial for the success of the project...
  72. ncbi Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- knockout mice: overview of available data
    C F van Kreijl
    RIVM, Laboratory of Health Effects Research, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Pathol 29:117-27. 2001
    ..In general. the XPA/p53 model appears to be more sensitive to carcinogens than the XPA model...
  73. ncbi Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment ILSI/HESI research programme on alternative cancer models: results of Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay. International Life Sciences Institute/Health and E
    Peter B Farmer
    Toxicol Pathol 30:536-8. 2002
  74. ncbi A review of evidence from short-term studies leading to the prediction that diazoaminobenzene (1,3-diphenyltriazine) is a carcinogen
    Nancy R Bordelon
    National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 25:514-21. 2005
    ..The purpose of this article is to review the data developed for predicting the carcinogenicity of DAAB...
  75. pmc NTP workshop: animal models for the NTP rodent cancer bioassay: stocks and strains--should we switch?
    Angela King-Herbert
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 34:802-5. 2006
    ..This article also outlines the NTP's next steps in pursuing the workshop recommendations...
  76. ncbi Validation and regulatory acceptance of new carcinogenicity tests
    Horst Spielmann
    National Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine BgVV, 12277 Berlin, Germany
    Toxicol Pathol 31:54-9. 2003
    ....
  77. ncbi Chronic toxicity and oncogenic dose-response effects of lifetime oral acrylonitrile exposure to Fischer 344 rats
    Frederick R Johannsen
    Environmental, Safety and Health, Solutia Inc, 575 Maryville Centre Drive, St Louis, MO 63141, USA
    Toxicol Lett 132:221-47. 2002
    ..Mammary gland carcinomas were observed only in female groups. Both sexes given 10 ppm AN or more in their drinking water for their lifetime had astrocytomas of the brain/spinal cord and adenomas/carcinomas of the Zymbal's gland...
  78. ncbi An evaluation of the possible carcinogenicity of bisphenol A to humans
    Lois A Haighton
    Cantox Health Sciences International, Inc, 2233 Argentia Road, Suite 308, Mississauga, Ontario L5N 2X7, Canada
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:238-54. 2002
    ..In addition, exposure assessment reveals that current use of BPA would result in only a trivial human exposure...
  79. ncbi Animal carcinogenicity studies: 2. Obstacles to extrapolation of data to humans
    Andrew Knight
    Animal Consultants International, London SE11 4NR, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 34:29-38. 2006
    ..Such factors render profoundly difficult any attempts to accurately extrapolate human carcinogenic hazards from animal data...
  80. ncbi Genotoxic activities of aniline and its metabolites and their relationship to the carcinogenicity of aniline in the spleen of rats
    Ernst M Bomhard
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:783-835. 2005
    ..It is concluded that there is no relationship between the damage to the chromosomes at high, toxic doses of aniline and its major metabolites p-aminophenol/p-hydroxyacetanilide and the aniline-induced spleen tumors in the rat...
  81. ncbi Promotion potential of madder color in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay model in F344 rats
    M Yokohira
    Onco Pathology, Department of Pathology and Host Defence, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750 1 Ikenobe, Kagawa 761 0793, Japan
    J Food Sci 73:T26-32. 2008
    ..24), and 47.4% (0.13 +/- 0.15) (groups 1 and 2) were significantly increased compared to control, 0% (0) (group 3). In conclusion, madder color demonstrated significant tumor promoting effects in the liver and kidneys in the DMD model...
  82. ncbi A critical appraisal of the value of the mouse cancer bioassay in safety assessment
    C L Alden
    Product Safety Assessment, Searle, Skokie, Illinois 60077, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 24:722-5. 1996
    ..The savings realized by eliminating mouse testing from routine protocols would be substantial and better spent in expanding short-term studies to add to our understanding of chemical carcinogenesis...
  83. ncbi Mutagenicity to Salmonella, Drosophila and the mouse bone marrow of the human antineoplastic agent fotemustine: prediction of carcinogenic potency
    J Ashby
    ICI Central Toxicological Laboratory, Macclesfield, Ches, UK
    Mutat Res 286:101-9. 1993
    ..Based on these data, including the preponderance of chromosome breakages over recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila, an estimated rodent carcinogenic potency (TD50) of between 15-150 mg/kg is suggested for fotemustine...
  84. ncbi Antagonism--no synergism--in pairwise tests of carcinogens in rats
    Michael Gough
    Cato Institute, Washington, DC, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 35:383-92. 2002
    ..More generally, the results indicate that synergism is an unlikely consequence when animals are exposed to pairs of chemicals, even when both chemicals are carcinogens...
  85. ncbi Review of the carcinogenic activity of diethanolamine and evidence of choline deficiency as a plausible mode of action
    Hon Wing Leung
    Independent Consultant, 15 Deer Park Road, Danbury, CT 06811, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 43:260-71. 2005
    ..Since rodents are far more sensitive to choline deficiency than humans, it can be concluded that the hepatocarcinogenic effect of DEA in mice is not predictive of similar susceptibility in humans...
  86. ncbi Hydroquinone: an evaluation of the human risks from its carcinogenic and mutagenic properties
    Douglas McGregor
    Toxicity Evaluation Consultants, Aberdour, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Crit Rev Toxicol 37:887-914. 2007
    ....
  87. ncbi Correspondance: Waddell WJ, Thresholds in chemical carcinogenesis: what are animal experiments telling us?
    David Gaylor
    Toxicol Pathol 31:572. 2003
  88. pmc Conflicting views on chemical carcinogenesis arising from the design and evaluation of rodent carcinogenicity studies
    Ronald L Melnick
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:130-5. 2008
    ..Pharmacokinetic models and mechanistic hypotheses may provide insights into the biological behavior of the agent; however, they must be adequately tested before being used to evaluate human cancer risk...
  89. ncbi Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer 344 rats
    Katherine E Heim
    NiPERA, 2605 Meridian Parkway, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27713, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 224:126-37. 2007
    ..Data from this and other studies demonstrate that inhalation is the only route of exposure that might cause concern for cancer in association with nickel exposures...
  90. pmc Summary of chemically induced pulmonary lesions in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology and carcinogenesis studies
    Darlene Dixon
    Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 36:428-39. 2008
    ....
  91. ncbi Kojic acid -absence of tumor-initiating activity in rat liver, and of carcinogenic and photo-genotoxic potential in mouse skin
    Yoshitaka Higa
    Sansho Seiyaku Co Ltd, Oike, Onojo, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Toxicol Sci 32:143-59. 2007
    ..Therefore, KA is considered not to possess initiation nor promotion activity of skin carcinogenesis. Furthermore, from the above findings, it is suggested that KA is virtually safe as a quasi-drug ingredient...
  92. ncbi Mutagenicity at the Hprt locus in T cells of female mice following inhalation exposures to low levels of 1,3-butadiene
    Q Meng
    Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 135:343-61. 2001
    ..The overall study results support the conclusion that short-term low-level BD exposure is mutagenic in the mouse...
  93. ncbi Rodent carcinogenicity profile of the antidiabetic dual PPAR alpha and gamma agonist muraglitazar
    Sarah H Tannehill-Gregg
    Bristol Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Department of Drug Safety Evaluation Mt Vernon, Indiana 47721, USA
    Toxicol Sci 98:258-70. 2007
    ....
  94. ncbi Assessment of human cancer risk: challenges for alternative approaches
    G S Omenn
    The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 0626, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 29:5-12. 2001
    ..The Lave-Omenn value-of-information model provides a useful way to assess the social costs and benefits of different strategies for testing large numbers of chemicals...
  95. ncbi Quantitative assessment of cumulative carcinogenic risk for multiple genotoxic impurities in a new drug substance
    Joel P Bercu
    Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research Laboratories, 2001 W Main Street, Greenfield, IN 46140, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51:270-7. 2008
    ..Findings based on probabilistic analysis here can be very useful in making appropriate decisions about risk management of multiple genotoxic impurities measured in the final drug substance...
  96. ncbi Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity in rats and mice exposed by inhalation to 1,2-dichloroethane for two years
    Kasuke Nagano
    Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Kanagawa, Japan
    J Occup Health 48:424-36. 2006
    ..The present findings suggest that those carcinogenic responses be primarily considered for standard setting of occupational and environmental exposure to DCE...
  97. ncbi Alternative models for carcinogenicity testing
    S M Cohen
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology and the Eppley Institute for Cancer Research, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 983135 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198-3135, USA
    Toxicol Sci 64:14-9. 2001
    ....
  98. ncbi Use of transgenic animals for carcinogenicity testing: considerations and implications for risk assessment
    D Gulezian
    Taconic Farms, Inc, Madison, Connecticut 06443, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 28:482-99. 2000
    ..In addition, the implications of findings of tumors in transgenic and knockout animals when exposed to chemicals is discussed in the context of human health risk assessment...
  99. ncbi Methyl tertiary-butyl ether mode of action for cancer endpoints in rodents
    George Cruzan
    ToxWorks, Bridgeton, NJ, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 47:156-65. 2007
    ..These MOAs either do not occur in humans or humans are much less susceptible to these effects. It is, therefore, unlikely that humans would be exposed to sufficient levels of MTBE to cause these tumorigenic responses...
  100. ncbi Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME): inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice
    Pamela J Spencer
    Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan 48674, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 30:570-9. 2002
    ....
  101. ncbi Carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium pentoxide in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice
    N B Ress
    National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 74:287-96. 2003
    ..5 mg/m3 (dust) (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 328)...

Research Grants41

  1. WHI-07: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..in mice, rabbits, and cynomolgus monkeys and was nongenotoxic in in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity and carcinogenicity tests. We hypothesize that WHI-07, because of its potent anti-HIV activity, spermicidal efficacy, and lack of ..
  2. TOXICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY TESTS OF ACETONITRILE
    HARVEY RAGAN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The results of the 2-year chronic study will be used by NTP to determine toxicologic and carcinogenic effects of inhalation administration of acetonitrile...
  3. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR INTERVAL-CENSORED AIDS DATA
    Jianguo Sun; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will develop practical and rigorous methods that allow the dependence of observation times on the response variables for both treatment comparison and regression analysis. ..
  4. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in ataxia-telanglectasia
    Yang Xu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, I propose to investigate the functional interactions between NBS1 and H2AX, the two mediators of ATM functions. ..
  5. Updating Chromosome Aberration Simulator (CAS) Software
    Rainer Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An interdisciplinary team has been assembled for this project. The grant would ensure that a computer resource important to the radiation cytogenetics community is kept fully current and readily available. ..
  6. MUTANT LINES OF ZEBRAFISH HIGHLY SENSITIVE TO NEOPLASIA
    Jan Spitsbergen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These lines of zebrafish will provide an efficient and inexpensive system for development of new treatment and prevention strategies for cancer, and will help identify new genes controlling growth and differentiation. ..
  7. BIOMATHEMATICAL APPROACHES TO CANCER
    Suresh Moolgavkar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of analyses will be used to help generate biologically relevant questions and hypotheses and to plan further experiments and studies, which, in turn, will lead to more refined models. ..
  8. Aquatic Animal Models for Human Health Studies
    David Hinton; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Among the expected outcomes of the meeting include improved use of resources and stimulation of collaborations. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. Development of a Perfusion-induced Systemic Hyperthermia Delivery Apparatus
    Joseph Zwischenberger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The system is based on a Phase I clinical trial demonstrating the efficacy of such a treatment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. Lung Cancer Chemoprevention: Isothiocyanates, inositol
    Stephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. HUS Pathogenesis & clinical Outcome in an in vivo model
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will use this model to study the pathogenesis of HUS and importantly to develop therapeutic regimens to prevent and treat EHEC disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. IN VIVO PATHOGENESIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..pylori pathogenesis and specifically evaluate the role of regulatory T cells in limiting H. pylori-induced gastric pathology. ..
  13. Helicobacter induced hepatitis and tumorigenesis
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A more complete understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hepatobiliary disease and hepatocellular carcinoma is likely to result in new strategies for treatment and prevention of these important human diseases. ..
  14. CARCINOGENIC CYCLIC NITROSAMINE DNA ADDUCTS
    Stephen S Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed research is significant because of the known human exposure to these carcinogens through the diet, tobacco products, and endogenous formation. ..
  15. DEVELOPING AND IMPROVING INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL RESOURCES
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  16. Microecology-murine gut-initiation & progression of IBD
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..prior and subsequent to oral vaccination with Helicobacter spp. antigens and mucosal adjuvants, elucidate how these vaccine strategies influence microflora dynamics and impact gut cytokine responses. ..
  17. Stochastic models for radiation carcinogenesis: tempora*
    Suresh Moolgavkar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The main goals of these analyses are to explore the effects of various age- and time-related factors and of protraction of exposure on the risk of radiation carcinogenesis. ..
  18. Macrophage-Dependent Immunopathogenesis of Anthrax
    James Cook; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information will be used to seem molecular interventions that reduce or abrogate the shock response to this infection. ..
  19. PHTHALOCYANINE PDT--IN VIVO RESPONSES AND MECHANISMS
    Craig Elmets; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The long-term goal of these studies is to generate new knowledge regarding the in vivo mechanisms by which PDT works so that it can be used more effectively to treat cancer. ..
  20. Tobacco Carcinogenesis
    Stephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Steven Tannenbaum (MIT), Dr. Jack Henningfield (Johns Hopkins and Pinney Associates), Drs. Jeffrey Seeman and Anthony Tricker (Philip Morris), and Dr. John Lauterbach (an independent consultant, formerly with Brown and Williamson). ..
  21. IMMUNODERMATOLOGICAL THERAPY OF SKIN CANCER
    Craig Elmets; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The ultimate goal of this proposal is to generate new knowledge that can be used to develop new and better strategies for the control of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. ..
  22. Prevention of Cancer by Coriolus versicolor Mushroom
    Bela Toth; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3: Study the preventative and therapeutic activity of PSK and VPS activity in an Apc transgenic model of intestinal polyp and adenoma formation and its association with immune augmentation. ..
  23. E1A-INDUCED CELLULAR SENSITIZATION TO APOPTOSIS
    James Cook; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. CYTOGENETIC MODELS FOR ASSESSING LOW DOSE RADIATION RISK
    Rainer Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..By studying molecular, mechanisms relevant to low doses and low dose-rates quantitatively the project will help firm-up risk estimates and make them more credible. ..
  25. FUNCTIONAL STUDIES OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA ENHANCERS
    Yang Xu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will again employ genetic approaches to further explore the functions of MiEkappa in somatic hypermutations of Igkappa in a physiological context. ..
  26. REPLICATION OF DAMAGED DNA IN HUMAN CELLS
    Marila Cordeiro Stone; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This project will provide insight on how PRR and the S checkpoint cooperate to protect human cells from cancer. ..
  27. METABOLISM OF CARCINOGENIC TOBACCO SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES
    Stephen Hecht; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Regulation of Nanog in DNA damage response, development and tumorigenesis
    Yang Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, these studies will shed light on mechanism that maintains genetic stability in human ESCs, which have a great potential for future human cell/tissue replacement therapy. ..
  29. Physical Activity Measurement in Older Adults
    Lisa Colbert; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This methodology can then be incorporated into future studies examining the associations between doses of physical activity and various health outcomes. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Enhanced Image Analysis of a Transparent Fish Model
    David Hinton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Thus, in this application, we will establish specific molecular imaging technologies to study organ system growth and development and to enhance this model's potential to study effects of human disease. ..
  31. Chemoprevention in Mice after Tobacco Smoke Exposure
    Hanspeter Witschi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Eventually, these preclinical studies in an animal model of "former smokers" will help to evaluate the potential usefulness and also possible dosage regimens of chemopreventive agents characterized by their suppressing action. ..
  32. Comparative genomics of species-specific tumor promotion
    Russell Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. IMPROVED ADENOVIRAL VECTORS FOR HEPATIC GENE THERAPY
    Mark Kay; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Taken together, these studies will advance our basic understanding of vector-host interactions related to persistence of vector in rive, as well as advancing therapeutic applications in preclinical development. ..
  34. Predictive Markers of Glioblastoma Response to VEGF Trap
    John de Groot; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..