local lymph node assay

Summary

Summary: The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The reduced local lymph node assay: the impact of group size
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 28:518-23. 2008
  2. ncbi Compilation of historical local lymph node data for evaluation of skin sensitization alternative methods
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Dermatitis 16:157-202. 2005
  3. pmc A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests
    Henrik Johansson
    Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, BMC D13, 21184 Lund, Sweden
    BMC Genomics 12:399. 2011
  4. ncbi A comparative evaluation of in vitro skin sensitisation tests: the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) versus the local lymph node assay (LLNA)
    Takao Ashikaga
    Shiseido Co Ltd, Quality Assessment Centre, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Altern Lab Anim 38:275-84. 2010
  5. ncbi The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation
    Jos J van Triel
    TNO Quality of Life, Department of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Toxicology 279:115-22. 2011
  6. ncbi [Improvement of local lymph node assay for cosmetics safety evaluation]
    Zhen Liu
    Department of Toxicology, The Second Military Medicine University, Shanghai 200433, China
    Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 38:585-9. 2009
  7. ncbi Use of a B cell marker (B220) to discriminate between allergens and irritants in the local lymph node assay
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, Ohio 4523 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:420-8. 2002
  8. ncbi Development of a peptide reactivity assay for screening contact allergens
    G Frank Gerberick
    Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 81:332-43. 2004
  9. ncbi Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Immunology, Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 57:242-7. 2007
  10. ncbi The impact of vehicle on the relative potency of skin-sensitizing chemicals in the local lymph node assay
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 27:67-75. 2008

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications194 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The reduced local lymph node assay: the impact of group size
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 28:518-23. 2008
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a skin sensitization test that provides animal welfare benefits. To reduce animal usage further, a modified version (rLLNA) was proposed...
  2. ncbi Compilation of historical local lymph node data for evaluation of skin sensitization alternative methods
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253 8707, USA
    Dermatitis 16:157-202. 2005
    ..In recent years, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) has emerged as a practical option for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals...
  3. pmc A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests
    Henrik Johansson
    Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, BMC D13, 21184 Lund, Sweden
    BMC Genomics 12:399. 2011
    ..The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power...
  4. ncbi A comparative evaluation of in vitro skin sensitisation tests: the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) versus the local lymph node assay (LLNA)
    Takao Ashikaga
    Shiseido Co Ltd, Quality Assessment Centre, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Altern Lab Anim 38:275-84. 2010
    ..One hundred chemicals were selected, according to their categorisation in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), as being: extreme, strong, moderate and weak sensitisers, and non-sensitisers...
  5. ncbi The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation
    Jos J van Triel
    TNO Quality of Life, Department of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Toxicology 279:115-22. 2011
    ..molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation...
  6. ncbi [Improvement of local lymph node assay for cosmetics safety evaluation]
    Zhen Liu
    Department of Toxicology, The Second Military Medicine University, Shanghai 200433, China
    Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 38:585-9. 2009
    To improve the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as an alternative method to detect chemicals for both sensitization and irritation.
  7. ncbi Use of a B cell marker (B220) to discriminate between allergens and irritants in the local lymph node assay
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, Ohio 4523 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 68:420-8. 2002
    ..of the percentage of B220+ cells could be used as an alternative or supplementary endpoint for the local lymph node assay (LLNA) to differentiate between allergenic responses and those few irritants that induce low-level ..
  8. ncbi Development of a peptide reactivity assay for screening contact allergens
    G Frank Gerberick
    Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Laboratories, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253 8707, USA
    Toxicol Sci 81:332-43. 2004
    ..In recent years, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) has emerged as a practical option for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals...
  9. ncbi Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Immunology, Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 57:242-7. 2007
    ..Limited information from previous guinea-pig tests or from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is available; however, these data are incomplete and somewhat contradictory...
  10. ncbi The impact of vehicle on the relative potency of skin-sensitizing chemicals in the local lymph node assay
    Ian R Jowsey
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 27:67-75. 2008
    ..The objective of the analysis described herein is to determine the impact of vehicle differences on local lymph node assay (LLNA) EC3 values (concentrations of test chemical required to provoke a 3-fold increase in lymph node ..
  11. ncbi The murine local lymph node assay: regulatory and potency considerations under REACH
    Helen F McGarry
    Corporate Health Specialist Division 1, Health and Safety Executive, Redgrave Court 2 3, Merton Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 7HS, UK
    Toxicology 238:71-89. 2007
    ..For skin sensitization hazard identification, REACH states that the first-choice in vivo assay is the local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  12. ncbi Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment
    S E Loveless
    DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences, Newark, DE, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 56:54-66. 2010
    ..The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as ..
  13. ncbi The local lymph node assay: past, present and future
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 47:315-28. 2002
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed originally as a method for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis...
  14. ncbi Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization
    David W Roberts
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:1019-30. 2007
    ..To this end, a recently published database of more than 200 chemicals tested in the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been examined in relation to various chemical reaction mechanistic domains known to be ..
  15. ncbi Local lymph node assay (LLNA) for detection of sensitization capacity of chemicals
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety Department, Miami Valley Innovation Center, P O Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Methods 41:54-60. 2007
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a murine model developed to evaluate the skin sensitization potential of chemicals...
  16. ncbi Skin sensitization potency of methyl methacrylate in the local lymph node assay: comparisons with guinea-pig data and human experience
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:140-7. 2006
    ..Relative potency can now be measured effectively using the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) and such data form the basis of risk assessment and risk management strategies...
  17. ncbi The local lymph node assay in practice: a current regulatory perspective
    A Cockshott
    Health and Safety Executive, Bootle, UK
    Hum Exp Toxicol 25:387-94. 2006
    Following the formal acceptance of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline in April 2002, the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) informed notifiers that this was now ..
  18. ncbi The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization: a cut-down screen to reduce animal requirements?
    Ian Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 54:181-5. 2006
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA), an alternative approach to skin-sensitizing testing, has made a significant contribution to animal welfare by permitting a reduction and refinement of animal use...
  19. ncbi Quantitative relationship between the local lymph node assay and human skin sensitization assays
    K Schneider
    Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe FoBiG GmbH, Werderring 16, D 79098 Freiburg, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 39:245-55. 2004
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a new test method which allows for the quantitative assessment of sensitizing potency in the mouse...
  20. ncbi The skin sensitization potential of resorcinol: experience with the local lymph node assay
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:196-200. 2007
    ..Here, we describe the outcome of a recent local lymph node assay performed in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline 429, which ..
  21. ncbi The local lymph node assay compared with the human maximization test as an indicator of allergic potency in humans using patch test clinic populations
    Danny Zaghi
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:61-4. 2009
    The human maximization test (HMT) is a method to evaluate potency in humans, while the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a test method that allows for the measuring of the allergic potency of a substance in a rodent...
  22. ncbi The respiratory local lymph node assay as a tool to study respiratory sensitizers
    Josje H E Arts
    TNO Quality of Life, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Sci 106:423-34. 2008
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to test the potential of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds to induce sensitization via the skin. In the present study, a respiratory LLNA was developed...
  23. ncbi Evaluation of a toxicogenomic approach to the local lymph node assay (LLNA)
    Darrell R Boverhof
    Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan 48674, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:427-39. 2009
    ..study was conducted to assess the sensitivity of genomic responses when compared with the traditional local lymph node assay (LLNA) endpoint of lymph node cell proliferation and to evaluate the responses for their ability to ..
  24. ncbi Characterization and evaluation of a modified local lymph node assay using ATP content as a non-radio isotopic endpoint
    Kenji Idehara
    Analysis Service Center, Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd, 1239, Shinzaike, Aboshi ku, Himeji, Hyogo 671 1283, Japan
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 58:1-10. 2008
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an accepted and widely used method for assessing the skin-sensitizing potential of chemicals...
  25. ncbi Contact allergenic potency: correlation of human and local lymph node assay data
    G F Gerberick
    Human and Environmental Safety Division, Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH 45252, USA
    Am J Contact Dermat 12:156-61. 2001
    ..Preclinical testing for sensitization potential is critically important for hazard assessment before human exposure. The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the most recently accepted test method for sensitization hazard assessment.
  26. ncbi Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT)
    R Kreiling
    Clariant Produkte Deutschland GmbH, D 65840 Sulzbach, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 46:1896-904. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi Novel approach for classifying chemicals according to skin sensitizing potency by non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay
    Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Hita Laboratory, Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, 3 822 Ishii machi, Hita shi, Oita 8770061, Japan
    J Appl Toxicol 25:129-34. 2005
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is currently recognized as a stand-alone sensitization test for determining the sensitizing potential of chemicals, and it has the advantage of yielding a quantitative endpoint that can be used to ..
  28. ncbi Measurement of allergenic potency using the local lymph node assay
    D A Basketter
    SEAC Toxicology Unit, Unilever Research, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford, UK MK441LQ
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:264-5. 2001
    ..A new method, the local lymph node assay, replaces the guinea-pig as a tool for hazard identification and offers the real prospect of accurate ..
  29. ncbi Nothing is perfect, not even the local lymph node assay: a commentary and the implications for REACH
    David A Basketter
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 60:65-9. 2009
    For many regulatory authorities, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred assay for the predictive identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals...
  30. ncbi ICCVAM evaluation of the murine local lymph node assay. Conclusions and recommendations of an independent scientific peer review panel
    J H Dean
    Sanofi-Synthelabo Research, Sanofi-Synthelabo Inc, Malvern, PA 19355, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 34:258-73. 2001
    The validation status of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), a method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals, was evaluated by an independent peer review panel (Panel) convened by the Interagency ..
  31. ncbi Classification of contact allergens according to potency: proposals
    I Kimber
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:1799-809. 2003
    ..methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation, and for which OECD guidelines are available: the local lymph node assay (LLNA), the guinea pig maximisation test and the occluded patch test of Buehler...
  32. ncbi Protein binding and metabolism influence the relative skin sensitization potential of cinnamic compounds
    Eiram N Elahi
    Biological Chemistry Section, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Imperial College School of Medicine, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom, SW7 2AZ
    Chem Res Toxicol 17:301-10. 2004
    ..observations have been related to relative skin sensitization potential, as determined using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as a biological read-out...
  33. ncbi Assessment of the U937 cell line for the detection of contact allergens
    François Python
    Experimental Product Safety, The Procter and Gamble Co, Wella Cosmital SA, Marly, Switzerland
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 220:113-24. 2007
    ..activation test could discriminate test items classified as contact sensitizers or non-sensitizers in the local lymph node assay in mice (LLNA)...
  34. ncbi Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens
    Lina Hagvall
    Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 233:308-13. 2008
    ..The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  35. ncbi Skin exposure to weak and moderate contact allergens induces IFNgamma production by lymph node cells of CD4+ T-cell-depleted mice
    Marc Vocanson
    Faculte de Medecine, Université Lyon1, Lyon Sud, France
    J Invest Dermatol 129:1185-91. 2009
    ..LN cells from mice sensitized as in the classical local lymph node assay (LLNA) were recovered at day 5, then cultured for 20 hours in the presence of submitogenic doses of ..
  36. ncbi Fragrance compound geraniol forms contact allergens on air exposure. Identification and quantification of oxidation products and effect on skin sensitization
    Lina Hagvall
    Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, Goteborg University, SE 412 96 Goteborg, Sweden
    Chem Res Toxicol 20:807-14. 2007
    ..potency of geraniol itself, air-exposed geraniol, and its oxidation products was determined using the local lymph node assay in mice...
  37. ncbi Ranking of allergenic potency of rubber chemicals in a modified local lymph node assay
    Wim H De Jong
    Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM, P O Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Sci 66:226-32. 2002
    A modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) with ex vivo tritium thymidine (3H-TdR) labeling of the proliferating lymph node cells was used for determination of the allergenic potency of chemicals used in the production of rubber for latex ..
  38. ncbi ICCVAM evaluation of the murine local lymph node assay. Data analyses completed by the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods
    K E Haneke
    National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD EC-17, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 34:274-86. 2001
    To evaluate the reliability of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), a test for allergic contact dermatitis activity, the inter- and intralaboratory consistency statistics (h and k, respectively) were calculated for validation studies ..
  39. ncbi The local lymph node assay and the assessment of relative potency: status of validation
    David A Basketter
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 57:70-5. 2007
    For the prediction of skin sensitization potential, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a fully validated alternative to guinea-pig tests...
  40. ncbi Application of the random forest method in studies of local lymph node assay based skin sensitization data
    Shengqiao Li
    Health Effect Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA
    J Chem Inf Model 45:952-64. 2005
    ..procedure outperforms a single classification tree and the standard random forest method in predicting Local Lymph Node Assay based skin sensitization activity...
  41. ncbi Evaluating the sensitization potential of surfactants: integrating data from the local lymph node assay, guinea pig maximization test, and in vitro methods in a weight-of-evidence approach
    Nicholas Ball
    Dow Europe GmbH, Horgen, Switzerland
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 60:389-400. 2011
    ....
  42. ncbi Predictive identification of human skin sensitization thresholds
    David A Basketter
    Unilever, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 53:260-7. 2005
    ..In this respect, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been shown to have a number of important advantages...
  43. ncbi Advantage of using CBA/N strain mice in a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay
    Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Hita Laboratory, Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, 3 822, Ishii machi, Hita shi, Oita 8770061, Japan
    J Appl Toxicol 26:5-9. 2006
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is currently recognized as a stand-alone test method for determining the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals...
  44. ncbi Interlaboratory validation of the modified murine local lymph node assay based on adenosine triphosphate measurement
    Takashi Omori
    Kyoto University School of Public Health, Japan
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 58:11-26. 2008
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a well-established alternative to the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) or Buehler test (BT) for the assessment of the skin sensitizing ability of drugs and chemicals...
  45. ncbi Skin sensitisation
    David Basketter
    SEAC, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 33:83-103. 2005
  46. ncbi A comparison of reactivity schemes for the prediction skin sensitization potential
    Grace Patlewicz
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Chemicals Bureau TP582, 21027 Ispra VA, Italy
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:521-41. 2008
    ..schemes has been made using a recently published data set of 210 chemicals that have been tested in the local lymph node assay. The similarities and differences of the schemes are highlighted, together with modifications that could ..
  47. ncbi The local lymph node assay being too sensitive?
    Vohr Hans-Werner
    Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, Aprather Weg, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 79:721-8. 2005
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) and modifications thereof were recently recognized by the OECD as stand-alone methods for the detection of skin-sensitizing potential...
  48. ncbi An alpha,beta-unsaturated oxime identified as a strong contact allergen. Indications of antigen formation via several pathways
    Anna Malin Nilsson
    Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, Goteborg University, SE 412 96 Goteborg, Sweden
    Food Chem Toxicol 43:1627-36. 2005
    ..Due to the strong allergenic effect of the oxime investigated, we strongly advise against the use of such oximes in consumer products until a better understanding of their interactions with biological macromolecules has been obtained...
  49. ncbi Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry
    Michèle Goutet
    Department of Pollutants and Health, National Institute for Research and Safety, 54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 205:259-70. 2005
    ..In conclusion, this study encourages the use of flow cytometry to discriminate between contact and respiratory sensitizers by identifying divergent expression of immune response parameters...
  50. ncbi Potency and risk assessment of a skin-sensitizing disperse dye using the local lymph node assay
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK1 4TJ, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 52:268-72. 2005
    ..The approach taken was to measure dose-response relationships for C.I. Disperse Blue in the local lymph node assay, a method for the assessment of skin-sensitization potential in which activity is measured as a function ..
  51. ncbi Detection of low-level environmental chemical allergy by a long-term sensitization method
    Tomoki Fukuyama
    Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Ibaraki 303 0043, Japan
    Toxicol Lett 180:1-8. 2008
    ..Our mouse model enabled the identification and characterization of chemical-related allergic reactions at low levels. This long-term sensitization method would be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related hypersensitivity...
  52. ncbi Fine ambient particles from various sites in europe exerted a greater IgE adjuvant effect than coarse ambient particles in a mouse model
    Torunn Alberg
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Environmental Medicine, Oslo, Norway
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 72:1-13. 2009
    ....
  53. ncbi Extrapolating local lymph node assay EC3 values to estimate relative sensitizing potency
    Cindy A Ryan
    The Procter and Gamble Company Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:135-45. 2007
    ..The Local Lymph Node Assay can provide information on the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens by interpolation ..
  54. ncbi The local lymph node assay: current position in the regulatory classification of skin sensitizing chemicals
    David A Basketter
    St John s Institute of Dermatology, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:293-301. 2007
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is being used increasingly in the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals for regulatory purposes. In the context of new chemicals legislation (REACH) in Europe, it is the preferred assay...
  55. ncbi The use of ethanol:diethylphthalate as a vehicle for the local lymph node assay
    Catherine J Betts
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 56:70-5. 2007
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used for the prospective identification of contact allergens...
  56. ncbi The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat
    C Frieke Kuper
    TNO, Quality of Life, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Toxicology 246:213-21. 2008
    ..Skin allergy to DNCB was examined in BN rats and Th1-prone Wistar rats in a local lymph node assay followed by a topical patch challenge of 0.1% DNCB...
  57. ncbi Hydrocarbon-based weapons maintenance compounds produce evidence of contact hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice
    D P Arfsten
    Naval Health Research Center Detachment, Environmental Health Effects Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, OH, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 25:185-94. 2006
    ..to the Department of Defense were evaluated for their irritating and sensitizing potential in a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  58. ncbi Carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals are equally important haptens of allylic hydroperoxides in allergic contact dermatitis
    Staffan Johansson
    Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, Medicinal Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:1536-47. 2008
    ..The sensitizing potency of the hydroperoxides was studied in the murine local lymph node assay. All three hydroperoxides were found to be potent sensitizers with some variations, which can be related ..
  59. ncbi Analysis of differential gene expression in auricular lymph nodes draining skin exposed to sensitizers and irritants
    Hyun Ok Ku
    Toxicology and Chemistry Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang, Republic of Korea
    Toxicol Lett 177:1-9. 2008
    ..been some concern that certain non-sensitizing irritants may yield false positive results in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  60. ncbi Quantitative and mechanistic read across for predicting the skin sensitization potential of alkenes acting via Michael addition
    Steven James Enoch
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:513-20. 2008
    ....
  61. ncbi Does irritation potency contribute to the skin sensitization potency of contact allergens?
    D A Basketter
    Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 26:279-86. 2007
    ..To assess this, the sensitizing potency of 55 chemicals in the local lymph node assay was compared with their ability to produce pro-inflammatory signal release, measured as a function of ..
  62. ncbi The skin allergenic properties of chemicals may depend on contaminants--evidence from studies on coumarin
    M Vocanson
    INSERM U 503, IFR 128 Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Lyon, France
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 140:231-8. 2006
    ..In some chemical preparations, this could be explained by the presence of coumarin derivatives endowed with allergenic properties...
  63. ncbi Evaluation of an ex vivo murine local lymph node assay: multiple endpoint comparison
    Joseph R Piccotti
    Worldwide Safety Sciences, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 26:333-40. 2006
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to assess the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the standard assay, mice are treated topically on the dorsum of both ears with test substance for 3 days...
  64. ncbi Cytokine mRNA profiles for isocyanates with known and unknown potential to induce respiratory sensitization
    L M Plitnick
    University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Toxicology 207:487-99. 2005
    ..Further study of these chemicals is needed to determine whether the Th2 cytokine responses observed for these low responders is predictive of asthmagenic potential or represents an insufficient signal...
  65. ncbi Insights into the quantitative relationship between sensitization and challenge for allergic contact dermatitis reactions
    Aaron E Scott
    Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 183:66-70. 2002
    ..their sensitizing capacity, such as the guinea pig maximization test and the more recently developed local lymph node assay, are broadly used...
  66. ncbi Local lymph node assay with non-radioisotope alternative endpoints
    Akiko Suda
    Toxicology Laboratory, Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Center, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 1 403, Yoshino cho, Saitama shi, Saitama 330 8530, Japan
    J Toxicol Sci 27:205-18. 2002
    The local lymph node assay has recently been accepted by regulatory agencies as a stand-alone alternate method for predicting allergic contact dermatitis...
  67. ncbi Assessment of cumulative allergen-activated lymph node cell proliferation using flow cytometry
    Neil E Humphreys
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 4TJ, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Sci 73:80-9. 2003
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the prospective identification of chemical contact allergens...
  68. ncbi Impact of exposure duration by low molecular weight compounds on interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 mRNA expression and production in the draining lymph nodes of mice
    Rob J Vandebriel
    Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P O Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Toxicology 188:1-13. 2003
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to identify allergens by means of dermal exposure. For hazard identification, besides identification also the distinction between contact and respiratory allergens is of importance...
  69. ncbi Divergent immunological responses following glutaraldehyde exposure
    Shahla Azadi
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 197:1-8. 2004
    ..IgE- mediated responses. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ranging from 0.75% to 2.5%...
  70. ncbi Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test
    Tetsuo Yamano
    Osaka City Institute of Public Health, 8 34 Tojo cho, Tennoji ku, 543 0026 Osaka, Japan
    Toxicology 190:259-66. 2003
    ....
  71. ncbi Validity of methods to predict the respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals: A study with a piperidinyl chlorotriazine derivative that caused an outbreak of occupational asthma
    Jeroen A J Vanoirbeek
    Pneumology Lung Toxicology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Toxicol Sci 76:338-46. 2003
    ..These included the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the mouse IgE test...
  72. ncbi Assessment of the skin sensitization potency of eugenol and its dimers using a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay
    Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Chemicals Assessment Center, Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, 3 822, Ishii machi, Hita shi, Oita 8770061, Japan
    J Appl Toxicol 24:77-81. 2004
    ..For these purposes the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed...
  73. ncbi Use of the local lymph node assay in the evaluation of the sensitizing potential of pharmaceutical process intermediates
    Genevieve Durand
    MSD Chibret, Riom, France
    Contact Dermatitis 49:148-54. 2003
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has recently been developed to determine the contact sensitization potential of chemicals...
  74. ncbi Determination of the sensitising activity of the rubber contact sensitisers TMTD, ZDMC, MBT and DEA in a modified local lymph node assay and the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment on local lymph node responses
    Wim H De Jong
    Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P O Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Toxicology 176:123-34. 2002
    A modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to determine the sensitising activity of four chemicals used for the production of natural rubber latex products...
  75. ncbi Allergenicity evaluation of Bioban CS-1135 in experimental animals
    Tetsuo Yamano
    Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 8 34 Tojo cho, Tennoji ku, Osaka 543 0026, Japan
    Contact Dermatitis 50:339-43. 2004
    ..contact allergenicity by means of multiple-dose guinea-pig maximization test and non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay. In the guinea-pig test, an induction dose of 0.5% Bioban CS-1135 sensitized all animals of the group...
  76. ncbi Skin sensitisation testing--new perspectives and recommendations
    W Steiling
    Henkel KGaA, Henkelstrasse 67, D-40191, , Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:293-301. 2001
    ..In addition, the use of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been considered...
  77. ncbi Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a local lymph node assay based on ex vivo interleukin-2 production
    Philippe Azam
    Afssaps, Unité BCM, 635 Rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues, France
    Toxicology 206:285-98. 2005
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a regular method for the detection of sensitizing chemicals in mice which measures the incorporation of tritiated thymidine in lymph node cells...
  78. ncbi A loose-fit coculture of activated keratinocytes and dendritic cell-related cells for prediction of sensitizing potential
    M Schreiner
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, Charite, Berlin, Germany
    Allergy 62:1419-28. 2007
    ..Today, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice is widely used to identify sensitizing substances...
  79. ncbi A comparative study of the sensitivity of the 3-induction and 9-induction Buehler test procedures for assessing skin sensitisation potential
    P Botham
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, England
    Food Chem Toxicol 43:65-75. 2005
    ....
  80. ncbi Assessment of preferential Th1 or Th2 induction by low-molecular-weight compounds using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method: comparison of two mouse strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c
    M Hayashi
    Environmental Health Science Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co, Ltd, 3-1-98, Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554, Japan
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 177:38-45. 2001
    ..The results of the present study demonstrate, for the first time, that differential expression of IL-12p40 and IL-4 in C57BL/6 mice may be useful as a parameter for assessing influence of contact and respiratory allergens...
  81. ncbi Allergy adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic
    Mari Samuelsen
    Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P O Box 4404 Nydalen, NO 0403 Oslo, Norway
    Toxicology 246:124-31. 2008
    ..Thus, wood smoke particles had about the same capacity to enhance allergic sensitization as road traffic particles, but less than diesel exhaust particles...
  82. ncbi Proposal for a risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization based on sensitization potency data
    Peter Griem
    Wella AG, Department of Product Safety Toxicology, Berliner Allee 65, D 64274, Darmstadt, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 38:269-90. 2003
    ..human repeat-insult patch test (HRIPT) or the human maximization test (HMT), we used EC3 values from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice because they provide the best quantitative measure of the skin sensitizing potency of a ..
  83. ncbi Final report on the safety assessment of 3-methylamino-4-nitrophenoxyethanol as used in hair dyes
    Lillian C Becker
    Cosmetic Ingredient Review, Washington, DC 20036, USA
    Int J Toxicol 27:41-51. 2008
    ..ocular irritant but not a dermal irritant using rabbits and it was not a sensitizer using the murine local lymph node Assay. There were no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects observed in doses up to 750 mg/kg day(-1) in rats; the ..
  84. ncbi Ranking of hair dye substances according to predicted sensitization potency: quantitative structure-activity relationships
    H Søsted
    The National Allergy Research Centre for Consumer Products, Department of Dermatology, University of Copenhagen, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark
    Contact Dermatitis 51:241-54. 2004
    ..A QSAR model, developed with the help of experimental local lymph node assay data and topological sub-structural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE), was used in order to predict the ..
  85. ncbi Cytokine endpoints for the local lymph node assay: consideration of interferon-gamma and interleukin 12
    R J Dearman
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 19:149-55. 1999
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the prospective identification of contact allergens...
  86. ncbi A nonradioisotopic endpoint for measurement of lymph node cell proliferation in a murine allergic contact dermatitis model, using bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry
    Jong Kwon Lee
    Division of Immunotoxicology, Department of Toxicology, Korea Food and Drug Administration, National Institute of Toxicology Research, Seoul 122 704, South Korea
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 48:53-61. 2002
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed as an alternative to guinea pig models for the assessment of the xenobiotic contact sensitization potential...
  87. ncbi Assessment of preferential T-helper 1 or T-helper 2 induction by low molecular weight compounds using the local lymph node assay in conjunction with RT-PCR and ELISA for interferon-gamma and interleukin-4
    R J Vandebriel
    Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, 3720 BA, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 162:77-85. 2000
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a new and promising test in mice used to identify contact allergens by means of dermal exposure...
  88. ncbi Use of IL-18 production in a human keratinocyte cell line to discriminate contact sensitizers from irritants and low molecular weight respiratory allergens
    Emanuela Corsini
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Toxicology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:789-96. 2009
    Assessment of allergenic potential of chemicals is performed using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay, which does not distinguish between respiratory and contact allergens...
  89. ncbi Prior exposure to organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides increases the allergic potential of environmental chemical allergens in a local lymph node assay
    Tomoki Fukuyama
    Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Ibaraki 303 0043, Japan
    Toxicol Lett 199:347-56. 2010
    ..phenoxyacetic acid herbicide 2,4-d-butyl, and benzoic acid fungicide eugenol, as detected by a local lymph node assay (LLNA), which was developed initially for hazard identification of skin sensitization...
  90. ncbi Assessment of the skin sensitization potential of topical medicaments using the local lymph node assay: an interlaboratory evaluation
    I Kimber
    Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 53:563-79. 1998
    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the predictive identification of chemicals that have a potential to cause skin sensitization...
  91. ncbi Structural influence on radical formation and sensitizing capacity of alkylic limonene hydroperoxide analogues in allergic contact dermatitis
    Staffan G H Johansson
    Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy and Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Chem Res Toxicol 23:677-88. 2010
    ..The sensitizing capacities were studied in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), and all hydroperoxides tested were found to be potent sensitizers...
  92. ncbi Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis
    Klaus E Andersen
    Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76:347-50. 2003
    ..The local lymph node assay (LLNA), which is an objective and sensitive mouse assay has now been internationally validated and accepted...
  93. ncbi Alternate vehicles for diagnostic patch testing: an update
    C Cyran
    Department of Dermatology, University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA 94143 0989, USA
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 143:91-4. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to review the literature subsequent to 2001 for recent information on alternate vehicles for diagnostic patch testing...
  94. ncbi Evaluation of the contact and respiratory sensitization potential of volatile organic compounds generated by simulated indoor air chemistry
    Stacey E Anderson
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:355-63. 2007
    ..2 predicted all compounds except for methylglyoxal. All compounds were tested in a combined irritancy and local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  95. ncbi A new in vitro method for identifying chemical sensitizers combining peptide binding with ARE/EpRE-mediated gene expression in human skin cells
    James M McKim
    CeeTox Inc, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008, USA
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 29:171-92. 2010
    ..The guinea pig maximization test (GMPT) and the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) are accepted methods for determining chemical sensitization...
  96. ncbi A modified murine local lymph node assay for the differentiation of contact photoallergy from phototoxicity by analysis of cytokine expression in skin-draining lymph node cells
    P Ulrich
    Experimental Toxicology, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
    Toxicology 125:149-68. 1998
    ..we tried to improve the differentiation between the two reactions by using a modified protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  97. ncbi Ethanol and diethyl phthalate: vehicle effects in the local lymph node assay
    J Lalko
    Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc, Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey 07677, USA
    Int J Toxicol 23:171-7. 2004
    ..authors conducted a series of studies to evaluate each of these vehicles for their utility in the murine local lymph node assay and to investigate the potential differences in skin sensitization resulting from their use...
  98. ncbi Sensitization potential of gold sodium thiosulfate in mice and guinea pigs
    Y Ikarashi
    Division of Medical Devices, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1 18 1, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Biomaterials 23:4907-14. 2002
    ..induced small increases in the lymph node weight and the lymph node cell (LNC) number in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  99. ncbi Mechanistic applicability domains for non-animal based prediction of toxicological endpoints. QSAR analysis of the schiff base applicability domain for skin sensitization
    David W Roberts
    School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, England
    Chem Res Toxicol 19:1228-33. 2006
    ..04) log P - 0.62(+/-0.13); n = 16 R(2) = 0.952 R(2)(adj) = 0.945 s = 0.12 F = 129.6, based on mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) data for 11 aliphatic aldehydes, 1 alpha-ketoester and 4 alpha,beta-diketones...
  100. ncbi The relationship between CD86/CD54 expression and THP-1 cell viability in an in vitro skin sensitization test--human cell line activation test (h-CLAT)
    Hitoshi Sakaguchi
    Safety Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai machi, Haga gun, Tochigi, Japan
    Cell Biol Toxicol 25:109-26. 2009
    ..Furthermore, a good correlation was observed between EC3 of local lymph node assay and EC150(CD86) or EC200(CD54) of h-CLAT (12 or 16 chemicals, respectively), which would provide a useful ..
  101. ncbi Toxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis) and Port-Orford-cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays
    A Morrie Craig
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, 208 Dryden Hall, 450 SW 30th Street, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Toxicol Lett 154:217-24. 2004
    ..Mice were tested for their response to both extracts utilizing a local lymph node assay. Western juniper oil extract at 0...

Research Grants11

  1. SUPPORT CONTRACT FOR THE NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER/VALIDATION OF ALT METHODS
    David Allen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..peer review panel in 2008 and 2009 to review several new versions and applications of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), an alternative test method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals ..
  2. SUPPORT CONTRACT FOR THE NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER/VALIDATION OF ALT METHODS
    David Allen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..peer review panel in 2008 and 2009 to review several new versions and applications of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), an alternative test method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals ..
  3. ENHANCED LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY USING FLOW CYTOMETRY
    GEORGE DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is an alternative to the guinea pig sensitization test which is employed by the pharmaceutical, ..
  4. Alternative Photosensitization Assay in the Mouse
    GEORGE DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The Local Lymph Node Assay has proven to be a useful, sensitive model for detecting sensitizers...
  5. In Vitro Assay For Chemical Allergens
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..subset of dendritic cells to induce TC proliferation in predictive tests for ACD as a replacement for the local lymph node assay (LLNA)...
  6. ENHANCED LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY USING FLOW CYTOMETRY
    GEORGE DEGEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (Applicant?s abstract): Although the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is effective at detecting potential irritants/sensitizers, this assay, in its current standard form: 1) cannot readily differentiate some types of ..
  7. Reconstruction of skin model containing Langerhans cells
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, based on these studies, an assay kit to predict whether a material is likely to act as a contact allergen will be developed. ..
  8. Immortized Human Langerhans Cells
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, a skin model containing immunologically competent cells would be extremely valuable to a large number of companies in evaluating whether their products are likely to cause allergic contact dermatitis...
  9. In Vitro Tissue Model of Psoriasis
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. Validation of a Human In Vitro Vaginal Irritation Test
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed human tissue based assay will provide a sensitive and specific time-efficient method to screen a large number of chemicals/formulations at a reduced cost. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Validation of Organotypic Vaginal Tissue Based Assay for Endocrine Disruptors
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed human organotypic tissue based assay will provide a sensitive and specific assay method to screen a large number of endocrine disrupting chemicals at a reduced cost. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..