Summary: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma
    David L Duffy
    Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
    J Invest Dermatol 130:520-8. 2010
  2. ncbi A single amino acid mutation contributes to adaptive beach mouse color pattern
    Hopi E Hoekstra
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 313:101-4. 2006
  3. pmc Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10
    Richard V Espley
    HortResearch, Mt Albert Research Centre, Private Bag 92169, Auckland, New Zealand
    Plant J 49:414-27. 2007
  4. pmc HERC2 rs12913832 modulates human pigmentation by attenuating chromatin-loop formation between a long-range enhancer and the OCA2 promoter
    Mijke Visser
    Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Genome Res 22:446-55. 2012
  5. pmc Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry
    Mathieu Joron
    CNRS UMR 7205, Museum national d histoire naturelle, CP50, 45 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France
    Nature 477:203-6. 2011
  6. ncbi Genetics, development and evolution of adaptive pigmentation in vertebrates
    H E Hoekstra
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0116, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 97:222-34. 2006
  7. pmc A novel role for Mc1r in the parallel evolution of depigmentation in independent populations of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
    Joshua B Gross
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000326. 2009
  8. ncbi Reaction-diffusion model as a framework for understanding biological pattern formation
    Shigeru Kondo
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565 0871, Japan
    Science 329:1616-20. 2010
  9. ncbi Genetic analysis of cavefish reveals molecular convergence in the evolution of albinism
    Meredith E Protas
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 38:107-11. 2006
  10. ncbi optix drives the repeated convergent evolution of butterfly wing pattern mimicry
    Robert D Reed
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 333:1137-41. 2011

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma
    David L Duffy
    Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
    J Invest Dermatol 130:520-8. 2010
    ..In this paper, we test a selected set of polymorphisms in pigmentation loci (ASIP (Agouti signalling protein, nonagouti homolog (mouse) gene), TYR (tyrosinase), TYRP1 (tyrosinase-..
  2. ncbi A single amino acid mutation contributes to adaptive beach mouse color pattern
    Hopi E Hoekstra
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 313:101-4. 2006
    ..In genetic crosses, allelic variation at Mc1r explains 9.8% to 36.4% of the variation in seven pigmentation traits determining color pattern...
  3. pmc Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10
    Richard V Espley
    HortResearch, Mt Albert Research Centre, Private Bag 92169, Auckland, New Zealand
    Plant J 49:414-27. 2007
    ..Characterization of MdMYB10 has implications for the development of new varieties through classical breeding or a biotechnological approach...
  4. pmc HERC2 rs12913832 modulates human pigmentation by attenuating chromatin-loop formation between a long-range enhancer and the OCA2 promoter
    Mijke Visser
    Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Genome Res 22:446-55. 2012
    b>Pigmentation of skin, eye, and hair reflects some of the most evident common phenotypes in humans. Several candidate genes for human pigmentation are identified...
  5. pmc Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry
    Mathieu Joron
    CNRS UMR 7205, Museum national d histoire naturelle, CP50, 45 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France
    Nature 477:203-6. 2011
    ..These findings highlight how genomic rearrangements can have a central role in the coexistence of adaptive phenotypes involving several genes acting in concert, by locally limiting recombination and gene flow...
  6. ncbi Genetics, development and evolution of adaptive pigmentation in vertebrates
    H E Hoekstra
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0116, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 97:222-34. 2006
    The study of pigmentation has played an important role in the intersection of evolution, genetics, and developmental biology...
  7. pmc A novel role for Mc1r in the parallel evolution of depigmentation in independent populations of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
    Joshua B Gross
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000326. 2009
    ..Pachón and the linked Yerbaniz and Japonés caves, indicating the same locus is responsible for reduced pigmentation in these fish...
  8. ncbi Reaction-diffusion model as a framework for understanding biological pattern formation
    Shigeru Kondo
    Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565 0871, Japan
    Science 329:1616-20. 2010
    ..In this review, we describe the essence of this theory for experimental biologists unfamiliar with the model, using examples from experimental studies in which the RD model is effectively incorporated...
  9. ncbi Genetic analysis of cavefish reveals molecular convergence in the evolution of albinism
    Meredith E Protas
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 38:107-11. 2006
    ..We focused on the trait of albinism and discovered that it is linked to Oca2, a known pigmentation gene, in two cave populations...
  10. ncbi optix drives the repeated convergent evolution of butterfly wing pattern mimicry
    Robert D Reed
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 333:1137-41. 2011
  11. pmc Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
    Meredith Protas
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Curr Biol 17:452-4. 2007
    The evolutionary forces driving the reduction of eyes and pigmentation in cave-adapted animals are unknown; Darwin famously questioned the role of natural selection in eye loss in cave fishes: "As it is difficult to imagine that eyes,..
  12. ncbi Zebrafish pigmentation mutations and the processes of neural crest development
    R N Kelsh
    Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Abteilung Genetik, Tubingen, Germany
    Development 123:369-89. 1996
    ..for embryonic/early larval mutations, we have isolated 285 mutations affecting all aspects of zebrafish larval pigmentation. By complementation analysis, we define 94 genes...
  13. pmc Stepwise modification of a modular enhancer underlies adaptation in a Drosophila population
    Mark Rebeiz
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 326:1663-7. 2009
    ..We underscore how enhancers are distinct macromolecular entities, subject to fundamentally different, and generally more relaxed, functional constraints relative to protein sequences...
  14. ncbi The strawberry FaMYB1 transcription factor suppresses anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in transgenic tobacco
    A Aharoni
    Business Unit Cell Cybernetics, Plant Research International, PO Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Plant J 28:319-32. 2001
    ..Flowers of transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing FaMYB1 showed a severe reduction in pigmentation. A reduction in the level of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (an anthocyanin) and of quercetin-glycosides (flavonols) was ..
  15. pmc A small family of MYB-regulatory genes controls floral pigmentation intensity and patterning in the genus Antirrhinum
    Kathy Schwinn
    New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Limited, Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Plant Cell 18:831-51. 2006
    ..Analysis of mutant phenotypes shows that these genes control the intensity and pattern of magenta anthocyanin pigmentation in flowers...
  16. pmc Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies
    Heather M Hines
    Department of Genetics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:19666-71. 2011
  17. ncbi Vertebrate pigmentation: from underlying genes to adaptive function
    Joanna K Hubbard
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
    Trends Genet 26:231-9. 2010
    ..provided extensive information about the patterns of inheritance and pleiotropic effects of loci involved in pigmentation. Recently, the study of pigmentation genes and their functions has extended into wild populations, providing ..
  18. ncbi The regulation of skin pigmentation
    Yuji Yamaguchi
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:27557-61. 2007
  19. ncbi The evolution of gene regulation underlies a morphological difference between two Drosophila sister species
    Sangyun Jeong
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Cell 132:783-93. 2008
    ..Here, we analyze the genetic and molecular bases of the divergence of body pigmentation patterns between Drosophila yakuba and its sister species Drosophila santomea...
  20. pmc Interplay between Foxd3 and Mitf regulates cell fate plasticity in the zebrafish neural crest
    Kevin Curran
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7420, USA
    Dev Biol 344:107-18. 2010
    ..Taken together, our data reveal a Foxd3/mitfa transcriptional switch that governs whether a bi-potent pigment precursor will attain either an iridophore or a melanophore fate...
  21. ncbi Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress
    Gertrude E Costin
    Avon Products, Inc, New Technology Department, 1 Avon Pl, Suffern, NY 10901, USA
    FASEB J 21:976-94. 2007
    ..b>Pigmentation is highly heritable, being regulated by genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors that modulate the amount, ..
  22. ncbi Mutations affecting xanthophore pigmentation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio
    J Odenthal
    Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Tubingen, Germany
    Development 123:391-8. 1996
    ..Most other genes affect only larval pigmentation. In embryos mutant for edison, yobo, yocca and brie, differences in pteridine synthesis can be observed under ..
  23. ncbi Evolution in black and white: genetic control of pigment patterns in Drosophila
    Patricia J Wittkopp
    Molecular Biology and Genetics, 227 Biotechnology Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Trends Genet 19:495-504. 2003
  24. ncbi Unraveling the thread of nature's tapestry: the genetics of diversity and convergence in animal pigmentation
    Marcus R Kronforst
    FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25:411-33. 2012
    ..Here, we outline recent research from three particularly active areas of investigation: melanin pigmentation in Drosophila, wing patterning in butterflies, and pigment variation in lizards...
  25. pmc Characterization of Japanese quail yellow as a genomic deletion upstream of the avian homolog of the mammalian ASIP (agouti) gene
    Nicola J Nadeau
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Genetics 178:777-86. 2008
    ASIP is an important pigmentation gene responsible for dorsoventral and hair-cycle-specific melanin-based color patterning in mammals. We report some of the first evidence that the avian ASIP gene has a role in pigmentation...
  26. ncbi Flavonoid oxidation in plants: from biochemical properties to physiological functions
    Lucille Pourcel
    Laboratoire de Biologie des Semences, UMR 204 INRA INAPG, Institut Jean Pierre Bourgin, INRA, Route de Saint Cyr, F 78026 Versailles, France
    Trends Plant Sci 12:29-36. 2007
    ..Their complex mode of action is regulated at several levels, involving transcriptional to post-translational mechanisms together with the differential subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes and substrates...
  27. ncbi Two newly identified genetic determinants of pigmentation in Europeans
    Patrick Sulem
    deCODE Genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
    Nat Genet 40:835-7. 2008
    We present results from a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics among 5,130 Icelanders, with follow-up analyses in 2,116 Icelanders and 1,214 Dutch individuals...
  28. ncbi Genetics and evolution of pigment patterns in fish
    Robert N Kelsh
    Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Developmental Biology Programme, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK
    Pigment Cell Res 17:326-36. 2004
    ..Initial 'evo-devo' studies indicate how fish pigment patterns may evolve and will become more complete as the developmental genetics is integrated with theoretical modelling...
  29. ncbi ASIP and TYR pigmentation variants associate with cutaneous melanoma and basal cell carcinoma
    Daniel F Gudbjartsson
    deCODE Genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
    Nat Genet 40:886-91. 2008
    ..Recent genome-wide association studies have identified variants affecting hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans...
  30. ncbi Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MATP gene are associated with normal human pigmentation variation
    Justin Graf
    Cooperative Research Centre for Diagnostics, School of Life Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Hum Mutat 25:278-84. 2005
    Human physical pigmentation is determined by the type and amount of melanin and the process of pigmentation production probably involves more than 100 genes. A failure to synthesize melanin results in oculocutaneous albinism (OCA)...
  31. ncbi Human pigmentation genes: identification, structure and consequences of polymorphic variation
    R A Sturm
    Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Gene 277:49-62. 2001
    ..distribution of the specialised melanosome organelle in which melanin accumulates can legitimately be called pigmentation genes...
  32. ncbi Temporal and cellular requirements for Fms signaling during zebrafish adult pigment pattern development
    David M Parichy
    Section of Integrative Biology, Section of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0930, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Development 130:817-33. 2003
  33. pmc The genetic basis of adaptive pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster
    John E Pool
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Mol Ecol 16:2844-51. 2007
    In a broad survey of Drosophila melanogaster population samples, levels of abdominal pigmentation were found to be highly variable and geographically differentiated...
  34. ncbi MYB transcription factors that colour our fruit
    Andrew C Allan
    HortResearch, Mt Albert Research Centre, Private Bag 92169, Auckland, New Zealand
    Trends Plant Sci 13:99-102. 2008
    ..These findings lead the way to new approaches in the breeding and biotechnological development of fruit with new colour patterns...
  35. pmc Pigmentation PAX-ways: the role of Pax3 in melanogenesis, melanocyte stem cell maintenance, and disease
    Jennifer D Kubic
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 21:627-45. 2008
    ..Due to its key task in melanocyte stem cells and tumors, the Pax3 pathway may provide an ideal target for either stem cell or cancer therapies...
  36. ncbi Butterfly wing pattern evolution is associated with changes in a Notch/Distal-less temporal pattern formation process
    Robert D Reed
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, 1007 E Lowell Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
    Curr Biol 14:1159-66. 2004
  37. pmc p38 regulates pigmentation via proteasomal degradation of tyrosinase
    Barbara Bellei
    Laboratory of Cutaneous Physiopathology, San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute, IRCCS, 00144 Rome, Italy
    J Biol Chem 285:7288-99. 2010
  38. ncbi The Tomita collection of medaka pigmentation mutants as a resource for understanding neural crest cell development
    Robert N Kelsh
    Developmental Biology Programme, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Mech Dev 121:841-59. 2004
    ..In mouse and zebrafish, extensive collections of pigmentation mutants have enabled dissection of many aspects of pigment cell development, including fate specification, ..
  39. ncbi Positional cloning of silkworm white egg 2 (w-2) locus shows functional conservation and diversification of ABC transporters for pigmentation in insects
    Ken Ichiro Tatematsu
    National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8634, Japan
    Genes Cells 16:331-42. 2011
    ..Our results emphasize the functional conservation and diversification of half-type ABC transporter families in insects, which may contribute to their extremely diverse color patterns...
  40. ncbi Regulation of body pigmentation by the Abdominal-B Hox protein and its gain and loss in Drosophila evolution
    Sangyun Jeong
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Cell 125:1387-99. 2006
    ..b>Pigmentation of the posterior male abdomen is a recently acquired trait in the Drosophila melanogaster lineage...
  41. pmc The wp mutation of Glycine max carries a gene-fragment-rich transposon of the CACTA superfamily
    Gracia Zabala
    Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Plant Cell 17:2619-32. 2005
  42. ncbi Methylation effect on chalcone synthase gene expression determines anthocyanin pigmentation in floral tissues of two Oncidium orchid cultivars
    Xiao jing Liu
    Flower Research and Development Center, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou, 311202, Zhejiang, China
    Planta 236:401-9. 2012
    ..Overall, our results suggest that the failure of anthocyanin accumulation in Honey Dollp floral tissues may be attributed to inactivation of the OgCHS gene resulting from the epigenetic methylation of 5'-upstream promoter region...
  43. pmc A window on the genetics of evolution: MC1R and plumage colouration in birds
    Nicholas I Mundy
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 272:1633-40. 2005
    ..The conserved molecular basis for the evolution of melanism in birds and several other vertebrates is probably related to low pleiotropic effects at the MC1R...
  44. pmc Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation
    Erine H Budi
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002044. 2011
    ..These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia...
  45. pmc Inactivation of Pmel alters melanosome shape but has only a subtle effect on visible pigmentation
    Anders R Hellström
    Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002285. 2011
    ..in mice, strongly suggests that other previously described alleles in vertebrates with more striking effects on pigmentation are dominant-negative mutations...
  46. pmc A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster
    Héloïse Bastide
    Institut für Populationsgenetik, Vetmeduni Vienna, Wien, Austria
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003534. 2013
    ..approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the ..
  47. ncbi Intraspecific polymorphism to interspecific divergence: genetics of pigmentation in Drosophila
    Patricia J Wittkopp
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Science 326:540-4. 2009
    ..We found that noncoding changes in the tan gene, as well as changes linked to the ebony gene, contribute to pigmentation divergence between closely related Drosophila species...
  48. ncbi Emergence and diversification of fly pigmentation through evolution of a gene regulatory module
    Laurent Arnoult
    Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Science 339:1423-6. 2013
    ..spot of dark pigment on fly wings emerged from the assembly of a novel gene regulatory module in which a set of pigmentation genes evolved to respond to a common transcriptional regulator determining their spatial distribution...
  49. ncbi No evidence for general condition-dependence of structural plumage colour in blue tits: an experiment
    A Peters
    Sexual Signals Group, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
    J Evol Biol 24:976-87. 2011
    ..These and previously published results suggest that structural colour might be sensitive to stress, rather than reduced body condition, during moult...
  50. ncbi Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals
    Gregory F Grether
    Department of Organismic Biology, Ecology and Evolution, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1606, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 79:583-610. 2004
    ..We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary (carotenoid, pteridine and melanin) and structural components of vertebrate colour patches...
  51. ncbi The molecular basis for venation patterning of pigmentation and its effect on pollinator attraction in flowers of Antirrhinum
    Yongjin Shang
    New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    New Phytol 189:602-15. 2011
    ..Ectopic expression of Venosa confers pigmentation outside the veins...
  52. pmc Using regulatory and epistatic networks to extend the findings of a genome scan: identifying the gene drivers of pigmentation in merino sheep
    Elsa García-Gámez
    Livestock Industries, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e21158. 2011
    ..We examined piebald, a pigmentation phenotype in both human and Merino sheep, by analysing multiple data types using a systems approach...
  53. ncbi Laccase2 is required for cuticular pigmentation in stinkbugs
    Ryo Futahashi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8566, Japan
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:191-6. 2011
    ..insects, laccase2 gene has been identified as encoding an enzyme principally responsible for cuticular pigmentation and hardening, whereas biological roles of laccase genes in hemimetabolous insects remain to be established...
  54. ncbi Linking color polymorphism maintenance and speciation
    Suzanne M Gray
    Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada
    Trends Ecol Evol 22:71-9. 2007
    ..Finally, comparative studies and more comprehensive approaches are required to elucidate when color polymorphism evolves, persists, or leads to speciation...
  55. pmc Diversification of complex butterfly wing patterns by repeated regulatory evolution of a Wnt ligand
    Arnaud Martin
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:12632-7. 2012
    ..These results illustrate how the direct modulation of morphogen sources can generate a wide array of unique morphologies, thus providing a link between natural genetic variation, pattern formation, and adaptation...
  56. ncbi Different colors reveal different information: how nutritional stress affects the expression of melanin- and structurally based ornamental plumage
    Kevin J McGraw
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Exp Biol 205:3747-55. 2002
  57. pmc Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the generation of Turing patterns
    Akiko Nakamasu
    Department of Biological Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Furo cho, Nagoya 464 0815, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8429-34. 2009
    ..Simulation calculations for the deduced network generated wild-type pigment patterns as well as other mutant patterns. Our findings here allow further investigation of Turing pattern formation within the context of cell biology...
  58. ncbi Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish
    Ole Seehausen
    Institute of Zoology, University of Bern, Baltzerstr 6, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Nature 455:620-6. 2008
    ..Our results also provide a mechanistic explanation for the collapse of cichlid fish species diversity during the anthropogenic eutrophication of Lake Victoria...
  59. pmc Stripes and belly-spots -- a review of pigment cell morphogenesis in vertebrates
    Robert N Kelsh
    Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:90-104. 2009
  60. pmc Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes
    Walter Salzburger
    Lehrstuhl fur Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Department of Biology, University Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    BMC Biol 5:51. 2007
    ..One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish...
  61. ncbi Melanocortin 1-receptor (MC1R) mutations are associated with plumage colour in chicken
    S Kerje
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Anim Genet 34:241-8. 2003
    ..It also carried a third missense mutation H215P which thus may interfere with the constitutive activation of the receptor caused by E92K (and possibly M71T)...
  62. pmc Linkage of butterfly mate preference and wing color preference cue at the genomic location of wingless
    Marcus R Kronforst
    Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6575-80. 2006
    ..This effect of linkage on divergence is especially important in Heliconius because differentiation of wing color patterns in the genus has been driven and maintained by natural selection for Müllerian mimicry...
  63. ncbi Insect cuticular sclerotization: a review
    Svend Olav Andersen
    The Collstrop Foundation, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, H C Andersens Boulevard 35, DK 1553 Copenhagen V, Denmark
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 40:166-78. 2010
    ..However, many important questions still remain unanswered, especially regarding the precise regional and temporal regulation of the various steps in the process...
  64. ncbi Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers
    H D Bradshaw
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 426:176-8. 2003
    ..cardinalis yup allele had yellow-orange flowers and received 68-fold more hummingbird visits than the wild type. These results indicate that an adaptive shift in pollinator preference may be initiated by a single major mutation...
  65. ncbi Reciprocal functions of the Drosophila yellow and ebony proteins in the development and evolution of pigment patterns
    Patricia J Wittkopp
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Development 129:1849-58. 2002
    ..These findings provide a developmental and genetic framework for understanding the evolution of melanin patterns...
  66. ncbi The generation and diversification of butterfly eyespot color patterns
    C R Brunetti
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Curr Biol 11:1578-85. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the remarkably plastic regulatory interactions downstream of focal signaling have facilitated the evolution of eyespot diversity...
  67. ncbi Development and evolution of insect pigmentation: genetic mechanisms and the potential consequences of pleiotropy
    Patricia J Wittkopp
    830 North University Avenue, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:65-71. 2009
    Insect pigmentation is a premier model system in evolutionary and developmental biology. It has been at the heart of classical studies as well as recent breakthroughs...
  68. pmc Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation
    Tony Frudakis
    DNAPrint Genomics, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA
    Genetics 165:2071-83. 2003
    ..distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain ..
  69. ncbi The evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of genetic colour polymorphism in birds
    Alexandre Roulin
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 79:815-48. 2004
    ..The study of genetic colour polymorphism will provide important and original insights on the adaptive function of conspicuous traits...
  70. ncbi Cavefish as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology
    W R Jeffery
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Dev Biol 231:1-12. 2001
    ..The regressive changes include loss of pigmentation and eye degeneration...
  71. ncbi Reconstruction of Microraptor and the evolution of iridescent plumage
    Quanguo Li
    Beijing Museum of Natural History, 126 Tianqiao South Street, Beijing 100050, People s Republic of China
    Science 335:1215-9. 2012
    ..This finding and estimation of Microraptor feathering consistent with an ornamental function for the tail suggest a centrality for signaling in early evolution of plumage and feather color...
  72. ncbi Genetic analysis of genes controlling natural variation of seed coat and flower colors in soybean
    Kiwoung Yang
    Bio Evaluation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongwon, Chungbuk 363 883, Republic of Korea
    J Hered 101:757-68. 2010
    ..Although pigmentation in seeds or flowers has been well dissected at molecular level in several plant species, the genes controlling ..
  73. ncbi Phylogeography and speciation of colour morphs in the colonial ascidian Pseudodistoma crucigaster
    I Tarjuelo
    Department of Animal Biology Invertebrates, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, 645 Diagonal Avenue, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Mol Ecol 13:3125-36. 2004
    Variation in pigmentation is common in marine invertebrates, although few studies have shown the existence of genetic differentiation of chromatic forms in these organisms...
  74. ncbi Extreme reversed sexual dichromatism in a bird without sex role reversal
    Robert Heinsohn
    Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia
    Science 309:617-9. 2005
    ..Females are liberated from the need for camouflage but compete for rare nest hollows...
  75. pmc Molecular and biochemical analysis of two cDNA clones encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Medicago truncatula
    De Yu Xie
    Plant Biology Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73402, USA
    Plant Physiol 134:979-94. 2004
    ..The data reveal unexpected properties and differences in two DFR proteins from a single species...
  76. pmc Human pigmentation genes under environmental selection
    Richard A Sturm
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Melanogenix Group, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Genome Biol 13:248. 2012
    ..Environmental changes have had an impact on selected pigmentation genes as populations have expanded into different regions of the globe.
  77. ncbi Sdf1a patterns zebrafish melanophores and links the somite and melanophore pattern defects in choker mutants
    Valentina Svetic
    Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Developmental Biology Programme, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Development 134:1011-22. 2007
    ..We thus identify Sdf1 as a key molecule in pigment pattern formation, adding to the growing inventory of its roles in embryonic development...
  78. ncbi Gene duplication in Mimulus underlies parallel floral evolution via independent trans-regulatory changes
    Arielle M Cooley
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27704, USA
    Curr Biol 21:700-4. 2011
    ..of Mimulus contains five species native to central Chile, three of which have evolved extensive red floral pigmentation using at least two distinct loci ...
  79. ncbi Local adaptation in the rock pocket mouse (Chaetodipus intermedius): natural selection and phylogenetic history of populations
    H E Hoekstra
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 94:217-28. 2005
    ..Together, the results suggest that color variation can evolve very rapidly over small geographic scales and that gene flow can both hinder and promote local adaptation...
  80. pmc Yellow-e determines the color pattern of larval head and tail spots of the silkworm Bombyx mori
    Katsuhiko Ito
    Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1 1 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    J Biol Chem 285:5624-9. 2010
    ..Previous studies have shown that the yellow gene is necessary for normal pigmentation; however, the roles of other yellow genes in body coloration are not known...
  81. ncbi Spectral reflectance and directional properties of structural coloration in bird plumage
    D Osorio
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
    J Exp Biol 205:2017-27. 2002
    ..Iridescence and other optical effects mean that interference coloration looks different from pigmentation and is visually striking...
  82. ncbi Disruption of an N-acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm reveals a novel role in pigmentation
    Shuai Zhan
    Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    Development 137:4083-90. 2010
    The pigmentation of insects has served as an excellent model for the study of morphological trait evolution and developmental biology...
  83. pmc Zebrafish mutations in gart and paics identify crucial roles for de novo purine synthesis in vertebrate pigmentation and ocular development
    Anthony Ng
    Section of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78722, USA
    Development 136:2601-11. 2009
    ..Zygotic gart and paics mutants have pigmentation defects in which xanthophore and iridophore pigmentation is almost completely absent, and melanin-derived ..
  84. pmc Egg colour reflects the amount of yolk maternal antibodies and fledging success in a songbird
    Judith Morales
    Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Biol Lett 2:334-6. 2006
    ..These results support the signalling hypothesis of eggshell coloration, underlining its role as an indicator of trans-generational transmission of immune defences in birds...
  85. pmc Immune activation reduces sperm quality in the great tit
    Sylvain Losdat
    Evolutionary Ecology Lab, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 6:e22221. 2011
  86. pmc Identification of the pr1 gene product completes the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of maize
    Mandeep Sharma
    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Genetics 188:69-79. 2011
    ..The cloning and characterization of pr1 completes the molecular identification of all genes encoding structural enzymes of the anthocyanin pathway of maize...
  87. ncbi Species-specific coordinated gene expression and trans-regulation of larval color pattern in three swallowtail butterflies
    Hiroko Shirataki
    Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bioscience Building 501, 5 1 5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277 8562, Japan
    Evol Dev 12:305-14. 2010
    ..Our findings shed light on the gene regulatory networks for butterfly larval color pattern...
  88. ncbi Melanocortin 1 receptor variants in an Irish population
    R Smith
    Department of Dermatology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 111:119-22. 1998
    ..of this gene and coat color in animals, suggests that the MC1R is an integral control point in the normal pigmentation phenotype...
  89. pmc Coloration strategies in peacock feathers
    Jian Zi
    Surface Physics Laboratory National Key Laboratory and T Center for Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People s Republic of China
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12576-8. 2003
    ..Varying the lattice constant produces diversified colors. The reduction of the number of periods brings additional colors, causing mixed coloration...
  90. ncbi Interspecific variation in the use of carotenoid-based coloration in birds: diet, life history and phylogeny
    V A Olson
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    J Evol Biol 18:1534-46. 2005
    ..We show that carotenoid pigmentation is more common in the bare parts (legs, bill and skin) than in plumage, and that yellow coloration is more ..
  91. pmc Evolutionary history of the recruitment of conserved developmental genes in association to the formation and diversification of a novel trait
    Leila T Shirai
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Rua da Quinta Grande 6, P 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    BMC Evol Biol 12:21. 2012
    ..Eyespots have greatly diversified under natural and sexual selection, and their formation involves genetic circuitries shared across insects...
  92. ncbi A novel ex vivo organotypic culture model of alkaptonuria-ochronosis
    L Tinti
    Rheumatology Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, University of Siena, Italy
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 29:693-6. 2011
    ..Herein, we report the optimisation of an ex vivo reproducible culture method exploiting cartilage slices in order to investigate the deposition of ochronotic pigment in this kind of connective tissue...
  93. ncbi Carotenoid profiles and consumer sensory evaluation of specialty carrots (Daucus carota, L.) of various colors
    Rebecca L Surles
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 52:3417-21. 2004
    ..01). However, all the carrots were well accepted by the consumer panel. With this information, carrot growers should be encouraged to cultivate specialty carrots to provide sources of both vitamin A precursors and phytochemicals...
  94. ncbi Fish melanocortin system
    Jose Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
    Department of Fish Physiology and Biotechnology, Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre de la Sal IATS, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Castellon, Spain
    Eur J Pharmacol 660:53-60. 2011
    ..The interaction of α-MSH and melanocortin MC(1) receptor plays a key point in the control of the pigmentation and mutations of melanocortin MC(1) receptor are responsible for reduced melanization...
  95. ncbi Eye colour: portals into pigmentation genes and ancestry
    Richard A Sturm
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Trends Genet 20:327-32. 2004
    ..papers have tried to address the genetic determination of eye colour via microsatellite linkage, testing of pigmentation candidate gene polymorphisms and the genome wide analysis of SNP markers that are informative for ancestry...
  96. ncbi Identification and biochemical characterization of a novel carotenoid oxygenase: elucidation of the cleavage step in the Fusarium carotenoid pathway
    Alfonso Prado-Cabrero
    Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, E 41012 Seville, Spain
    Mol Microbiol 64:448-60. 2007
    ..In agreement with its role in carotenoid biosynthesis, the carT transcript levels are induced by light and upregulated in carotenoid-overproducing mutants, as already found for other car genes...
  97. pmc Spot pattern of leopard Danio is caused by mutation in the zebrafish connexin41.8 gene
    Masakatsu Watanabe
    Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B21, Yokohama 226 8501, Japan
    EMBO Rep 7:893-7. 2006
    ..8. These results demonstrate that mutations in this gene lead to a variety of leopard spot patterns...
  98. ncbi Maintenance of clinal variation for shell colour phenotype in the flat periwinkle Littorina obtusata
    M Phifer-Rixey
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Evol Biol 21:966-78. 2008
    ..Our study provides evidence that spatially varying selection via thermal regime contributes to the maintenance of shell colour phenotype variation in L. obtusata in the sampled areas of the Gulf of Maine...
  99. ncbi Morphological comparison of pupal wing cuticle patterns in butterflies
    Joji M Otaki
    Department of Biological Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259 1293, Japan
    Zoolog Sci 22:21-34. 2005
  100. ncbi Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health
    Michal Vinkler
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 7, Prague, 128 44, Czech Republic
    Naturwissenschaften 97:19-28. 2010
    ..Although further testing is needed, this 'carotenoid maintenance handicap' hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation...
  101. pmc Interaction between eye pigment genes and tau-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila melanogaster
    Surendra S Ambegaokar
    Neuroscience Interdepartmental Ph D Program, Brain Research Institute, Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, and Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Genetics 186:435-42. 2010
    ..Interaction with nucleotide-derived pigments or increased lysosomal dysregulation are potential mechanisms. Finally, tau toxicity correlates with increased GSK-3β activity, but not with tau phosphorylation at Ser202/Thr205...

Research Grants76

    Raymond Boissy; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Cutaneous pigmentation protects a person from various environmental assaults, like ultraviolet light, as well as potential cellular ..
  2. Transgenic/Molecular Approaches for Ocular Albinism
    Debora Farber; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Genetic mutations that alter ocular pigmentation produce abnormalities within the developing retina and visual pathways that cause permanent visual impairment...
  3. Targeting p53-Dependent Repigmentation in Vitiligo
    TAMARA G TERZIAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, she will examine the impact of p53 activation on the pigmentation process of normal skin and identify the key factors involved...
  4. Role of beta-endorphin in cancer therapy induced fatigue
    David E Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our lab studies skin signaling which mediates UV induced pigmentation. UV damages DNA in keratinocytes, thereby stabilizing p53 which stimulates expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (..
  5. The Mucolipin TRP Ion Channels
    Haoxing Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mice with mutations in TRPML3 (the varitint-waddler, Va mice) are deaf and exhibit circling behavior and pigmentation defects...
  6. The role of LKB1 in the maintenance of genomic stability.
    Zhi Xiang Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..syndrome (PJS), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by gastrointestinal polyps, mucocutaneous pigmentation, and a markedly increased risk for malignant tumors...
  7. Molecular Studies of Bone Marrow Failure
    Monica Bessler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DC), a rare inherited form of BMF associated with a classic triad of mucocutaneous features including abnormal pigmentation, dystrophic nail changes, and leukoplakia of the oral mucosa...
  8. A reconstructed skin model for development of treatments for albinism
    Seth J Orlow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..While the ability of the "hit" compounds to induce pigmentation will be verified in mouse and human melanocytes, these experiments do not address the issue of skin penetration ..
  9. VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL: Effects on Bone Structure and Architecture
    MERYL SUSAN LEBOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..each Aim, we will determine whether effects vary with (a) baseline 25(OH) D levels, (b) gender, (c) race/skin pigmentation, and (d) BMI or FMI...
  10. Tyrosinase Model Complexes using Imidazole Ligands
    JOHN BRANNON GARY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given this mammalian enzymatic function for tyrosinase, the enzyme has been linked to skin pigmentation abnormalities such as flecks and defects...
  11. Plexin signalling in melanocyte biology and melanoma progression
    Glynis A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..but also by fibroblasts, control multiple melanocyte functions, including dendricity, migration, growth and pigmentation, and also regulate normal homeostasis of melanocytes in the skin...
  12. Role of TRPM1 (Melastatin1) in the Biology of Human Melanocytes
    Vijayasaradhi Setaluri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..relationship of TRPM1, b) investigate the role of TRPM1 in growth of normal and malignant melanocytes and pigmentation using stable shRNA knockdown strategy, and c) investigate mechanism of regulation of TRPM1...
  13. Coleus forskohlii extract: melanization and UV protection by a natural product
    JOHN DORAZIO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To delineate the relationship between UV exposure and pigmentation and develop novel pigment-based UV protective strategies, we have developed a mouse model of "humanized skin" ..
  14. Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fatty Acids(VITAL Trial): Effects on Fractures
    MERYL SUSAN LEBOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and do effects vary with (a) baseline and follow up blood levels of these nutrients, (b) gender, (c) race/skin pigmentation, and (d) body mass index? Tertiary Aims: In the VITAL cohort, will Vitamin D3 and/or EPA+DHA supplementation a) ..
  15. SPORE in Skin Cancer
    Meenhard Herlyn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..interactions of multiple factors, including inherited genotypes, environmental exposures, and endogenous pigmentation (Projects 1 and 2). 2) Risk prediction...
  16. Modulated Imaging in Comprehensive Assessment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Development
    Amaan Mazhar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..techniques that will enhance the accuracy and precision of data obtained from foot skin having strong melanin pigmentation or thick callus...
    Seth J Orlow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Tyrosinase is a determinant of skin pigmentation and risk of cutaneous cancers...
  18. Identification of New Antigens for a Plague Vaccine
    Ashok K Chopra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies indicated that mice immunized with the mutant strain of Y. pestis deleted for the lpp and pigmentation locus (pgm) genes were protected against developing pneumonic plague caused by the highly virulent Y...
  19. Function of Laccases in Anopheles gambiae
    Michael R Kanost; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of physiological processes in plants and fungi, including lignin synthesis and degradation, morphogenesis, pigmentation, detoxification, and virulence...
  20. The Role of Ets1 in Melanocyte Development
    Lidia Kos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..been identified that are involved in the specification of melanocytes from the NC through the study of mouse pigmentation mutants...
  21. Supplemental Vitamin D and Functional Outcomes in Early Adolescence
    Richard D Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and emerging evidence suggests that a significant number of children, particularly those with darker skin pigmentation, have inadequate levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]...
  22. Development & Characterization of Tyrosinase Epitope Specific TCR Transgenic Mice
    Shikhar Mehrotra; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One of the key enzymes involved in pigmentation is the tyrosinase (Tyr) molecule that is expressed not only by malignant melanomas and normal melanocytes, but ..
  23. Sunlight Exposure & Vitamin D Metabolic Gene Variations in Parkinson's Disease
    Beate R Ritz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..potential confounding factors such as age, race, gender, education, smoking, dietary sources of vitamin D, skin pigmentation and pesticide exposure...
  24. The role of pheomelanin in cutaneous melanoma
    Rutao Cui; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Skin pigmentation results from the synthesis of melanin in pigment-producing cells, the melanocytes, followed by distribution and ..
  25. Function of calcium exchangers in vetebrate pigmentation
    KEITH CHI CHENG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Cells containing melanin pigmentation aid vision, protect against UV radiation, and can transform into neoplasms. This proposal is based upon three related discoveries in our lab...
  26. Impact of MC1R Functional Variants on the DNA Damage Response of Human Melanocyte
    SANCY ANN LEACHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) is a main contributor to the diversity of human pigmentation. The activated MC1R stimulates eumelanin synthesis, and enhances nucleotide excision repair and antioxidant ..
  27. NFkB Targets and Neural Crest Development
    ..Defects in the neural crest are involved in over 400 human syndromes and result in craniofacial, heart, pigmentation, peripheral and central nervous system defects...
  28. Cloning Novel Genomic Instability Mutations in Zebrafish
    JESSICA LYNNE MOORE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..mutations cause increased frequencies of somatic mutations that are detectable using an assay for mosaic pigmentation of the embryonic retinal epithelium...
  29. Pathways from genotype and environment to melanoma
    Nicholas K Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Similar analyses will be conducted for mediating variables such as nevus density, freckling, and pigmentation. We shall test for gene-gene interactions (epistasis) between SNPs of nevus genes and melanoma risk, and for ..
  30. Regressive evolution of pigmentation in the Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
    Jessica A Lehoczky; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rapid evolution of morphological traits such as increased numbers of taste buds and teeth, and the loss of pigmentation and eyes...
  31. Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Prevention in Elderly African Americans
    John F Aloia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As a result of increased skin pigmentation, blacks synthesize less vitamin D from sun exposure...
  32. Ion Channel and Calcium Signaling in Ultraviolet Light Transduction in Human Skin
    Elena Oancea; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unlike the skin of other mammals, human skin responds to UVR by increased pigmentation resulting from melanin production in epidermal melanocytes and its transfer to keratinocytes...
  33. Models of Retinal Degeneration
    Matthew M Lavail; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..retinal dystrophy;2) three rat strains congenic with RCS that serve as genetic controls and with different eye pigmentation and rates of retinal degeneration;3) P23H mutant rhodopsin transgenic rat lines with 3 different rates of ..
  34. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women: a Consortium
    Julie R Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..been adaptive in Africa to endemic infectious disease (robust immune response) and intense sunlight (high skin pigmentation), but that in western society may result in hyper-inflammatory milieu and vitamin D deficiency, which may be ..
  35. A genomic analysis of doublesex function in sex determination
    ERIN ALISA JIMENEZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..locus (bab1 and bab2) which encode transcription factors that regulate the presence sex-specific abdominal pigmentation;and desaturase-F which encodes a protein involved in female specific pheromone synthesis...
  36. Vitamin D Intervention and Atherosclerosis Progression in African American Women
    Howard N Hodis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be particularly relevant for African American women, who are at particular risk for CVD since increased skin pigmentation reduces the capacity of skin to synthesize vitamin D and due to decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in ..
  37. Regulation of the melanocyte lineage by the AP2 transcription factor family
    ROBERT AARON CORNELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in genes encoding transcription factors and other regulatory molecules cause developmental disorders of pigmentation (e.g., Hirschsprung's disease, Tietz syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome types I- IV, piebaldism)...
  38. Regulation of Myosin V Interaction with Cargo
    Lois S Weisman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..partial defects in myosin Va based transport cause Griscelli's syndrome, characterized by neurological and pigmentation defects...
  39. Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Cancer in Black Women
    Julie R Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to extend the model, which would be inadequate in AA women because of the major role of skin pigmentation in determining vitamin D levels, by adding data on skin pigmentation genes and vitamin D receptor and binding ..
  40. Melanocyte-Keratinocyte Cross-Talk In Relation To Barrier Function
    Peter M Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have shown that dark pigmentation independent of race or ethnicity, endows the epidermis with enhanced barrier function and antimicrobial defense...
  41. Multidisciplinary Study of Race Appearance Ancestry Discrimination &Prejudice
    JENNIFER KRISTIN WAGNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Racial discrimination is itself a health risk factor and known to vary by appearance (e.g. skin pigmentation)...
  42. In vivo real-time detection of circulating melanoma cells
    Vladimir P Zharov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with conventional assays;(3) in vivo study of healthy individuals as a control group with different skin pigmentation;and 4) melanoma patients at different stages of disease...
  43. Molecular mechanisms of notch signaling in maintenance of melanocyte stem cells
    David E Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have found that the hair pigmentation phenotype resulting from Notch inhibition was restored by the treatment with either an antioxidant agent or an ..
  44. Novel regulators of skin development and Foxn1 function
    Janice L Brissette; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..neighbors to divide, and 3) it recruits melanocytes to the host cell, thus identifying its host as a target for pigmentation. Through this combination of actions, Foxn1 enables groups of cells to work in concert and drives epithelial ..
    Ram H Nagaraj; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Lens proteins undergo numerous physico-chemical changes during aging and cataract formation;pigmentation and crosslinking are the two major ones...
  46. Higher-order chromatin remodeling and regulation of pigmentation
    Andrey Sharov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for further research on how topological organization on melanogenic genes in the nucleus is altered in pigmentation disorders associated either with melanocyte loss (vitiligo), or expansion (melanoma)...
  47. Mouse nude locus and skin development
    Janice L Brissette; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to this model therefore, Foxn1 acts as a regulatory nexus, coordinating the growth, differentiation, and pigmentation of cutaneous tissues...
  48. 17th Annual Meeting of the PanAmerican Society of Pigment Cell Research
    SANCY ANN LEACHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The underlying theme of the meeting, "Genetics, Pigmentation and Disease", is prompted by the rich history and track record at the University of Utah for both forward ..
  49. Novel UV-induced DNA lesions as new signature mutations for melanoma
    Jue Judy Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the first aim, we will use HPLC-MS/MS technology to identify UV- induced DNA adducts in various mouse models of pigmentation. We will use phosphate tagging and oligonucleotides to determine inter- versus intrastrand nature of adducts, ..
  50. ATF2 in melanoma development and progression
    ZE apos EV A RONAI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Initial analysis of melanocytes identified a set of pigmentation genes, including MITF, MC1R, Silver, DCT and TYRP1, whose expression is altered in the absence of functional ..
  51. Risk Factors for Nevus Development in Children
    Lori A Crane; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with nevi or identified recently through genome wide studies (conducted by other researchers) as related to pigmentation, nevus development, or melanoma will be assessed...
  52. The MITF transcriptional network: melanoma risk and carcinogenesis
    David E Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of MITF as a dysregulated oncogene (via amplification or point mutation) and 2) MITF's key role regulating pigmentation, one of the most important predictors of melanoma risk...
  53. Novel Imaging System to Objectively Assess the Natural History of Treated and Unt
    Jessica C Ramella Roman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..a means of predicting several variables of interest in scar formation including height, vascularity, and pigmentation, and will lead to improved clinical outcomes through elucidation of the etiology of scar formation and ..
  54. Functional Amyloid in Melansome Biogenesis
    Michael S Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, but PMEL fibrils are non-pathogenic and serve a physiological role in pigmentation. By assessing how PMEL fibrils form within melanosome precursors and how their formation differs from that of ..
  55. Response to Burn Injury: Role of the Melanocortin System in Wound Repair
    NICOLE SIMONE GIBRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have increased risk for hypertrophic scar formation, Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) regulates human cutaneous pigmentation and also exerts other target cell responses, including anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and immunoregulation...
  56. The role of melanocyte precursors in zebrafish pigmentation disorders
    Richard Mark White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..perturbations in the normal development of embryonic neural crest and melanocyte precursors is related to adult pigmentation disease such as nevi and melanoma...
  57. The role of ultraviolet radiation and skin pigmentation in melanoma development
    Devarati Mitra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intervention Epidemiology has suggested that ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the red/blond, fair-skinned pigmentation phenotype are two major melanoma risk factors...
    MADHUKAR PATHAK; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..b) role of UVR in the induction of melanoma; c) usefulness of new and potent chemicals to stimulate melanin pigmentation of angelicins, khellin, and synthetic alpha-MSH melanotrophins; d) role of reactive 02 species in cutaneous ..
    DAVID RINSEY BICKERS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..stem cells, control of hair follicle cycling, chemoprevention of skin cancer, cell cycle control, and pigmentation. Trainees are rigorously selected by a Selection and Steering Committee on the basis of academic excellence, ..
  60. Coordinated Regulation of Hair Growth and Pigmentation by Dermal Papilla Cells
    Yuhang Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..my research is to discover the molecular pathways in DPCs that could be manipulated for hair regeneration and pigmentation. The overall objective in this application is to characterize the Wnt/[unreadable]-catenin signaling loop by ..
  61. Molecular Genetics of Carney Complex
    Cathy J Hatcher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..disorder in which cardiac myxomas (the most common primary cardiac tumor) occur in the setting of spotty pigmentation of the skin, extracardiac myxomas, rare nonmyxomatous tumors, and endocrinopathy...
  62. A new approach to identify rare genetic variants influencing melanoma risk
    Fabienne Lesueur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To identify novel risk alleles, we will mutation screen the strongest candidate genes of the pigmentation pathway in over 1,300 cases and 1,300 matched controls from 10 European countries enrolled in the EPIC cohort...
  63. Mechanisms of vertebrate post-embryonic developmental progression
    SARAH KELLY MCMENAMIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..developmental progression and the behaviors of a specific, well-characterized cell lineage that produces adult pigmentation during the larval-to-juvenile transition...
  64. Role of Microphthalmia/MITF Factor in Eye Development
    Francesca Pignoni; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Mutations in the mouse Mitf locus cause microphthalmia, pigmentation, bone and hearing defects and the RPE promotes proper survival and function of photoreceptor cells throughout ..
  65. Lung Injury and Shock Pathogenesis in Y. pestis Sepsis
    ANDREW LECHNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Yersinia's survival in blood requires chromosomal factors including the pigmentation (pgm) locus; pgm strains are avirulent by peripheral route, but at 37 degrees C can still suppress macrophage ..
  66. Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency in Breastfed Infants
    Ekhard Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S. but is particularly common among infants with dark skin pigmentation and infants living in the northern parts of the U.S...
  67. The pigmentary system: securing a place in the sun
    Andrzej Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Within the vast field of cutaneous biology, pigmentation is a growing area of research...
  68. Signal Transduction Mechanisms in Ocular Albinism
    Vinit Mahajan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Transduction Mechanisms in Ocular Albinism Patients with X-linked ocular albinism type 1 display decreased pigmentation of ocular tissues and suffer a characteristic series of traits that includes poor visual acuity, nystagmus, ..
    Vijayasaradhi Setaluri; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Vitiligo, characterized by partial or complete loss of skin pigmentation and alopecia areata, a chronic inflammatory hair disorder are two such diseases...
  70. Vitamin D status in pregnant women
    Theresa Scholl; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Vitamin D synthesis varies by season and with latitude as well as according to intensity of skin pigmentation. Recent research in the United States found lower circulating levels of 25 (OH) D, the primary indicator of ..
  71. Relationships between Skin Pigmentation, Vitamin D and Blood Pressure
    FLOJAUNE GRIFFIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this study is to characterize the effect of skin pigmentation on serum 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (vitamin D) levels, and, in turn, ascertain their association with blood pressure among ..
  72. Missing Mutations in Oculocutaneous and Ocular Albinism
    Richard Spritz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..applicant): Albinism is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by reduced or absent melanin pigmentation, mainly involving the eyes, skin, and hair...
    KATHERINE FITE; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..intensity light exposure will have differential effects in the outer retina depending upon age, pigmentation (melanin) of the retinal pigment epitheliam and lipofuscin/age pigmentatin levels of the pigment epithelial ..
  74. Molecular mechanisms underlying parallel Agouti adaptation in Peromyscus
    CATHERINE LINNEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mice have provided important insights into the cellular and developmental processes underlying mammalian pigmentation and have served as models for human disease...
    MICHAEL SUBER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..severe visual loss; abnormal rod and cone electroretinograms, poor dark adaptation thresholds, and intraretinal pigmentation in the mid-periphery signaling the degeneration of retinal tissue...
  76. Skin Pigmentation and Parkinson's Disease Risk
    Caroline Tanner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The goal of this proposal is to investigate the relationship between skin pigmentation and Parkinson's disease (PD). Early clinical and epidemiologic observations suggested that PD might be most common in persons of European origin...