comet assay

Summary

Summary: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing
    R R Tice
    Integrated Laboratory Systems, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 35:206-21. 2000
  2. ncbi Evaluation of genetic damage in workers employed in pesticide production utilizing the Comet assay
    Paramjit Grover
    Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Mutagenesis 18:201-5. 2003
  3. ncbi The comet assay for DNA damage and repair: principles, applications, and limitations
    Andrew R Collins
    Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Mol Biotechnol 26:249-61. 2004
  4. ncbi The comet assay: a method to measure DNA damage in individual cells
    Peggy L Olive
    British Columbia Cancer Research Center, 675 W 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada
    Nat Protoc 1:23-9. 2006
  5. ncbi The comet assay: topical issues
    Andrew R Collins
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Mutagenesis 23:143-51. 2008
  6. ncbi Lack of an association between environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE and DNA damage in human sperm measured using the neutral comet assay
    R Hauser
    Department of Environmental Health, Occupational Health Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Hum Reprod 18:2525-33. 2003
  7. ncbi A silver staining method for single-cell gel assay
    S B Nadin
    Laboratory of Reproduction and Lactation, Regional Center for Scientific and Technological Research, National Research Council of Argentina, Mendoza, Argentina
    J Histochem Cytochem 49:1183-6. 2001
  8. ncbi A cross-platform public domain PC image-analysis program for the comet assay
    Krzysztof Końca
    Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, Poland
    Mutat Res 534:15-20. 2003
  9. ncbi DNA oxidation: investigating its key role in environmental mutagenesis with the comet assay
    Amaya Azqueta
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PB 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Mutat Res 674:101-8. 2009
  10. ncbi Study of DNA damage via the comet assay and base excision repair activities in rat brain neurons and astrocytes during aging
    Umakanta Swain
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Mech Ageing Dev 132:374-81. 2011

Detail Information

Publications344 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing
    R R Tice
    Integrated Laboratory Systems, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 35:206-21. 2000
    ..DC, March 25-26, 1999, an expert panel met to develop guidelines for the use of the single-cell gel (SCG)/Comet assay in genetic toxicology...
  2. ncbi Evaluation of genetic damage in workers employed in pesticide production utilizing the Comet assay
    Paramjit Grover
    Biology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Mutagenesis 18:201-5. 2003
    ..of Indian pesticide production workers was assessed using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or Comet assay. Blood leukocytes of a group of 54 pesticide workers and an equal number of control subjects were examined for ..
  3. ncbi The comet assay for DNA damage and repair: principles, applications, and limitations
    Andrew R Collins
    Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Mol Biotechnol 26:249-61. 2004
    The comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) is a simple method for measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in eukaryotic cells...
  4. ncbi The comet assay: a method to measure DNA damage in individual cells
    Peggy L Olive
    British Columbia Cancer Research Center, 675 W 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada
    Nat Protoc 1:23-9. 2006
    We present a procedure for the comet assay, a gel electrophoresis-based method that can be used to measure DNA damage in individual eukaryotic cells. It is versatile, relatively simple to perform and sensitive...
  5. ncbi The comet assay: topical issues
    Andrew R Collins
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Mutagenesis 23:143-51. 2008
    The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for measuring single- and double-strand breaks in DNA...
  6. ncbi Lack of an association between environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE and DNA damage in human sperm measured using the neutral comet assay
    R Hauser
    Department of Environmental Health, Occupational Health Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Hum Reprod 18:2525-33. 2003
    ....
  7. ncbi A silver staining method for single-cell gel assay
    S B Nadin
    Laboratory of Reproduction and Lactation, Regional Center for Scientific and Technological Research, National Research Council of Argentina, Mendoza, Argentina
    J Histochem Cytochem 49:1183-6. 2001
    The single-cell gel assay (comet assay) is a very useful microelectrophoretic technique for evaluation of DNA damage and repair in individual cells. Usually, the comets are visualized and evaluated with fluorescent DNA stains...
  8. ncbi A cross-platform public domain PC image-analysis program for the comet assay
    Krzysztof Końca
    Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, Poland
    Mutat Res 534:15-20. 2003
    The single-cell gel electrophoresis, also known as the comet assay, has gained wide-spread popularity as a simple and reliable method to measure genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of physical and chemical agents as well as kinetics of DNA ..
  9. ncbi DNA oxidation: investigating its key role in environmental mutagenesis with the comet assay
    Amaya Azqueta
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PB 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Mutat Res 674:101-8. 2009
    ..specific for oxidised bases, to introduce breaks in cellular DNA that are then most commonly measured using the comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis)...
  10. ncbi Study of DNA damage via the comet assay and base excision repair activities in rat brain neurons and astrocytes during aging
    Umakanta Swain
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Mech Ageing Dev 132:374-81. 2011
    ..Thus the comet assay adapted to our lab conditions has proven to be useful for a quick assessment of DNA damage in a large number of ..
  11. ncbi Absence of genotoxicity in human blood cells exposed to 50 Hz magnetic fields as assessed by comet assay, chromosome aberration, micronucleus, and sister chromatid exchange analyses
    L Stronati
    Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA CR, Casaccia, Rome, Italy
    Bioelectromagnetics 25:41-8. 2004
    ..b>Comet assay, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosome aberrations (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were used to assess ..
  12. ncbi A modified neutral comet assay: elimination of lysis at high temperature and validation of the assay with anti-single-stranded DNA antibody
    Maria Wojewodzka
    Department of Radiobiology and Health Protection, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, PL 03 195, Warsaw, Poland
    Mutat Res 518:9-20. 2002
    b>Comet assay under neutral conditions allows the detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), considered to be the biologically relevant radiation-induced lesion...
  13. ncbi Fourth International Workgroup on Genotoxicity testing: results of the in vivo Comet assay workgroup
    Brian Burlinson
    Huntingdon Life Sciences, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Huntington, Cambs PE28 4HS, UK
    Mutat Res 627:31-5. 2007
    ..Testing (IWGT), held 9-10 September 2005 in San Francisco, California, an expert working group on the Comet assay was convened to review and discuss some of the procedures and methods recommended in previous documents...
  14. ncbi Radiation sensitivity, H2AX phosphorylation, and kinetics of repair of DNA strand breaks in irradiated cervical cancer cell lines
    Judit P Banath
    British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Cancer Res 64:7144-9. 2004
    ..The possibility that the presence of gammaH2AX foci may not always signify the presence of a physical break, notably in some tumor cell lines, is also supported by these results...
  15. ncbi The spectrum of DNA damage in human sperm assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and its relationship to fertilization and embryo development
    I D Morris
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Hum Reprod 17:990-8. 2002
    ..ICSI, by bypassing sperm selection mechanisms, increases the risk of transmitting damaged DNA and the significance of this requires investigation...
  16. pmc Comet assay analysis of single-stranded DNA breaks in circulating leukocytes of glaucoma patients
    M Mozaffarieh
    University Eye Clinic, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Vis 14:1584-8. 2008
    ..To investigate the amount of single-stranded DNA breaks in circulating leukocytes of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients...
  17. pmc DNA repair of oxidative DNA damage in human carcinogenesis: potential application for cancer risk assessment and prevention
    Tamar Paz-Elizur
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Cancer Lett 266:60-72. 2008
    ..Moreover, the combination of smoking and low OGG activity was associated with a higher risk, suggesting a potential strategy for risk assessment and prevention of lung cancer, as well as other types of cancer...
  18. pmc Bloom's syndrome helicase and Mus81 are required to induce transient double-strand DNA breaks in response to DNA replication stress
    Tsutomu Shimura
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 4255, USA
    J Mol Biol 375:1152-64. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates the repair of DNA oxidation damage in addition to acting as an antioxidant in human cells
    Yolanda Lorenzo
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Carcinogenesis 30:308-14. 2009
    ..the biological properties of beta-cryptoxanthin, a common carotenoid, in cell culture model systems, using the comet assay to measure DNA damage...
  20. ncbi Detection of oxaliplatin-induced DNA crosslinks in vitro and in cancer patients using the alkaline comet assay
    Gabriela M Almeida
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    DNA Repair (Amst) 5:219-25. 2006
    ..In this study, we used a validated modification of the alkaline comet assay for detecting the presence of these crosslinks in vitro and in cancer patients...
  21. ncbi Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay
    Silvia Franzellitti
    Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy
    Mutat Res 683:35-42. 2010
    ..The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate primary DNA damages and/or strand breaks due to uncompleted repair processes in HF-EMF ..
  22. ncbi The free radical scavenging activity of four flavonoids determined by the comet assay
    K Horvathova
    Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Science, 833 91 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Neoplasma 50:291-5. 2003
    ..DNA strand breaks were determined using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Quercetin was found to possess the highest protective effect among the flavonoids studied (45%)...
  23. ncbi Comparison of comet assay, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry for detection of apoptosis
    Shingo Yasuhara
    Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospital for Children, and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Histochem Cytochem 51:873-85. 2003
    ..This study, using a Jurkat cell model, initially evaluated the specificity of the neutral comet assay and flow cytometry compared to the gold standard, electron microscopy, for detection of apoptosis and necrosis...
  24. ncbi Oxidative damage, bleomycin, and gamma radiation induce different types of DNA strand breaks in normal lymphocytes and thymocytes. A comet assay study
    L Benitez-Bribiesca
    Oncological Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, IMSS, Mexico, DF, Mexico
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 887:133-49. 1999
    ..DNA strand breaks were studied with the alkaline and neutral comet assay for detection of ssb and dsb. Apoptosis was quantified morphologically and with DNA agarose gel electrophoresis...
  25. ncbi Protective action of melatonin against oxidative DNA damage: chemical inactivation versus base-excision repair
    Tomasz Sliwinski
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12 16, 90 237, Lodz, Poland
    Mutat Res 634:220-7. 2007
    ..Melatonin stimulated the repair of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay. However, melatonin at 50 microM had no impact on the activity in vitro of three glycosylases playing a pivotal ..
  26. ncbi DNA damage induced by micro- and nanoparticles--interaction with FPG influences the detection of DNA oxidation in the comet assay
    J Kain
    Unit for Analytical Toxicology, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 83 Huddinge, Sweden
    Mutagenesis 27:491-500. 2012
    ..One promising tool is the comet assay, often used to measure DNA breaks (strand breaks and alkali-labile sites) as well as oxidatively damaged DNA, ..
  27. ncbi Maternal inhalation of surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) in C57BL/6 mice: effects in prenatally exposed offspring on hepatic DNA damage and gene expression
    Petra Jackson
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    Nanotoxicology 7:85-96. 2013
    ..We evaluated DNA strand breaks using the comet assay in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and livers of the time-mated mice (5 and 26-27 days after inhalation ..
  28. ncbi Inflammatory and genotoxic effects of sanding dust generated from nanoparticle-containing paints and lacquers
    Anne Thoustrup Saber
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Nanotoxicology 6:776-88. 2012
    ....
  29. ncbi Comprehensive profiling of radiosensitive human cell lines with DNA damage response assays identifies the neutral comet assay as a potential surrogate for clonogenic survival
    Shareef A Nahas
    UCLA School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Radiat Res 177:176-86. 2012
    ..that evaluate cellular functions involved in recognition and repair of DNA double-strand breaks: (1) neutral comet assay, (2) radiation-induced γ-H2AX focus formation, (3) the temporal kinetics of structural maintenance of ..
  30. ncbi Oxidative stress in humans: validation of biomarkers of DNA damage
    Catherine M Gedik
    Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    Carcinogenesis 23:1441-6. 2002
    ..8-OxoGua was estimated by the comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis) with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and by HPLC with ..
  31. ncbi Occupational exposure to formaldehyde: genotoxic risk evaluation by comet assay and micronucleus test using human peripheral lymphocytes
    Solange Costa
    National Institute of Health, Environmental Health Department, Porto, Portugal
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 74:1040-51. 2011
    ..exposure to FA, a group of pathology/anatomy workers was assessed using a micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was also determined and the time-weighted average (TWA) of exposure was calculated ..
  32. pmc The host phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase SHIP2 regulates dissemination of vaccinia virus
    Shannon McNulty
    Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Graduate Program, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Virol 85:7402-10. 2011
    ..Thus, the inhibitory effects of A34 on virus release are mediated by SHIP2. Together, these data suggest that SHIP2 and A34 may act as gatekeepers to regulate dissemination of poxviruses when environmental conditions are conducive...
  33. ncbi Genetic toxicity assessment: employing the best science for human safety evaluation part III: the comet assay as an alternative to in vitro clastogenicity tests for early drug candidate selection
    Irene Witte
    Institute for Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 97:21-6. 2007
    ..The comet assay is a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in mammalian cells...
  34. ncbi In vitro biosynthesis and genotoxicity bioassay of silver nanoparticles using plants
    Kamal K Panda
    Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory, Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India
    Toxicol In Vitro 25:1097-105. 2011
    ..ROS: O(2)(·-) and H(2)O(2)), cell death, mitotic index, micronucleus, mitotic aberrations; and DNA damage by Comet assay. Other chemical forms of silver such as Ag(+) ion, colloidal AgCl, and AgNP-S at doses 0-80 mg L(-1) were ..
  35. ncbi Ochratoxin a causes DNA damage and cytogenetic effects but no DNA adducts in rats
    Angela Mally
    Department of Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:1253-61. 2005
    ..of body wt) for 2 weeks (5 days/week), and DNA breakage was analyzed in target and nontarget tissues using the comet assay both in the absence and presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA (Fpg) glycosylase...
  36. ncbi DBD-fish on neutral comets: simultaneous analysis of DNA single- and double-strand breaks in individual cells
    J L Fernandez
    Laboratorio de Genética Molecular y Radiobiología, Centro Oncologico de Galicia, Avda de Montserrat s n, La Coruna, 15009, Spain
    Exp Cell Res 270:102-9. 2001
    ..Otherwise, treatment with hydrogen peroxide, a main inducer of ssbs, increased the mean fluorescence intensity, but not the surface, of X-ray-exposed human leukocytes...
  37. ncbi Aflatoxin genotoxicity is associated with a defective DNA damage response bypassing p53 activation
    Ozge Gursoy-Yuzugullu
    Centre de Recherche INSERM, Institut Albert Bonniot, Université Joseph Fourier U823, Grenoble, France
    Liver Int 31:561-71. 2011
    ..The DNA damage checkpoint response acts as an antitumour mechanism against genotoxic agents, but its role in aflatoxin-induced DNA damage is unknown...
  38. ncbi Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles at two trophic levels: plant and human lymphocytes
    Manosij Ghosh
    Centre of Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India
    Chemosphere 81:1253-62. 2010
    ..The genotoxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles was evaluated using classical genotoxic endpoints, comet assay and DNA laddering technique...
  39. ncbi Induction and removal of DNA damage in blood leukocytes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis
    Pamela Brambilla Bagatini
    Health Science Institute, Feevale University, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352 000, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brazil
    Mutat Res 657:111-5. 2008
    ..This study used the comet assay to assess the levels of DNA damage before, immediately after and 48 h after the hemodialysis session in 25 ..
  40. ncbi Histone H2AX phosphorylation as a molecular pharmacological marker for DNA interstrand crosslink cancer chemotherapy
    P H Clingen
    Cancer Research UK Drug DNA Interactions Research Group, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, 72 Huntley Street, London, WC1E 6DD, UK
    Biochem Pharmacol 76:19-27. 2008
    ..or cisplatin, the peak gammaH2AX response was detected 2-3 h after the peak of DNA ICLs measured using the comet assay, a validated method for detecting ICLs in vitro or in clinical samples...
  41. ncbi DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration
    Jacek P Szaflik
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Warsaw, Poland
    Mutat Res 669:169-76. 2009
    ..In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of ..
  42. pmc An ECVAG trial on assessment of oxidative damage to DNA measured by the comet assay
    Clara Johansson
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    Mutagenesis 25:125-32. 2010
    The increasing use of single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) highlights its popularity as a method for detecting DNA damage, including the use of enzymes for assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA...
  43. ncbi Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of dental materials in human lymphocytes as assessed by the single cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay
    Norbert H Kleinsasser
    Klinisch experimentelle Onkologie, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany
    J Dent 32:229-34. 2004
    ..Whereas the cytotoxic potential of some components has been clearly documented, possible genotoxicity in human target cells demands further investigation...
  44. ncbi Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate
    Elzbieta Pawlowska
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Medical University of Lodz, Pomorska 251, 92 216 Lodz, Poland
    Mutat Res 696:122-9. 2010
    ..1 versions of the comet assay. HEMA did not cause double-strand breaks, as assessed by the neutral version of the comet assay and pulsed-..
  45. ncbi Evaluation on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the exfoliated silicate nanoclay
    Pei Ru Li
    Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2:1608-13. 2010
    ..The material safety on genotoxic effect was investigated by using three different test systems: the Comet assay test on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in vitro, micronucleus (MN) assay in vivo and the Salmonella gene ..
  46. ncbi Hydrogen sulfide induces direct radical-associated DNA damage
    Matias S Attene-Ramos
    Department of Animal Sciences, Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 364 NSRC, 1101 West Peabody Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Mol Cancer Res 5:455-9. 2007
    ..These observations highlight the possible role of sulfide as an environmental insult that, given a predisposing genetic background, may lead to genomic instability or the cumulative mutations characteristic of colorectal cancer...
  47. ncbi Investigating oxidative DNA damage and its repair using the comet assay
    Andrew R Collins
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PB 1046 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Mutat Res 681:24-32. 2009
    The comet assay is not the only way to measure oxidative DNA damage, but it is one of the most sensitive and accurate, being relatively free of artefacts...
  48. ncbi Induction of oxidative DNA damage by arsenite and its trivalent and pentavalent methylated metabolites in cultured human cells and isolated DNA
    Tanja Schwerdtle
    Institut für Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie, Universitat Karlsruhe, Germany
    Carcinogenesis 24:967-74. 2003
    ..Thus, biomethylation of inorganic arsenic may be involved in inorganic arsenic-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenicity...
  49. pmc Amorphous nanosilica induce endocytosis-dependent ROS generation and DNA damage in human keratinocytes
    Hiromi Nabeshi
    Osaka University, Japan
    Part Fibre Toxicol 8:1. 2011
    ..Specifically, we evaluated the relationship between particle size of nSP and the in vitro biological effects using human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT)...
  50. ncbi Differential effects in cells exposed to ultra-short, high intensity electric fields: cell survival, DNA damage, and cell cycle analysis
    M Stacey
    Center for Pediatric Research, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 855, W Brambleton Ave, Norfolk, VA 23510, USA
    Mutat Res 542:65-75. 2003
    ..exposure on cell survival assessed by clonogenic formation or live cell count; DNA damage determined by the comet assay and chromosome aberrations; and cell cycle parameters by measuring the mitotic indices of exposed cells...
  51. ncbi Genotoxicity of urethane dimethacrylate, a tooth restoration component
    Tomasz Poplawski
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12 16, 90 237 Lodz, Poland
    Toxicol In Vitro 24:854-62. 2010
    ..Vitamin C and chitosan decreased genotoxic effect of UDMA. Our results show that monomers of UDMA may exert pronounced cyto- and genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes and chitosan can be considered as a protection against such effects...
  52. pmc Human embryonic stem cells have enhanced repair of multiple forms of DNA damage
    Scott Maynard
    Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Box 1, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21224 6825, USA
    Stem Cells 26:2266-74. 2008
    ..Using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) we found that human embryonic stem cells (BG01, I6) have more efficient repair of different types of DNA ..
  53. pmc Radiation cataracts: mechanisms involved in their long delayed occurrence but then rapid progression
    Norman Wolf
    Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7475, USA
    Mol Vis 14:274-85. 2008
    ....
  54. ncbi Personal characteristics, therapy modalities and individual DNA repair capacity as predictive factors of acute skin toxicity in an unselected cohort of breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy
    Dorothee Twardella
    German Cancer Research Center, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Radiother Oncol 69:145-53. 2003
    ..The influence of therapy modalities, personal characteristics and individual DNA repair capacity on the risk of acute skin toxicity was thus evaluated...
  55. ncbi Irreversible cellular senescence induced by prolonged exposure to H2O2 involves DNA-damage-and-repair genes and telomere shortening
    Jianming Duan
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100083, China
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:1407-20. 2005
    ..Our findings indicate that several aging theories can be merged together by a common mechanism of oxidative damage, and that the level of oxidative DNA-damage-and-repair capacity may be exploited as reliable markers of cell senescence...
  56. ncbi The alkaline comet assay: towards validation in biomonitoring of DNA damaging exposures
    Peter Møller
    Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, Building B, 2nd Floor, P O Box 2099, DK 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:336-45. 2006
    ..This review discusses the strength of the comet assay in biomonitoring at its present state of validation...
  57. ncbi Measuring DNA repair incision activity of mouse tissue extracts towards singlet oxygen-induced DNA damage: a comet-based in vitro repair assay
    Sabine A S Langie
    Centre for Brain Ageing and Vitality, Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Mutagenesis 26:461-71. 2011
    ....
  58. ncbi Assessment of oxidative status and genotoxicity in photocopier operators: a pilot study
    Elisa C Kleinsorge
    Cátedra de Toxicología, Farmacología y Bioquímica Legal, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Biomarkers 16:642-8. 2011
    ..oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), damage index by Comet assay (DICA), and buccal cells with micronuclei (BCMN)...
  59. ncbi Comet assay application in environmental monitoring: DNA damage in human leukocytes and plant cells in comparison with bacterial and yeast tests
    P Poli
    Istituto di Genetica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11 A, 43100 Parma and ARPA Emilia Romagna, Sezione di Parma, Parma, Italy
    Mutagenesis 14:547-56. 1999
    ..We also demonstrate the ability of the Comet assay to detect DNA-damaging agents in airborne particulate samples...
  60. ncbi Comprehensive analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation by five different assays: TUNEL assay, SCSA, SCD test and alkaline and neutral Comet assay
    J Ribas-Maynou
    Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
    Andrology 1:715-22. 2013
    ..fertile donors and infertile patients in TUNEL, SCSA, SCD and alkaline Comet assays, but none with the neutral Comet assay. The alkaline COMET assay was the best in predicting male infertility followed by TUNEL, SCD and SCSA, whereas ..
  61. ncbi A novel statistical approach for the evaluation of comet assay data
    Nadja Seitz
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mutat Res 652:38-45. 2008
    ..focus of this paper is the assessment of genotoxicity of sediments from the Danube River basin by use of the comet assay with RTL-W1 cells and with embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
  62. ncbi Assessment of DNA damage by comet assay on frozen total blood: method and evaluation in smokers and non-smokers
    Isabelle Hininger
    L B S O, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France
    Mutat Res 558:75-80. 2004
    ..This was achieved by use of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay in its alkaline version...
  63. ncbi The comet assay as biomarker of heavy metal genotoxicity in earthworms
    S A Reinecke
    Department of Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46:208-15. 2004
    ..that earthworms may be useful indicator organisms to assess the genotoxic risks of nickel pollution to terrestrial environments and that the comet assay is a useful tool to use as biomarker of genotoxic effects on invertebrates in soil.
  64. ncbi Genotoxicity of cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins from Polish water reservoirs as determined by SOS chromotest and comet assay
    Joanna Mankiewicz
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12 16, 90 237 Lodz, Poland
    Environ Toxicol 17:341-50. 2002
    ..extracts with microcystins (CEMs) using the SOS chromotest (bacterial test) with Escherichia coli PQ37 and the comet assay with human lymphocytes...
  65. ncbi Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to cellular DNA determined by the comet assay associated with DNA repair enzymes
    Jean Luc Ravanat
    Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, FRE 2600, DRFMC SCIB CEA Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Biol Chem 385:17-20. 2004
    ..damage profile produced by the reaction of singlet molecular oxygen with cellular DNA was determined using the comet assay associated with DNA repair enzymes...
  66. ncbi Persistent DNA damage measured by comet assay of Sprague Dawley rat lung cells after five days of inhalation exposure and 1 month post-exposure to dispersed multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) generated by new MWCNT aerosol generation system
    Jin Sik Kim
    Bioconvergence Department, Korea Conformity Laboratories, 7 44, Songdo Dong, Yeonsu gu, Incheon, 406 840, Korea
    Toxicol Sci 128:439-48. 2012
    ..A single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted to determine the DNA damage in lung cells obtained from the right lung...
  67. ncbi Quantification of DNA repair capacity in whole blood of patients with head and neck cancer and healthy donors by comet assay
    Daniel T Saha
    Georgetown University, Department of Oncology, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Mutat Res 650:55-62. 2008
    b>Comet assay has been used to estimate cancer risk by quantification of DNA damage and repair in response to mutagen challenge...
  68. ncbi The influence of the number of cells scored on the sensitivity in the comet assay
    Anoop Kumar Sharma
    Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, Søborg, Denmark
    Mutat Res 749:70-5. 2012
    The impact on the sensitivity of the in vitro comet assay by increasing the number of cells scored has only been addressed in a few studies...
  69. ncbi Effect of oxidative stress on development and DNA damage in in-vitro cultured bovine embryos by comet assay
    M Takahashi
    Department of Animal Reproduction, National Institute of Animal Industry, Ibaraki, Japan
    Theriogenology 54:137-45. 2000
    The correlation of oxidative stress on development and DNA damage in bovine embryos was investigated by the comet assay (single-cell microgel electrophoresis), an effective technique for detecting single-strand DNA breakage...
  70. ncbi The potential value of the neutral comet assay and the expression of genes associated with DNA damage in assessing the radiosensitivity of tumor cells
    Sundarraj Jayakumar
    Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India
    Mutat Res 748:52-9. 2012
    ..The relative radiosensitivity of the cell lines assessed by the extent of DNA damage (neutral comet assay) immediately after irradiation (4Gy or 6Gy) was in agreement with radiosensitivity pattern obtained by the ..
  71. ncbi The essential comet assay: a comprehensive guide to measuring DNA damage and repair
    Amaya Azqueta
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, C Irunlarrea 1, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
    Arch Toxicol 87:949-68. 2013
    The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) is the most common method for measuring DNA damage in eukaryotic cells or disaggregated tissues...
  72. ncbi Validation of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for genotoxicity assessment using modified alkaline Comet assay
    Hifzur R Siddique
    Embryotoxicology Section, Industrial Toxicology Research Center, PO Box 80, M G Marg, Lucknow, 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Mutagenesis 20:285-90. 2005
    The single cell gel electrophoresis or Comet assay is one of the most popular techniques for genotoxicity assessment...
  73. pmc Human semen quality and sperm DNA damage in relation to urinary metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides
    John D Meeker
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Hum Reprod 23:1932-40. 2008
    ..On the basis of limited studies, there is animal and human evidence for altered reproductive or endocrine function following pyrethroid exposure...
  74. ncbi Is concentration and motility of male gametes related to DNA damage measured by comet assay?
    Malgorzata M Dobrzynska
    Department of Radiation Protection and Radiobiology, National Institute of Public Health National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
    Ann Agric Environ Med 17:73-7. 2010
    ..Sperm concentration, motility and DNA damage measured by Comet assay were estimated...
  75. ncbi The relationship between cellular radiosensitivity and radiation-induced DNA damage measured by the comet assay
    Seiichi Wada
    Biotechnology Laboratory, JAERI Takasaki, Watanuki machi, Gunma, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 65:471-7. 2003
    ..at 2 Gy (SF2) and the yield of initial DNA strand breaks per unit dose under the alkaline condition for the comet assay, and also a relationship between SF2 and the residual DNA strand breaks (for 4 hr after irradiation) under the ..
  76. ncbi Genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on fish cells in vitro
    William F Vevers
    Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
    Ecotoxicology 17:410-20. 2008
    ..potential was determined by evaluating DNA strand breaks using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or the comet assay and induction of cytogenetic damage using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay, cytotoxicity was ..
  77. ncbi Comet assay: a reliable tool for the assessment of DNA damage in different models
    Alok Dhawan
    Developmental Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research formerly Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, PO Box 80, M G Marg, Lucknow, 226 001, India
    Cell Biol Toxicol 25:5-32. 2009
    ..The Comet assay has been widely accepted as a simple, sensitive, and rapid tool for assessing DNA damage and repair in ..
  78. ncbi DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay in lymphocytes of children with 137Cs internal contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident
    Omar Garcia
    Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No 4113 e 41y 47 Miramar, AP 6195 C Habana, Cuba
    Mutat Res 565:191-7. 2005
    The comet assay is one of the most versatile and popular tools for evaluating DNA damage...
  79. ncbi Effects of oxygen concentration and antioxidants on the in vitro developmental ability, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA fragmentation in porcine embryos
    Yuichiro Kitagawa
    Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 8589, Japan
    Theriogenology 62:1186-97. 2004
    ..05); and fragmentation of DNA in 8- to 16-cell stage embryos (estimated by the comet assay) resulted in a shorter (P < 0.05) DNA tail (36 microm versus 141 microm)...
  80. ncbi DNA damage in Mexican women with cervical dysplasia evaluated by comet assay
    Elva I Cortes-Gutierrez
    Division of Genetics, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica Del Noreste, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico
    Anal Quant Cytol Histol 32:207-13. 2010
    To investigate the association between the progressive stage of cervical dysplasia and DNA damage by comet assay.
  81. ncbi Repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks as a mechanism of clinical resistance to melphalan in multiple myeloma
    Victoria J Spanswick
    Cancer Research UK Drug DNA Interactions Research Group, Department of Oncology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    Blood 100:224-9. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that ICL repair may be an important mechanism by which melphalan resistance emerges after autologous SCT or oral therapy. This mechanism may have implications for MM patients undergoing melphalan therapy...
  82. ncbi Comparison of genotoxicity of sevoflurane and isoflurane in human lymphocytes studied in vivo using the comet assay
    L Karabiyik
    Department of Anaesthesia, Turkish State Railways Hospital, 06330, Ankara, Turkey
    Mutat Res 492:99-107. 2001
    ..Both anaesthetics were evaluated for genotoxic activity using the comet assay. The exposed groups consisted of 24 ASA grades 1-2 unpremedicated patients (aged 20-66 years, anaesthetized 115-..
  83. ncbi Relationships between acute reactions to radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients and parameters of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in their lymphocytes
    J Rzeszowska-Wolny
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Radiobiology, M Sklodowska Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute, Wybrze_ze Armii Krajowej 15, 44 100 Gliwice, Poland
    Int J Radiat Biol 84:635-42. 2008
    ..To study the relationship between lymphocyte radiosensitivity measured in vitro and acute reactions to radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer...
  84. ncbi Evaluation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides using single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Pesticide genotoxicity revealed by comet assay
    V Garaj-Vrhovac
    Mutagenesis Division, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia
    Mutat Res 469:279-85. 2000
    The comet assay, also called the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, is a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of DNA damage (strand breaks and alkali-labile sites) in individual cells...
  85. ncbi Effect of cigarette smoking on DNA damage of human cumulus cells analyzed by comet assay
    Ildiko Sinko
    Center for Assisted Reproduction, Kaali Institute, University of Szeged, Semmelweis u 1, H 6725 Szeged, Hungary
    Reprod Toxicol 20:65-71. 2005
    ..The level of DNA damage in freshly isolated cumulus cells was determined by comet assay. Statistically significant increase (p<0...
  86. ncbi Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of resin monomers in human salivary gland tissue and lymphocytes as assessed by the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay
    Norbert H Kleinsasser
    Ecogenotoxicology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Regensburg, Franz Josef Strauss Allee 11, D 93042 Regensburg, Germany
    Biomaterials 27:1762-70. 2006
    ..The Comet assay was used to quantify DNA single strand breaks, alkali labile and incomplete excision repair sites in salivary ..
  87. ncbi Free radical scavengers can differentially modulate the genotoxicity of amsacrine in normal and cancer cells
    Janusz Blasiak
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
    Mutat Res 535:25-34. 2003
    ..Using the alkaline comet assay, we showed that amsacrine at concentrations from the range 0...
  88. ncbi In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of radiofrequency fields
    L Verschaeve
    O D Public Health and Surveillance, Laboratory of Toxicology, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Mutat Res 705:252-68. 2010
    ..Many of the positive studies may well be due to thermal exposures, but a few studies suggest that biological effects can be seen at low levels of exposure. Overall, however, the evidence for low-level genotoxic effects is very weak...
  89. ncbi UV-A induces persistent genomic instability in human keratinocytes through an oxidative stress mechanism
    Ross P Phillipson
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:474-80. 2002
    ..Reversal of these effects using catalase may indicate a role for hydrogen peroxide in this phenomenon. These results add to the significance of UV-A radiation as a risk factor in skin carcinogenesis...
  90. ncbi Sperm DNA damage measured by the alkaline Comet assay as an independent predictor of male infertility and in vitro fertilization success
    Luke Simon
    Centre for Public Health, Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Clinical Science, Queens University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    Fertil Steril 95:652-7. 2011
    ..To evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation and semen parameters to diagnose male factor infertility and predict pregnancy after IVF...
  91. ncbi Hydroxyl radicals (*OH) are associated with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in fish cells
    James F Reeves
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
    Mutat Res 640:113-22. 2008
    ..NRR) assay (a measure of lysosomal membrane integrity) was used to evaluate cell viability, a modified Comet assay using bacterial lesion-specific repair endonucleases (Endo-III, Fpg) was employed to specifically target ..
  92. ncbi Clinical implications of sperm DNA damage
    Sheena E M Lewis
    Centre for Public Health, Institute of Clinical Science, Queens University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
    Hum Fertil (Camb) 13:201-7. 2010
    ..report the relationships between in vitro fertilisation, ICSI pregnancy rates and sperm DNA damage, using the Comet assay to measure DNA fragmentation and also a novel test to measure modified bases, as a indication of oxidative DNA ..
  93. ncbi Validation of a fully automated COMET assay: 1.75 million single cells measured over a 5 year period
    Albert Rosenberger
    Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University Medical Center, Georg August University Gottingen, Humboldtallee 32, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    DNA Repair (Amst) 10:322-37. 2011
    The COMET assay is recognized as a rapid and sensitive method in quantifying radiation induced DNA damage...
  94. ncbi Vitamin A and C compounds permitted in supplements differ in their abilities to affect cell viability, DNA and the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine
    Therese Bergström
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 83 Huddinge, Sweden
    Mutagenesis 26:735-44. 2011
    ..and formamido pyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites was, after vitamin exposure, measured using the comet assay and cytotoxicity was estimated using trypan blue staining...
  95. ncbi A two-tailed Comet assay for assessing DNA damage in spermatozoa
    Maria Enciso
    Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
    Reprod Biomed Online 18:609-16. 2009
    ..The two-tailed Comet assay (2T-Comet) protocol overcomes this limitation...
  96. ncbi Insensitivity of the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay with human lymphocytes for the detection of DNA damage present at the start of the cell culture
    Günter Speit
    Universitat Ulm, Institut fur Humangenetik, D 89069 Ulm, Germany
    Mutagenesis 27:743-7. 2012
    ..All mutagens (except MMC, a known crosslinker) were tested by the comet assay with blood cultures exposed at the start of the culture and clearly induced DNA migration...
  97. ncbi Effect of cryopreservation on sperm DNA integrity in patients with teratospermia
    Guruprasad Kalthur
    Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India
    Fertil Steril 89:1723-7. 2008
    ..To test whether sperm with abnormal head morphology are more likely to undergo DNA damage and/or chromatin modification during the process of freeze-thawing...
  98. ncbi The comet assay: a sensitive method for detecting DNA damage in individual cells
    Wenjuan Liao
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
    Methods 48:46-53. 2009
    The comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells, and the year 2009 represents the 25th anniversary of the first description of this methodology in 1984...
  99. ncbi Transient increase in micronucleus frequency and DNA effects in the comet assay in two patients after intoxication with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin
    Eva Valic
    Clinical Department of Occupational Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, Vienna, Austria
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 77:301-6. 2004
    ..The genotoxic effects in two patients with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication were measured; an association with the workplace was suspected...
  100. ncbi Vitamins at physiological levels cause oxidation to the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine and to DNA--alone or in synergism with metals
    Therese Bergström
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE 141 83 Huddinge, Sweden
    Mutagenesis 27:511-7. 2012
    ..e. formamido pyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites, were detected using the comet assay. Vitamins A and C chemically induced oxidation of dG, alone and in synergism with iron or copper, whereas only ..
  101. pmc Supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (Actinidia chinensis var.'Hort 16A':) effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection
    Asgeir Brevik
    Department of Chemical Toxicology, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P O Box 4404 Nydalen, N 0403 Oslo, Norway
    Nutr J 10:54. 2011
    ....

Research Grants62

  1. Mechanisms of PCP genotoxicity & antioxidant modulation
    BENZHAN ZHU; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PCP metabolites will be evaluated, respectively, by the MTT assay and the comet assay. (3) What are the molecular mechanisms of the modulatory effects of these dietary antioxidants? The interaction ..
  2. Optimization of DNA Repair by Abh8
    Lauren Endres; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., thymic B-cells and intestinal crypt cells) by H2AX staining and using the COMET assay. Finally, we will measure the expression levels of DDR component transcripts and proteins in Abh8-/- and wild-..
  3. Retinoid and Carotenoid Depletion in Patients at High-Risk for Liver Cancer
    Peter H Gann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For Aim 2, we will measure oxidative damage to DNA via 8OHdG in urine (oxidized, excreted DNA bases) and the comet assay (DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes) to test the association of these markers with serum antioxidant levels...
  4. PROBES FOR CYTOMETRY
    Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..p53 phosphorylation) with the measurement of actual DNA damage, assessed by single-cell DNA electrophoresis (comet assay)...
  5. Novel therapeutics for vesicants and toxic inhaled chemicals (U54)
    Carl W White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..analog CEES (2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide) caused inflammation, DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine accumulation;comet assay;ATM/ATR activation and downstream signaling) and lipid peroxidation (4- hydroxynonenal) in tissues, as well as ..
  6. Exposure and biological response biomarkers of cigarette smoke
    IAN ALEXANDER BLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..been fraught with numerous methodological problems so that the current state-of-the-art involves the use of a COMET assay to measure 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) lesions...
  7. Carboxylesterase-activated Doxazolidine-prodrug for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Tad H Koch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and pharmacodynamic endpoints of cell proliferation, apoptosis in tumor sections collected after treatment, and Comet assay for DNA crosslinks...
  8. Genetic Instability &Risk for Esophageal Carcinoma
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2.2. Compare mutagen-induced DNA damage as measured by the comet assay, with the frequencies of SNPs in DNA repair genes...
  9. The role of Mc1r in melanocytic UV-induced DNA damage and repair responses
    JOHN A DORAZIO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..measures of oxidative load (DCF-mediated fluorescence flow cytometry, Southwestern blotting, hOGG1-adapted Comet assay, TBARS assay, and direct quantification of oxidative DNA adducts by GC/MS)...
  10. AP Endonuclease 2 in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance
    Carol E Schrader; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The percent of cells that have single- strand and double-strand breaks will be determined by comet assay and by measuring 3H2AX foci, various times after irradiation...
  11. PAH Exposure and DNA Damage in Roofers
    Berrin Serdar; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..measurements), their internal dose (PAHs in blood and selected metabolites in urine) and DNA damage (using the Comet assay with an automatic image capture and un-biased scoring) in South Florida roofers...
  12. GENETIC TOXICITY IN BACTERIA AND RODENTS
    LES RECIO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The Comet assay for measuring DNA damage levels is being used at ILS in these same in vivo studies;a variety of tissues are ..
  13. GENETIC TOXICITY IN BACTERIA AND RODENTS
    LES RECIO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The Comet assay for measuring DNA damage levels is being used at ILS in these same in vivo studies;a variety of tissues are ..
  14. The Synergistic effect and Mechanism of Arsenic on Chromium (VI) Carcinogenesis
    Hong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..1) Cr(VI)-induced chromosome damage and DNA double strand breaks will be measured by cytogenetic assay and comet assay as well as the production of gamma-H2A...
  15. Comet-Chip: A High-Throughput DNA Damage Sensor for Enviornmental Health Studies
    Bevin P Engelward; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The single cell gel electrophoresis assay, or 'comet assay'is one of the most sensitive and versatile approaches for measuring DNA damage in human cells...
  16. Experimental Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy With a Potent New Hypoxic Cytotoxin
    JOHN MARTIN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..different situations! Our specific aims are 1) to determine whether DNA interstrand crosslinks measured by the comet assay can be used as a surrogate marker for activity of PR-104 that could be used in the clinic, 2) to assay the ..
  17. Environmental Human Health Education
    Karen Graf; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that will provide a new Biological Platform and the second is the Comet Assay that will serve as a new Technology Platform...
  18. CometChip: Enabling Translation of DNA Damage and Repair Assays
    Robert W Sobol; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to develop the "CometChip", a new technology for measuring DNA damage that has its basis in the well-accepted Comet assay. Here, we propose to leverage our technology toward translation by performing studies that are essential in ..
  19. Biotransformation of Estrogens to Carcinogenic Quinoids
    JUDY BOLTON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The comet assay will be employed to examine DNA single strand cleavage and oxidation and alkylation of DNA bases will be ..
  20. PORTABILITY OF BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SPERM MATURITY
    Gabor Huszar; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..sperm binding to hyaluronic acid(HA)-beads indicating maturity, DNA nick translation and the single sperm DNA comet assay, which highlight sperm DNA fragmentation, a known cause of male infertility and increased rates of pregnancy ..
  21. Mechanisms of Motor Neuron Death
    Lee Martin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will use an innovative method (the comet assay) to quantify different forms of DNA lesions in single MN and to determine if known and potentially new ..
  22. DNA Damage: Fruit & Vegetable Effects in a Feeding Trial
    Johanna Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..relevant surrogate biomarker for assessing cancer susceptibility, and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) has become one of the standard methods for assessing DNA damage...
  23. Development of a standard high throughput comet assay
    JAY GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay is now recognized worldwide as a simple and inexpensive method for detection of different types of DNA damage...
  24. USE OF ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTS AND OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE
    Marian Neuhouser; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..To test these hypotheses, we will use single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) to measure DNA damage and repair capacity in peripheral blood specimens of 220 healthy adults aged 50-74 years ..
  25. Antioxidant nutrients and Oxidative DNA Damage in Afric*
    Jessie Satia; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..vitamin C, and vitamin E levels) and oxidative DNA damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis or alkaline Comet assay. This project fills an important gap in antioxidant and cancer research by providing important information ..
  26. Studying the interaction of Flor-Essence Tonic and PHIP
    Kristen Kulp; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The Comet assay and the Sprague Dawley rat model will be used to test this hypothesis...
  27. Toxiology of Particulate Cr(VI)in Human Lung Cells
    John Wise; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..with the following: 1) Cr(VI)-induced genotoxicity will be measured by the amount of damage produced in the Comet assay, and in metaphase chromosome spreads...
  28. EFFECTS OF FRUIT & VEGETABLE EXTRACTS ON CANCER MARKERS
    Steven Akman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The secondary endpoints are cell proliferation (Ki-67), DNA damage/repair (Comet assay), and immune function (T-cell activation)...
  29. Higher throughput comet assay for genotoxicity studies
    Janos Luka; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The comet assay allows for the detection of DNA damage in any accessible cell population and a molecular definition of the DNA damage is possible with adaptation of the basic assay...
  30. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER
    BARBARA WASHBURN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Finally, cells will be incubated with extracts and DNA damage will be measured with the Comet assay. The results of the study will also compare the use of a number of cell types with the goal of identifying the ..
  31. QUANTITATION OF HYPOXIC TUMOR CELLS
    Peggy Olive; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..by simultaneous application of marker binding measured by flow cytometry with hypoxic fraction measured by the comet assay. This should provide a rational way to determine the meaningful radiobiological hypoxic fraction from flow ..
  32. NEUTROPHINS AND RETINAL DEVELOPMENT
    Janet Sparrow; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The use of neurotrophins in conjunction with gene therapy or transplantation may also have potential for reversing retinal degenerative changes and lead to the restoration of vision. ..
  33. Maternal Phthalate Exposure and Infertility, Fetal Loss
    Russ Hauser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Since occupational and environmental exposure to phthalates is widespread, detecting even small adverse effects will have large public health significance. ..
  34. GENETIC INFLUENCE ON MUTAGEN SENSITIVITY--A TWIN STUDY
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Additionally, these potential biomarkers may ultimately be used to identify individuals who should be targeted for more intense screening programs or behavior modification interventions. ..
  35. Colon and liver anticarcinogenicity by acetaminophen
    Gary Williams; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition, these experiments will provide support for the epidemiological observations of reduced cancer risk associated with the use of APAP. ..
  36. Lung Cancer Chemoradiation: Predictors of Survival
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This multivariate prognostic study could have long-term prognostic potential by allowing greater individualization of therapy, based on the genetic makeup of the patient, thereby both increasing efficacy and reducing morbidity. ..
  37. Molecular Biomarkers as Predictors of Hodgkin's Disease
    Randa El Zein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The high risk population can be targeted for intensive preventive and early detection strategies. ..
  38. Maternal Pesticide Exposure and Pregnancy Outcomes
    Russ Hauser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Since the etiology of infertility and early pregnancy loss remains largely unexplained, the identification of potential environmental risk factors will have large public health significance. ..
  39. Markers of Genetic Susceptibility to Bladder Cancer
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..To assess latent genetic instability, we plan to quantify mutagen-induced DNA damage using the comet assay in the PBLs of 400 BC patients and 400 controls...
  40. Genetic Susceptibility Modifiers in Renal Cell Carcinoma
    Xifeng Wu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such individuals may then be targeted for intervention programs such as chemoprevention or dietary modification. ..
  41. NUCLEAR PROTEIN CONTENT AND HEAT INDUCED CELL KILLING
    Joseph Roti Roti; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..1 degree C hyperthermia in a manner analogous to that at 43 degree C - 45 degree C. ..
  42. Yale/NCI Cooperative Training Program in Cancer Epidemiology
    Susan Mayne; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We anticipate that graduates of this program will be uniquely qualified to be future leaders in the field of cancer epidemiology and genetics. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Mutational Analysis of Clonality in Multiple Primary Melanoma
    Irene Orlow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Profiling individual synaptic vesicles with nanofluidics
    Daniel Chiu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  45. CANCER PREVENTION BY SELENIUM-ENRICHED ALLIUM VEGETABLES
    Clement Ip; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The objective is to corroborate the significance of clonal suppression of preneoplastic lesions in selenium protection of cancer. ..
  46. Prevention of Photocarcinogenesis by antioxidant
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. MODELING AND DOSIMETRY FOR RADIOLABELED ANTIBODY THERAPY
    George Sgouros; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  48. Potentiation of Topo Inhibitors by the HDACi, SAHA
    Pamela Munster; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These findings may be useful in the rational design of future clinical trials involving HDACi. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Molecular Mechanisms of Aging: 33rd Ann. Mtg. of AGE
    Norman Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Dr. Bickford has investigated hotel accommodations there and has found that both the Radisson and the Hilton offer excellent accommodations for the meeting. She is negotiating with both. ..
  50. Profiling Biochemical Contents of Single Mitochondria
    Daniel Chiu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..While our focus here is on the analysis of individual mitochondria, we believe our method can be applied equally well to the chemical analysis of other subcellular organelles and compartments. ..
  51. Enzyme Repair of Excoyclic Adducts
    Bo Hang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Targeted Alpha-Particle Emitter Therapy of Metastases
    George Sgouros; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The work described in this application is intended to develop and evaluate such an approach. ..
  53. Prevention of skin cancer by green tea polyphenols
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Importantly, worldwide interest in green tea as a cancer chemopreventive agent for humans is increasing because it is non-toxic, affordable, popular beverage and is effective in a wide range of organs. ..
  54. Comprehensive NAU/AZCC Cancer Research Partnership
    DIANE STEARNS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Research activities include basic science, cancer education, and community outreach components. We propose 6 pilot projects, 4 full projects, and recruitment of 2 new faculty over the project lifetime. ..
  55. Selenium molecular signaling in human prostate cancer
    Clement Ip; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 4 is to study the transcriptional control of GADD153 by selenium. The proposed research is thus designed to examine systemically the impact of GADD153 induction as a result of selenium treatment. ..
  56. Genes & environment: education to involve communities
    Linda McCauley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The stages of the design of this project start with work within each community partner and build to activities in which the communities work together to share each others' perspective on the issues of interest. ..
  57. TUMOR-TARGETING WITH NEW BORONATED PORPHYRINS
    MARIA DA GRACA HENRIQUES VICENTE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The potential of BNCT will only be realized if new and improved BNCT agents are discovered, synthesized and their properties thoroughly investigated. ..
  58. Uptake and Mutagenicity of Moderately Soluble Hexavalent Chromium
    DIANE STEARNS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Understanding the mode of action of these chromates will provide a foundation for human risk assessment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Potentiation of Topo Inhibitors by HDAC Inhibitors
    Pamela Munster; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Finally, the utility of the topo II inhibitors could be enhanced if their efficacy could be increased without worsening toxicity, as our preclinical data appears to indicate. ..
  60. Radiosensitization by the Cellular Stress Response
    Joseph Roti Roti; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will then modify indoles to reduce toxicity while enhancing the radiosensitized effects. ..
  61. Proanthocyanidins: Novel Skin Cancer Preventive Agent
    Santosh Katiyar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Prevention of skin cancer risk will result to protect and prolong the human health and lives. ..