toxicity tests

Summary

Summary: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Toxicity testing in the 21st century: bringing the vision to life
    Melvin E Andersen
    Computational Biology Division, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:324-30. 2009
  2. ncbi Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Enrique Navarro
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 42:8959-64. 2008
  3. ncbi Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel
    Andre Nel
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:622-7. 2006
  4. ncbi Oops they did it again! Carbon nanotubes hoax scientists in viability assays
    J M Wörle-Knirsch
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Department of Molecular and Environmental Toxicology, P O Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Nano Lett 6:1261-8. 2006
  5. ncbi Nanotoxicity: the growing need for in vivo study
    Hans C Fischer
    Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:565-71. 2007
  6. ncbi Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating chemical toxicity
    Adrian J Hill
    School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    Toxicol Sci 86:6-19. 2005
  7. ncbi Toxicity of nanosized and bulk ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to bacteria Vibrio fischeri and crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus
    Margit Heinlaan
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618, Estonia
    Chemosphere 71:1308-16. 2008
  8. ncbi From ecotoxicology to nanoecotoxicology
    Anne Kahru
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618, Estonia
    Toxicology 269:105-19. 2010
  9. pmc In vitro screening of environmental chemicals for targeted testing prioritization: the ToxCast project
    Richard S Judson
    National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:485-92. 2010
  10. ncbi Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy
    Daniel Krewski
    R Samuel McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 13:51-138. 2010

Detail Information

Publications321 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Toxicity testing in the 21st century: bringing the vision to life
    Melvin E Andersen
    Computational Biology Division, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:324-30. 2009
    ..The present paper, and invited commentaries on the report that will appear in Toxicological Sciences over the next year, are intended to initiate a dialog to identify challenges in implementing the vision and address obstacles to change...
  2. ncbi Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Enrique Navarro
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 42:8959-64. 2008
    ..Together, the results indicate that the interaction of these particles with algae influences the toxicity of AgNP, which is mediated by Ag+. Particles contributed to the toxicity as a source of Ag+ which is formed in presence of algae...
  3. ncbi Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel
    Andre Nel
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:622-7. 2006
    ..The establishment of principles and test procedures to ensure safe manufacture and use of nanomaterials in the marketplace is urgently required and achievable...
  4. ncbi Oops they did it again! Carbon nanotubes hoax scientists in viability assays
    J M Wörle-Knirsch
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Department of Molecular and Environmental Toxicology, P O Box 3640, D 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Nano Lett 6:1261-8. 2006
    ..SWCNTs are good supporting materials for tissue growth, as attachment of focal adhesions and connections to the cytoskeleton suggest...
  5. ncbi Nanotoxicity: the growing need for in vivo study
    Hans C Fischer
    Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:565-71. 2007
    ..In this review article, we describe the assumptions and challenges in the nanotoxicity field and provide a rationale for in vivo animal studies to assess nanotoxicity...
  6. ncbi Zebrafish as a model vertebrate for investigating chemical toxicity
    Adrian J Hill
    School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    Toxicol Sci 86:6-19. 2005
    ..Here we present an overview of the rapidly increasing use of zebrafish in toxicology. Advantages of the zebrafish both in identifying endpoints of toxicity and in elucidating mechanisms of toxicity are highlighted...
  7. ncbi Toxicity of nanosized and bulk ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to bacteria Vibrio fischeri and crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus
    Margit Heinlaan
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618, Estonia
    Chemosphere 71:1308-16. 2008
    ..This is the first evaluation of ZnO, CuO and TiO2 toxicity to V. fischeri and T. platyurus. For nano ZnO and nano CuO this is also a first study for D. magna...
  8. ncbi From ecotoxicology to nanoecotoxicology
    Anne Kahru
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618, Estonia
    Toxicology 269:105-19. 2010
    ..As the quantitative nanoecotoxicological data are still rare, further studies are needed...
  9. pmc In vitro screening of environmental chemicals for targeted testing prioritization: the ToxCast project
    Richard S Judson
    National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:485-92. 2010
    ..The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches...
  10. ncbi Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy
    Daniel Krewski
    R Samuel McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 13:51-138. 2010
    ..Implementation of these strategies would result in a new toxicity testing paradigm firmly based on human biology...
  11. ncbi Ecotoxicity test methods for engineered nanomaterials: practical experiences and recommendations from the bench
    Richard D Handy
    Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
    Environ Toxicol Chem 31:15-31. 2012
    ..The existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed and require considerable modification, or a new test, to work for ENMs. Overall, most methodologies need some amendments, and recommendations are made to assist researchers...
  12. ncbi Integration of dosimetry, exposure, and high-throughput screening data in chemical toxicity assessment
    Barbara A Wetmore
    The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 2137, USA
    Toxicol Sci 125:157-74. 2012
    ..The incorporation of dosimetry and exposure provide necessary context for interpretation of in vitro toxicity screening data and are important considerations in determining chemical testing priorities...
  13. ncbi Zebrafish: a preclinical model for drug screening
    Chuenlei Parng
    Phylonix, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Assay Drug Dev Technol 1:41-8. 2002
    ..After in vivo staining, acridine orange can be extracted and quantitated using a fluorescence microplate reader, providing a screening system for agents that modulate apoptosis...
  14. ncbi Zebrafish developmental screening of the ToxCast™ Phase I chemical library
    S Padilla
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27712, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 33:174-87. 2012
    ..The zebrafish embryo screen, by providing an integrated model of the developing vertebrate, compliments the ToxCast assay portfolio and has the potential to provide information relative to overt and organismal toxicity...
  15. ncbi Effect of carbon nanotubes on developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos
    Jinping Cheng
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    Environ Toxicol Chem 26:708-16. 2007
    ..This study suggests that materials associated with raw SWCNTs (perhaps metal contaminants) have the potential to affect aquatic life when released into the aquatic environment...
  16. ncbi Validation of the embryonic stem cell test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests
    Elke Genschow
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 12277 Berlin, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 32:209-44. 2004
    ..The outcome showed that the EST can be considered to be a scientifically validated test, which is ready for consideration for use in assessing the embryotoxic potentials of chemicals for regulatory purposes...
  17. pmc Endocrine profiling and prioritization of environmental chemicals using ToxCast data
    David M Reif
    National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:1714-20. 2010
    ..S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) has been charged with screening pesticide chemicals and environmental contaminants for their potential to affect the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife...
  18. ncbi Estimating toxicity-related biological pathway altering doses for high-throughput chemical risk assessment
    Richard S Judson
    National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States
    Chem Res Toxicol 24:451-62. 2011
    ....
  19. ncbi Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010
    Sarah Adler
    Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 85:367-485. 2011
    ..For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated...
  20. ncbi Activity profiles of 309 ToxCast™ chemicals evaluated across 292 biochemical targets
    Thomas B Knudsen
    National Center for Computational Toxicology B205 01, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Toxicology 282:1-15. 2011
    ..The primary dataset, summary data and details on quality control checks are available for download at http://www.epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/...
  21. ncbi Nanotoxicology. Nanotechnology grows up
    Robert F Service
    Science 304:1732-4. 2004
  22. ncbi Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats
    Bruce G Hammond
    Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindbergh Blvd, St Louis, MO 63167, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 52:311-23. 2008
    ..5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development...
  23. ncbi Zebrafish: an emerging model system for human disease and drug discovery
    G Kari
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 82:70-80. 2007
    ..The results of these studies highlight the potential of zebrafish as a viable addition to established animal models by offering medium and, potentially, high throughput capabilities...
  24. ncbi A mechanistic redefinition of adverse effects - a key step in the toxicity testing paradigm shift
    Kim Boekelheide
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02901, USA
    ALTEX 27:243-52. 2010
    ....
  25. pmc Determination of drug toxicity using 3D spheroids constructed from an immortal human hepatocyte cell line
    Stephen J Fey
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK 5230 Odense M, Denmark
    Toxicol Sci 127:403-11. 2012
    ..These results corroborate that 3D hepatocyte cultures are significantly different from 2D cultures and are more representative of the liver in vivo...
  26. ncbi In vitro evaluation of potential hepatotoxicity induced by drugs
    M J Gomez-Lechon
    Unidad de Hepatología Experimental Centro de Investigación, Hospital La Fe, Avda Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain
    Curr Pharm Des 16:1963-77. 2010
    ..The development of robust in vitro-based multiparametric screening assays covering a wider spectrum of key effects will heighten the predictive capacity for human hepatotoxicity, and accelerate the drug development process...
  27. ncbi Zebrafish: a complete animal model for in vivo drug discovery and development
    Chiranjib Chakraborty
    Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, College of Marine Science and Division of Marine Biotechnology, Asia Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohisung, Taiwan
    Curr Drug Metab 10:116-24. 2009
    ..We are hopeful that the use of these techniques or methods will make the zebrafish a prominent model in drug discovery and development research in the forthcoming years...
  28. pmc In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity
    Clinton F Jones
    Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5820, USA
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 61:438-56. 2009
    ..A diverse portfolio of complementary material characterization tools and bioassays are required to validate nanomaterial properties in physiology...
  29. ncbi Relative impact of incorporating pharmacokinetics on predicting in vivo hazard and mode of action from high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays
    Barbara A Wetmore
    The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 2137, USA
    Toxicol Sci 132:327-46. 2013
    ....
  30. ncbi A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats
    Malene Schrøder
    Department of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK 2860 Søborg, Denmark
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:339-49. 2007
    ..Nevertheless the experiences from this study lead to the overall conclusion that safety assessment for unintended effects of a GM crop cannot be done without additional test group(s)...
  31. ncbi Cellular stress response pathway system as a sentinel ensemble in toxicological screening
    Steven O Simmons
    Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 111:202-25. 2009
    ..The article concludes with a review of the application of the stress assay concept to noninvasive in vivo assessments of chemical toxicants...
  32. ncbi Towards tailored assays for cell-based approaches to toxicity testing
    Gian Paolo Rossini
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy
    ALTEX 29:359-72. 2012
    ..Selective cell-based assays are desirable, especially for the detection of novel toxicants and biothreats. Examples from endocrine disruption, pyrogenicity, and especially shellfish toxin testing are used to illustrate such developments...
  33. pmc High content screening in zebrafish speeds up hazard ranking of transition metal oxide nanoparticles
    Sijie Lin
    Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, California NanoSystems Institute, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    ACS Nano 5:7284-95. 2011
    ....
  34. ncbi Virtual population generator for human cardiomyocytes parameters: in silico drug cardiotoxicity assessment
    Sebastian Polak
    Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Cracow University of Economics, Krakow, Poland
    Toxicol Mech Methods 22:31-40. 2012
    ..They allow the assessment of inter-individual variability during in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of the drug cardiotoxic effect...
  35. ncbi Toxicology of nanomaterials used in nanomedicine
    Jinshun Zhao
    Public Health Department of Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, P R China
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 14:593-632. 2011
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on toxicology of nanomaterials, particularly on those used in nanomedicine...
  36. pmc Quantitative high-throughput screening for chemical toxicity in a population-based in vitro model
    Eric F Lock
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Toxicol Sci 126:578-88. 2012
    ....
  37. pmc Practical considerations for conducting ecotoxicity test methods with manufactured nanomaterials: what have we learnt so far?
    Richard D Handy
    Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
    Ecotoxicology 21:933-72. 2012
    ..In conclusion, most protocols will require some modifications and recommendations are made to aid the researcher at the bench...
  38. pmc Fifteen years after "Wingspread"--environmental endocrine disrupters and human and wildlife health: where we are today and where we need to go
    Andrew K Hotchkiss
    USEPA NCSU Cooperative Training agreement CT826512010, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA
    Toxicol Sci 105:235-59. 2008
    ....
  39. ncbi Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats
    James M Antonini
    Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Mailstop 2015, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 223:234-45. 2007
    ..Additional chronic inhalation studies are needed to further examine the lung effects associated with SS welding fume exposure...
  40. ncbi Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells
    A L Di Virgilio
    Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Diag 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc 4, La Plata 1900, Argentina
    J Hazard Mater 177:711-8. 2010
    ..In conclusion, findings showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) NPs on CHO-K1 cells. Possible causes of controversial reports are discussed further on...
  41. pmc Toxicity testing in the 21 century: defining new risk assessment approaches based on perturbation of intracellular toxicity pathways
    Sudin Bhattacharya
    Program in Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e20887. 2011
    ..In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair...
  42. pmc Culture of HepG2 liver cells on three dimensional polystyrene scaffolds enhances cell structure and function during toxicological challenge
    Maria Bokhari
    School of Biological and Biomedical Science, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    J Anat 211:567-76. 2007
    ..This technology has potential applications for toxicity testing and drug screening...
  43. ncbi Ecotoxicity test methods and environmental hazard assessment for engineered nanoparticles
    Mark Crane
    WCA Environment Limited, 23 London Street, Faringdon, Oxfordshire SN7 7AG, UK
    Ecotoxicology 17:421-37. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi Subchronic systemic toxicity and bioaccumulation of Fe3O4 nano- and microparticles following repeated intraperitoneal administration to rats
    Boris A Katsnelson
    Medical Research Center for Prophylaxis and Health Protection in Industrial Workers, Ekaterinburg, Russia
    Int J Toxicol 30:59-68. 2011
    ....
  45. ncbi Animal testing and alternative approaches for the human health risk assessment under the proposed new European chemicals regulation
    Thomas Hofer
    Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung BfR, Thielallee 88 92, 14195, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 78:549-64. 2004
    ....
  46. ncbi Endless possibilities: stem cells and the vision for toxicology testing in the 21st century
    Robert E Chapin
    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, Drug Safety R and D, Pfizer, Inc, Groton, Connecticut 06365, USA
    Toxicol Sci 112:17-22. 2009
    ..We expect that a long series of successive iterations of predictive models will eventually yield a working process that approximates the NRC's vision and delivers on the promise of faster evaluation of chemicals with reduced animal use...
  47. pmc Evaluation of embryotoxicity using the zebrafish model
    Lisa Truong
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 691:271-9. 2011
    ..Numerous morphological, developmental, and behavioral endpoints can be evaluated noninvasively due to the transparent nature of the embryos...
  48. ncbi Prediction of in vivo embryotoxic effect levels with a combination of in vitro studies and PBPK modelling
    Miriam Verwei
    TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Lett 165:79-87. 2006
    ..It is concluded that a combination of in vitro and in silico techniques appears to be a promising alternative test method for risk assessment of embryotoxic compounds...
  49. ncbi Embryonic stem cell test remastered: comparison between the validated EST and the new molecular FACS-EST for assessing developmental toxicity in vitro
    Roland Buesen
    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Berlin, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 108:389-400. 2009
    ..Due to significant improvements, this new molecular method holds promise as a sensitive, more rapid and reproducible screen highly suited to predict developmental toxicity in vivo from in vitro data...
  50. ncbi Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles
    Christie M Sayes
    DuPont Haskell Laboratory for Health and Environmental Sciences, Newark, Delaware 19714, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:163-80. 2007
    ..It seems clear that in vitro cellular systems will need to be further developed, standardized, and validated (relative to in vivo effects) in order to provide useful screening data on the relative toxicity of inhaled particle types...
  51. ncbi In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats
    Bryce C Ryan
    Reproductive Toxicology Branch, TA Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ORD, U S Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 114:133-48. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant dosage levels of EE2 can permanently disrupt the reproductive morphology and function of the female rat...
  52. ncbi Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, part IV: risk assessment of nanoparticles
    Joyce S Tsuji
    Exponent, Bellevue, Washington 98007, USA
    Toxicol Sci 89:42-50. 2006
    ..These recent toxicity and exposure data, combined with therapeutic and other related literature, are beginning to shape risk assessments that will be used to regulate the use of nanomaterials in consumer products...
  53. pmc Toxicology. Transforming environmental health protection
    Francis S Collins
    National Human Genome Research Institute NHGRI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 319:906-7. 2008
  54. ncbi Predictive model of rat reproductive toxicity from ToxCast high throughput screening
    Matthew T Martin
    National Center for Computational Toxicology, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Biol Reprod 85:327-39. 2011
    ....
  55. pmc A retrospective performance assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity study in support of OECD test guideline 426
    Susan L Makris
    Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 0001, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:17-25. 2009
    ....
  56. pmc Use of a high-throughput screening approach coupled with in vivo zebrafish embryo screening to develop hazard ranking for engineered nanomaterials
    Saji George
    Department of Medicine, Division of NanoMedicine, Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, California NanoSystems Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    ACS Nano 5:1805-17. 2011
    ..In conclusion, the use of a high-throughput screening, in silico data handling and zebrafish testing may constitute a paradigm for rapid and integrated ENM toxicological screening...
  57. ncbi Evaluation of nanoparticle immunotoxicity
    Marina A Dobrovolskaia
    Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, SAIC Frederick Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Nat Nanotechnol 4:411-4. 2009
    ..This article outlines practical strategies for identifying and controlling interferences in common evaluation methods and the implications for regulation...
  58. pmc Large-scale assessment of the zebrafish embryo as a possible predictive model in toxicity testing
    Shaukat Ali
    Institute of Biology, Sylvius Laboratory, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e21076. 2011
    ..We examined this issue by assaying 60 water-soluble compounds representing a range of chemical classes and toxicological mechanisms...
  59. ncbi Acute neuroactive drug exposures alter locomotor activity in larval zebrafish
    T D Irons
    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:84-90. 2010
    ..These results indicate that zebrafish larvae are sensitive to neuroactive drugs, and their locomotor response is similar to that of mammals...
  60. ncbi Tissue distribution and toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats
    Eric Fabian
    BASF Product Safety, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 82:151-7. 2008
    ..These results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles could be used safely in low doses...
  61. pmc A high-throughput method for assessing chemical toxicity using a Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction assay
    Windy A Boyd
    Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 245:153-9. 2010
    ..The toxicity of seven test toxicants on C. elegans reproduction was highly correlative with rodent lethality suggesting that this assay may be useful in predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals in other organisms...
  62. pmc Decreased dissolution of ZnO by iron doping yields nanoparticles with reduced toxicity in the rodent lung and zebrafish embryos
    Tian Xia
    Division of NanoMedicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    ACS Nano 5:1223-35. 2011
    ..All considered, the above data show that Fe doping is a possible safe design strategy for preventing ZnO toxicity in animals and the environment...
  63. ncbi Biologically relevant exposure science for 21st century toxicity testing
    Elaine A Cohen Hubal
    National Center for Computational Toxicology, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Toxicol Sci 111:226-32. 2009
    ..Investment in 21st century exposure science is now required to fully realize the potential of the NRC vision for toxicity testing...
  64. ncbi Zebrafish: a predictive model for assessing drug-induced toxicity
    Patricia McGrath
    Phylonix, 100 Inman Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Drug Discov Today 13:394-401. 2008
    ..Adaptation of conventional instrumentation combined with new nanotechnology developments will continue to expand use of zebrafish for drug screening...
  65. ncbi Nanoscale and fine zinc oxide particles: can in vitro assays accurately forecast lung hazards following inhalation exposures?
    D B Warheit
    DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences, Newark, DE, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 43:7939-45. 2009
    ..To summarize, the comparisons of in vivo and in vitro toxicity measurements following nano or fine ZnO particle exposures demonstrated little convergence and few differences in potency...
  66. ncbi Development of a screening assay to identify teratogenic and embryotoxic chemicals using the zebrafish embryo
    Ingrid W T Selderslaghs
    VITO NV, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Unit of Environmental Risk and Health, Toxicology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
    Reprod Toxicol 28:308-20. 2009
    ....
  67. ncbi The vision of toxicity testing in the 21st century: moving from discussion to action
    Melvin E Andersen
    The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 117:17-24. 2010
    ....
  68. ncbi Multidimensional drug profiling by automated microscopy
    Zachary E Perlman
    Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:1194-8. 2004
    ..Our methods will be useful for discovering the mechanism and predicting the toxicity of new drugs...
  69. ncbi Zebrafish as a correlative and predictive model for assessing biomaterial nanotoxicity
    Valerie E Fako
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, 1101 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 1322, USA
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 61:478-86. 2009
    ..Alternatively, Daniorerio, commonly known as zebrafish, are proving to be a quick, cheap, and facile model to conservatively assess toxicity of nanomaterials...
  70. ncbi Evaluation of protein safety in the context of agricultural biotechnology
    Bryan Delaney
    Pioneer Hi Bred, A DuPont Company, Johnston, IA, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:S71-97. 2008
    ....
  71. pmc ISDD: A computational model of particle sedimentation, diffusion and target cell dosimetry for in vitro toxicity studies
    Paul M Hinderliter
    Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352, USA
    Part Fibre Toxicol 7:36. 2010
    ..Particle transport to cells is calculated by simultaneous solution of Stokes Law (sedimentation) and the Stokes-Einstein equation (diffusion)...
  72. pmc Medium- and high-throughput screening of neurotoxicants using C. elegans
    Windy A Boyd
    National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:68-73. 2010
    ..These assays will prove useful in evaluating the role of alternative toxicological models in tiered toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals...
  73. ncbi Keynote review: in vitro safety pharmacology profiling: an essential tool for successful drug development
    Steven Whitebread
    PreClinical Profiling, Lead Discovery Center, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Drug Discov Today 10:1421-33. 2005
    ..In this article, we review the development of this tool for drug discovery, its appropriate use and predictive value...
  74. ncbi Application of a high-content multiparameter cytotoxicity assay to prioritize compounds based on toxicity potential in humans
    Vivek C Abraham
    Lead Discovery, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064 6217, USA
    J Biomol Screen 13:527-37. 2008
    ....
  75. ncbi Effect of light on toxicity of nanosilver to Tetrahymena pyriformis
    Jun Peng Shi
    Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China
    Environ Toxicol Chem 31:1630-8. 2012
    ..All these phenomena led to the weakened toxicity of AgNPs in a light irradiation environment...
  76. ncbi Application and validation of an impedance-based real time cell analyzer to measure the toxicity of nanoparticles impacting human bronchial epithelial cells
    Lila Otero-Gonzalez
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 46:10271-8. 2012
    ..The results demonstrate the potential and validity of the impedance-based RTCA technique to rapidly screen for nanoparticle toxicity...
  77. ncbi Immunotoxicity evaluation of jet a jet fuel in female rats after 28-day dermal exposure
    Cynthia M Mann
    ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 0971, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 71:495-504. 2008
    ..It remains to be determined whether the observed difference between this study and some other studies reflects a difference in the immunological response of rats and mice or is the result of other factors...
  78. ncbi Nickel sulfate induces numerous defects in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be transferred to progeny
    Dayong Wang
    Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
    Environ Pollut 151:585-92. 2008
    ..Therefore, most of the nickel exposure-caused defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny to different degrees in C. elegans...
  79. pmc A biology-based approach for mixture toxicity of multiple endpoints over the life cycle
    Tjalling Jager
    FALW Department of Theoretical Biology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Ecotoxicology 19:351-61. 2010
    ..We illustrate our method with the interpretation of partial life-cycle data for two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Daphnia magna...
  80. ncbi Screening chemicals for thyroid-disrupting activity: A critical comparison of mammalian and amphibian models
    Daniel B Pickford
    Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom
    Crit Rev Toxicol 40:845-92. 2010
    ..risks to human and environmental health, chemical safety assessment programs are being reinforced with toxicity tests more specifically designed for detecting endocrine disrupters...
  81. pmc No time to lose--high throughput screening to assess nanomaterial safety
    R Damoiseaux
    Molecular Screening Shared Resources, UC CEIN, NanoSystems Institute, University of California, 6522 CNSI, 570 Westwood, Los Angeles, California 90095 7277, USA
    Nanoscale 3:1345-60. 2011
    ..Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field--we have literally no time to lose...
  82. ncbi Microfluidic devices for in vitro studies on liver drug metabolism and toxicity
    Paul M van Midwoud
    Pharmaceutical Analysis, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, A Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
    Integr Biol (Camb) 3:509-21. 2011
    ..Special attention is also paid to the incorporation of multiple cell types or tissues into a microfluidic device for the investigation of interorgan interactions, which are difficult if not impossible to study in conventional systems...
  83. ncbi Silver nanocolloids disrupt medaka embryogenesis through vital gene expressions
    Shosaku Kashiwada
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 46:6278-87. 2012
    ....
  84. ncbi Silver nanoparticles cause oxidative damage and histological changes in medaka (Oryzias latipes) after 14 days of exposure
    Yuan Wu
    Department of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China
    Environ Toxicol Chem 32:165-73. 2013
    ..The oxidative damage caused by AgNPs may be associated with a large number of histological changes in the fish...
  85. pmc The effect of composition of different ecotoxicological test media on free and bioavailable copper from CuSO4 and CuO nanoparticles: comparative evidence from a Cu-selective electrode and a Cu-biosensor
    Aleksandr Käkinen
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618, Estonia
    Sensors (Basel) 11:10502-21. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrate that bacterial Cu-biosensors either in combination with other analytical/speciation techniques or on their own, may serve as a rapid (eco)toxicological screening method...
  86. ncbi Interspecies difference in liver-specific functions and biotransformation of testosterone of primary rat, porcine and human hepatocyte in an organotypical sandwich culture
    Angelika Langsch
    Hanover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 188:173-9. 2009
    ..Hence, in vitro metabolism using porcine hepatocytes would be much more scientific sense than one using rat hepatocytes since the metabolic pathways are much closer to human metabolism...
  87. ncbi Dietary exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss): no effect on growth, but subtle biochemical disturbances in the brain
    Christopher S Ramsden
    Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK
    Ecotoxicology 18:939-51. 2009
    ....
  88. ncbi Algal testing of titanium dioxide nanoparticles--testing considerations, inhibitory effects and modification of cadmium bioavailability
    N B Hartmann
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark
    Toxicology 269:190-7. 2010
    ....
  89. ncbi Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test
    Nicole I zur Nieden
    Institute of Maternal and Child Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N4N1, Canada
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 247:91-7. 2010
    ..This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming...
  90. ncbi Development of in vitro systems for nanotoxicology: methodological considerations
    Vicki Stone
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK
    Crit Rev Toxicol 39:613-26. 2009
    ..The aim of this review is to share knowledge relating to nanoparticle toxicity testing in order to provide advice and support for guidelines, regulatory bodies, and for scientists in general...
  91. ncbi Assessing the toxicity of contaminated soils using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as test organism
    S Hoss
    Ecossa, Giselastr 6, 82319 Starnberg, Germany
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1811-8. 2009
    ..The toxicity test using C. elegans turned out to be suitable for testing the toxicity of field collected soils and might by a valuable addition to soil test batteries...
  92. ncbi Zebrafish embryos as models for embryotoxic and teratological effects of chemicals
    Lixin Yang
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the Helmholtz Association, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, PO Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021, Germany
    Reprod Toxicol 28:245-53. 2009
    ....
  93. ncbi Short-term toxicity tests on the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe battagliai: lethal and reproductive endpoints
    Fernando R Diz
    Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Av República Saharaui 2, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1881-6. 2009
    ..1+/-10.5 microgCuL(-1) for nauplii; and LC(50)-72 h of 157+/-25 microgCuL(-1), and LC(50)-72 h of 2660+/-270 microgLASL(-1) for adults. Fecundity and total newborn production are sensitive endpoints for determining effects of toxicants...
  94. pmc Quantum dot nanotoxicity assessment using the zebrafish embryo
    Tisha C King-Heiden
    Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, School of Pharmacy, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 43:1605-11. 2009
    ..We conclude that developing zebrafish provide a rapid, low-cost approach for assessing structure-toxicity relationships of nanoparticles...
  95. ncbi Limit-test toxicity screening of selected inorganic nanoparticles to the earthworm Eisenia fetida
    Lars Henrik Heckmann
    Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, PO Box 314, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600, Silkeborg, Denmark
    Ecotoxicology 20:226-33. 2011
    ..Ag-NP, Cu-NP and TiO(2)-NP were the only NPs that caused toxic effects to E. fetida. The toxicity could not be singularly related to particle size or zeta potential or to the inherent element constituting the NPs (e.g. Ag)...
  96. ncbi Nanomaterials in the environment: from materials to high-throughput screening to organisms
    Courtney R Thomas
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States
    ACS Nano 5:13-20. 2011
    ..Methods of decreasing the observed toxic effects will also be discussed as an integral component of the UC CEIN's activity in developing safer nanomaterials to lessen their environmental impacts...
  97. ncbi Can in vitro metabolism-dependent covalent binding data in liver microsomes distinguish hepatotoxic from nonhepatotoxic drugs? An analysis of 18 drugs with consideration of intrinsic clearance and daily dose
    R Scott Obach
    Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism Department, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:1814-22. 2008
    ....
  98. pmc Evaluation of 309 environmental chemicals using a mouse embryonic stem cell adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity assay
    Kelly J Chandler
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e18540. 2011
    ..Taken together, these results provide an initial characterization of metabolic and regulatory pathways by which some environmental chemicals may act to disrupt ES cell growth and differentiation...
  99. ncbi Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics
    N C Kleinstreuer
    NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 257:111-21. 2011
    ....
  100. ncbi Chromium exhibits adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations in chronic toxicity assay system of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Quili Wu
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering in Ministry of Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
    Chemosphere 87:1281-7. 2012
    ..Therefore, our findings demonstrate the usefulness of chronic toxicity assay system in C. elegans in evaluating the chronic toxicity of toxicants at environmental relevant concentrations...
  101. ncbi Meeting the common needs of a more effective and efficient testing and assessment paradigm for chemical risk management
    Vicki Dellarco
    Office of Pesticides, Prevention and Toxic Substances, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 13:347-60. 2010
    ..S. Environmental Protection Agency...

Research Grants63

  1. Low-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptors in the frog Xenopus laevis
    Wade H Powell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..risk assessment by refining interpretation of toxicological data derived from FETAX and similar developmental toxicity tests employing frog embryos...
  2. CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ENVIRONMENAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM
    Reshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  3. GENETIC TOXICITY IN BACTERIA AND RODENTS
    LES RECIO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..rodents, and updated methods to streamline the assay have been developed, so that integration into existing toxicity tests can be more be accomplished...
  4. Development of a Yellow Fever Vaccine for Vulnerable Population
    Mark K Slifka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..project, we will prepare clinical grade vaccine under cGMP conditions, perform in vitro and in vivo safety/toxicity tests, and determine vaccine potency and long-term stability...
  5. Broad spectrum therapeutics that target the viral membrane
    Benhur Lee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Yet, this compound was ineffective against nonenveloped viruses. In vitro and in vivo toxicity tests showed no overt toxicity at effective antiviral concentrations...
  6. Selective Inhibitors of the Hexose Transporter from African Trypansomes
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..brucei BFs in vitro and in an established mouse model of African trypanosomiasis. Toxicity tests against several human cell lines will be performed to assess the therapeutic index of hit compounds, and ..
  7. A Microfluidic Biochip for Rapid Screening of Pesticide Residue
    Xiaoli Su; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the high sensitivity, low cost, ease-to-use, relatively high specificity (compared to commercial water acute toxicity tests based on bioluminescent bacteria) and relatively broad sensing spectrum (compared to commercial ELSA kits and ..
  8. CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM
    STEVE GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  9. CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM
    STEVE GRAVES; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  10. Measuring and monitoring carbon nanotubes and their potential toxicity
    ROCKFORD KEITH DRAPER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..now subject to regulatory controls that require inventory control, quantification of CNT amounts, and possibly toxicity tests. However, rapidly and inexpensively quantifying the CNTs in commercially available material and assessing ..
  11. Small Molecules to Enhance Bacterial Susceptibility to Antiseptics
    ANGELA MARIE POLLARD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the 2-AI compounds are effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and preliminary toxicity tests indicate that these compounds are non-toxic to mammalian cells and multicellular organisms...
  12. CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ETP FOR AIDS THERAPEUTICS
    Reshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  13. Remediation Effectiveness for Mining Sites: Hysteresis and Metal Mixtures Effect
    James Ranville; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This will be accomplished with laboratory D. magna toxicity tests using both simple solutions and water samples collected from the site...
  14. Pilot and definitive studies to evaluate Insertional Mutagenesis
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  15. Ceriodaphnia DNA Microarrays
    Owen Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This array will be used to perform toxicity tests on four reference toxins with different chemical properties...
  16. Development of a Diversity Outcross ES Cell Panel for In Vitro Genetics of Toxico
    TED CHOI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Strain background can strongly influence the outcome of toxicity tests in animals...
  17. TAS::75 0862::TAS ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY SERVICES FOR THE NTP
    Steven Graves; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  18. TAS::75 0862::TAS ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY SERVICES FOR THE NTP
    Steven Graves; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  19. TAS::75 0862::TAS ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY SERVICES FOR THE NTP
    Steven Graves; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  20. R&D-OTHER R &D-B RES
    CLARK ALGAIER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  21. OTHER FUNCTIONS - ANALYTICAL CHEM SERVICES
    Reshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  22. OTHER FUNCTIONS - ANALYTICAL CHEM SERVICES
    Reshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  23. R&D-OTHER R &D-B RES
    CLARK ALGAIER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This information is critical to evaluation of toxicity tests and development of sound, scientific conclusions about the potential toxicity of the study chemical in the ..
  24. Novel Treatment for Post-LASIK Ectasia
    MATTHEW MATTSON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..set the stage for a Phase II study that would evaluate mechanical stability in human donor eyes and extend toxicity tests needed before human clinical trials...
  25. ENHANCED LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY USING FLOW CYTOMETRY
    GEORGE DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and test the feasibility of our long term plan to apply flow cytometry to existing assays and to develop new toxicity tests. PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS: MB Research will offer the LLNA using flow cytometry to the pharmaceutical, ..
  26. CHEMICAL DISPOSITION IN MAMMALS SRI INTERNATIONAL
    Carol Green; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..are designed to provide both applied knowledge of the fate of chemicals in the intact animal in support of toxicity tests conducted by the National Toxicology Program and basic knowledge of mechanisms of chemical toxicity...
  27. Enhanced Phototoxicity Assay in Reconstituted Skin
    GEORGE DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..that flow cytometry and DNA microarrays are underutililized in the toxicity-screening field and that this technology can be used to develop other commercially viable in vivo and in vitro toxicity tests at our company.
  28. ADJUVANTICITY OF STEARYL-TYROSINE--SUBUNIT & HIV SYSTEM
    Constantin Bona; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Various toxicity tests showed that this compound is - safe...
  29. Alternative Photosensitization Assay in the Mouse
    GEORGE DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..There has evolved an industry demand and a governmental mandate to develop alternative toxicity tests that refer, reduce, or replace the use of animal models...
  30. PTE-based drug for antibiotic-resistant anthrax
    Christopher Burns; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..efficacy studies in a murine inhalational challenge model, including development of an oral formulation, acute toxicity tests, and preliminary pharmacokinetics; AIM 5, Pre-clinical (Pre-IND) drug development studies, including toxicity ..
  31. MECHANISMS OF METAL MUTAGENESIS: CR, NI, & BE
    Elizabeth Snow; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Nickel and chromium stand out because they are human and animal carcinogens and also positive in short-term toxicity tests. Beryllium, an animal carcinogen and mutagen, is also positive in short-term tests...
  32. Behavior-Modifying Compounds for Disease Vector Control
    John Grieco; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Test data will be given to BASF as a basis for deciding whether to proceed with further toxicological evaluations and commercial development of promising compounds. ..
  33. Pharmacogenomics/natural products + antifungal activity
    John Cleary; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Traditional drug development processes utilize batteries of acute and chronic toxicity tests to evaluate safety...
  34. VACCINATION FOR HIV AND AIDS
    MURRAY GARDNER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..and cross-immunogenicity with SIV, the production and composition of conventional and novel HIV immunogens, toxicity tests and induction of HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in small animals, and efficacy tests of candidate ..
  35. Validation of a Human In Vitro Vaginal Irritation Test
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Current vaginal irritation/toxicity tests are primarily performed using animal models which are time consuming and costly...
  36. RETINAL AND CHOROIDAL BLOOD FLOW IMAGING
    Bahram Khoobehi; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The five objectives of the study are: 1) to establish FCI safety and potential use in humans by performing toxicity tests in rats and monkeys; 2) to develop a statistical framework for comparing parameter maps; 3) to validate FCI by ..
  37. RETINAL AND CHOROIDAL BLOOD FLOW IMAGING
    Bahram Khoobehi; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The five objectives of the study are: 1) to establish FCI safety and potential use in humans by performing toxicity tests in rats and monkeys; 2) to develop a statistical framework for comparing parameter maps; 3) to validate FCI by ..
  38. EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID FOR TOPICAL SKIN DISEASE TREATMENT
    RODNER WINGET; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..through edema and cell proliferation assays using murine and human skin graft models, and (5) conduct initial toxicity tests with acute oral, acute dermal, and skin sensitizing assays...
  39. NOVEL DOUBLE STRAND BREAK PRODUCING COMPOUNDS
    Julian Simon; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We propose to carry out indicative toxicity tests in yeast and mammalian cells and on purified topoisomerases to clearly categorize the compounds into ..
  40. GENETOXICITY STUDIES OF CHEMOPREDVENTIVE AGENTS - TASK A
    Kristien Mortelmans; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The currently accepted battery of genetic toxicity tests, as specified by FDA, consists of assays for gene mutation in bacteria, chromosomal damage in mammalian cells, ..
  41. ANEUGEN SCREENING IN OPTIMIZED C. ELEGANS STRAINS
    Owen Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The development of C. elegans strains optimized for toxicity testing may have an even larger commercial impact in that we plan to use the optimization strategies studied here to develop a wide range of toxicity tests.
  42. GENETIC TOXICITY TESTING IN RODENTS
    Jing Xu; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the further development of the ETP's genetic toxicity database which will be used to determine the level of agreement between in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicity tests and the predictivity of in vivo results for rodent carcinogenesis.
  43. MUTAGENICITY TESTING IN SALMONELLA
    Richard San; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..for the further development of the genetic toxicity database which will be used to determine the level of agreement between in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicity tests and the predictivity of in vitro results for rodent carcinogenesis.
  44. GENETIC TOXICITY TESTING IN RODENTS
    Raymond Tice; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the further development of the ETP's genetic toxicity database which will be used to determine the level of agreement between in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicity tests and the predictivity of in vivo results for rodent carcinogenesis.
  45. MUTAGENICITY TESTING IN SALMONELLA
    Kristien Mortelmans; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..for the further development of the genetic toxicity data base which will be used to determine the level of agreement between in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicity tests and the predictivity of in vitro results for rodent carcinogenesis.
  46. MICROBIAL METABOLISM ASSAY SYSTEM
    David Putnam; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The system will be versatile and useful for numerous applications ranging from clinical assays, toxicity tests, microbial research, and pharmaceutical development, to sterility tests...
  47. Mixture Toxicity - Evaluation of an Improved Methodology
    DOUGLAS DAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Environmental releases of these chemicals are possible, which could also affect public health. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. ANEUGEN SCREENING IN OPTIMIZED YEAST STRAINS
    Owen Hughes; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The development of yeast strains optimized for toxicity testing may have a very larger commercial impact. We will use these optimized strains and strategies to develop a range of toxicity tests.
  49. Cardiac vulnerability due to ambient particulate
    John Godleski; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Thus, the present application will entail unique application of comprehensive techniques to improve understanding of the mechanisms whereby CAPs can exert its deleterious influences on the heart and circulation [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY SYSTEM
    John Godleski; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Institutional support is demonstrated by past support of the facility, completed renovations, commitments for ongoing service contracts, and letters of commitment for future support. ..
  51. CONFERENCE ON PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH
    Robert Phalen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To add significantly to the peer-reviewed literature by publishing research results presented at the conference in a variety of special issues of selected journals. ..
  52. ENVIRONMENTAL/INDUSTRIAL TOXICANTS AND TESTICULAR INJURY
    Kim Boekelheide; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Together, these complimentary approaches will elucidate the key molecular mechanisms responsible for irreversible testicular injury. ..
  53. Dietary Cysteine:Conceptal Response to Oxidative Stress
    Craig Harris; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  54. PHTHALATE-INDUCED MURINE TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS AND P53
    Kim Boekelheide; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..