air bags

Summary

Summary: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Severe upper extremity injuries in frontal automobile crashes: the effects of depowered airbags
    M Virginia Jernigan
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest, Center for Injury Biomechanics, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 23:99-105. 2005
  2. ncbi Ocular morbidity associated with airbag deployment: a report of seven cases and a review of the literature
    D C Ball
    Department of Ophthalmology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    Cornea 20:159-63. 2001
  3. ncbi Airbags and eye injuries: epidemiology, spectrum of injury, and analysis of risk factors
    J A Pearlman
    Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21289, USA
    Surv Ophthalmol 46:234-42. 2001
  4. ncbi Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance
    Jameson M Wetmore
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 4401, USA
    Sci Eng Ethics 14:201-18. 2008
  5. ncbi Airbags and bilateral eye injury: five case reports and a review of the literature
    W B Lee
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    J Emerg Med 20:129-34. 2001
  6. ncbi Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study
    Carin M Olson
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:161-9. 2006
  7. ncbi The effect of frontal air bags on eye injury patterns in automobile crashes
    Stefan M Duma
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Impact Biomechanics Laboratory, 114 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 120:1517-22. 2002
  8. ncbi Air bags and the skin
    Monica Corazza
    Dipartimento di Medicina, Clinica e Sperimentale Sezione di Dermatologia, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Savonarola, 9 44100, Ferrara, Italy
    Skinmed 3:256-8. 2004
  9. pmc Association of driver air bags with driver fatality: a matched cohort study
    Peter Cummings
    Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    BMJ 324:1119-22. 2002
  10. ncbi Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?
    Justin S Cummins
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Center, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 40:E26-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications225 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Severe upper extremity injuries in frontal automobile crashes: the effects of depowered airbags
    M Virginia Jernigan
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest, Center for Injury Biomechanics, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Am J Emerg Med 23:99-105. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of depowered frontal airbags on the incidence of severe upper extremity injuries...
  2. ncbi Ocular morbidity associated with airbag deployment: a report of seven cases and a review of the literature
    D C Ball
    Department of Ophthalmology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    Cornea 20:159-63. 2001
    ..Improvements in airbag safety will include increased consumer awareness and manufacturer design modification...
  3. ncbi Airbags and eye injuries: epidemiology, spectrum of injury, and analysis of risk factors
    J A Pearlman
    Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21289, USA
    Surv Ophthalmol 46:234-42. 2001
    ..Data derived from analyses of these injuries will be critical to the development of safer, more effective devices...
  4. ncbi Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance
    Jameson M Wetmore
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 4401, USA
    Sci Eng Ethics 14:201-18. 2008
    ..This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to ..
  5. ncbi Airbags and bilateral eye injury: five case reports and a review of the literature
    W B Lee
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    J Emerg Med 20:129-34. 2001
    ..This report describes the wide spectrum of eye injuries that may occur after airbag deployment. We suggest a management plan for the evaluation and treatment of the ocular complications of airbag-related trauma...
  6. ncbi Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study
    Carin M Olson
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:161-9. 2006
    First-generation air bags entail a decreased risk of death for most front seat occupants in car crashes but an increased risk for children...
  7. ncbi The effect of frontal air bags on eye injury patterns in automobile crashes
    Stefan M Duma
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Impact Biomechanics Laboratory, 114 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 120:1517-22. 2002
    To investigate eye injuries resulting from frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal air bags.
  8. ncbi Air bags and the skin
    Monica Corazza
    Dipartimento di Medicina, Clinica e Sperimentale Sezione di Dermatologia, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Savonarola, 9 44100, Ferrara, Italy
    Skinmed 3:256-8. 2004
    b>Air bags, fitted in the majority of new automobiles, are safety devices activated when a sudden deceleration causes the ignition of a propellant cartridge containing sodium azide...
  9. pmc Association of driver air bags with driver fatality: a matched cohort study
    Peter Cummings
    Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    BMJ 324:1119-22. 2002
    ..To estimate the association of driver air bag presence with driver fatality in road traffic crashes...
  10. ncbi Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?
    Justin S Cummins
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Center, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 40:E26-9. 2011
    ..28-0.39), the seatbelt- only group had a 51% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.49; 99% CI, 0.45-0.52), and the air-bag-only group had a 32% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.68, 99% CI, 0.57-0.80). Injury Severity Scores showed a similar pattern...
  11. ncbi The field performance of frontal air bags: a review of the literature
    Richard Kent
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22902, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 6:1-23. 2005
    ..The review begins with the benefits of air bags. Fatality and injury reductions attributable to the air bag are presented...
  12. ncbi Potential impact of seatbelt use on the spectrum of ocular injuries and visual acuity outcomes after motor vehicle accidents with airbag deployment
    Sunil K Rao
    Division of Ophthalmology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Ophthalmology 115:573-576.e1. 2008
    ..To investigate the association between seatbelt use and (1) the spectrum of ocular injuries and (2) visual acuity outcomes after motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) with airbag deployment...
  13. ncbi The cost-effectiveness of air bags by seating position
    J D Graham
    Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 278:1418-25. 1997
    Motor vehicle crashes continue to cause significant mortality and morbidity in the United States. Installation of air bags in new passenger vehicles is a major initiative in the field of injury prevention.
  14. pmc Frequency of injuries in multiple impact crashes
    K Digges
    The FHWA NHTSA National Crash Analysis Center, The George Washington University, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 47:417-23. 2003
    ..7%), front-side (15.8%) and front-front (14.9). The data suggests the need for further investigation and classification complex multiple impact crashes to aid in the in the design of safety systems...
  15. ncbi Restraint use and lower extremity fractures in frontal motor vehicle collisions
    Lance S Estrada
    Section of Orthopaedic Trauma, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0016, USA
    J Trauma 57:323-8. 2004
    Seat belts and air bags have been shown to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality following MVCs...
  16. pmc Factors influencing occupant-to-seat belt interaction in far-side crashes
    C A Douglas
    Monash University Accident Research Centre, Australia
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 51:319-39. 2007
    ..However, the addition of pretension allowed the shoulder to engage the belt in all impacts from 30 to 90 degrees...
  17. pmc Age appropriate restraints for the right front passenger
    J Augenstein
    William Lehman Injury Research Center, Miami, Florida, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 51:381-94. 2007
    ..These results suggest the need for more benign safety systems for the right front passenger that are appropriate for the lower injury tolerance of the predominant occupants of that seating position...
  18. pmc A population-based comparison of CIREN and NASS cases using similarity scoring
    Joel D Stitzel
    Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 51:395-417. 2007
    ..Weighted NASS data and CIREN data were obtained for the years 2001-2005. NASS cases with Maximum AIS 3 resulted in a subset of 1,869 NASS cases, and 2,819 CIREN cases...
  19. pmc Making vehicles safer
    Jon S Vernick
    Am J Public Health 94:170; author reply 171-2. 2004
  20. ncbi Letter to the editors and reply on: "Air bag effectiveness as a function of impact speed" Traffic Injury Prevention, 4:128-135, 2003
    Maria Segui-Gomez
    Traffic Inj Prev 5:90; author reply 90-2. 2004
  21. ncbi Deaths among drivers and right-front passengers in frontal collisions: redesigned air bags relative to first-generation air bags
    Elisa R Braver
    Charles McC Mathias National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 9:48-58. 2008
    ..of using sled tests for unbelted male dummies to certify the frontal crash performance of vehicles, most frontal air bags were depowered, starting in model year 1998, to reduce deaths and serious injuries arising from air bag ..
  22. ncbi Frontal air bags and eye injury patterns in automobile crashes
    Dante J Pieramici
    Arch Ophthalmol 121:1807-8; author reply 1808. 2003
  23. ncbi The cushion effect
    Saman Arbabi
    Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, USA
    J Trauma 54:1090-3. 2003
    ..Human body characteristics such as height and weight may play an important role. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) will influence crash injury patterns...
  24. ncbi The association between occupant restraint systems and risk of injury in frontal motor vehicle collisions
    Gerald McGwin
    Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    J Trauma 54:1182-7. 2003
    ..An evaluation of seat belt use and airbag deployment, either alone or in combination, on risk of injury to specific body regions has yet to be completed...
  25. doi The impact of safety belt use on liver injuries in motor vehicle crashes
    Narong Kulvatunyou
    J Trauma 65:493. 2008
  26. pmc Requirements for the crash protection of older vehicle passengers
    Andrew Morris
    Vehicle Safety Research Centre, Loughborough University, UK
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 47:165-80. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi Do motor vehicle airbags increase risk of ocular injuries in adults?
    Kirsti S Lehto
    Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Finland
    Ophthalmology 110:1082-8. 2003
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of eye injury in motor vehicle accidents in which airbags deploy. An attempt was made to assess the possible associations between eye injuries and eyewear in these accidents...
  28. ncbi Effect of restraint systems on maxillofacial injury in frontal motor vehicle collisions
    Daniel Cox
    Center for Injury Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294 0009, USA
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62:571-5. 2004
    ..We sought to characterize the occupant restraint system (seat belt and air bag) and collision characteristics associated with MVC-related maxillofacial injuries...
  29. ncbi The effects of airbags on orbital fracture patterns in frontal automobile crashes
    Stefan M Duma
    Virginia Tech, Mechanical Engineering, 114 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 19:107-11. 2003
    ..To investigate orbital fractures that occurred in frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal airbags on injury incidence and severity...
  30. pmc Benefits of a low severity frontal crash test
    Kennerly Digges
    George Washington University, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 51:299-317. 2007
    ..to 36 mm. was conducted. A standard that limits the chest deflection to 34 mm. would reduce serious chest injury by 16% to 24% for the belted population in frontal crashes...
  31. ncbi Calcaneal fractures in occupants involved in severe frontal motor vehicle crashes
    Emily Benson
    Orthopedic Trauma and Fracture Specialists, San Diego, CA, United States
    Accid Anal Prev 39:794-9. 2007
    ..Because lower extremity injuries, including calcaneal fractures, may cause permanent disability, it is important to prevent these injuries through structural improvements in motor vehicle design...
  32. ncbi Motor vehicle restraint system use and risk of spine injury
    Mark A Reed
    Center for Injury Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 7:256-63. 2006
    ..This study examined the relationship between the occurrence of mild to severe cervical and thoracolumbar spine injury and occupant restraint systems among front seat occupants involved in frontal MVCs...
  33. ncbi Limits for survivability in frontal collisions: theory and real-life data combined
    Denis P Wood
    Denis Wood Associates, Isoldes Tower, 1 Essex Quay, Dublin 8, Ireland
    Accid Anal Prev 39:679-87. 2007
    ..While the hypothesis is supported by the presently available limited high-speed collision data, further in-depth investigations should be undertaken to confirm the ultimate limits of survivability...
  34. ncbi Development of point mass occupant injury criteria using event data recorders
    Douglas J Gabauer
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest Center for Injury Biomechanics, 100F Randolph Hall MC 0238 Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Biomed Sci Instrum 42:166-71. 2006
    ..A 50% probability of serious injury is found to correspond to an OIV of 11.2 m/s and 15.9 m/s for unbelted and belted occupants, respectively...
  35. ncbi Occupant injury in longitudinal barrier collisions: effects of restraints
    Douglas J Gabauer
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest, Center for Injury Biomechanics Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Biomed Sci Instrum 43:1-6. 2007
    ..Despite these large differences in relative risk, however, 95 percent of the occupants in the analyzed data were either uninjured or sustained minor injury, which reinforces the overall effectiveness of these roadside devices...
  36. ncbi Computer simulation and validation of the Archimedes Lever hypothesis as a mechanism for aortic isthmus disruption in a case of lateral impact motor vehicle crash: a Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) study
    John H Siegel
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, NJ 07631, USA
    J Trauma 60:1072-82. 2006
    ....
  37. ncbi Airbag deployment and improperly restrained children: a lethal combination
    Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
    Department of Neurological Surgery, San Francisco Injury Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Trauma 59:729-33. 2005
    ..We also reviewed the relevant literature and provide information useful for caregivers and health care professionals in hopes of reducing future injuries...
  38. ncbi Air bag effectiveness as function of impact speed
    G S Nusholtz
    DaimlerChrysler, Auburn Hills, Michigan 48326 USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 4:128-35. 2003
    An investigation was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of air bags as a function of velocity...
  39. ncbi Odontoid fracture in motor vehicle environments
    Narayan Yoganandan
    Biomedical Engineering, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, VA Medical Center, 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 37:505-14. 2005
    ..e., fracture type, and the associated mechanism of injury. The mechanism component in any epidemiologically based injury analyses is valuable to advance improvements in vehicle crashworthiness...
  40. ncbi Chest deflection tolerance to blunt anterior loading is sensitive to age but not load distribution
    Richard Kent
    Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, 1011 Linden Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22902, USA
    Forensic Sci Int 149:121-8. 2005
    ..The 50% risk of severe injury is shown to occur at 33% chest deflection for a 70-year-old, but at 43% for a 30-year-old...
  41. ncbi Effects of seating position and appropriate restraint use on the risk of injury to children in motor vehicle crashes
    Dennis R Durbin
    TraumaLink, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th St and Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 115:e305-9. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi Using head-on collisions to compare risk of driver death by frontal air bag generation: a matched-pair cohort study
    Elisa R Braver
    National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:546-52. 2008
    ..This change facilitated depowering of frontal air bags and was intended to reduce air bag-induced deaths...
  43. ncbi An evaluation of the EuroNCAP crash test safety ratings in the real world
    Maria Segui-Gomez
    European Center for Injury Prevention, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Universidad de Navarra Pamplona, Spain
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 51:282-98. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi Caring for patients with traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta
    Angela Smith Collins
    Capstone College of Nursing, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 0358, USA
    Dimens Crit Care Nurs 26:51-6. 2007
    ..Current procedural issues are delineated and case studies are used to illustrate the processes of care needed by these patients...
  45. ncbi Steering wheel deformity and serious thoracic or abdominal injury among drivers and passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes
    Craig D Newgard
    Center for Policy and Research in Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201 3098, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 45:43-50. 2005
    ..We assess the relationship between steering wheel deformity and serious thoracic or abdominal injury among drivers and front seat passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes, while adjusting for important crash factors...
  46. ncbi Projecting effects of improvements in passive safety of the New Zealand light vehicle fleet
    Michael Keall
    Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia
    Traffic Inj Prev 8:275-80. 2007
    ..The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology for projecting changes in casualty rates associated with passive safety features and to apply this methodology to produce a new prediction...
  47. ncbi Kinematics of belted fatalities in frontal collisions: A new approach in deep studies of injury mechanisms
    Mats O Lindquist
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Surgery, Umea University, Saab Automobile, Enginuity Services International, Trollhattan, Sweden
    J Trauma 61:1506-16. 2006
    ..The main purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of injury mechanisms and injuries in fatal SO and LO car crashes in Sweden...
  48. ncbi Maxillofacial injuries in North American vehicle crashes
    Christopher Brookes
    Blackpool Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, Lancashire, UK
    Eur J Emerg Med 10:30-4. 2003
    ..The vehicle 'A' pillar as a source of injury is highlighted. Although there is no doubt that airbags save lives, the possible risks of powerful airbag deployment to small stature, out of position, vehicle occupants is discussed...
  49. ncbi The 5(th) percentile dummy in a 56 kmph full-frontal barrier crash test
    Nathaniel M Beuse
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:387-409. 2002
    ..Finally, the testing revealed the need for different stature dummies to ensure equal protection for all occupants...
  50. ncbi Are booster seats needed: comparing occupant outcomes ages 4-7 versus 8-13
    Ted Miller
    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, Maryland
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:249-59. 2002
    ..If anything, they may fare better...
  51. ncbi US Injury trends projected to 2012: the influence of an aging population
    Richard Kent
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:157-75. 2002
    ..After 2012, however, airbag availability and seatbelt use will plateau, while societal aging will continue...
  52. pmc Children in crashes: mechanisms of injury and restraint systems
    P C Lapner
    Department of Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ont
    Can J Surg 44:445-9. 2001
    ..Children under the age of 12 years should not be front-seat passengers until the sensitivity of air bags has been improved...
  53. ncbi [Awareness of the risk of air bag-associated injuries essential]
    Ulf Bjornstig
    Institutionen för kirurgi och perioperativ vetenskap, kirurgi, Umea Universitet
    Lakartidningen 99:3022-6. 2002
    Restraint systems, such as air bags and seat belts with pretensioners, reduce effectively the risk of serious injuries of car occupants. However, this equipment may have some adverse effects...
  54. ncbi Factors influencing the patterns of injuries and outcomes in car versus car crashes compared to sport utility, van, or pick-up truck versus car crashes: Crash Injury Research Engineering Network Study
    J H Siegel
    Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School-UMDNJ, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    J Trauma 51:975-90. 2001
    ....
  55. ncbi Contemporary analysis of thoracic aortic injury: importance of screening based on crash characteristics
    Christopher P Michetti
    Inova Regional Trauma Center and the Honda Inova Fairfax Hospital CIREN Center, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, Virginia 22042, USA
    J Trauma 63:18-24; discussion 24-5. 2007
    ..To use motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics to determine risk of thoracic aortic injury (TAI) and provide updated mortality data...
  56. pmc Injuries associated with airbag deployment
    L A Wallis
    Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK
    Emerg Med J 19:490-3. 2002
  57. ncbi An overview of requirements for the crash protection of older drivers
    Andrew Morris
    Vehicle Safety Research Centre, Loughborough University, UK
    Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46:141-56. 2002
    ..Furthermore, as older drivers are likely to become a more significant problem in the years ahead, it is now necessary to examine some vehicle design factors that affect the safety of the older driver in a crash...
  58. ncbi [A survey of present situation of general intensive care unit in second grade hospitals and construction of intensive care network in Guangdong province]
    Qi Guo
    Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong, China
    Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 19:619-22. 2007
    ..To investigate the present situation of general intensive care unit (ICU) in second grade hospitals, and to establish intensive care network for the Department of Public Health of Guangdong province in Guangdong province...
  59. ncbi Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS
    Brian O'Neill
    Traffic Inj Prev 10:113-26. 2009
    ..However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs...
  60. ncbi Knee injuries in motor vehicle collisions: a study of the National Accident Sampling System database for the years 1979-1995
    T Atkinson
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 32:779-86. 2000
    ..As this study largely included only vehicles without airbags it provides a good baseline for analysis of the influence of the airbag on knee injury trends in the future...
  61. ncbi In utero and lactational exposure of Long-Evans rats to ammonium perchlorate (AP) disrupts ovarian follicle maturation
    Monika G Baldridge
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 19:155-61. 2004
    ..T35ES007292 & ES08342.)...
  62. ncbi Injury causation scenarios in belt-restrained nearside child occupants
    Matthew R Maltese
    The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 51:299-311. 2007
    ..These data provide important guidance for the development of rear row safety systems for belt-restrained children with no side airbags in nearside crashes...
  63. ncbi Occupant injury protection in automobile collisions
    G A Peters
    Peters and Peters, Santa Monica, California, USA
    J R Soc Promot Health 119:254-60. 1999
    ..fails to understand the function of head restraints, few understand the 'safe zone' posture required for air bags and many believe safety features should be adjusted only for comfort...
  64. ncbi Sensitivity of the WorldSID 50th and ES-2re Thoraces to Loading Configuration
    Xavier Trosseille
    LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën RENAULT 132 rue des Suisses, F92000 Nanterre, France
    Stapp Car Crash J 54:259-87. 2010
    ..Rib deflections of the ES- 2re were not sensitive to padding. Finally, VC should not be considered as a valid criterion to assess the risk of rib fractures...
  65. ncbi Effects of shoulder belt limit forces on adult thoracic protection in frontal collisions
    Harold J Mertz
    D J Dalmotas Consulting, Inc
    Stapp Car Crash J 51:361-80. 2007
    ..4...
  66. ncbi Crash and occupant predictors of pulmonary contusion
    James V O'Connor
    R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Trauma 66:1091-5. 2009
    ..The crash and occupant characteristics of PC in motor vehicle collisions are currently unknown. Additionally, the clinical significance and the impact on mortality have not been determined...
  67. ncbi Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers
    Laurie A Hellinga
    Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 1005 North Glebe Road, Arlington, VA 22201 USA
    J Safety Res 38:707-13. 2007
    ..To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety...
  68. ncbi US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine
    Clarence William Murray
    Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland 20740 3835, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 18:571-80. 2008
    ..Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR)...
  69. pmc Rear seat occupant thorax protection in near side impacts
    Katarina Bohman
    Autoliv Research, Vargarda, Sweden
    Ann Adv Automot Med 53:3-12. 2009
    ..The full scale crash tests showed that SAB offer a significant potential for thoracic injury reduction in the crash severities causing the majority of serious injuries in real life crashes...
  70. ncbi Motor vehicle-related cardiac and aortic injuries differ from other thoracic injuries
    Carol Conroy
    Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, California 92103 8896, USA
    J Trauma 62:1462-7. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for motor vehicle-related cardiac and thoracic aortic (HTA) injury using the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database...
  71. ncbi Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho
    H Lin
    Department of Community Oral Health, University of Western Cape, Tygerberg
    SADJ 63:152, 154-6. 2008
    ..Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced...
  72. ncbi A note on the variance of paired comparisons estimates
    Ellen S Hertz
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC 20590, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 34:401-4. 2002
    ..An example of the independent case is. x is the number of fatalities in frontal crashes without air bags; y the number of fatalities in non-frontal crashes without air bags; s the number of fatalities in frontal ..
  73. ncbi The physician's role in injury prevention: beyond the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force report
    G S Smith
    Johns Hopkins Injury Prevention Center, Baltimore, MD 21205
    J Gen Intern Med 5:S67-73. 1990
    ..have proven effectiveness in certain situations, interventions that are passive or automatic in action, such as air bags, have proven to be more effective long-term solutions to reduce both the number and the severity of injuries...
  74. ncbi Safety halls--an evaluation
    Anders Nyberg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute VTI, and Linköping University, Department of Health and Society, Division of Social Medicine and Public Health, Linkoping, Sweden
    J Safety Res 36:429-39. 2005
    ..g., airbags and seat belts). However, there is now evidence worldwide that such education is inadequate, as indicated by, for example, the overrepresentation of young drivers who do not use seat belts...
  75. ncbi Vehicle mismatch: injury patterns and severity
    S Acierno
    Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, H 220 Health Sciences Center, University of Washington, P O Box 359960, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 1520, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 36:761-72. 2004
    ....
  76. pmc Thoracic Injury Risk as a Function of Crash Severity - Car-to-car Side Impact Tests with WorldSID Compared to Real-life Crashes
    Cecilia Sunnevang
    Autoliv Research, Vargarda, Sweden Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Ann Adv Automot Med 54:159-68. 2010
    ..The structural integrity of the modern car impacted at 70 km/h showed a potential for improved side impact protection by interior countermeasures...
  77. ncbi A study of the effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control in Canada
    Aline Chouinard
    Transport Canada, 275 Slater, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N5
    Accid Anal Prev 43:451-60. 2011
    Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is a crash avoidance system found on many vehicles. Unlike air bags, which only help during a collision, ESC helps to avoid a loss of control that could lead to a collision by preventing skidding...
  78. pmc Characterization of torso side airbag aggressivity - biomed 2009
    Jason J Hallman
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Marquette University, and VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI
    Biomed Sci Instrum 45:101-6. 2009
    ..These force characteristics may correlate to thoracic injury risk from out-of position torso side airbag deployment...
  79. ncbi Delta V, principal direction of force, and restraint use contributions to motor vehicle crash mortality
    Gabriel E Ryb
    The Charles McC Mathias, Jr National Study Center for Trauma and EMS, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Trauma 63:1000-5. 2007
    ..To measure the combined contribution of change in velocity (Deltav), principal direction of force (PDOF), and restraint use on mortality after vehicular trauma...
  80. ncbi Evidence-based interventions for road traffic injuries in South Asia
    Dinesh Mohan
    Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 14:746-7. 2004
    ..Traffic calming techniques, the use of roundabouts and the provision of pedestrian and bicycle facilities in urban areas provide significant safety benefits...
  81. ncbi Change in velocity and energy dissipation on impact in motor vehicle crashes as a function of the direction of crash: key factors in the production of thoracic aortic injuries, their pattern of associated injuries and patient survival. A Crash Injury Rese
    John H Siegel
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, New Jersey Medical School UMDNJ, Newark, New Jersey 07107 1709, USA
    J Trauma 57:760-77; discussion 777-8. 2004
    ..Comparison of 80 AI and 796 non-AI patients of AIS=3...
  82. ncbi Blunt trauma of the aging eye: injury mechanisms and increasing lens stiffness
    Joel D Stitzel
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest Center for Injury Biomechanics, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 123:789-94. 2005
    ..To investigate possible injury mechanisms in the eyes of elderly individuals and the effects of lens stiffness on model outputs indicative of injury as a function of age...
  83. ncbi Injury severity, vehicle safety features, and intersection crashes
    K Obeng
    Department of Economics and Transportation Logistics, School of Business and Economics, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 9:268-76. 2008
    ..This article examines injury severity in crashes that occur within signalized intersections and identifies some factors that explain them...
  84. ncbi How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?
    Sjaanie Koppel
    Monash University Accident Research Centre, Building 70, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
    Accid Anal Prev 40:994-1004. 2008
    ....
  85. ncbi The influence of vehicle damage on injury severity of drivers in head-on motor vehicle crashes
    Carol Conroy
    Department of Surgery, County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services, University of California San Diego, 6255 Mission Gorge Road, San Diego, CA 92120, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 40:1589-94. 2008
    ..in injury patterns, severity, and sources for drivers, protected by safety belts and deploying steering wheel air bags, in head-on frontal impacts. We studied whether exterior vehicle damage with a different distribution (wide vs...
  86. ncbi The influence of airbags on thoracic organ lesion types - biomed 2009
    Craig P Thor
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest Center for Injury Biomechanics, Blackburg, VA
    Biomed Sci Instrum 45:352-7. 2009
    ..This suggests that the airbag offers little additional protection against thoracic organ injury than provided by seat belts alone...
  87. ncbi Variability and uncertainty meet risk management and risk communication
    Kimberly M Thompson
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Risk Anal 22:647-54. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi Integrated model of simulated occupant injury risk and real medical costs
    Wei Chung Liu
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, R O C
    J Safety Res 40:461-8. 2009
    ..Using our model, the expected medical treatment costs for crash injuries to various body regions and of different severities can be investigated...
  89. ncbi Type II odontoid fracture from frontal impact: case report and biomechanical mechanism of injury
    Narayan Yoganandan
    Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    J Neurosurg Spine 2:481-5. 2005
    ..It may be more important to use seat belts than to depend on the airbag alone for protection from injury...
  90. ncbi Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen
    J Stingl
    Department of Anatomy, 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Ruska 87, 100 00 Prague 10, Czech Republic
    Surg Radiol Anat 24:285-9. 2002
    ..to 88 years), and completed by sled tests on dummies testing the loads of both hypochondrial regions protected by air bags and/or seat belts. Results obtained were the following: (1). liver: capsule collagen 14-35%, critical tension 0...
  91. ncbi Life-altering outcomes after lower extremity injury sustained in motor vehicle crashes
    Kathleen M Read
    The Charles McC Mathias, Jr, National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Trauma 57:815-23. 2004
    ..Lower extremity injuries (LEIs) sustained in vehicular crashes result in physical problems and unexpected psychosocial consequences. Their significance is diminished by low Abbreviated Injury Scale scores...
  92. ncbi Modeling occupant-level injury severity: An application to large-truck crashes
    Xiaoyu Zhu
    Dept of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, 512 Weil Hall, PO Box 116580, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Accid Anal Prev 43:1427-37. 2011
    ..Finally, the models also indicate the strong presence of intra-vehicle correlations (effect of common vehicle-specific unobserved factors) among the injury propensities of all persons within a vehicle...
  93. ncbi Injury and violence prevention: a primer
    Andrea Carlson Gielen
    Center for Injury Research and Policy, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Patient Educ Couns 46:163-8. 2002
    ..Using seat belts and car seats, installing air bags in cars, replacing dangerous playground equipment, enforcing drinking and driving laws are but a few examples of ..
  94. ncbi [Prevention of traffic deaths in accidents involving motor vehicles]
    Johannes Bjerre
    Ugeskr Laeger 168:1764-8. 2006
    ..Seat belts, baby chairs and air bags are effective safety precautions, and enforcement of the traffic code is a very effective measure in reducing the ..
  95. ncbi Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents
    Yong Han Ju
    Department Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Accid Anal Prev 43:342-51. 2011
    ..In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration...
  96. ncbi Analysis of backward falls caused by accelerated floor movements using a dummy
    Hisao Nagata
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Tokyo, Japan
    Ind Health 45:462-6. 2007
    ..The duration of falling to the ground tended to converge at 0.8 s as the maximum velocity of accelerated movements of the floor increased, irrespective of the frictional properties of the flooring surfaces...
  97. pmc Torso side airbag out-of-position evaluation using stationary and dynamic occupants
    Jason J Hallman
    Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin and Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 9200 W Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226
    Biomed Sci Instrum 44:123-8. 2008
    ..0 m/s and to 1.96 at 9.0 m/s. These results demonstrated that thoracic injury metrics %C and VC increased in dynamic testing conditions. Therefore dynamic occupant tests may be required to effectively assess OOP thoracic injury risk...
  98. pmc Biomechanical and injury response to posterolateral loading from torso side airbags
    Jason J Hallman
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University 9200 W Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Stapp Car Crash J 54:227-57. 2010
    ..Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°...
  99. ncbi Injury severity and outcome of overweight and obese patients after vehicular trauma: a crash injury research and engineering network (CIREN) study
    Gabriel E Ryb
    National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Trauma 64:406-11. 2008
    ..This study investigates the influence of overweight and obesity on outcome from vehicular trauma...
  100. ncbi The effect of angle on the chest injury outcome in side loading
    Xavier Trosseille
    LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault
    Stapp Car Crash J 53:403-19. 2009
    ..The results of this study provide useful data for the validation of finite element models in terms of injury prediction, as well as for the development of injury risk curves for side impact dummies...
  101. ncbi Humerus fracture bending risk function for the 50th percentile male
    Anthony C Santago
    Virginia Tech Wake Forest University Center for Injury Biomechanics, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA
    Biomed Sci Instrum 44:231-6. 2008
    ..It is believed the risk function can be used with an instrumented upper extremity during vehicle testing...

Research Grants14

  1. Development of Experimental and Computational Models for Traumatic Aortic Rupture
    Kurosh Darvish; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The finite element model will be used as a tool to conduct a parametric study to identify the loading conditions with higher risk of TAR and to analyze the injury mitigation strategies. ..
  2. Estimates of the Value of Life Using Air Bag Regulations as a Quasi-Experiment
    CHRISTOPHER ROHLFS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To address these problems, this project will estimate the VSL using government policies regarding air bags as a "quasi-experiment...
  3. BIOENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF SIDE IMPACT INJURIES TO OLDER DRIVERS
    Frank Pintar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This multifaceted design will duplicate side impacts in a controlled laboratory environment for in-position and out-of-position occupants for young and old age groups. ..
  4. Validation of Injury Reduction by Bumper Airbags for Heavy Truck Collisions
    PETER DREHER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These results will verify the simulations and may lead to new improvements for further injury reduction. Several rounds of testing and improving are scheduled. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Extended work schedules and health outcomes in the US
    Gerald McGwin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Analyses will be adjusted for a number of possible confounders and effect modifier obtained from MEPS and NHIS including socio-demographic factors, family descriptors and lifestyle factors. ..
  6. Obesity-Related Variables and Motor Vehicle Injury
    Shankuan Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  7. The Johns Hopkins Injury Control Research Center
    Andrea Gielen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Application Not Provided ..
  8. Homocysteine/Hypertension & Vascular Lesion Formation
    Peter Lin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Evaluating Child Safety Product Dissemination and Educa*
    Andrea Gielen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract not provided ..
  10. Brief Child Safety Interventions in Emergency Department
    Andrea Gielen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..With the ever growing access to computers in medical care settings, the Safety in Seconds program should be readily adaptable to other pediatric emergency department settings that serve vulnerable populations. ..
  11. Feasibility Study of Soccer Injuries
    Melissa Schiff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Findings from this research will be used to for the development of a large, prospective cohort study to evaluate potentially modifiable risk factors for injury among female youth soccer players. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. Health Literacy and Child Prevention Injury
    Andrea Gielen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Modulation by dioxin of ovarian estrogen synthesis
    REINHOLD HUTZ; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This AREA will serve as a "seed grant" to produce preliminary data and assist us in deciding the course of action to pursue in a R01 application. ..