viral load


Summary: The quantity of measurable virus in the blood. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is used as a surrogate marker in HIV disease progression.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance
    Dongliang Ge
    Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nature 461:399-401. 2009
  2. pmc HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells
    Michael R Betts
    Immunology Laboratory, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 107:4781-9. 2006
  3. ncbi Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2010 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel
    Melanie A Thompson
    AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    JAMA 304:321-33. 2010
  4. pmc HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation
    Nicolas Chomont
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal Saint Luc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Med 15:893-900. 2009
  5. pmc Emergence of resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in patients receiving fusion inhibitor (T-20) monotherapy
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1896-905. 2002
  6. ncbi Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Suzanna Attia
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland
    AIDS 23:1397-404. 2009
  7. pmc Profound early control of highly pathogenic SIV by an effector memory T-cell vaccine
    Scott G Hansen
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Nature 473:523-7. 2011
  8. pmc Association of highly active antiretroviral therapy coverage, population viral load, and yearly new HIV diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada: a population-based study
    Julio S G Montaner
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Lancet 376:532-9. 2010
  9. ncbi CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load
    Photini Kiepiela
    HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4013, South Africa
    Nat Med 13:46-53. 2007
  10. pmc Decreases in community viral load are accompanied by reductions in new HIV infections in San Francisco
    Moupali Das
    San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e11068. 2010

Detail Information

Publications335 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance
    Dongliang Ge
    Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nature 461:399-401. 2009
  2. pmc HIV nonprogressors preferentially maintain highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells
    Michael R Betts
    Immunology Laboratory, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 107:4781-9. 2006
    ..Whereas the total HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell frequency did not correlate with viral load, the frequency and proportion of the HIV-specific T-cell response with highest functionality inversely ..
  3. ncbi Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2010 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel
    Melanie A Thompson
    AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    JAMA 304:321-33. 2010
  4. pmc HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation
    Nicolas Chomont
    Laboratoire d Immunologie, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal Saint Luc, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Med 15:893-900. 2009
  5. pmc Emergence of resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in patients receiving fusion inhibitor (T-20) monotherapy
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1896-905. 2002
    ..All four patients who received an intermediate dose of T-20 (30 mg twice daily) had an initial decline in plasma viral load over the first 10 days but a rising trend by day 14, suggestive of selection for resistant virus...
  6. ncbi Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Suzanna Attia
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland
    AIDS 23:1397-404. 2009
    To synthesize the evidence on the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected sexual intercourse according to viral load and treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART).
  7. pmc Profound early control of highly pathogenic SIV by an effector memory T-cell vaccine
    Scott G Hansen
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Nature 473:523-7. 2011 occasional blips of plasma viraemia that ultimately waned; predominantly undetectable cell-associated viral load in blood and lymph node mononuclear cells; no depletion of effector-site CD4(+) memory T cells; no induction or ..
  8. pmc Association of highly active antiretroviral therapy coverage, population viral load, and yearly new HIV diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada: a population-based study
    Julio S G Montaner
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Lancet 376:532-9. 2010
    ..We aimed to estimate the association between plasma HIV-1 viral load, HAART coverage, and number of new cases of HIV in the population of a Canadian province.
  9. ncbi CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load
    Photini Kiepiela
    HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4013, South Africa
    Nat Med 13:46-53. 2007
    ..These population-based data, suggesting the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking demonstrable biological impact in chronic HIV infection, are of relevance to HIV vaccine design and evaluation...
  10. pmc Decreases in community viral load are accompanied by reductions in new HIV infections in San Francisco
    Moupali Das
    San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e11068. 2010
    At the individual level, higher HIV viral load predicts sexual transmission risk. We evaluated San Francisco's community viral load (CVL) as a population level marker of HIV transmission risk...
  11. pmc Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans
    Jacques Fellay
    Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000791. 2009
    ..The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point...
  12. ncbi Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
    Tian Wang
    Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004
    ..Tlr3(-/-)) mice were more resistant to lethal WNV infection and had impaired cytokine production and enhanced viral load in the periphery, whereas in the brain, viral load, inflammatory responses and neuropathology were reduced ..
  13. pmc A whole-genome association study of major determinants for host control of HIV-1
    Jacques Fellay
    Center for Population Genomics and Pharmacogenetics, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Science 317:944-7. 2007
    ..association strategy, we identified polymorphisms that explain nearly 15% of the variation among individuals in viral load during the asymptomatic set-point period of infection...
  14. ncbi Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load
    Steven G Deeks
    San Francisco General Hospital, 995 Potrero Ave, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Blood 104:942-7. 2004
    ..These data indicate that immunologic activation set point is established early in HIV infection, and that this set point determines the rate at which CD4+ T cells are lost over time...
  15. ncbi Second-line treatment in the Malawi antiretroviral programme: high early mortality, but good outcomes in survivors, despite extensive drug resistance at baseline
    M C Hosseinipour
    University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi
    HIV Med 11:510-8. 2010
    ..Advanced disease progression may occur before switching to second-line ART. We report outcomes for patients evaluated and initiated on second-line treatment in Malawi...
  16. ncbi Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus
    Alexander J Thompson
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Gastroenterology 139:120-9.e18. 2010
    ..We sought to confirm the polymorphism's clinical relevance by intention-to-treat analysis evaluating on-treatment virologic response and SVR...
  17. pmc Antiretroviral regimens in pregnancy and breast-feeding in Botswana
    R L Shapiro
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 110 Francis St, Suite GB, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:2282-94. 2010
    ..The most effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in pregnancy and its efficacy during breast-feeding are unknown...
  18. ncbi Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies
    Matthias Egger
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Lancet 360:119-29. 2002
    ..The ART Cohort Collaboration, which includes 13 cohort studies from Europe and North America, was established to fill this knowledge gap...
  19. ncbi Once daily dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV: planned interim 48 week results from SPRING-1, a dose-ranging, randomised, phase 2b trial
    Jan van Lunzen
    Infectious Diseases Unit, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, Hamburg, Germany
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:111-8. 2012
    ..SPRING-1 is an ongoing study designed to select a dose for phase 3 assessment. We present data from preplanned primary and interim analyses...
  20. ncbi Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial
    Joel E Gallant
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    JAMA 292:191-201. 2004
    ..Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a once-daily nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
  21. pmc Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy
    Steven A Yukl
    San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:1553-61. 2010
    ..The gut is a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that distinct immune environments within the gut may support varying levels of HIV...
  22. ncbi HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors
    Stephen A Migueles
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1061-8. 2002
    ..In addition, the relative absence of these functions in progressors may represent a mechanism by which HIV avoids immunological control...
  23. ncbi Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load
    Uchenna H Iloeje
    Global Epidemiology and Outcomes Research, Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Wallingford, Connecticut
    Gastroenterology 130:678-86. 2006
    ..Cirrhosis develops as a result of hepatic inflammation and subsequent fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B infection. We report on the relationship between hepatitis B viremia and progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B infection...
  24. pmc The neutralization breadth of HIV-1 develops incrementally over four years and is associated with CD4+ T cell decline and high viral load during acute infection
    Elin S Gray
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Virol 85:4828-40. 2011
    ..The extent of cross-neutralizing activity correlated with CD4(+) T cell decline, viral load, and CD4(+) T cell count at 6 months postinfection but not at later time points, suggesting that early events ..
  25. ncbi HIV controllers: a homogeneous group of HIV-1-infected patients with spontaneous control of viral replication
    Olivier Lambotte
    Inserm E 0109, Faculte de Medecine Paris Sud, Universite Paris XI, Service de Sante Publique, Bicetre, France
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1053-6. 2005
    ..These 15 patients, whom we have referred to as "HIV controllers," are characterized by a low HIV DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by a strong HIV-specific immune response...
  26. ncbi HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa after rollout of antiretroviral therapy: a multicentre observational study
    Raph L Hamers
    PharmAccess Foundation, Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Centre of University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:750-9. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the prevalence of primary resistance in six African countries after ART roll-out and if wider use of ART in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with rising prevalence of drug resistance...
  27. pmc Markers of inflammation, coagulation, and renal function are elevated in adults with HIV infection
    Jacqueline Neuhaus
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1788-95. 2010
    ..Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and immune activation may increase inflammation and coagulation biomarkers. Limited data exist comparing such biomarkers in persons with and without HIV infection...
  28. ncbi Virological follow-up of adult patients in antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
    Roos E Barth
    University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:155-66. 2010
  29. ncbi Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection
    John G McHutchison
    Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:1292-303. 2010
    ..Patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) who do not have a sustained response to therapy with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin have a low likelihood of success with retreatment...
  30. pmc Perforin expression directly ex vivo by HIV-specific CD8 T-cells is a correlate of HIV elite control
    Adam R Hersperger
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000917. 2010
    ..capability in a large cross-sectional cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals with varying levels of viral load: elite controllers (n = 35), viremic controllers (n = 29), chronic progressors (n = 27), and viremic ..
  31. pmc Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1
    Maureen P Martin
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, Science Applications International Corporation Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute, P O Box B, Building 560, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Nat Genet 39:733-40. 2007
  32. ncbi HIV-1 transmission, by stage of infection
    T Deirdre Hollingsworth
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 198:687-93. 2008
  33. pmc Majority of CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals contain only one HIV DNA molecule
    Lina Josefsson
    Department of Diagnostics and Vaccinology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, 171 82, Solna, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11199-204. 2011
    ..The genetic similarity between HIV populations in CD4(+) T cells and plasma implies ongoing exchange between these compartments both early and late after infection...
  34. ncbi Dynamics of HIV viremia and antibody seroconversion in plasma donors: implications for diagnosis and staging of primary HIV infection
    Eberhard W Fiebig
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS 17:1871-9. 2003
    ..The characterization of primary HIV infection by the analysis of serial plasma samples from newly infected persons using multiple standard viral assays...
  35. pmc Validation of the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness rank for quantifying antiretroviral penetration into the central nervous system
    Scott Letendre
    University of California, San Diego, 150 W Washington St, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    Arch Neurol 65:65-70. 2008
    To evaluate whether penetration of a combination regimen into the central nervous system (CNS), as estimated by the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness (CPE) rank, is associated with lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load.
  36. ncbi Genetic and immunologic heterogeneity among persons who control HIV infection in the absence of therapy
    Florencia Pereyra
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:563-71. 2008
    ..The mechanisms behind this outcome remain largely unknown, and a better understanding of them will likely influence future vaccine strategies...
  37. ncbi Hepatic ISG expression is associated with genetic variation in interleukin 28B and the outcome of IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis C
    Masao Honda
    Department of Gastroenterology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Japan
    Gastroenterology 139:499-509. 2010
    ..Multiple viral and host factors are related to the treatment response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy; however, the clinical relevance and relationship of these factors have not yet been fully evaluated...
  38. pmc IL28B genotype is associated with differential expression of intrahepatic interferon-stimulated genes in patients with chronic hepatitis C
    Thomas J Urban
    Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Hepatology 52:1888-96. 2010
    ..IL28B protein sequence variants associated with rs12979860 were therefore investigated in vitro: no differences in ISG induction or inhibition of HCV replication were observed in Huh7.5 cells...
  39. pmc Utility of routine viral load, CD4 cell count, and clinical monitoring among adults with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: randomised trial
    Jonathan Mermin
    Global AIDS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Uganda, Entebbe, Uganda
    BMJ 343:d6792. 2011
    ..To evaluate the use of routine laboratory monitoring in terms of clinical outcomes among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda...
  40. pmc A mouse model for Chikungunya: young age and inefficient type-I interferon signaling are risk factors for severe disease
    Thérèse Couderc
    Groupe Microorganismes et Barrières de l Hôte, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 4:e29. 2008
    ..The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates...
  41. ncbi Delayed clearance of viral load and marked cytokine activation in severe cases of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection
    Kelvin K W To
    Infectious Disease Division, Queen Mary Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Infect Dis 50:850-9. 2010
    ..Infections caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus range from mild upper respiratory tract syndromes to fatal diseases. However, studies comparing virological and immunological profile of different clinical severity are lacking...
  42. pmc Effect of raltegravir-containing intensification on HIV burden and T-cell activation in multiple gut sites of HIV-positive adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy
    Steven A Yukl
    San Francisco VA Medical Center SFVAMC and University of California, San Francisco UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 24:2451-60. 2010
    ..To determine whether raltegravir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) intensification reduces HIV levels in the gut...
  43. ncbi Vascular leakage in severe dengue virus infections: a potential role for the nonstructural viral protein NS1 and complement
    Panisadee Avirutnan
    Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    J Infect Dis 193:1078-88. 2006
    ..Thirty years ago, complement activation was proposed to be a key underlying event, but the cause of complement activation has remained unknown...
  44. ncbi Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries
    Paula Braitstein
    Lancet 367:817-24. 2006
    ..We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes during the first year of HAART between HIV-1-infected patients in low-income and high-income settings...
  45. pmc Low levels of SIV infection in sooty mangabey central memory CD⁴⁺ T cells are associated with limited CCR5 expression
    Mirko Paiardini
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Nat Med 17:830-6. 2011
    ..These data suggest that low CCR5 expression on sooty mangabey CD4(+) T cells favors the preservation of CD4(+) T cell homeostasis and promotes an AIDS-free status by protecting CD4(+) T(CM) cells from direct virus infection...
  46. pmc Broadly neutralizing human anti-HIV antibody 2G12 is effective in protection against mucosal SHIV challenge even at low serum neutralizing titers
    Ann J Hessell
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000433. 2009
    ..The results raise the possibility that some epitopes on HIV may be better vaccine targets than others and support targeting the glycan shield of the envelope...
  47. pmc Viral persistence alters CD8 T-cell immunodominance and tissue distribution and results in distinct stages of functional impairment
    E John Wherry
    Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Virol 77:4911-27. 2003
    ..appeared to be the driving force for this loss of function, since a strong correlation existed between the viral load and the level of exhaustion...
  48. ncbi Burden of tuberculosis in an antiretroviral treatment programme in sub-Saharan Africa: impact on treatment outcomes and implications for tuberculosis control
    Stephen D Lawn
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, South Africa
    AIDS 20:1605-12. 2006
    ..To determine burden and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme and its impact on ART outcomes...
  49. ncbi Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda
    Maria J Wawer
    Heilbrun Department of Population and Family Health, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1403-9. 2005
    ..We estimated rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transmission per coital act in HIV-discordant couples by stage of infection in the index partner...
  50. ncbi Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006
    Claire L Townsend
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK
    AIDS 22:973-81. 2008
    ..The aim of this analysis was to explore the impact of different strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission at a population level...
  51. ncbi Evidence of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA-restricted immune responses at a population level
    Corey B Moore
    Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Royal Perth Hospital and Murdoch University, Level 2 North Block, Royal Perth Hospital, Wellington Street, WA 6000, Australia
    Science 296:1439-43. 2002
    ..At a population level, the degree of HLA-associated selection in viral sequence was predictive of viral load. These results support a fundamental role for HLA-restricted immune responses in driving and shaping HIV-1 ..
  52. ncbi A comparison study of multiple measures of adherence to HIV protease inhibitors
    H Liu
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Service Research, 911 Broxton Plaza, Room 102, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1736, USA
    Ann Intern Med 134:968-77. 2001
    ..Poor adherence to HIV protease inhibitors may compromise the effectiveness of treatment. Few studies have compared methods for measuring adherence or have related adherence measures to a clinical outcome...
  53. pmc Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment in programmes with and without routine viral load monitoring in Southern Africa
    Olivia Keiser
    Division of International and Environmental Health, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland
    AIDS 25:1761-9. 2011
    To compare outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa, where viral load monitoring is routine, with those in Malawi and Zambia, where monitoring is based on CD4 cell counts.
  54. ncbi Effect of transmitted drug resistance on virological and immunological response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV (EuroCoord-CHAIN joint project): a European multicohort study
    Linda Wittkop
    INSERM U897 Centre of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, ISPED Bordeaux School of Public Health, University Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:363-71. 2011
    ..We investigated the effect of TDR on outcome in the first year of cART within a large European collaboration...
  55. pmc Relationships of PBMC microRNA expression, plasma viral load, and CD4+ T-cell count in HIV-1-infected elite suppressors and viremic patients
    Kenneth W Witwer
    Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 North Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland 21025, USA
    Retrovirology 9:5. 2012
    ..Using samples from a well-characterized ES cohort, untreated viremic patients, and uninfected controls, we explored the PBMC miRNA profile and probed the relationships of miRNA expression, CD4+ T-cell counts, and viral load.
  56. pmc Immunologic criteria are poor predictors of virologic outcome: implications for HIV treatment monitoring in resource-limited settings
    Holly E Rawizza
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:1283-90. 2011
    b>Viral load (VL) quantification is considered essential for determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) success in resource-rich countries...
  57. ncbi Unnecessary antiretroviral treatment switches and accumulation of HIV resistance mutations; two arguments for viral load monitoring in Africa
    Kim C E Sigaloff
    PharmAccess Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 58:23-31. 2011
    ..Frequencies of unnecessary switches, patterns of HIV drug resistance, and risk factors for the accumulation of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mutations were evaluated...
  58. pmc Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa (DART): a randomised non-inferiority trial
    P Mugyenyi
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit, 222 Euston Road, London NW1 2DA, UK
    Lancet 375:123-31. 2010
    ..This trial investigated whether routine toxicity and efficacy monitoring of HIV-infected patients receiving ART had an important long-term effect on clinical outcomes in Africa...
  59. ncbi Role of interleukin-28B polymorphisms in the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 infection in Asian patients
    Ming Lung Yu
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Hepatology 53:7-13. 2011
    ..4% versus 86.0%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline HCV viral load <400,000 IU/mL was the strongest predictor of RVR [odds ratio (OR) = 4.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2...
  60. ncbi Clinical outcomes of elite controllers, viremic controllers, and long-term nonprogressors in the US Department of Defense HIV natural history study
    Jason F Okulicz
    Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 200:1714-23. 2009
    ..controllers, spontaneous virologic control was established early and was typically observed when the initial viral load measurement was obtained within 1 year of estimated seroconversion...
  61. ncbi Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population
    D R Bangsberg
    Epidemiology and Prevention Interventions Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, 94110, USA
    AIDS 14:357-66. 2000
    ..To examine the relationship between adherence, viral suppression and antiretroviral resistance in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed people on protease inhibitor (PI) therapy...
  62. pmc Changes in programmatic outcomes during 7 years of scale-up at a community-based antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa
    Mweete D Nglazi
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:e1-8. 2011
    ..To assess sustainability of programmatic outcomes in a community-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in South Africa during 7 years of scale-up...
  63. ncbi A prospective study of adherence and viral load in a large multi-center cohort of HIV-infected women
    Andrea A Howard
    AIDS Research Program, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467, USA
    AIDS 16:2175-82. 2002
    To examine the relationship between antiretroviral adherence and viral load, and to determine the predictors of adherence over time in HIV-infected women.
  64. pmc Long-term immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy in low-income countries: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies
    Denis Nash
    Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs and Department of Epidemiology, 722 W 168th Street, Room 706, New York, NY 10032 USA
    AIDS 22:2291-302. 2008
    ..Few data are available on the long-term immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, where ART is being rapidly scaled up using a public health approach, with a limited repertoire of drugs...
  65. ncbi Persistence of HIV in gut-associated lymphoid tissue despite long-term antiretroviral therapy
    Tae Wook Chun
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:714-20. 2008
  66. ncbi Enhanced culture assay for detection and quantitation of latently infected, resting CD4+ T-cells carrying replication-competent virus in HIV-1-infected individuals
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 304:3-15. 2005
    ..The development of an enhanced viral culture assay to quantitate the number of latently infected cells carrying replication competent virus is described here...
  67. pmc Host genetic background strongly influences the response to influenza a virus infections
    Barkha Srivastava
    Department of Experimental Mouse Genetics, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Braunschweig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4857. 2009
    ..In addition, infected DBA/2J mice showed a higher viral load in their lungs, elevated expression of cytokines and chemokines, and a more severe and extended lung pathology ..
  68. ncbi Effect on transmission of HIV-1 resistance of timing of implementation of viral load monitoring to determine switches from first to second-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings
    Andrew N Phillips
    Department of Infection and Population Health, UCL, UK
    AIDS 25:843-50. 2011
    ..There is concern that antiretroviral therapy (ART) use with only clinical monitoring for failure will result in high rates of transmission of virus with resistance to drugs currently in use...
  69. pmc Impact of multi-targeted antiretroviral treatment on gut T cell depletion and HIV reservoir seeding during acute HIV infection
    Jintanat Ananworanich
    South East Asia Research Collaboration with Hawaii, Pathumwan, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS ONE 7:e33948. 2012
    ..This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy...
  70. ncbi Positive effects of combined antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ T cell homeostasis and function in advanced HIV disease
    B Autran
    Laboratoire d Immunologie Cellulaire, URA CNRS 625, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, 47 83 boulevard de l Hopital, Paris, France
    Science 277:112-6. 1997
    ..Thus, decreasing the HIV load can reverse HIV-driven activation and CD4(+) T cell defects in advanced HIV-infected patients...
  71. ncbi Monitoring of HIV viral loads, CD4 cell counts, and clinical assessments versus clinical monitoring alone for antiretroviral therapy in rural district hospitals in Cameroon (Stratall ANRS 12110/ESTHER): a randomised non-inferiority trial
    Christian Laurent
    Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, University Montpellier 1, UMI 233, Montpellier, France
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:825-33. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of clinical monitoring alone (CLIN) in terms of non-inferiority to laboratory and clinical monitoring (LAB)...
  72. pmc Plasma levels of bacterial DNA correlate with immune activation and the magnitude of immune restoration in persons with antiretroviral-treated HIV infection
    Wei Jiang
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1177-85. 2009
    ..These findings are consistent with the importance of microbial translocation in immunodeficiency and T cell homeostasis in chronic HIV infection...
  73. pmc HLA-C cell surface expression and control of HIV/AIDS correlate with a variant upstream of HLA-C
    Rasmi Thomas
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Nat Genet 41:1290-4. 2009
    ..with known seroconversion dates were used for disease progression analysis and those with longitudinal viral load data were used for viral load analysis...
  74. ncbi Tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients receiving HAART: long term incidence and risk factors in a South African cohort
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 19:2109-16. 2005
    ..To determine the long-term incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and associated risk factors among individuals receiving HAART in South Africa...
  75. ncbi Massive infection and loss of memory CD4+ T cells in multiple tissues during acute SIV infection
    Joseph J Mattapallil
    Immunotechnology Section, Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 434:1093-7. 2005
    ..Our findings point to the importance of reducing the cell-associated viral load during acute infection through therapeutic or vaccination strategies.
  76. pmc CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness study
    James G Kahn
    Philip R Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    BMJ 343:d6884. 2011
    To examine the cost and cost effectiveness of quarterly CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring among patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART).
  77. pmc Estimation of the initial viral growth rate and basic reproductive number during acute HIV-1 infection
    Ruy M Ribeiro
    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    J Virol 84:6096-102. 2010
    ..We calculated how fast the viral load increases and how variable this parameter is among individuals...
  78. ncbi Gold drug auranofin restricts the viral reservoir in the monkey AIDS model and induces containment of viral load following ART suspension
    Mark G Lewis
    BIOQUAL, Inc, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 25:1347-56. 2011
    ..We tested the impact of the gold compound, auranofin, on phenotype and viability of CD4 T cells in vitro, and on persistence of lentiviral reservoir cells in vivo...
  79. pmc Elite suppressors harbor low levels of integrated HIV DNA and high levels of 2-LTR circular HIV DNA compared to HIV+ patients on and off HAART
    Erin H Graf
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001300. 2011
    ..Moreover, they add significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms that allow viral control and reservoir maintenance in this unique patient population...
  80. pmc Outcomes after virologic failure of first-line ART in South Africa
    Richard A Murphy
    Operational Support Unit, Doctors Without Borders, New York, New York 10001, USA
    AIDS 24:1007-12. 2010
    ..To determine initial 24-week outcomes among prospectively enrolled patients with failure of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  81. pmc B cells in early and chronic HIV infection: evidence for preservation of immune function associated with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy
    Susan Moir
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Blood 116:5571-9. 2010
    ..These findings provide new insights on B cells in HIV infection and how early initiation of ART may prevent irreversible immune system damage...
  82. ncbi Relation between HIV viral load and infectiousness: a model-based analysis
    David P Wilson
    National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Lancet 372:314-20. 2008
    ..We analysed the implications of this statement at a population level...
  83. pmc HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses to different viral proteins have discordant associations with viral load and clinical outcome
    Srinika Ranasinghe
    Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 86:277-83. 2012 92% of individuals and that the breadth of these responses showed a significant inverse correlation with the viral load (P = 0.009, R = -0.31)...
  84. ncbi Genetic variation in interleukin 28B with respect to vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus and spontaneous clearance in HCV-infected children
    Angeles Ruiz-Extremera
    San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada, Spain
    Hepatology 53:1830-8. 2011
    ..The factors influencing viral clearance among the infected children were genotype non-1 and genotype CC of IL28B. In logistic regression, child CC polymorphism was the only predictor of HCV-clearance in HCV genotype-1...
  85. ncbi Virological monitoring and resistance to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1 treated under WHO guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ravindra K Gupta
    UCL MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:409-17. 2009
    ..This Review highlights the need for cheap point-of-care viral-load tests to identify early viral failures and limit the emergence of resistance...
  86. ncbi IL28B genetic variants and gender are associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection
    H Y Rao
    Peking University People s Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing, China
    J Viral Hepat 19:173-81. 2012
    ..Women were more likely to clear HCV infection regardless of IL28B genotypes...
  87. pmc Frequency of circulating regulatory T cells increases during chronic HIV infection and is largely controlled by highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Pietro Presicce
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e28118. 2011
    ..The most striking difference in terms of functional molecules was the high expression of CD39 by Tregs in untreated patients, which HAART only partially controlled...
  88. pmc Assessing predicted HIV-1 replicative capacity in a clinical setting
    Roger D Kouyos
    ETH Zurich, Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002321. 2011 the infection and that the increase in pRC was also significantly correlated with the increase in plasma viral load and with the length of the time-interval between the sampling points...
  89. pmc Switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring
    Olivia Keiser
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine ISPM, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    AIDS 23:1867-74. 2009
    In high-income countries, viral load is routinely measured to detect failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and guide switching to second-line ART. Viral load monitoring is not generally available in resource-limited settings...
  90. pmc CD4 nadir is a predictor of HIV neurocognitive impairment in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy
    Ronald J Ellis
    University of California, San Diego, USA
    AIDS 25:1747-51. 2011
    ..The present study evaluated the probability of neuropsychological impairment (NPI) and HAND as a function of CD4 nadir in an HIV-positive cohort...
  91. ncbi Hepatitis C pharmacogenetics: state of the art in 2010
    Nezam H Afdhal
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Hepatology 53:336-45. 2011
  92. ncbi Factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 despite a maternal viral load <500 copies/ml at delivery: a case-control study nested in the French perinatal cohort (EPF-ANRS CO1)
    Roland Tubiana
    Departement des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris AP HP, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, France
    Clin Infect Dis 50:585-96. 2010
    ..5% in non-breast-feeding mothers who delivered at term while receiving antiretroviral therapy with a plasma viral load <500 copies/mL...
  93. pmc Increased APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F expression is associated with low viral load and prolonged survival in simian immunodeficiency virus infected rhesus monkeys
    Bianka Mussil
    Unit of Infection Biology, German Primate Centre, Goettingen, Germany
    Retrovirology 8:77. 2011
    ..Since antiviral activity of APOBEC3 has been mainly confirmed by in vitro data, we examined their role for disease progression in the SIV/macaque model for AIDS...
  94. pmc First-line antiretroviral therapy with a protease inhibitor versus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and switch at higher versus low viral load in HIV-infected children: an open-label, randomised phase 2/3 trial
    Abdel Babiker
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit, 222 Euston Road, London NW1 2DA, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:273-83. 2011
    ..We assess the long-term outcome of protease inhibitor and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) first-line ART and viral load switch criteria in children.
  95. pmc HIV-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral therapy for extended periods of time continually replenish their viral reservoir
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:3250-5. 2005
    ..Such events may allow continual replenishment of the CD4+ T cell reservoir and resetting of the half-life of the latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells despite prolonged periods of aviremia...
  96. ncbi Viral load in patients infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus
    Kelvin K W To
    Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
    J Med Virol 82:1-7. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the viral load in different body sites...
  97. ncbi Envelope-constrained neutralization-sensitive HIV-1 after heterosexual transmission
    Cynthia A Derdeyn
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA
    Science 303:2019-22. 2004
    ..This reveals characteristics of the envelope glycoprotein that influence HIV-1 transmission and may have implications for vaccine design...
  98. pmc Incomplete peripheral CD4+ cell count restoration in HIV-infected patients receiving long-term antiretroviral treatment
    Colleen F Kelley
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:787-94. 2009
  99. ncbi Misclassification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure based on immunological monitoring of HIV infection in resource-limited settings
    Rami Kantor
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:454-62. 2009
    ..The early identification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure is critical to prevent morbidity, mortality, and drug resistance. Misclassification of failure may result in premature switching to second-line therapy...
  100. ncbi Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study
    Marguerite Guiguet
    INSERM U943 and UPMC UMR S 943, Paris, France
    Lancet Oncol 10:1152-9. 2009
    The relative roles of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the onset of individual cancers have rarely been examined...
  101. ncbi Predictors of long-term viral failure among ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
    Moses R Kamya
    Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:187-93. 2007
    HIV RNA viral load testing is costly and is generally unavailable in resource-limited settings...

Research Grants74

  1. Oral Chemotherapy in AIDS-related NHL in Uganda & Kenya
    Scot Remick; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..laboratory correlative studies on: 1) underlying HIV infection including monitoring of CD4 lymphocyte counts and viral load; 2) underlying HHV-8 viral load in seropositive patients; and 3) procuring clinical samples and tumor specimens ..
  2. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and antigen-specific effector memory B cells in tissues or secretory Ig will correlate with the reduction of viral load or disease progression in SIV infected macaques...
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ablated solely in endothelial or hematopoietic cells will be infected with reovirus and monitored for survival, viral load, and pathologic injury...
  4. Roles for microRNA-122 in hepatitis C virus RNA amplification
    Peter Sarnow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5 fold drop in viral load without any emergence of resistant virus (Lanford et al. 2010. Science: 327:198-201).
  5. Severe H1N1 Influenza Infection During Pregnancy: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms
    Mark Phillippe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..two Specific Aims: Aim #1: Test the hypothesis that the increased maternal mortality is mediated by an excessive viral load associated with increased pulmonary injury, profound systemic hypoxia and evidence of the systemic inflammatory ..
  6. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..same brain regions of HIV-1- cases;and that the 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels will be negatively correlated with the viral load in the same brain regions of HIV-1+ cases, as well as with depression scores assessed during life of the ..
  7. A novel allele influencing HIV infection among injection drug users
    Xiao Fang Yu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed significant positive associations between A3B expression and viral load set-points. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases such as A3B are highly expressed in human T lymphocytes and macrophages...
  8. Interactions of Diesel Exhaust and Respiratory Viruses in Asthmatic Children
    Toby C Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of viral infection and susceptibility to virus by evaluating nasal lavage specimens for viral infection, viral load, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL)-R, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, ..
  9. Alcohol &Antiretrovirals in HIV Infection, Oxidative Stress and Liver Disease
    Marianna K Baum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HIV staging (CD4 and viral load) co- morbidities, ART and other treatments will be documented...
  10. Drug Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier
    Nathan J Cherrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..treated with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs, the selective exclusion of the drugs at the BTB increases the viral load of the ejaculate and potential for transmission...
  11. Antiviral prophylaxis to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV in Thailand
    ..We hypothesize that tenofovir or lamivudine can decrease HBV viral load in HBV infected pregnant women and therefore the risk of in utero, intrapartum and postpartum transmission ..
  12. Selenoprotein K modulates calcium-dependent signaling in immune cells
    PETER R HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of anti-WNV immune responses and severity of infection in a time-course manner by measuring plasma anti-WNV IgM, viral load in peripheral tissues and brain, survival analyses, and other readouts...
  13. Phase I Study to Evaluate Safety and Toxicity of EGCG in HIV-1-Infected Subjects
    Christina L Nance; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, HIV-1 viral load change, and dosage of EGCG administered orally once (600 or 1000mg) or twice (800mg) daily in HIV-1-infected ..
  14. Antiviral activity of leflunomide against respiratory syncytial virus
    WILLIAM WALDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The specific aims of this investigation are to test the hypothesis that leflunomide reduces RSV viral load and associated bronchiolitis in vivo, and to elucidate its antiviral mechanisms at the moleclular level...
  15. Inhibition of HIV-Induced Synaptodentritic Damage
    Val S Goodfellow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In aging patient populations, the prevalence of HAND is increasing, despite the ability of cART to reduce viral load in the CNS to undetectable levels. Half of the population living with HIV may experience symptoms of HAND...
  16. Small Animal Model of HIV Neuropathogenesis in the HAART Era
    Pietro P Sanna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..viral suppression by HAART do not correlate with indicators of florid HIV-replication such as high plasma HIV-1 viral load and low CD4+ counts...
  17. Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia
    William N Rom; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3 million). HAART reduces plasma viral load below the limits of detection in most patients, increases CD4+ counts, and reduces the incidence of ..
  18. Cannabinoid Epigenomic and miRNA mechanisms impact HIV/SIV disease progression
    Patricia E Molina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies indicate that chronic 9-THC treatment attenuates viral load and tissue inflammation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected non-human primates, significantly ..
  19. Gene Expression in HSV-1 Latency After Corneal Infection
    Paul R Kinchington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the lymph node and ganglionic CD8+ T cell response, the activation state of CD8+ T cells in the TG, the viral load during latency, or the functional capacity of gB-specific CD8+ T cells to block HSV-1 reactivation in ex vivo TG ..
  20. Neuroprotective immunity and HIV dementia
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Neuropathologic evaluations will be linked to T cell subsets and viral load tests to provide correlation between neurodegeneration with immune profiling...
  21. Virologic and Serologic Outcomes of Persons with HIV and HBV co-infection on Mono
    JUDITH ANN ABERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The association of HBeAg seroconversion with better outcome may be due to its association with reduction in HBV viral load as HBV DNA level has been shown to be independently associated with risk of HCC...
  22. Multi-Dimensional Successful Aging Among HIV-Infected Adults
    David J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..resistance, and allostatic load, and, among HIV+ individuals, indicators of HIV disease severity (plasma HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, AIDS/nonAIDS)...
  23. International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA)
    Matthias Egger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..regimen durability and tolerability and examine different monitoring and treatment strategies, with a focus on viral load and second-line ART;(iii) to describe co-morbidities, focusing on tuberculosis and cancer and (iv) to follow up ..
  24. Safety and Acceptability of Two IUDs among Cape Town HIV-positive Women: A RCT
    CATHERINE SUZANNE TODD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..through comparative impact of low exogenous progestin exposure on HIV progression markers, including plasma viral load (VL) and CD4 change, and eligibility for ART initiation, or other health status indicators, including sexually-..
  25. Discovery of a urine biomarker of HIV for noninvasive, point-of-care testing use
    Hans P Schlecht; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..techniques of LC/MS-MS will demonstrate a unique urinary biomarker in those with highly active (serum viral load >100,000 viral copies/mL) HIV infection due to the excretion of a virus-derived protein/protein fragment(s)...
  26. Combination immunotherapy with gene modified CD4 and CD8 T cells and stem cells
    Carl H June; Fiscal Year: 2013 to perform population studies in which the presence of a particular T cell response is correlated with viral load. While informative, these studies do not shed light onto why one response is better than another...
  27. Mitochondrial Determinants of Metabolic Disease in HIV-Infected Children
    Tracie L Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013 PHACS and among the HIV (+) children, to determine clinical characteristics (metabolic, age, sex, puberty, viral load, antiretroviral therapy) associated with mitochondrial dysfunction;2...
  28. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in HAART-treated HIV infection
    Maria C Villacres; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Although HAART is efficient in controlling viral load in HIV infection, about a third of treated women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) present low ..
  29. Involvement of HIV-1 Vpr in neuronal degeneration.
    Bassel E Sawaya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Even in the HAART era where the viral load is below detection levels, the prevalence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high due to many reasons such as latent virus ..
    Radhakrishnan P Iyer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..investment, the treatment options for HCV remain extremely limited with inadequate therapeutic benefit - modest viral load reductions during treatment, viral rebound upon cessation of therapy, drug-induced toxicity, and emergence of ..
  31. Drugs of Abuse Affecting AIDS Pathogenesis
    Thomas J Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will investigate the effect of viral load, immunophenotype of immune cells, and investigate the effect of drug treatment on the trafficking of infected ..
  32. Platelet Activating Factor, Synaptic Failure &NeuroAIDS
    Harris A Gelbard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), even with dramatic reduction of viral load, may reverse some symptoms of HAND (often on a transient basis), but neither cures or prevents the disease...
  33. BK Virus Receptor and polyomavirus nephropathy
    Andrey Sorokin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the cellular levels of BKV large T antigen expression, as detected by western blot analysis and viral load, as detected by real-time PCR...
  34. T Cell Immunity in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma
    Ann M Moormann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..suppression of EBV immunity in African children: 1) Repeat/chronic malaria infections result in high EBV viral load, that in turn induce `CD45RA+ re-expressing'effector memory CD8+ T cell (TEMRA) which display immediate IFN-..
  35. HPV Disease in the Era of HPV Vaccines
    Laura A Koutsky; Fiscal Year: 2010 sexual behavior diaries) and collect cervical specimens for Pap testing and for HPV genotyping and viral load testing. Serum for HPV antibody testing will be collected at the enrollment and exit visits...
  36. Impacts of universal access to HIV/AIDS care among HIV+ injection drug users
    Evan Wood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..determinants, including incarceration, homelessness, and involvement in the sex trade, on HIV RNA plasma viral load at both the individual and community levels...
  37. Vertical CMV transmission in the setting of maternal HIV-1 infection in Kenya
    JENNIFER ANN SLYKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) To evaluate the impact of maternal HAART on breast milk CMV viral load and vertical CMV transmission...
  38. Computerized Counseling to Promote Positive Prevention and HIV Health in Kenya
    Ann Elizabeth Kurth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will adapt a computerized counseling intervention found to be efficacious in reducing HIV-1 viral load and risk behaviors in the US ('CARE+') with the largest HIV provider in Kenya, the Academic Model for ..
  39. IDO Regulation in the SIV Model of HIV CNS Disease
    M Christine Zink; Fiscal Year: 2013 quantitating tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine metabolites, inflammatory and neurodegeneration markers and viral load. We next will dissect the specific effects of IDO activation and inhibition on individual cell types from the ..
  40. Immunosuppressive pathways in acute HIV infection
    Nina Bhardwaj; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..During the viral load ramp-up phase of acute HIV infection (AHI), there is an explosive production of pro-inflammatory and anti-viral ..
  41. HIV Infection and Falls: Epidemiology and Risk Assessment
    Julie A Womack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HIV specific factors such as lower CD4 count, higher viral load, efavirenz use, and ritonavir use may also contribute to falls risk...
  42. Pandemic H5N1 vaccine containing recombinant H5 and a synthetic TLR4 agonist, GLA
    Christopher H Clegg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Viral load, disease progression and survival will be monitored, as well as adjuvant dose-sparing activity and induction of ..
  43. Role of cellular prion protein in the pathogenesis of NeuroAIDS
    JOAN WEINBERGER BERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of activated macrophages appears to be a much better indicator of HAND in individuals with HIV rather than viral load, suggesting that dysregulation of adhesion molecules, blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and leukocyte ..
  44. NK Cell Control of Acute Influenza Virus Infection
    Jonathan W Heusel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..lethal disease during IAV infection-role of interferon-g, perforin, Fas ligand and TRAIL in control of peak viral load and the virus-specific CD8 T cell response;and 3) a determination of the contributions from proliferation, ..
  45. Impact of maternal HAART on HIV-infected breastfeeding infants: Malawi
    Susan H Eshleman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2: Analyze HIV viral load, ARV drug levels, and HIV drug resistance in breast milk samples from women on HAART...
  46. Interventions to decrease HIV infectiousness in Uganda
    Connie L Celum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Measures of success of HBCT-plus will be impact on: 1) community viral load (average HIV plasma viral load in the community over 12 months), a marker of population-level HIV infectiousness,..
  47. Influenza Therapeutics Using siRNA Nanoparticle Technology
    David M Evans; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..induce sequence and target-specific silencing of viral genes and prevent viral replication with a reduction in viral load that can have therapeutic benefits...
  48. Quantifying Drug Adherence and Drug Exposure to Antiretroviral Therapy
    ..individuals with an undetectable viral load. Complimentary to this research proposal, a five-year mentored career development program is proposed by the ..
  49. Gene Therapy for hemophilia using muscle-expressed FVIIa
    Katherine A High; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..therapeutic index of a variant of cFVIIa with increased activity, as a means to reduce the effective vector dose/viral load per cell and thus address any potential limitations of muscle to perform post-translational modifications ..
  50. Mechanism of Folate Deficiency as a Co-Factor for HPV16-induced Carcinogenesis
    ASOK ANTONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Despite a similar HPV16 DNA viral load in HPV16-high folate- and low folate-organotypic rafts, the latter contained a high-level of integration of ..
  51. Determining the role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) in HIV-1 infection
    Devi SenGupta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..long-term HIV disease outcome as defined by immune activation, CD4+ T cell recovery in treated subjects, and HIV viral load in untreated individuals (Aim 3)? Organized around these aims and guided by both formal coursework and ..
  52. HAART to Prevent HIV Transmission to Infants In Botswana
    Roger L Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..are low in pregnancy;and whether low drug concentrations in plasma and breast milk are associated with viral load and resistance mutations in these compartments, and with MTCT...
  53. Patient self-management and gene guided therapy for CHC
    Donald E Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A-LEAD approaches during clinical encounters and 3) Describe the trajectories of illness perceptions, symptoms, viral load, and SM in relation to patient and provider reports of T-WORK, A-WORK and A-LEAD from the index clinical ..
  54. The role of CD8+ T cells in response to EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis
    Oludare A Odumade; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The prevalent thinking in the field is that either an increased inoculating viral load or age-dependent differences in the T cell repertoire cause disease...
  55. Role of HIV-1 Tat in the activation of HERV-K and development of HIV-1-lymphoma
    ..Lymphomas develop in a substantial percentage of patients infected with HIV, particularly in those in whom the viral load is poorly controlled, and treatment of these HIV-related lymphomas is extremely difficult and toxic...
  56. Self-Complementary AAV2 Factor IX for Hemophilia B
    SCOTT WILLIAM JOHN MCPHEE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the promise to effectively shift the dose-response relation so that the therapeutic window no longer requires a viral load associated with triggering a CTL response...
  57. HIV, ART and the Intestinal Microbiota
    Honorine D Ward; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..generate clusters of related microbiota profiles, which will be queried for association with i) CD4 count, ii) viral load, iii) body mass index (BMI), iv) mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), v) bacterial translocation (plasma 16S rRNA)..
  58. Moving Towards More Individualized Therapies in HIV/HCV Co-infected Patients
    Susanna Naggie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the IL28B genotype as a host baseline predictor for risk of ART-related lipoprotein increases and increased HCV viral load in HIV/HCV co-infected patients at months 6 and 12 following ART initiation;(4) Determine the impact of the host ..
  59. Properties of HIV-1 DNA/RNA Assays for Detecting HIV Infection in Infants
    Raji Balasubramanian; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..type of maternal/infant antiretroviral treatment, HIV subtype, and mode of delivery;mother's age, HIV-1 viral load, and CD4 cell count;and infant's CD% and birth weight...
  60. Evaluation of HIV-1 Drug Resistance among Antiretroviral Treatment Naive and Expe
    Avelin Fobang Aghokeng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..current recommendations in industrialized countries, where several biological and virological markers including viral load and drug resistance evaluations are routinely used...
  61. Neuroprotective and Antiviral Effects of BMD-101 and BMD-104 in HIV Infection
    Christopher G Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..introduction and implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in AIDS patients diminished HIV viral load and led to an increase in life expectancy, but HIV infection can still lead to severe complications in the ..
  62. Pathogenesis of Virus-Induced Acute Otitis Media
    Tasnee Chonmaitree; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of asymptomatic and symptomatic viral URI in infants during the first 6 months of life and the effect of viral load and co-presence of pathogenic bacteria on URI symptoms and AOM development...
  63. Generation and Regulation of Anti-Viral CD4 T Cells with Cytolytic Potential
    Deborah M Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..reports indicating CD4 T cells can acquire perforin mediated cytotoxicity that may be important for decreasing viral load. However, the signals that induce the differentiation of cytolytic CD4 cells (CD4 CTL) and the physiological ..
    W Waldman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Salivary glands, spleen, and lungs will be examined histologically for viral pathology, and assayed for viral load by plaque assay...
  65. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta: a setpoint for dopamine dysfunction in neuroAIDS
    Seth Perry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..HAND) remains a source of significant morbidity, and is increasing in prevalence, despite success reducing viral load in HIV-infected individuals with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  66. A Microfluidic Device for Label-free HIV Virion Count at Point of Care Settings
    Xuanhong Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Measurement of the level of circulating virus in the blood plasma, or "viral load," is a critical parameter used to monitor disease progression and make treatment decisions...
    William Tyor; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..clinical expression of HADC to the pathological findings of encephalitis and particularly the association of CNS viral load to HADC...
  68. Analysis of Viral Resistance in CMV Retinitis
    DOUGLAS JABS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..more rapid methods for identifying patients who harbor resistant CMV are needed; two candidates are: 1) CMV viral load, and 2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of CMV DNA from blood specimens and sequencing it for ..
  69. Molecular epidemiology of cervical adenocarcinoma
    Hans Olov Adami; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..infection with human papillomavirus (HPV); 2) to assess whether persistence and/or a high initial HPV 16/18/45 viral load is a determinant of adenocarcinoma; 3) to assess whether certain HLA haplotypes are associated with risk for ..
  70. Impact of HIV-1 Fitness on Disease Progression
    Eric Arts; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..A pilot study revealed a strong correlation between ex vivo HIV-1 fitness and viral load. To extend this study, multiple HIV-1 isolates from approximately 80 HIV-infected individuals have been obtained ..
  71. Test of a Web-Based Program to Improve Adherence to HIV/AIDS Medications
    Royer F Cook; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2001;2009). HAART, which typically involves a combination of medications, leads to reductions in viral load, greater immune system function, and less likelihood of clinical immune deficiency in patients with HIV ..
    ANNA KADISH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..factors in normal women for persistent or progressive SIL include persistent infection with high risk HPVs, high viral load, increased age, infection with other sexually transmitted diseases, cigarette smoking, and HLA type...
  73. Impact of GBV-C infection on perinatal HIV transmission
    Robert Remis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We hypothesize that GBV-C infection also reduces mother-infant HIV transmission (which varies with HIV viral load) and slows HIV progression in children; neither have been previously examined...
  74. Enhancement of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell function by blockade of the PD-1 pathway
    Brent Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PD-1 pathway blockage did result in a substantial decrease in LCMV viral load in chronically infected mice, but since there is no validated mouse model for chronic HIV infection, it has been ..