binomial distribution

Summary

Summary: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A longitudinal study of a natural lice infestation in growing cattle over two winter periods
    A S Milnes
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, BS40 5DU, Bristol, UK
    Vet Parasitol 116:67-83. 2003
  2. ncbi A crash-prediction model for multilane roads
    Ciro Caliendo
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano SA, Italy
    Accid Anal Prev 39:657-70. 2007
  3. ncbi Calculation of tolerance limits and sample size determination for clinical trials with dichotomous outcomes
    Boris G Zaslavsky
    Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Biopharm Stat 17:481-91. 2007
  4. ncbi The binomial distribution of meta-analysis was preferred to model within-study variability
    Taye H Hamza
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus MC Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 61:41-51. 2008
  5. ncbi Using an empirical binomial hierarchical Bayesian model as an alternative to analyzing data from multisite studies
    J Michael Hardin
    Department of Information Systems, Statistics, and Management Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA
    Eval Rev 32:143-56. 2008
  6. pmc Maximum likelihood estimation of the negative binomial dispersion parameter for highly overdispersed data, with applications to infectious diseases
    James O Lloyd-Smith
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Mueller Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e180. 2007
  7. ncbi Small-sample estimation of negative binomial dispersion, with applications to SAGE data
    Mark D Robinson
    Bioinformatics Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Biostatistics 9:321-32. 2008
  8. ncbi Zero-inflated models for regression analysis of count data: a study of growth and development
    Yin Bin Cheung
    National Cancer Centre, 11 Hospital Drive, 169610 Singapore
    Stat Med 21:1461-9. 2002
  9. pmc Empirical Bayesian analysis of paired high-throughput sequencing data with a beta-binomial distribution
    Thomas J Hardcastle
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK
    BMC Bioinformatics 14:135. 2013
  10. ncbi Using the negative binomial distribution to model overdispersion in ecological count data
    Andreas Lindén
    Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, P O Box 1066 Blindern, NO 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Ecology 92:1414-21. 2011

Detail Information

Publications240 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A longitudinal study of a natural lice infestation in growing cattle over two winter periods
    A S Milnes
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, BS40 5DU, Bristol, UK
    Vet Parasitol 116:67-83. 2003
    ..bovis. Infestation numbers were higher in the first winter when cattle were younger. In the second winter, there was no difference in lice numbers between cattle exposed to infection for the first or second time...
  2. ncbi A crash-prediction model for multilane roads
    Ciro Caliendo
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano SA, Italy
    Accid Anal Prev 39:657-70. 2007
    ..Thus this research may represent a point of reference for engineers in adjusting or designing multilane roads...
  3. ncbi Calculation of tolerance limits and sample size determination for clinical trials with dichotomous outcomes
    Boris G Zaslavsky
    Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Biopharm Stat 17:481-91. 2007
    ..The link between confidence intervals for proportions and tolerance intervals for numbers of outcomes is established. Tolerance intervals and sample size estimates for clinical trials may be calculated using StatXact...
  4. ncbi The binomial distribution of meta-analysis was preferred to model within-study variability
    Taye H Hamza
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus MC Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Epidemiol 61:41-51. 2008
    ..This method can easily be performed in standard statistical packages. We investigate the performance of the standard method and the alternative approach...
  5. ncbi Using an empirical binomial hierarchical Bayesian model as an alternative to analyzing data from multisite studies
    J Michael Hardin
    Department of Information Systems, Statistics, and Management Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA
    Eval Rev 32:143-56. 2008
    ..An application of using the Bayesian model in a real-world multisite study is given...
  6. pmc Maximum likelihood estimation of the negative binomial dispersion parameter for highly overdispersed data, with applications to infectious diseases
    James O Lloyd-Smith
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Mueller Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e180. 2007
    The negative binomial distribution is used commonly throughout biology as a model for overdispersed count data, with attention focused on the negative binomial dispersion parameter, k...
  7. ncbi Small-sample estimation of negative binomial dispersion, with applications to SAGE data
    Mark D Robinson
    Bioinformatics Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Biostatistics 9:321-32. 2008
    ..a quantile-adjusted conditional maximum likelihood estimator for the dispersion parameter of the negative binomial distribution and compare its performance, in terms of bias, to various other methods...
  8. ncbi Zero-inflated models for regression analysis of count data: a study of growth and development
    Yin Bin Cheung
    National Cancer Centre, 11 Hospital Drive, 169610 Singapore
    Stat Med 21:1461-9. 2002
    ..risk, and a proportion of 1--P at-risk subjects who take on outcome values following a Poisson or negative binomial distribution. Covariate effects can be incorporated into both components of the models...
  9. pmc Empirical Bayesian analysis of paired high-throughput sequencing data with a beta-binomial distribution
    Thomas J Hardcastle
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK
    BMC Bioinformatics 14:135. 2013
    ..Methods for analysing high-throughput sequencing data from such experiments are required to identify differential expression, both within paired samples and between pairs under different experimental conditions...
  10. ncbi Using the negative binomial distribution to model overdispersion in ecological count data
    Andreas Lindén
    Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, P O Box 1066 Blindern, NO 0316 Oslo, Norway
    Ecology 92:1414-21. 2011
    ..We propose a parameterization of the negative binomial distribution, where two overdispersion parameters are introduced to allow for various quadratic mean-variance ..
  11. ncbi Generalized Poisson distribution: the property of mixture of Poisson and comparison with negative binomial distribution
    Harry Joe
    Department of Statistics, University of British Columbia, Canada
    Biom J 47:219-29. 2005
    ..Through a real example of count data with large zero fraction, we illustrate how the generalized Poisson and negative binomial distributions as well as their zero-inflated distributions can be discriminated...
  12. ncbi Generalized negative binomial distribution: a promising statistical distribution for Oncomelania hupensis in the lake- and marsh-land regions of China
    Z J Zhang
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, The Key Laboratory on Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, No 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032, China
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 102:541-52. 2008
    A new generalization of the negative binomial distribution (GNBD) is introduced and fitted to counts of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, made, in areas of Chinese lakeland and marshland, early in the ..
  13. ncbi Analysis of the short form-36 (SF-36): the beta-binomial distribution approach
    Inmaculada Arostegui
    Departamento de Matemática Aplicada y Estadística e Investigación Operativa, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV EHU, Bilbao, Spain
    Stat Med 26:1318-42. 2007
    ..Normal distribution was rejected for seven out of the eight domains. A beta-binomial distribution is suggested to fit the SF-36 scores...
  14. ncbi Modelling MRI enhancing lesion counts in multiple sclerosis using a negative binomial model: implications for clinical trials
    M P Sormani
    Unit of Clinical Epidemiology and Trials, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy
    J Neurol Sci 163:74-80. 1999
    ..1, 55 degrees of freedom). Applications of the parametrization of lesion counts are discussed, and an example related to computer simulations for the sample size estimation is presented...
  15. ncbi Computing hospitalization rates in presence of repeated events: impact and countermeasures to avoid misinterpretation
    Ileana Baldi
    Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, C P O Piemonte and University of Torino, Torino, Italy
    J Eval Clin Pract 14:316-20. 2008
    ..The admission rate, including both first and recurrent events, is a clear overall measure of hospital utilization, its variability accounting for individual propensity to disease recurrence...
  16. ncbi Quantitative Erased Respondent Method (QERM): using quantitative group data as an alternative to quantitative individual data. A simulated application to road checks for drivers under the influence of cocaine
    F Taggi
    Dept of Environment and Primary Prevention, Section Environment and Trauma, ISS Istituto Superiore di Sanità, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy
    Ann Ig 19:559-71. 2007
    ..The application fields in Public Health for ERM, PERM and QERM are many; however in our opinion the most interesting areas of application are road traffic, occupational and sport safety...
  17. ncbi Removing phenotypic distribution assumptions from tests of linkage disequilibrium for quantitative traits
    Alexandre Alcais
    Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U 550, Necker Medical School, Paris, France
    Genet Epidemiol 24:191-9. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi Application of the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson generalized linear model for analyzing motor vehicle crashes
    Dominique Lord
    Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 3136, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 40:1123-34. 2008
    ....
  19. ncbi On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds
    Matthias Greiner
    International EpiLab and Animal Health Section, Department of Epidemiology and Risk Assessment, Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research DFVF, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK 2860 Søborg, Denmark
    Prev Vet Med 70:223-34. 2005
    ..The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more conservative (lower) estimates of the confidence for a given sample size and should therefore be preferred...
  20. pmc Simulation-based P values: response to North et al
    Karl W Broman
    Am J Hum Genet 72:496. 2003
  21. pmc Pooling overdispersed binomial data to estimate event rate
    Yinong Young-Xu
    EpiPatterns, Haverhill, NH, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 8:58. 2008
    ..Our objective is to provide a full description of this method and to update and broaden its applications in clinical and public health research...
  22. ncbi Host manipulation by Ligula intestinalis: a cause or consequence of parasite aggregation?
    S P Brown
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, UK
    Int J Parasitol 32:817-24. 2002
    ..illustrates that fish infected with a single parasite were more scarce than expected under the negative binomial distribution, and in many months were more scarce than burdens of two, three or more, leading to a bimodal distribution ..
  23. ncbi Applying the random effect negative binomial model to examine traffic accident occurrence at signalized intersections
    Hoong Chor Chin
    Department of Civil Engineering, The National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore
    Accid Anal Prev 35:253-9. 2003
    ..The total approach volumes, the numbers of phases per cycle, the uncontrolled left-turn lane and the presence of a surveillance camera are among the variables that are the highly significant...
  24. ncbi Accurate confidence intervals for binomial proportion and Poisson rate estimation
    Timothy D Ross
    Air Force Research Laboratory COMPASE Center, AFRL SNAR, WPAFB, OH 45433, USA
    Comput Biol Med 33:509-31. 2003
    ..The confidence interval estimators can find one or two-sided intervals. For two-sided intervals, either minimal-length, balanced-tail probabilities, or balanced-width can be selected...
  25. ncbi Letter to the editor
    B M Golam Kibria
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 33:235-6; author reply 237. 2005
  26. ncbi Proper interpretation of non-differential misclassification effects: expectations vs observations
    Anne M Jurek
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 0392, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 34:680-7. 2005
    ..Thus, as noted before, exposure misclassification can spuriously increase the observed strength of an association even when the misclassification process is non-differential and the bias it produced is towards the null...
  27. ncbi Sensitivity of score tests for zero-inflation in count data
    Andy H Lee
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
    Stat Med 23:2757-69. 2004
    ..Two examples that motivated the application of zero-inflated regression models are considered to illustrate the importance of sensitivity analysis of the zero-inflation tests...
  28. ncbi Models relating traffic safety with road environment and traffic flows on arterial roads in Addis Ababa
    Girma Berhanu
    Department of Civil Engineering, Addis Ababa University, P O Box 30026, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Accid Anal Prev 36:697-704. 2004
    ..The results also indicate that improvements in roadway width, pedestrian facilities, and access management are effective in reducing road traffic accidents...
  29. pmc Tests for the homogeneity of two binomial proportions in extremely unbalanced 2 x 2 contingency tables
    Seung Ho Kang
    Department of Statistics, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun gu, Seoul, Korea
    Stat Med 27:2524-35. 2008
    ..The Berger and Boos approach turns out to be slightly more powerful than the conditional exact test in extremely unbalanced data. A real example is provided...
  30. ncbi The utility of the zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial models: a case study of cross-sectional and longitudinal DMF data examining the effect of socio-economic status
    J D Lewsey
    Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, School of Dentistry, The University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 32:183-9. 2004
    ....
  31. ncbi Bayesian tests of extra-Binomial variability
    Chuhsing Kate Hsiao
    Division of Biostatistics, Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan, ROC
    Stat Med 24:49-64. 2005
    ..In each case, our approximate Bayes factors are close to the exact Bayes factors, which may also be computed with additional effort...
  32. pmc A comparative analysis of aspatial statistics for detecting racial disparities in cancer mortality rates
    Pierre Goovaerts
    BioMedware, Inc, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Int J Health Geogr 6:32. 2007
    ..And few, if any studies have undertaken a systematic comparison of methods to identify those that are statistically robust and reliable...
  33. ncbi Modeling accident occurrence at signalized tee intersections with special emphasis on excess zeros
    S S P Kumara
    Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Traffic Inj Prev 4:53-7. 2003
    ..Moreover, there is a trend of reducing accidents over the years...
  34. ncbi Quasi-Poisson vs. negative binomial regression: how should we model overdispersed count data?
    Jay M Ver Hoef
    National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Building 4, Seattle, Washington 98115 6349, USA
    Ecology 88:2766-72. 2007
    ..negative binomial regression. This difference is described and explained in light of the different weighting used in each regression method. A general understanding of weighting can help ecologists choose between these two methods...
  35. ncbi Using hierarchical models to analyse clinical indicators: a comparison of the gamma-Poisson and beta-binomial models
    Peter P Howley
    The School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences Statistics, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, 2308 Australia
    Int J Qual Health Care 15:319-29. 2003
    ..Then, an estimate of the potential system gains that could be achieved if the mean proportion was shifted to the 20th centile is obtained for each of the 185 CIs. The results are sed to prioritize quality improvement activity...
  36. ncbi Mixture models for estimating the size of a closed population when capture rates vary among individuals
    Robert M Dorazio
    U S Geological Survey, Florida Caribbean Science Center, 7920 NW 71 Street, Gainesville, Florida 32653, USA
    Biometrics 59:351-64. 2003
    ..Prior knowledge about sources of individual heterogeneity in detection rates, if available, should be used to help select among classes of mixture models that are to be used for inference...
  37. ncbi Statistical motor number estimation assuming a binomial distribution
    Joleen H Blok
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Muscle Nerve 31:182-91. 2005
    ..We present an alternative that instead assumes a binomial distribution. Results of computer simulations and of a pilot study on 19 healthy subjects showed that the binomial MUNE ..
  38. ncbi On tests of rate ratio under standard inverse sampling
    M L Tang
    Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 89:261-8. 2008
    ..In general, the Wald-type test statistic is preferable for its satisfactory and stable performance with approximate unconditional procedures. The methodologies are illustrated with a real example from a heart disease study...
  39. ncbi Confidence limits for the ratio of two rates based on likelihood scores: non-iterative method
    R G Newcombe
    Stat Med 22:2085-6. 2003
  40. ncbi Multiple comparisons between two groups on multiple Bernoulli outcomes while accounting for covariates
    James F Troendle
    Biometry and Mathematical Statistics Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Stat Med 24:3581-91. 2005
    ..The method is illustrated on a data set of 55 minor malformations of babies of diabetic and non-diabetic mothers...
  41. ncbi Interval estimation of binomial proportion in clinical trials with a two-stage design
    Wei Yann Tsai
    Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University, New York City, NY, U S A
    Stat Med 27:15-35. 2008
    ..responses from this two-stage design, where the binomial response at the first stage follows a truncated binomial distribution. The mean actual coverage probability and expected interval width are employed to evaluate the performance ..
  42. ncbi Quantifying dental inequality--developing the methodology
    Zoann Jane Nugent
    Dental Health Services Research Unit, Dental School, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
    Community Dent Health 19:43-5. 2002
    ..To develop a simple quantitative measure of dental health inequality...
  43. ncbi Independence estimating equations for controlled clinical trials with small sample sizes--interval estimation
    G Dahmen
    Institut fur Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, Universitat zu Lubeck, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Methods Inf Med 45:430-4. 2006
    ..Therefore a series of modifications has been proposed. In this paper we systematically compare confidence intervals (CIs) proposed in the literature for situations that are common in CCTs...
  44. ncbi Improved exact confidence intervals for the odds ratio in two independent binomial samples
    Che Yang Lin
    Graduate Institute of Statistics, National Central University, Chung Li 32054, Taiwan, R O C
    Biom J 48:1008-19. 2006
    ..We use the unconditional approach to obtain a modified interval, which has shorter length, and its coverage probability is closer to and at least the nominal confidence coefficient...
  45. ncbi Improving removal-based estimates of abundance by sampling a population of spatially distinct subpopulations
    Robert M Dorazio
    US Geological Survey, Florida Integrated Science Center, Gainesville, 32653, USA
    Biometrics 61:1093-101. 2005
    ..Extension of the hierarchical models to include spatial covariates of abundance is straightforward and may be used to identify important features of an animal's habitat or to predict the abundance of animals at unsampled locations...
  46. ncbi A score test for overdispersion in zero-inflated poisson mixed regression model
    Liming Xiang
    Department of Management Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon
    Stat Med 26:1608-22. 2007
    ..The test procedure is applied to pancreas disorder length of stay that comprised mainly same-day separations and simultaneous prolonged hospitalizations...
  47. ncbi On the use of zero-inflated and hurdle models for modeling vaccine adverse event count data
    C E Rose
    Bacterial Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Surveillance, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Biopharm Stat 16:463-81. 2006
    ..at-risk participants) then the hurdle model framework is generally preferred. Conversely, if the study's primary purpose it is to develop a prediction model then both the zero-inflated and hurdle modeling frameworks should be adequate...
  48. ncbi Are KISS data representative of German intensive care units? Statistical issues
    G Rucker
    Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg, Germany
    Methods Inf Med 45:424-9. 2006
    ....
  49. ncbi Modeling crash outcome probabilities at rural intersections: application of hierarchical binomial logistic models
    Do Gyeong Kim
    Department of Urban Transportation, Seoul Development Institute, Seoul 137 071, Republic of Korea
    Accid Anal Prev 39:125-34. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi Further notes on the application of zero-inflated models in highway safety
    Dominique Lord
    Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, TAMU3136, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3136, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 39:53-7. 2007
    ..It then presents two critical and relevant issues: the maximizing statistical fit fallacy and logic problems with the ZI model in highway safety modeling. Finally, we provide brief conclusions...
  51. ncbi A note on testing for intervention effects on binary responses
    T Friede
    Biostatics and Statistical Reporting, Novartis Pharma AG, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Methods Inf Med 45:435-40. 2006
    ..For binary data we develop a method that follows their philosophy and apply it to an observational study in the treatment of pin sites after orthopaedic surgery...
  52. ncbi Modeling the dependence between the number of trials and the success probability in binary trials
    M J Faddy
    School of Mathematical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    Biometrics 61:1112-4. 2005
    ..2003). Some quite marked differences between the results of this analysis and those described in Zhu et al. (2003) are apparent...
  53. ncbi Data mining of tree-based models to analyze freeway accident frequency
    Li Yen Chang
    Graduate Institute of Transportation and Logistics, National Chia Yi University, Taiwan
    J Safety Res 36:365-75. 2005
    ....
  54. ncbi Weighted nonparametric maximum likelihood estimate of a mixing distribution in nonrandomized clinical trials
    Chaofeng Liu
    Novartis Pharmaceuticals Company, One Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ 07936 1080, USA
    Stat Med 26:5303-19. 2007
    ..Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimator. We applied this method to clinical trial data evaluating a new treatment for stress urinary incontinence...
  55. pmc Evidence for two distinct processes in the final stages of neurotransmitter release as detected by binomial analysis in calcium and strontium solutions
    T J Searl
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Northwestern University Medical School, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Physiol 539:693-705. 2002
    ..a Poisson distribution whilst similar MEPP(f) increases mediated by Sr(2+) were best described as a simple binomial distribution. From the binomial distribution in Sr(2+) solutions, values for the average probability of release (p) and ..
  56. ncbi Out-of-specification test results from the statistical point of view
    Heidi Köppel
    Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 44:718-29. 2007
    ..However, there are a number of borderline cases, when a value is suspected to be an outlier, but this cannot be proven by statistics [7,9]...
  57. ncbi Probabilistic analysis of cost-effectiveness models: statistical representation of parameter uncertainty
    Andrew Briggs
    Value Health 8:1-2. 2005
  58. ncbi Truncated negative binomial mixed regression modelling of ischaemic stroke hospitalizations
    Andy H Lee
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
    Stat Med 22:1129-39. 2003
    ..The findings have important implications on resource usage, rehabilitation planning and management of acute stroke care...
  59. ncbi Sample size calculations for a split-cluster, beta-binomial design in the assessment of toxicity
    J C M Hendriks
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Stat Med 24:3757-72. 2005
    ..First, departures from the compound beta-binomial distribution to an arbitrary compound binomial distribution lead to the same formulas, as long as some general ..
  60. ncbi Maximizing power and minimizing treatment failures in clinical trials
    William F Rosenberger
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
    Clin Trials 1:141-7. 2004
    ..More recent research has changed the main focus to that of usual considerations in typical clinical trials: power, sample size, expected treatment failures, maintaining randomization, among others...
  61. pmc Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan
    I Ziadinov
    Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 171:286-92. 2010
    ..The frequency distribution of E. multilocularis and Mesocestoides spp. followed a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution, whilst all other helminths had a negative binomial distribution...
  62. ncbi Epidemiology and immunology of Necator americanus infection in a community in Papua New Guinea: humoral responses to excretory-secretory and cuticular collagen antigens
    D I Pritchard
    Department of Zoology, University Park, Nottingham
    Parasitology 100:317-26. 1990
    ..americanus was highly over-dispersed, and was well described by a negative binomial distribution with aggregation parameter, k, of 0.370...
  63. ncbi Statistical scales of order in DNA
    Douglas Poland
    Department of Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Biophys Chem 141:203-13. 2009
    ..we have seen that the net base composition in given block sizes is fitted very accurately by the discrete binomial distribution for a random system...
  64. ncbi Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia with biphasic insulin aspart 30 compared with biphasic human insulin 30 in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis
    Jaime A Davidson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Clin Ther 31:1641-51. 2009
    ..Hypoglycemia and the fear of developing hypoglyce-mia, however, remain substantial barriers to the initiation and optimal use of insulin...
  65. ncbi Multiple causes of variable tick burdens on small-mammal hosts
    Jesse L Brunner
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA
    Ecology 89:2259-72. 2008
    ..temporal-, site-, and individual-specific attributes, as well as the degree of aggregation in a negative binomial distribution. We then fit alternate versions of this model to an 11-year data set of I...
  66. ncbi Photodynamic therapy for premalignant lesions in DMBA-treated hamsters: a preliminary study
    J S Kingsbury
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Dental Medicine 14214, USA
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55:376-81; discussion 381-2. 1997
    ..The aim of this investigation was to determine if this premalignant tissue could be selectively destroyed by systemically administered Photofrin activated by 630 nm red light via an argon dye laser...
  67. ncbi Patterns of health-care utilization and morbidity in a rural community near Lahore, Pakistan
    M Suleman
    Zoology Department, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90:79-85. 1996
    ..The cumulative number of clinic-visits per person fitted a negative binomial distribution, indicating that health problems were concentrated in a small portion of the population...
  68. ncbi Investigation of haematophagous arthropods for borreliae--summarized data, 1988-1996
    Z Hubalek
    Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic
    Folia Parasitol (Praha) 45:67-72. 1998
    ..ricinus approximated the negative binomial distribution. The proportions of host-seeking female and nymphal ticks containing > 100 borreliae were 5.0% and 1...
  69. ncbi Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei)
    Pilar Alvarez-Pellitero
    Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 12595 Ribera de Cabanes, Castellon, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 165:207-15. 2009
    ..The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution...
  70. ncbi [The human factor in accidents]
    B Petz
    Filozofski fakultet Sveucilista u Zagrebu
    Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 45:249-73. 1994
    ..of accidents does not fit the model of chance distribution, but it fits quite well into negative binomial distribution, which is a model of "unequal accident proneness" hypothesis...
  71. ncbi Sampling almonds for aflatoxin, part II: estimating risks associated with various sampling plan designs
    Thomas B Whitaker
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695 7625, USA
    J AOAC Int 90:778-85. 2007
    ..The negative binomial distribution was selected to model aflatoxin distribution among sample test results because it gave acceptable fits ..
  72. ncbi Spatial distribution of parasitism on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards
    S M Jahnke
    Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, 91501 970
    Braz J Biol 68:813-7. 2008
    ..The data of the horizontal spatial distribution of the parasitism fit to the negative binomial distribution in all sampling occasions, indicating an aggregated pattern.
  73. ncbi Modeling motor vehicle crashes using Poisson-gamma models: examining the effects of low sample mean values and small sample size on the estimation of the fixed dispersion parameter
    Dominique Lord
    Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, TAMU 3136, Texas A and M University, College Station, 77843 3136, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 38:751-66. 2006
    ..The paper ends with recommendations about minimizing the likelihood of producing Poisson-gamma models with an unreliable dispersion parameter for modeling motor vehicle crashes...
  74. ncbi Epidemiology of pemphigus in Macedonia: a 15-year retrospective study (1990-2004)
    Marija T V'lckova-Laskoska
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Sts Cyrilus and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia
    Int J Dermatol 46:253-8. 2007
    ..There are only a few epidemiological studies on pemphigus. Our objective was to determine the epidemiological features of pemphigus in Macedonia, and to compare the results with those reported elsewhere...
  75. ncbi Modelling the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs in the northwest and in the southwest of Morocco
    Rkia Azlaf
    Département de Parasitologie et des Maladies Parasitaires, Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, BP 6202, Rabat Instituts, Rabat, Morocco
    Vet Parasitol 145:297-303. 2007
    ..The mean abundance of E. granulosus in dogs was fitted to a negative binomial distribution by the maximum likelihood techniques to define parameters. E...
  76. ncbi Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: effect of sample size and accept/reject limit on reducing the risk of misclassifying lots
    Guner Ozay
    TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Food Institute, PO Box 21, 41470 Gebze Kocaeli, Turkey
    J AOAC Int 90:1028-35. 2007
    ..The negative binomial distribution was selected to model aflatoxin distribution among sample test results because it gave acceptable fits to ..
  77. ncbi Methodological issues in assessing the incidence of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis in children
    Franz Schaefer
    Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Children s Hospital, Ruperto Carolus University, Heidelberg, Germany
    Perit Dial Int 22:234-8. 2002
    ..To evaluate the distribution of peritonitis incidence and assess the usefulness of patient-specific peritonitis rates in children...
  78. ncbi Rapid enzymatic urine screening test to detect bacteriuria in pregnancy
    L Millar
    Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children and University of Hawaii John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI 96826, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 95:601-4. 2000
    ..To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an enzymatic urine screening test for diagnosing bacteriuria in pregnancy...
  79. ncbi Retrospective review of voluntary reports of nonsurgical paresthesia in dentistry
    Andrew S Gaffen
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5G 1G6
    J Can Dent Assoc 75:579. 2009
    ....
  80. ncbi No evidence for a sustained increase in sexually transmitted diseases among heterosexuals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 12-year trend analysis at the sexually transmitted disease outpatient clinic, Amsterdam
    Akke K van der Bij
    Department of Research, Cluster Infectious Diseases, Health Service of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Sex Transm Dis 34:461-7. 2007
    ..Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are on the rise, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM)...
  81. ncbi A Colombian survey found intensive care mortality ratios were better in private vs. public hospitals
    Adriana Perez
    Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:94-101. 2006
    ..We incorporated the variation associated with the ranking of institutions simulating its random effects under a binomial distribution.
  82. ncbi Probabilities in norovirus outbreak diagnosis
    Erwin Duizer
    Center for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Clin Virol 40:38-42. 2007
    ..Yet, diagnostic testing for norovirus is based mostly on RNA detection by RT-PCR, which is not widely available. While antigen detection tests (ELISAs) are easier to perform, they are in general less sensitive...
  83. ncbi Application and evaluation of a mailed questionnaire for an epidemiologic study of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses
    M G Doherr
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of California at Davis, USA
    Prev Vet Med 35:241-53. 1998
    ..The number of returns over time followed a negative binomial distribution, with over 90% of all returns being in by the end of the fifth week after mailing, and over 99% at the end ..
  84. ncbi Efficiency of haplotype frequency estimation when nuclear family information is included
    Tim Becker
    Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Hum Hered 54:45-53. 2002
    ..Efficiency was measured in terms of variance ratios of the estimates. The variances were derived from the binomial distribution for experimentally derived haplotypes, and from the Fisher information matrix corresponding to the general ..
  85. ncbi Spatial and spatiotemporal pattern analysis of coconut lethal yellowing in Mozambique
    F Bonnot
    CIRAD, UPR Etiologie Deperissements, Montpellier, France
    Phytopathology 100:300-12. 2010
    ..Aggregation was tested by the coefficient of spatial autocorrelation of the beta-binomial distribution of diseased trees in quadrats...
  86. ncbi Use of the generalized linear models in data related to dental caries index
    S B Javali
    Department of Public Health Dentistry, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad 580 009, Karnataka, India
    Indian J Dent Res 18:163-7. 2007
    ..assuming underlying many distributions; in fact Poisson distribution with log built-in link function and binomial distribution with Logit and Probit built-in link functions are considered...
  87. ncbi Pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) intended for plant molecular farming to conventional safflower
    Marc A McPherson
    University of Alberta, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, 410 Ag Forestry Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5, Canada
    Environ Biosafety Res 8:19-32. 2009
    ..A power analysis assuming a binomial distribution and a range of alpha values (type 1 error) was conducted to estimate an upper and lower confidence ..
  88. ncbi Triple-class antiretroviral drug resistance: risk and predictors among HIV-1-infected patients
    Sonia Napravnik
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AIDS 21:825-34. 2007
    ..HIV-1 triple-class antiretroviral drug resistance (TC-DR) may substantially limit therapeutic options and compromise clinical outcomes...
  89. ncbi Statistical model relating CA3 burst probability to recovery from burst-induced depression at recurrent collateral synapses
    K J Staley
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Neurophysiol 86:2736-47. 2001
    ..of synaptic strength and network excitability affected CA3 burst timing as predicted by the cumulative binomial distribution if the burst pace-maker consists of a pool of recovering recurrent synapses...
  90. ncbi Infectious titer assay for adeno-associated virus vectors with sensitivity sufficient to detect single infectious events
    Zhu Zen
    Avigen, Alameda, CA 94502, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 15:709-15. 2004
    ..The observed binomial distribution of the end-point data confirmed that single infectious events could be detected, and allowed calculation ..
  91. pmc Unhappiness and dissatisfaction in doctors cannot be predicted by selectors from medical school application forms: a prospective, longitudinal study
    I C McManus
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    BMC Med Educ 5:38. 2005
    ..Here we combine data from a long-term prospective study of medical student selection and training, with an experimental approach in which a large number of assessors used a paired comparison technique to predict outcome...
  92. ncbi Prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths found in free-ranging golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia, Primates, Callitrichidae) from Brazilian Atlantic forest
    Rafael V Monteiro
    Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Lab Biologia de Tripanosomatídeos, Pavilhão Carlos Chagas 3 andar, Av Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040 360, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 145:77-85. 2007
    ..All helminth species followed a negative binomial distribution, with stronger clumping occurring in Trichostrongylidae and in female GLTs...
  93. ncbi Steal phenomenon through the anterior communicating artery in Moyamoya disease
    Soo Mee Lim
    Department of Radiology, Mok Dong Hospital, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 911 1 Mok Dong, Yangcheon Gu, Seoul, 158 710, South Korea
    Eur Radiol 17:61-6. 2007
    ..in both hemispheres by Suzuki classification was statistically analyzed using the binomial test based on binomial distribution. Follow-ups of ACASP were evaluated in five patients...
  94. ncbi A method for detecting current temporal clusters of toxic events through data monitoring by poison control centers
    R C Grimson
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Health Sciences Center, SUNY at Stony Brook, New York 11794 8036, USA
    J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 38:761-5. 2000
    ..Concurrently, increased emphasis on early identification of temporal clustering of toxic exposures has stimulated development of sensitive statistical methods to detect clusters at the time of occurrence...
  95. ncbi Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: worm population kinetics following single inoculations with three doses of infective eggs
    A Roepstorff
    Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Parasitology 115:443-52. 1997
    ..i. (k of the negative binomial distribution was low: 0.2-0.4) without significant differences between groups...
  96. ncbi The epidemiology and population biology of Necator americanus infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe
    M Bradley
    Blair Research Laboratory, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:73-6. 1992
    ..The frequency distribution of N. americanus was overdispersed and well described by the negative binomial distribution with a value for the aggregation parameter, k, of 0.346...
  97. pmc Sampling outdoor, resting Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya with clay pots
    M Odiere
    Vector Biology and Control Research Centre, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    J Med Entomol 44:14-22. 2007
    ..Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution...
  98. ncbi Low diversity and biased substitution patterns in the mitochondrial DNA control region of sperm whales: implications for estimates of time since common ancestry
    T Lyrholm
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Sweden
    Mol Biol Evol 13:1318-26. 1996
    ..The substitution pattern fitted a negative binomial distribution better than a Poisson distribution, and the bias in number of substitutions among sites was considerably ..
  99. ncbi C-fiber (Remak) bundles contain both isolectin B4-binding and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive axons
    Beth Brianna Murinson
    Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Comp Neurol 484:392-402. 2005
    ..Probabilistic modeling using binomial distribution functions rejected the hypothesis that IB4 axons segregate into IB4-specific bundles (P < 0.00001)...
  100. ncbi Gastrointestinal parasite egg excretion in young calves in periurban livestock production in Mali
    Monica Natalie Wymann
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Public Health and Epidemiology, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, Switzerland
    Res Vet Sci 84:225-31. 2008
    ..A Bayesian model was used with a negative binomial distribution and herd and individual effects, to account for the clustering of calves in herds and the repeated ..
  101. ncbi The predictive validity of empirical Bayes estimates of road safety
    Rune Elvik
    Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalleen 21, NO 0349 Oslo, Norway
    Accid Anal Prev 40:1964-9. 2008
    ..2) Estimates derived from the parameters of a negative binomial distribution fitted to an empirical distribution of accidents in a population of sites by means of the method of ..

Research Grants29

  1. Geostatistical software for health and exposure analysis
    Pierre Goovaerts; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. BAYESIAN APPROACHES TO MODEL SELECTION FOR SURVIVAL DATA
    Joseph G Ibrahim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We develop classes of statistical mixture models based on the zero-inflated negative binomial distribution to model such count data and develop an R software package called Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial ..
  3. An Exact Test for Overdispersion in Screening Mammography Assessments
    Ji Hyun Lee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..modeling approaches are employed for assessing the accuracy indices, the standard assumption of the binomial distribution for the data needs confirmation. Several tests based on large sample theory are widely available...
  4. Reducing Alcohol Use & PTSD w/ Cognitive Restructuring & Experiential Acceptance
    Tracy Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Dissection of Ethanol Actions on Cholinergic Nerve Endings
    TIMOTHY SEARL; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our preliminary data with botulinums toxins demonstrate that the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin is an important target for the effects of ethanol. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. Staffing Characteristics of Nursing Homes and Quality
    Nicholas Castle; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. T Cells in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis
    Chris Platsoucas; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..d. To identify Thl, Th2, suppressor, anergic and CTL T-cell clones from those developed above, on the basis of expression patterns of their genes, using DNA array technology. ..
  8. INCIDENT REPORTING IN NURSING HOMES
    Nicholas Castle; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This information will further our development of a standardized incident reporting mechanism recommended by the Institute of Medicine and others. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. Estimating Association of Clustered Ordinal Dental Data
    John Preisser; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..New statistical methodology and models are applied to the data to examine more thoroughly the treatment comparisons studied in the original NIDCR-funded clinical trial. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. The Influence of Staff Turnover on Quality
    Nicholas Castle; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. EXAMINING NURSING HOME COMPARE
    Nicholas Castle; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF HIV PRIMARY PREVENTION
    Steven Pinkerton; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Upon completion of the analyses we will summarize and widely disseminate the results. ..
  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing Acute-Phase HIV Transmission
    Steven Pinkerton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results will inform scientific and policy discussions on the importance of interventions to reduce acute-phase transmission. ..
  14. Geostatistical software for the boundary analysis of cancer maps
    Pierre Goovaerts; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  15. IS AAA AN ANTIGEN-DRIVEN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE? 'COLLABORAT
    Chris Platsoucas; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. Archiving the Charleston Heart Study
    Paul Nietert; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR SPARSE CATEGORICAL DATA
    Alan Agresti; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The two types of improved intervals will be compared (In some cases, approximate may be better because of the inherent conservativeness of exact methods for discrete data), and extensions will be developed for stratified data. ..
  18. HIV/STD PREVENTION COST-EFFECTIVENESS: METHODS & APPLICS
    Steven Pinkerton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  19. Psychiatric Morbidity and Intimate Partner Violence
    MARY KERNIC; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Additionally, the study will examine whether these effects differ based on whether or not the non-custodial parent adheres to the established restrictions. ..
  20. Geostatistical software for the analysis of individual-level epidemiologic data
    Pierre Goovaerts; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Simulation Tool for HIV/STD Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
    Steven Pinkerton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Geostatistical software for the space-time analysis of health disparities
    Pierre Goovaerts; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Periodontal Assessment in RA Study (PARAS)
    Clifton Bingham; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  24. Mixed Model Approach to Gene Mapping for Complex Traits
    Shizhong Xu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The number, map positions and effects of QTL responsible for ethological divergence between species will be determined by associating mating behavior with polymorphic molecular markers in interspecific backcross hybrids. ..
  25. Simulation Algorithms for Spatial Pattern Recognition
    Pierre Goovaerts; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The neutral models and methods in this proposal make possible, for the first time ever, evaluation of the sensitivity of the results of cluster or boundary analyses to specification of the null hypothesis. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Robert Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We present provocative new data that perinatal choline supplementation to mice with acra7 polymorphisms results in offspring with normal inhibition of the hippocampal response to repeated sounds. ..
  27. NICOTINIC SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS
    Robert Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  28. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF SENSORY GATING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Robert Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex illnesses with multiple genetic and non-genetic elements. The goal of this project is elucidate one of these elements as they are discovered. ..