animal testing alternatives

Summary

Summary: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Predictive ability of reconstructed human epidermis equivalents for the assessment of skin irritation of cosmetics
    C Faller
    Cosmital SA Research Company of Wella AG, Germany, Rte de Chesalles 21, CH 1723 Marly, Switzerland
    Toxicol In Vitro 16:557-72. 2002
  2. ncbi Regulatory use of (Q)SARs in toxicological hazard assessment strategies
    I Gerner
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Thielallee 88 92, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    SAR QSAR Environ Res 15:359-66. 2004
  3. ncbi In vitro skin irritation: facts and future. State of the art review of mechanisms and models
    Thomas Welss
    VTB Skin Biochemistry, Henkel KGaA, Building Z33, Henkelstrasse 67, D 40191, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:231-43. 2004
  4. ncbi A cell-based in vitro alternative to identify skin sensitizers by gene expression
    Jef Hooyberghs
    Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Environmental Toxicology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231:103-11. 2008
  5. ncbi The ReProTect Feasibility Study, a novel comprehensive in vitro approach to detect reproductive toxicants
    Barbara Schenk
    Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Toxicology, Tubingen, Germany
    Reprod Toxicol 30:200-18. 2010
  6. ncbi Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010
    Sarah Adler
    Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 85:367-485. 2011
  7. ncbi A mechanistic redefinition of adverse effects - a key step in the toxicity testing paradigm shift
    Kim Boekelheide
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02901, USA
    ALTEX 27:243-52. 2010
  8. ncbi Integrating (Q)SAR models, expert systems and read-across approaches for the prediction of developmental toxicity
    M Hewitt
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Reprod Toxicol 30:147-60. 2010
  9. ncbi A physiologically based toxicokinetic modelling approach to predict relevant concentrations for in vitro testing
    Hans Mielke
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Thielallee 88 92, 14195, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 85:555-63. 2011
  10. ncbi Extent of initial corneal injury as a basis for alternative eye irritation tests
    J V Jester
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA
    Toxicol In Vitro 15:115-30. 2001

Detail Information

Publications190 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Predictive ability of reconstructed human epidermis equivalents for the assessment of skin irritation of cosmetics
    C Faller
    Cosmital SA Research Company of Wella AG, Germany, Rte de Chesalles 21, CH 1723 Marly, Switzerland
    Toxicol In Vitro 16:557-72. 2002
    ..These models allow the measurement of quantifiable and objective endpoints relevant to in vivo irritative phenomena...
  2. ncbi Regulatory use of (Q)SARs in toxicological hazard assessment strategies
    I Gerner
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Thielallee 88 92, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    SAR QSAR Environ Res 15:359-66. 2004
    ..The role of the BfR database, and (Q)SARs derived from it, in the use of current and future (EU) testing strategies for irritation and sensitisation is discussed...
  3. ncbi In vitro skin irritation: facts and future. State of the art review of mechanisms and models
    Thomas Welss
    VTB Skin Biochemistry, Henkel KGaA, Building Z33, Henkelstrasse 67, D 40191, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:231-43. 2004
    ....
  4. ncbi A cell-based in vitro alternative to identify skin sensitizers by gene expression
    Jef Hooyberghs
    Flemish Institute for Technological Research VITO, Environmental Toxicology, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231:103-11. 2008
    ..These results show that the present model may be a useful human in vitro alternative for further use in a test strategy towards the reduction of animal use for skin sensitization...
  5. ncbi The ReProTect Feasibility Study, a novel comprehensive in vitro approach to detect reproductive toxicants
    Barbara Schenk
    Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Toxicology, Tubingen, Germany
    Reprod Toxicol 30:200-18. 2010
    ..The procedure used here, a nearest neighbor analysis coupled with a weight of evidence approach, may guide future activities in the field of alternative toxicity testing...
  6. ncbi Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010
    Sarah Adler
    Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 85:367-485. 2011
    ..For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated...
  7. ncbi A mechanistic redefinition of adverse effects - a key step in the toxicity testing paradigm shift
    Kim Boekelheide
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02901, USA
    ALTEX 27:243-52. 2010
    ....
  8. ncbi Integrating (Q)SAR models, expert systems and read-across approaches for the prediction of developmental toxicity
    M Hewitt
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Reprod Toxicol 30:147-60. 2010
    ..Recommendations are provided as to how this area could be further developed in the future...
  9. ncbi A physiologically based toxicokinetic modelling approach to predict relevant concentrations for in vitro testing
    Hans Mielke
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Thielallee 88 92, 14195, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 85:555-63. 2011
    ..BPTK modelling seems to be a better approach than using data from in vitro studies on cytotoxicity...
  10. ncbi Extent of initial corneal injury as a basis for alternative eye irritation tests
    J V Jester
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA
    Toxicol In Vitro 15:115-30. 2001
    ..We believe that this approach may ultimately lead to an alternative assay to replace the use of animals in ocular irritation testing...
  11. ncbi Three-dimensional cell cultures in toxicology
    Francesco Pampaloni
    Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 26:117-38. 2010
    ....
  12. ncbi Protecting more than animals
    Alan M Goldberg
    Johns Hopkins University, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, USA
    Sci Am 294:84-91. 2006
  13. ncbi Re-evaluation of animal numbers and costs for in vivo tests to accomplish REACH legislation requirements for chemicals - a report by the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t(4))
    Costanza Rovida
    CAAT Center for Alternatives to Animals Testing, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Doerenkamp Zbinden Chair for Evidence based Toxicology, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    ALTEX 26:187-208. 2009
    ..The overall result suggests a demand of 54 million vertebrate animals and testing costs of 9.5 billion euro. This clearly challenges the feasibility of the program without a major investment into high-throughput methodologies...
  14. ncbi Ethics: views from IACUC members
    Lisa Houde
    Departement de Psychologie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canada
    Altern Lab Anim 37:291-6. 2009
    ..The study suggests that IACUC members should be provided with more up-to-date information on topics such as animal ethics and animal use in research...
  15. ncbi The integrated project ReProTect: a novel approach in reproductive toxicity hazard assessment
    Lars Hareng
    European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, Joint Research Center, Via Fermi 1, TP 580, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Reprod Toxicol 20:441-52. 2005
    ..In this project, in vitro, in silico and sensor technologies will be developed, leading to testing strategies, that shall be implemented and disseminated...
  16. ncbi Establishing a Three Rs programme at the Canadian Council on Animal Care
    Gilly Griffin
    Canadian Council on Animal Care, 1510 130 Albert Street, Ottawa, ON K1P 5G4, Canada
    Altern Lab Anim 37:63-7. 2009
    ..This programme will build on the work of FRAME and other similar Three Rs organisations, to further the promotion and implementation of the Three Rs in Canadian science...
  17. ncbi Reduction strategies in animal research: a review of scientific approaches at the intra-experimental, supra-experimental and extra-experimental levels
    Jasmijn de Boo
    Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9 11, Postbus 457, 3720 AL Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Altern Lab Anim 33:369-77. 2005
    ..A revised definition of reduction is proposed, which does not include the level of information needed, as in some cases reduction in the number of animals resulting in less information or data, is still acceptable...
  18. ncbi Toxicity testing in the 21st century: bringing the vision to life
    Melvin E Andersen
    Computational Biology Division, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:324-30. 2009
    ..The present paper, and invited commentaries on the report that will appear in Toxicological Sciences over the next year, are intended to initiate a dialog to identify challenges in implementing the vision and address obstacles to change...
  19. ncbi Analysis of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and release in in vitro reconstructed human epidermis for the prediction of in vivo skin irritation and/or sensitization
    A Coquette
    Department of Biology, SGS Biopharma S A, Vieux Chemin du Poète 10, B 1301, Wavre, Belgium
    Toxicol In Vitro 17:311-21. 2003
    ....
  20. ncbi The interpretation and application of the three Rs by animal ethics committee members
    Catherine A Schuppli
    The W Maurice Young Centre for Applied Ethics, The University of British Columbia, 227 6356 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada
    Altern Lab Anim 33:487-500. 2005
    ....
  21. ncbi The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro embryotoxicity tests: results of the definitive phase and evaluation of prediction models. European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods
    Elke Genschow
    Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine BgVV, Berlin, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 30:151-76. 2002
    ..And, very importantly, an excellent predictivity (100%, except for PM1 of the WEC test, with 79%, considered as good) was obtained with strong embryotoxic chemicals in each of the three in vitro tests...
  22. ncbi Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization
    David W Roberts
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1019-30. 2007
    ..This understanding is necessary if reliable non-animal approaches, including (quantitative) structure-activity relationships (Q)SARs, read-across, and experimental chemistry based models, are to be developed...
  23. ncbi Neuroblastoma cell lines--a versatile in vitro model in neurobiology
    P Shastry
    National Centre for Cell Science NCCS, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
    Int J Neurosci 108:109-26. 2001
    ..They have been used to dissect the relationships between proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. This feature has been useful in understanding the pediatric cancer--neuroblastoma and for development of newer therapies...
  24. ncbi Validation of the embryonic stem cell test in the international ECVAM validation study on three in vitro embryotoxicity tests
    Elke Genschow
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 12277 Berlin, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 32:209-44. 2004
    ..The outcome showed that the EST can be considered to be a scientifically validated test, which is ready for consideration for use in assessing the embryotoxic potentials of chemicals for regulatory purposes...
  25. ncbi Metabolic activation capacity by primary hepatocytes expands the applicability of the embryonic stem cell test as alternative to experimental animal testing
    Michael Hettwer
    Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany
    Reprod Toxicol 30:113-20. 2010
    ....
  26. ncbi The impact of the introduction of the ethical review process for research using animals in the UK: attitudes to alternatives among those working With experimental animals
    I F Purchase
    Institute of Medicine, Law and Bioethics and School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 29:727-44. 2001
    ..In general, the majority of those working under the 1986 Act and most establishments seem to have a positive approach to the use of alternatives...
  27. ncbi Assessing the search for and implementation of the Three Rs: a survey among scientists
    Marlies Leenaars
    Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Central Animal Laboratory, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Altern Lab Anim 37:297-303. 2009
    ....
  28. ncbi A modular approach to the ECVAM principles on test validity
    Thomas Hartung
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 32:467-72. 2004
    ..This will permit the assessment of test validity by completing the missing information via the relevant validation procedure: prospective validation, retrospective validation, catch-up validation, or a combination of these procedures...
  29. ncbi Metabolism: a bottleneck in in vitro toxicological test development. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 54
    Sandra Coecke
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 34:49-84. 2006
  30. ncbi Acute systemic toxicity--prospects for tiered testing strategies
    P A Botham
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:227-30. 2004
    ..However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, and is at least 10 years away...
  31. ncbi A comparative study on the relationship between various toxicological endpoints in Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to organophosphorus insecticides
    P S Rajini
    Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 2102, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 71:1043-50. 2008
    ..Further, ranking of these endpoints with respect to the OP insecticides studied indicates that these parameters in C. elegans are predictive of OP insecticides mammalian neurotoxicity...
  32. ncbi Lessons learned from validation of in vitro toxicity test: from failure to acceptance into regulatory practice
    H Spielmann
    National Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine BgVV, Berlin, Germany
    Toxicol In Vitro 15:585-90. 2001
    ..during the past decade with particular reference to in vitro toxicity tests that were evaluated for regulatory purposes either by the US validation centre ICCVAM or ECVAM in the fields of sensitisation, phototoxicity and embryotoxicity..
  33. pmc Use of non-mammalian alternative models for neurotoxicological study
    Randall T Peterson
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neurotoxicology 29:546-55. 2008
    ..In this review, applications of four non-mammalian species, zebrafish, cockroach, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, in the investigation of neurotoxicology and neurological diseases are presented...
  34. ncbi Progress on the development of human in vitro dendritic cell based assays for assessment of the sensitizing potential of a compound
    G Galvão dos Santos
    Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 236:372-82. 2009
    ..Although progress is promising, this review suggests that it may be difficult to meet the up and coming European regulatory deadlines...
  35. ncbi Validation and regulatory acceptance of new carcinogenicity tests
    Horst Spielmann
    National Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine BgVV, 12277 Berlin, Germany
    Toxicol Pathol 31:54-9. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches
    Stuart Creton
    National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, London, UK
    Crit Rev Toxicol 40:50-83. 2010
    ..This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements...
  37. ncbi Alternatives to animal experimentation: the regulatory background
    Bernward Garthoff
    Bayer CropScience AG, Alfred Nobel Strasse 50, D 40789 Monheim, Germany
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207:388-92. 2005
    ..This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political world to feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry...
  38. ncbi A strategy for skin irritation testing
    Michael K Robinson
    Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Am J Contact Dermat 13:21-9. 2002
    ..It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future...
  39. ncbi Validation successes: chemicals
    Horst Spielmann
    National Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments ZEBET, Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine BgVV, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 12277 Berlin, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 30:33-40. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi ECVAM's ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity
    Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen
    In Vitro Methods Unit, European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection IHCP, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:1535-40. 2009
    ....
  41. ncbi The assessment of repeated dose toxicity in vitro: a proposed approach. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 56
    Pilar Prieto
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 34:315-41. 2006
  42. ncbi REACH testing requirements must not be driven by reproductive toxicity testing
    Horst Spielmann
    Altern Lab Anim 34:365-6. 2006
  43. ncbi An integrated decision-tree testing strategy for repeat dose toxicity with respect to the requirements of the EU REACH legislation
    Christina Grindon
    FRAME, Nottingham, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 36:93-101. 2008
    ..Although none of the non-animal tests are currently undergoing validation, their results could help to reduce the number of animals required for testing for repeat dose toxicity...
  44. ncbi The relevance of genetically altered mouse models of human disease
    Nirmala Bhogal
    FRAME, 96 98 North Sherwood Street, Nottingham, NG1 4EE, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 34:429-54. 2006
    ..Suggestions for improving this unsatisfactory situation are made...
  45. ncbi Management of an integrated project (Sens-it-iv) to develop in vitro tests to assess sensitisation
    Costanza Rovida
    ECVAM, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 35:317-22. 2007
    ..This paper provides an overview of the structure of the project and a detailed description of the organisation of its management...
  46. ncbi Alternative test methods in inhalation toxicology: challenges and opportunities
    Daniel L Costa
    Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:105-9. 2008
    ....
  47. ncbi Inhalation toxicity studies: OECD guidelines in relation to REACH and scientific developments
    Josje H E Arts
    TNO Quality of Life, P O Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:125-33. 2008
    ..This will be discussed in relation to the evaluation of the safety of thousands of chemicals in a relatively short period of time and scientific developments, including the use of alternatives to animal testing...
  48. ncbi The Seventh Amendment directive--an unnecessary measure to a necessary end--possible legal challenges to directive 2003/15/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Council Directive 76/768/EEC under European Union law
    Azalea P Rosholt
    International Regulatory Affairs, The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association CTFA, Washington, D C, USA
    Food Drug Law J 60:421-46. 2005
  49. ncbi Alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing
    Aldert H Piersma
    Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:427-31. 2006
    ....
  50. ncbi OECD Test Guidelines are tools, not blueprints, for chemical safety assessment
    Barry Phillips
    Research Animals Department, RSPCA, Southwater, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 9RS, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 34:115-7. 2006
  51. ncbi A review of the status of alternative approaches to animal testing and the development of integrated testing strategies for assessing the toxicity of chemicals under REACH--a summary of a DEFRA-funded project conducted by Liverpool John Moores University
    Christina Grindon
    Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments, Russell and Burch House, 96 98 North Sherwood Street, Nottingham NG1 4EE, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 34:149-58. 2006
    ..This paper is a prelude to a series of individual papers on detailed suggestions for applying non-animal methods to each of the major toxicity endpoints in REACH...
  52. ncbi In vitro skin irritation testing on reconstituted human epidermis: reproducibility for 50 chemicals tested with two protocols
    Carine Tornier
    SkinEthic Laboratories, 45, rue Saint Philippe, 06000 Nice, France
    Toxicol In Vitro 20:401-16. 2006
    ..We do not wish to overgeneralize from these 50 compounds; but, instead suggest that this data set be extensively extended to include chemicals of varying physico-chemical properties...
  53. ncbi Eye irritation
    Chantra Eskes
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra Va, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 33:47-81. 2005
  54. ncbi The 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive
    Martine Ruet Rossignol
    DG Enterprise, Unit F3, European Commission, 1049 Brussels, Belgium
    Altern Lab Anim 33:19-20. 2005
  55. ncbi Reproductive toxicity testing under the REACH system--time for a paradigm shift
    Robert Combes
    Altern Lab Anim 35:1-4. 2007
  56. ncbi Current status of methods for defining the applicability domain of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships. The report and recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 52
    Tatiana I Netzeva
    EVCAM, ECB, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 33:155-73. 2005
  57. ncbi Intelligent testing strategies for chemicals testing -- a case of more haste, less speed?
    Robert Combes
    FRAME, Nottingham, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 33:289-97. 2005
    ....
  58. ncbi Assessment of the eye irritating properties of chemicals by applying alternatives to the Draize rabbit eye test: the use of QSARs and in vitro tests for the classification of eye irritation
    Ingrid Gerner
    Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR, Berlin, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 33:215-37. 2005
    ....
  59. ncbi The OECD health effects test guidelines: a challenge to the sincerity of commitment to the three Rs
    Michael Balls
    FRAME, Russell and Burch House, Nottingham, NG1 4EE, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 34:105-8. 2006
  60. ncbi A survey of stakeholder organisations on the proposed new European chemicals policy
    Jennifer Dandrea
    FRAME, Russell and Burch House, 96 98 North Sherwood Street, Nottingham NG1 4EE, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 31:501-28. 2003
    ....
  61. ncbi The TestSmart-HPV Program--development of an integrated approach for testing high production volume chemicals
    S Green
    Howard University College of Medicine, 520 W. Street NW, Washington, DC 20059, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 33:105-9. 2001
    ..The long-term objective is to provide a model for other programs to follow the TestSmart concept of a more efficient and humane approach to obtain toxicological data of interest to regulators and the public...
  62. ncbi Development of a testing strategy for detecting embryotoxic hazards of chemicals in vitro by using embryonic stem cell models
    Susanne Bremer
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:107-9. 2002
    ..This involves, inter alia, the use of genetically modified ES cells...
  63. ncbi Ocular safety: a silent (in vitro) success story
    Rodger D Curren
    Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc, Suite 220, 21 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
    Altern Lab Anim 30:69-74. 2002
    ..Thus, even in the absence of a successfully validated regulatory assay, the desired result of reducing animal testing is being met...
  64. ncbi ECVAM's role in the implementation of the Three Rs concept in the field of biologicals
    Coenraad Hendriksen
    National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Altern Lab Anim 30:41-6. 2002
    ..It is concluded that ECVAM should continue to support the activities that have been shown to be successful, preferably in collaboration with the regulatory bodies...
  65. ncbi The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM): a review of the ICCVAM test method evaluation process and current international collaborations with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EC
    William S Stokes
    National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods, Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Altern Lab Anim 30:23-32. 2002
    ..These collaborations are expected to contribute to accelerated international adoption of harmonised new test methods that will support improved public health and provide for reduced and more-humane use of laboratory animals...
  66. ncbi The principles of validation and the ECVAM validation process
    Andrew P Worth
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:15-21. 2002
    ..This paper summarises the principles of alternative test development and validation, and describes how the principles have been applied to the validation of in vitro tests by ECVAM...
  67. ncbi The establishment of ECVAM and its progress since 1993
    Michael Balls
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:5-11. 2002
    ....
  68. ncbi Implementation of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement): validation and regulatory acceptance considerations for alternative toxicological test methods
    Leonard M Schechtman
    National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    ILAR J 43:S85-94. 2002
    ..Also discussed are the participation of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the ICCVAM process and that agency's approach to the application and implementation of ICCVAM-recommended methods...
  69. ncbi Future improvements: replacement in vitro methods
    Michael Balls
    European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Varese, Italy
    ILAR J 43:S69-73. 2002
    ....
  70. ncbi Humane endpoints for laboratory animals used in regulatory testing
    William S Stokes
    NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    ILAR J 43:S31-8. 2002
    ..Further progress in reducing animal pain and distress resulting from regulatory testing is expected as scientific and technological advances are incorporated into testing procedures and strategies...
  71. ncbi Incorporating the 3Rs into regulatory scientific practices
    Sherry Sterling
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    ILAR J 43:S18-20. 2002
    ..Finally, information about how the programs in OPPTS are making progress with regard to the 3Rs is presented...
  72. ncbi An in vitro model for detecting skin irritants: methyl green-pyronine staining of human skin explant cultures
    J J L Jacobs
    Department of Pharmacology, TNO PML, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
    Toxicol In Vitro 16:581-8. 2002
    ..In addition, the data validate the use of porcine skin as an alternative to human skin for screening for dermal irritants in vitro...
  73. ncbi Introduction of in vitro data into local irritation/corrosion testing strategies by means of SAR considerations: assessment of chemicals
    Ingrid Gerner
    Department Assessment of Chemicals, German Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine BgVV, Thielallee 88 92, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 127:169-75. 2002
    ....
  74. ncbi The future of ECVAM: a personal perspective
    Michael Balls
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:239-41. 2002
    ..Finally, some suggestions are made for maintaining ECVAM's momentum in the future, especially in relation to the challenge and opportunity for alternative methods afforded by the new EU Chemicals Policy...
  75. ncbi FRAME Annual Lecture. International co-operation: an essential requirement for replacing animal toxicity tests
    H Spielmann
    National Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET, Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV, 12277 Berlin, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 29:637-46; discussion 647-8. 2001
    ..These, and other examples which are discussed, confirm that the internationally harmonised ECVAM/ICCVAM/OECD validation concept is a practical and effective way of making possible the replacement of regulatory testing in animals...
  76. ncbi TestSmart-high production volume chemicals: an approach to implementing alternatives into regulatory toxicology
    S Green
    Howard University College of Medicine, 520 W Street, Washington, District of Columbia 20059, USA
    Toxicol Sci 63:6-14. 2001
    ..This is one approach to the development of alternatives to SIDS. Progress along these lines would apply not only to SIDS but also to toxicology in general...
  77. ncbi The use of bootstrap resampling to assess the uncertainty of cooper statistics
    A P Worth
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra (VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 29:447-59. 2001
    ....
  78. ncbi Haematotoxicology: scientific basis and regulatory aspects
    Laura Gribaldo
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra 21020 VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:111-3. 2002
    ....
  79. ncbi ECVAM's activities on biologicals
    Marlies Halder
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:125-8. 2002
    ..The paper complements the papers of Hendriksen et al. and Cussler et al. included in these proceedings...
  80. ncbi Dialogue and collaboration with ECVAM: the view of the EFPIA
    Bernward Garthoff
    Bayer AG, Alfred Nobel Strasse 50, 40789 Monheim, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 30:195-8. 2002
    ..Finally, the need for proper publications on the implementation of alternatives is recommended, for example, through the existing national platforms and their umbrella organisation, ecopa...
  81. ncbi Refinement of the Slug Mucosal Irritation test as an alternative screening test for eye irritation
    E Adriaens
    Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Harelbekestraat 72, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
    Toxicol In Vitro 19:79-89. 2005
    ..Repeated testing of the chemicals revealed a good intra-laboratory reproducibility. The test seems to be a promising method for screening the eye irritating potential of chemicals...
  82. ncbi ECVAM-ICCVAM: prospects for future collaboration
    Leonard M Schechtman
    National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20857, USA
    Altern Lab Anim 30:227-36. 2002
    ..Opportunities for ECVAM-ICCVAM collaboration are discussed, which illustrate the feasibility and potential benefits of such a partnership...
  83. ncbi ECVAM's response to the changing political environment for alternatives: consequences of the European Union chemicals and cosmetics policies
    Thomas Hartung
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 31:473-81. 2003
    ..In essence, steering groups formed by ECVAM senior staff, and complemented with external experts, will carry out the project management and will coordinate the various inputs...
  84. ncbi Future activities: ECVAM and the quality control of biologicals
    Klaus Cussler
    Paul Ehrlich Institute, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 51 59, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Altern Lab Anim 30:225-6. 2002
    ..ECVAM could provide a suitable forum for such activities. An ECVAM Biologicals Task Force should be established in order to define a list of priorities...
  85. ncbi ECVAM and pharmaceuticals
    Philippe Vanparys
    Department of Genetic and In Vitro Toxicology, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development a division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium
    Altern Lab Anim 30:221-3. 2002
    ..Consequently, this testing strategy will not only reduce the use of resources and the overall development time, but will also result in a substantial decrease in animal use...
  86. ncbi The seventh amendment to the cosmetics directive: what does DG enterprise want from ECVAM?
    Regina Schumann
    Enterprise Directorate General, European Commission, 1049 Bruxelles, Belgium
    Altern Lab Anim 30:213-4. 2002
    ..A short overview is given of the current situation regarding the draft seventh amendment to the EU cosmetics directive, Directive 76/768/EEC. Future perspectives are discussed...
  87. ncbi Comparison of in vivo (Draize method) and in vitro (Corrositex assay) dermal corrosion values for selected industrial chemicals
    Jody L Stobbe
    Buckman Laboratories International, Inc, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Int J Toxicol 22:99-107. 2003
    ..Manufacturers should assess the relevance of this method to their products prior to relying on it for compliance with hazardous material and worker safety regulations...
  88. ncbi [Re: "Comparison of in vivo (Draize method) and in vitro (Corrositex assay) dermal corrosion values for selected industrial chemicals"]
    W Richard Ulmer
    Int J Toxicol 22:475-6; author response 476-8. 2003
  89. ncbi The contributions of the European cosmetics industry to the development of alternatives to animal testing: dialogue with ECVAM and future challenges
    Odile de Silva
    L Oreal, 90 rue de General Roguet, 92583 Clichy Cedex, France
    Altern Lab Anim 30:189-93. 2002
    ..Some success has been achieved, but some validation efforts have failed. One lesson is that the search for alternatives requires a lot of humility...
  90. ncbi ECVAM, ECETOC and the EU chemicals policy
    Philip A Botham
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 30:185-7. 2002
    ....
  91. ncbi The ECVAM workshops: a critical assessment of their impact on the development, validation and acceptance of alternative methods
    Robert D Combes
    FRAME, 96 98 North Sherwood Street, Nottingham NG1 4EE, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 30:151-65. 2002
    ..It is strongly recommended that ECVAM continues to organise workshops and to publish their findings, and several suggestions are made for topics of future workshops...
  92. ncbi ECVAM's activities on computer modelling and integrated testing
    Andrew P Worth
    ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra VA, Italy
    Altern Lab Anim 30:133-7. 2002
    ..ECVAM's in-house research programme on QSAR modelling and integrated testing is summarised, along with plans for the validation of QSAR models and expert system rulebases at the European Union level...
  93. ncbi ECVAM's activities in validating alternative tests for skin corrosion and irritation
    Julia H Fentem
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre SEAC, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 30:61-7. 2002
    ..This will now be assessed independently by the ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force, with the objective of taking a decision before the end of 2002 on whether to conduct a formal validation study...
  94. ncbi Putting the parts together: combining in vitro methods to test for skin sensitizing potentials
    Caroline Bauch
    BASF SE, Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, Ludwigshafen, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 63:489-504. 2012
    ..These data were used to develop an in vitro testing scheme and prediction model for the detection of skin sensitizers based on protein reactivity, activation of the Keap-1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and dendritic cell activation...
  95. ncbi Skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate
    Lorena R Gaspar
    University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Toxicol In Vitro 27:418-25. 2013
    ....
  96. ncbi The validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods in Japan
    Yasuo Ohno
    Division of Pharmacology, Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Altern Lab Anim 32:643-55. 2004
    ..Without having this information, both regulators and industry persons would make big mistakes in evaluating the results of alternative methods. As a first trial of the project, research on the in vitro phototoxicity test was conducted...
  97. ncbi In vitro models of inhalation toxicity and disease. The report of a FRAME workshop
    Kelly Berube
    Lung and Particle Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales
    Altern Lab Anim 37:89-141. 2009
  98. ncbi The GARD assay for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers
    Henrik Johansson
    Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, BMC D13, 21184 Lund, Sweden
    Toxicol In Vitro 27:1163-9. 2013
    ..In this paper, we present a detailed method description of how the assay should be performed...
  99. ncbi Ecotoxicity testing: science, politics and ethics
    Colin H Walker
    Cissbury, Hillhead, Colyton, Devon, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 36:103-12. 2008
    ..A case is made for flexibility and the greater involvement of scientists in the risk assessment procedure, in the interests of both improved science and improved animal welfare...
  100. ncbi Food for thought... on animal tests
    Thomas Hartung
    Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, EC Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
    ALTEX 25:3-16. 2008
  101. ncbi The test chemical selection procedure of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods for the EU Project ReProTect
    Patricia Pazos
    Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Va, Italy
    Reprod Toxicol 30:161-99. 2010
    ....

Research Grants21

  1. INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH
    JOANNE ZURLO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Validation of Organotypic Vaginal Tissue Based Assay for Endocrine Disruptors
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed human organotypic tissue based assay will provide a sensitive and specific assay method to screen a large number of endocrine disrupting chemicals at a reduced cost. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  3. Validation of a Human In Vitro Vaginal Irritation Test
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed human tissue based assay will provide a sensitive and specific time-efficient method to screen a large number of chemicals/formulations at a reduced cost. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  4. In Vitro Tissue Model of Psoriasis
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Elevated potassium ion in lacrimal fluid and the health of the ocular surface
    John Ubels; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..If the high potassium in tears is important for the health of the ocular surface, this information will be useful in the development of improved treatments for dry eye disease. ..
  6. Reconstruction of skin model containing Langerhans cells
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, based on these studies, an assay kit to predict whether a material is likely to act as a contact allergen will be developed. ..
  7. Analysis of Lacrimal Gland by Laser Microdissection
    John Ubels; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. THE ROLE OF RETINOIDS IN LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION
    John Ubels; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Immortized Human Langerhans Cells
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, a skin model containing immunologically competent cells would be extremely valuable to a large number of companies in evaluating whether their products are likely to cause allergic contact dermatitis...
  10. Genetic Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Immune Dysfunction in Autism & ASD
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. KERATOCYTE CRYSTALLIN PROTEINS AND CORNEAL TRANSPARENCY
    JAMES JESTER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  12. In Vitro Assay to Determine Skin Corrosivity Packing Groups
    Yulia Kaluzhny; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will develop an in vitro assay to determine skin corrosivity packing groups and fulfill all testing and regulatory needs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. PHTHALATE-INDUCED MURINE TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS AND P53
    Kim Boekelheide; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. Molecular Regulation of Primary Dendritogenesis
    Pamela Lein; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Workshop on Science-Based Guidelines for Lab Animals
    JOANNE ZURLO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. CONFERENCE ON PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND HUMAN HEALTH
    Robert Phalen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To add significantly to the peer-reviewed literature by publishing research results presented at the conference in a variety of special issues of selected journals. ..
  17. In Vitro Method for Gut Absorption and Cytotoxicity
    FRANK BARILE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. SUPPORT FOR INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH
    JOANNE ZURLO; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Sample illustrative occupational health and safety plans should be developed for personnel working in large and small holdings of NHP. ..
  19. SUPPORT FOR INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH
    JOANNE ZURLO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..S., and internationally. ..