basal metabolism

Summary

Summary: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure
    P A Tataranni
    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:1578-83. 2003
  2. ncbi Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations
    C J K Henry
    School of Biological and Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, UK
    Public Health Nutr 8:1133-52. 2005
  3. ncbi Beyond the '3/4-power law': variation in the intra- and interspecific scaling of metabolic rate in animals
    Douglas S Glazier
    Department of Biology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania 16652, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 80:611-62. 2005
  4. ncbi Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine
    Alexandra M Johnstone
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Division of Energy Balance and Obesity, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:941-8. 2005
  5. pmc Metabolic rate and environmental productivity: well-provisioned animals evolved to run and idle fast
    P Mueller
    Department of Physiology, University of California Los Angeles Medical School, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12550-4. 2001
  6. pmc Mammalian basal metabolic rate is proportional to body mass2/3
    Craig R White
    Department of Environmental Biology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4046-9. 2003
  7. ncbi Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?
    Heather K Neilson
    Division of Population Health and Information, Alberta Cancer Board, Calgary, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:279-91. 2008
  8. ncbi Allometric cascade as a unifying principle of body mass effects on metabolism
    Charles A Darveau
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nature 417:166-70. 2002
  9. ncbi The functional significance of individual variation in basal metabolic rate
    John R Speakman
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:900-15. 2004
  10. ncbi Repeatability of standard metabolic rate, active metabolic rate and aerobic scope in young brown trout during a period of moderate food availability
    Tommy Norin
    Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    J Exp Biol 214:1668-75. 2011

Research Grants

  1. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF NUCLEAR MEMBRANE INSP3 RECEPTOR
    J Kevin Foskett; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Neurochemistry/physiology of proopiomelanocortin neurons
    MALCOLM JAMES LOW; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. The Role of the Central Melanocortin System in the Muscle Wasting of Cachexia
    THEODORE PAUL BRAUN; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Hypothalamic Mechanisms in Cachexia
    Daniel L Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. ROCK and Obesity
    JAMES KUANG JAN LIAO; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Modulation of Oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase
    Giovanni Manfredi; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. Failure of metabolite clearance in a model of multi-lacunar infarcts
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Sleep deprivation and energy balance
    Virend K Somers; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. Interactions Between Obesity Risk and Insufficient Sleep
    Virend K Somers; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. UCSF Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System
    Allison W Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications323 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure
    P A Tataranni
    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:1578-83. 2003
    ..However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited...
  2. ncbi Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations
    C J K Henry
    School of Biological and Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, UK
    Public Health Nutr 8:1133-52. 2005
    ..The objective here is to review the historical development in the measurement and application of BMR and to critically review the Schofield et al. BMR database presenting a series of new equations to predict BMR...
  3. ncbi Beyond the '3/4-power law': variation in the intra- and interspecific scaling of metabolic rate in animals
    Douglas S Glazier
    Department of Biology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania 16652, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 80:611-62. 2005
    ..I conclude that the scaling of metabolism is not the simple result of a physical law, but rather appears to be the more complex result of diverse adaptations evolved in the context of both physico-chemical and ecological constraints...
  4. ncbi Factors influencing variation in basal metabolic rate include fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine but not sex, circulating leptin, or triiodothyronine
    Alexandra M Johnstone
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Division of Energy Balance and Obesity, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:941-8. 2005
    ..All studies agree that variation in fat-free mass (FFM) plays a major role, but effects of fat mass (FM), age, sex, and the hormones leptin, triiodothyrionine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) remain uncertain...
  5. pmc Metabolic rate and environmental productivity: well-provisioned animals evolved to run and idle fast
    P Mueller
    Department of Physiology, University of California Los Angeles Medical School, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1751, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12550-4. 2001
    ....
  6. pmc Mammalian basal metabolic rate is proportional to body mass2/3
    Craig R White
    Department of Environmental Biology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4046-9. 2003
    ..Data encompassing five orders of magnitude variation in M and featuring 619 species from 19 mammalian orders show that BMR proportional, variant M(2/3)...
  7. ncbi Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?
    Heather K Neilson
    Division of Population Health and Information, Alberta Cancer Board, Calgary, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:279-91. 2008
    ..Small sample sizes, use of correlation coefficients, and limited information on individual validity were problematic. Future research should address these issues to clarify the true validity of PAQs for estimating AEE...
  8. ncbi Allometric cascade as a unifying principle of body mass effects on metabolism
    Charles A Darveau
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Nature 417:166-70. 2002
    ....
  9. ncbi The functional significance of individual variation in basal metabolic rate
    John R Speakman
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:900-15. 2004
    ..in connection with three particular predictions that derive from the hypothesised links among morphology, basal metabolism, and sustained metabolic rate...
  10. ncbi Repeatability of standard metabolic rate, active metabolic rate and aerobic scope in young brown trout during a period of moderate food availability
    Tommy Norin
    Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    J Exp Biol 214:1668-75. 2011
    ..We suggest that this gradual decline in repeatability was due to the slightly restricted feeding regime. This is discussed in the context of phenotypic plasticity, natural selection and ecology...
  11. pmc Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between men and women
    ZiMian Wang
    Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA
    Am J Hum Biol 23:333-8. 2011
    ..However, it is unknown whether gender influences the K(i) values. The aim of the present study was to compare the K(i) values observed in nonelderly nonobese men to the corresponding values in women...
  12. pmc Adipose tissue resting energy expenditure and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function are higher in women than in men
    Intawat Nookaew
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 41296, Sweden
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:E370-8. 2013
    ..Men and women differ in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism as well as in obesity comorbidities and their response to obesity treatment...
  13. pmc Cold- and exercise-induced peak metabolic rates in tropical birds
    Popko Wiersma
    Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, 290 Aronoff Laboratory, 318 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20866-71. 2007
    ..The lower PMR(E) values in tropical species suggest that their suite of life history traits on the slow end of the life history continuum are associated with reduced metabolic rates...
  14. ncbi Effect of calorie restriction on resting metabolic rate and spontaneous physical activity
    Corby K Martin
    Department of Health Psychology, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:2964-73. 2007
    ..Additionally, it is unknown if changes in SPA, measured in a respiratory chamber, reflect changes in free-living physical activity level (PAL)...
  15. ncbi Does basal metabolic rate contain a useful signal? Mammalian BMR allometry and correlations with a selection of physiological, ecological, and life-history variables
    Craig R White
    Department of Environmental Biology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:929-41. 2004
    ....
  16. pmc Resting and daily energy expenditures of free-living field voles are positively correlated but reflect extrinsic rather than intrinsic effects
    J R Speakman
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14057-62. 2003
    ..These data show that daily energy demands are extrinsically defined, with a link to RMRt that is secondary or independent. Both forcing and enabling effects of the environment may pertain at different times of year...
  17. pmc What causes intraspecific variation in resting metabolic rate and what are its ecological consequences?
    T Burton
    Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 278:3465-73. 2011
    ..To conclude, we discuss experimental approaches that will enable more rigorous examination of the causes and consequences of individual variation in this key physiological trait...
  18. ncbi Basal metabolic rate: heritability and genetic correlations with morphological traits in the zebra finch
    B Rønning
    Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    J Evol Biol 20:1815-22. 2007
    ..Hence, our results indicate that genetic changes in BMR through directional selection are possible, but the potential for adaptation independent of body mass may be limited...
  19. ncbi Are the effects of T3 on resting metabolic rate in euthyroid rats entirely caused by T3 itself?
    Maria Moreno
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche ed Ambientali, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
    Endocrinology 143:504-10. 2002
    ..Because the effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 are additive, in N rats, the two iodothyronines probably cooperate in vivo to determine the total metabolic rate...
  20. pmc Brain and high metabolic rate organ mass: contributions to resting energy expenditure beyond fat-free mass
    Fahad Javed
    New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:907-12. 2010
    ..The degree to which interindividual variation in the mass of select high metabolic rate organs (HMROs) mediates variability in resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown...
  21. ncbi Genetic correlations in a wild rodent: grass-eaters and fast-growers evolve high basal metabolic rates
    Edyta T Sadowska
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul Gronostajowa 7, 30 387 Krakow, Poland
    Evolution 63:1530-9. 2009
    ..The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a part of the interspecific variation in BMR evolved in response to selection for life-history and ecological traits such as food habits...
  22. ncbi The relationship of metabolic performance and distribution in black-capped and Carolina chickadees
    Jennifer R Olson
    Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, 318 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 83:263-75. 2010
    ..We suggest that the mtDNA-nDNA mismatch of hybrids may produce less efficient mitochondrial protein complexes, which in turn affects the efficiency of ATP production, thereby increasing rate of oxygen consumption to meet ATP demands...
  23. ncbi Why are metabolic scaling exponents so controversial? Quantifying variance and testing hypotheses
    Nick J B Isaac
    Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, UK
    Ecol Lett 13:728-35. 2010
    ..We conclude that current theories are inadequate to explain the full range of metabolic scaling patterns observed in nature...
  24. pmc Effect of constitution on mass of individual organs and their association with metabolic rate in humans--a detailed view on allometric scaling
    Manfred J Muller
    Institut fur Humanernahrung und Lebensmittelkunde, Christian Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e22732. 2011
    ..These data are the first evidence that constitution adds to the complexity of REE. Since organs scale differently as weight as well as height the "fit" of organ masses within constitution should be considered as a further trait...
  25. ncbi Resting metabolic rate and morphology in mice (Mus musculus) selected for high and low food intake
    C Selman
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK
    J Exp Biol 204:777-84. 2001
    ..The effects of strain on RMR independent of the effect on body mass were consistent with the anticipated effect from the strain differences in the size of the liver...
  26. pmc A comprehensive evaluation of commonly used accelerometer energy expenditure and MET prediction equations
    Kate Lyden
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 30 Eastman Lane, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Eur J Appl Physiol 111:187-201. 2011
    ..99 METs, vigorous ≥ 6 METs). Current prediction techniques have many limitations when translating accelerometer counts to EE...
  27. pmc Brain size, life history, and metabolism at the marsupial/placental dichotomy
    Vera Weisbecker
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16216-21. 2010
    ..Marsupials represent a less constrained condition, demonstrating that hypotheses regarding placental brain size evolution cannot be generalized to all mammals...
  28. ncbi Phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate and the changing view of avian physiological diversity: a review
    Andrew E McKechnie
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence at the Percy FitzPatrick Institute, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050, South Africa
    J Comp Physiol B 178:235-47. 2008
    ..Several key questions concerning the shapes and other properties of avian BMR reaction norms urgently need to be addressed, and hypotheses concerning metabolic adaptation should explicitly account for phenotypic flexibility...
  29. ncbi Dietary methods research in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: underreporting of energy intake
    R R Briefel
    Division of Health Examination Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA rrb
    Am J Clin Nutr 65:1203S-1209S. 1997
    ..Additionally, underreporting was associated with diets lower in fat (P < 0.01) and alcohol (P < 0.01 in women) when expressed as a percentage of total energy intake...
  30. ncbi Limits to sustained energy intake. II. Inter-relationships between resting metabolic rate, life-history traits and morphology in Mus musculus
    M S Johnson
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, UK
    J Exp Biol 204:1937-46. 2001
    ..This study confirms the findings of previous intraspecific and some interspecific studies that found no correlation between RMR and reproductive output after the effects of body mass had been removed...
  31. pmc The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome
    Rute R da Fonseca
    REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169 007 Porto, Portugal
    BMC Genomics 9:119. 2008
    ....
  32. pmc Metabolic costs of brain size evolution
    Karin Isler
    Anthropologisches Institut und Museum, Universitat Zurich Irchel, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Biol Lett 2:557-60. 2006
    ..We conclude that attempts to explain brain size variation in different taxa must consider the ability to sustain the energy costs alongside cognitive benefits...
  33. pmc Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus)
    Vadim B Fedorov
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, USA
    Physiol Genomics 37:108-18. 2009
    ....
  34. ncbi Comparison of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in healthy nonobese and obese adults: a systematic review
    David Frankenfield
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 105:775-89. 2005
    ..Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken to document the accuracy of predictive equations preliminary to deciding on the imperative to measure metabolic rate...
  35. ncbi Natural hypometabolism during hibernation and daily torpor in mammals
    Gerhard Heldmaier
    Department of Biology, Philipps University, Karl von Frisch Strasse, D 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 141:317-29. 2004
    ..It indicates that this behaviour is not primarily aimed for cold defense, instead points to a general role of hypometabolism, as a measure to cope with a timely limited or seasonal bottleneck of energy supply...
  36. ncbi Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birds
    K A Nagy
    Department of Organismic Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1606, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 19:247-77. 1999
    ....
  37. ncbi Metabolically active components of fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure in humans: recent lessons from imaging technologies
    M J Muller
    Institut fur Humanernahrung und Lebensmittelkunde, Agrar und Ernährungswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Christian Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 17 19, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Obes Rev 3:113-22. 2002
    ....
  38. ncbi The influence of climate on the basal metabolic rate of small mammals: a slow-fast metabolic continuum
    B G Lovegrove
    School of Botany and Zoology, University of Natal, Private Bag X01, 3209 Scottsville, South Africa
    J Comp Physiol B 173:87-112. 2003
    ..The implications of a slow-fast metabolic continuum are discussed in terms of various models associated with the evolution of BMR, such as the aerobic capacity models and the "energetic definition of fitness" models...
  39. pmc Resting metabolism and critical thermal maxima of vespine wasps (Vespula sp.)
    Helmut Käfer
    Institut fur Zoologie, Karl Franzens Universitat Graz, Universitatsplatz 2, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    J Insect Physiol 58:679-89. 2012
    ..Comparison with other arthropods showed that vespine wasps are among the insects with the highest mass-specific resting metabolic rate and the steepest increase of metabolism with ambient temperature...
  40. pmc Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy
    David L Swanson
    Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e34271. 2012
    ....
  41. ncbi Energy costs of standard activities among Indian adults
    A N Kanade
    Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India
    Eur J Clin Nutr 55:708-13. 2001
    ..Therefore, there is a need to develop separate prediction equations for different communities...
  42. ncbi Intra-individual variation in resting metabolic rate during the menstrual cycle
    C Jeya K Henry
    Nutrition and Food Science Group, School of Biological and Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, OX3 0BP
    Br J Nutr 89:811-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, the findings from our present study show that RMR cannot be assumed to be 'stable' in all women. The implications of intra-individual variation in RMR and its impact on energy balance needs further research...
  43. pmc Small organs with a high metabolic rate explain lower resting energy expenditure in African American than in white adults
    Dympna Gallagher
    Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY 10025, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 83:1062-7. 2006
    ..Whether the composition of FFM at the organ-tissue level differs between African Americans and whites and, if so, whether that difference could account for differences by race in REE are unknown...
  44. ncbi Phylogenetically informed analysis of the allometry of Mammalian Basal metabolic rate supports neither geometric nor quarter-power scaling
    Craig R White
    School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Evolution 63:2658-67. 2009
    ..67 or 0.75. Thus, we conclude that no single value of b adequately characterizes the allometric relationship between body mass and BMR...
  45. ncbi Non-linear scaling of oxygen consumption and heart rate in a very large cockroach species (Gromphadorhina portentosa): correlated changes with body size and temperature
    Jeffrey W Streicher
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
    J Exp Biol 215:1137-43. 2012
    ..The decreasing slope at very large body masses in both intraspecific and interspecific comparisons may have important implications for future investigations of the relationship between oxygen transport and maximum body size in insects...
  46. ncbi Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism
    David A Raichlen
    Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, 1009 E South Campus Drive, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    J Comp Physiol B 180:301-11. 2010
    ..These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation...
  47. ncbi Validation of several established equations for resting metabolic rate in obese and nonobese people
    David C Frankenfield
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 103:1152-9. 2003
    ..To evaluate several equations for predicting resting metabolic rate against measured values in obese and nonobese people...
  48. ncbi Quantitative genetics of bioenergetics and growth-related traits in the wild mammal, Phyllotis darwini
    Roberto F Nespolo
    Instituto de Ecologia y Evolucion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia
    Evolution 59:1829-37. 2005
    ..74; P < 0.05). Overall, these results suggest that additive genetic variance is present in several bioenergetic traits, and that genetic correlations could be present between those different kinds of traits...
  49. pmc Shifts in metabolic scaling, production, and efficiency across major evolutionary transitions of life
    John P DeLong
    Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12941-5. 2010
    ..Major changes in metabolic processes during the early evolution of life overcame existing constraints, exploited new opportunities, and imposed new constraints...
  50. ncbi Membranes and the setting of energy demand
    A J Hulbert
    Metabolic Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
    J Exp Biol 208:1593-9. 2005
    ..These differences in membrane composition may also represent a link between metabolism and aging. They probably explain the lifespan-body size relationship in mammals and birds and also the mammal-bird difference in lifespan...
  51. pmc Tropical birds have a slow pace of life
    Popko Wiersma
    Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, 290 Aronoff Laboratory, 318 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9340-5. 2007
    ..We conclude that physiological function correlates with the suite of life-history traits...
  52. ncbi A bird's-eye view of the C-value enigma: genome size, cell size, and metabolic rate in the class aves
    T Ryan Gregory
    Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Evolution 56:121-30. 2002
    ..Following from a discussion of the mechanistic bases of the correlations reported and the processes by which birds achieved and/or maintain small genomes, a pluralistic approach to the C-value enigma is recommended...
  53. ncbi Low replacement doses of thyroxine during food restriction restores type 1 deiodinase activity in rats and promotes body protein loss
    Renata Lopes Araujo
    Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina do Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949 900, Brazil
    J Endocrinol 198:119-25. 2008
    ..Thus, decreased serum T(4) during caloric restriction corresponds to a protective mechanism to avoid body protein loss, highlighting the importance of other strategies to reduce body mass without lean mass loss...
  54. ncbi 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine increases resting metabolic rate and reduces body weight without undesirable side effects
    A Antonelli
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 25:655-60. 2011
    ..05) (about 4 percent), while the serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH, were unchanged. No side effects were observed at the cardiac level in either subject. No significant change was observed in the same subjects taking placebo...
  55. ncbi Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians
    C Weyer
    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85016, USA
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:593-600. 2001
    ..To further examine this hypothesis, we assessed the changes in 24 h energy metabolism in response to short-term overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians (C) and Pima Indians (I), a population with a very high propensity for obesity...
  56. ncbi Accurate determination of energy needs in hospitalized patients
    Joseph Boullata
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6096, USA
    J Am Diet Assoc 107:393-401. 2007
    ....
  57. ncbi Basal metabolic rate: history, composition, regulation, and usefulness
    A J Hulbert
    Metabolic Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:869-76. 2004
    ..It is suggested that in different-sized mammals, the secretion/production of thyroid hormones is a result of BMR differences rather than their cause. BMR is a useful concept in some situations but not in others...
  58. ncbi Minimal metabolic rate, what it is, its usefulness, and its relationship to the evolution of endothermy: a brief synopsis
    P B Frappell
    Adaptational and Evolutionary Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:865-8. 2004
    ..Consideration of minimal metabolic rate must take into account ecological and physiological processes, environmental influences, evolutionary arguments, and body size...
  59. ncbi Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in a wintering passerine bird: their relationship to geographic variation, environmental factors, metabolic rate, and body fat
    Michael F Burger
    School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 75:187-99. 2002
    ..We conclude, therefore, that there is latitudinal variation in metabolic parameters in cardinals but that this variation is not explained by variation in plasma TH concentrations...
  60. ncbi Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients
    David Frankenfield
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 28:259-64. 2004
    ..However, calculation equations are more commonly used. In the current study we tested the validity of 2 such calculation systems...
  61. ncbi Individual variation in field metabolic rate of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) during the chick-rearing period
    M Fyhn
    Department of Arctic Biology, University of Tromsø, NO 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    Physiol Biochem Zool 74:343-55. 2001
    ..It is suggested that the metabolic intensity is not a proper measure of the metabolic load in seabirds...
  62. pmc Juvenile salmon with high standard metabolic rates have higher energy costs but can process meals faster
    K J Millidine
    Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 276:2103-8. 2009
    ....
  63. ncbi Repeatability of standard metabolic rate and gas exchange characteristics in a highly variable cockroach, Perisphaeria sp
    Elrike Marais
    Spatial, Physiological and Conservation Ecology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
    J Exp Biol 206:4565-74. 2003
    ..Our results provide support for consistency of variation among individuals, which is one of the prerequisites of natural selection that is infrequently tested in insects...
  64. ncbi Heritability of energetics in a wild mammal, the leaf-eared mouse (Phyllotis darwini)
    Roberto F Nespolo
    Instituto de Ecologia y Evolucion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile
    Evolution 57:1679-88. 2003
    ..Our results are in general agreement with previous studies of mammals that reported low heritability for: (1) BMR and MMR; (2) daytime body temperature; and (3) body mass for wild, but not laboratory or domestic, populations...
  65. ncbi The evolution of endothermy: role for membranes and molecular activity
    Paul L Else
    Department of Biomedical Science, Metabolic Research Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia
    Physiol Biochem Zool 77:950-8. 2004
    ..Such changes (from monounsaturated to polyunsaturated membranes) would allow membranes to set the pace of metabolism in the evolution of endothermy...
  66. ncbi Metabolic and ventilatory acclimatization to cold stress in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)
    Jeremy R Arens
    Department of Biology and Microbiology, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI 54901 8640, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 78:579-89. 2005
    ..However, the only significant difference between summer and winter ventilation measures in helox cold stress was f. Mean f in helox cold stress for winter birds was 1.23 times summer values...
  67. ncbi Metabolic correlates of selection on aerobic capacity in laboratory mice: a test of the model for the evolution of endothermy
    Andrzej K Gebczynski
    Institute of Biology, University of Bialystok, Swierkowa 20B, 15 950 Bialystok, Poland
    J Exp Biol 212:2872-8. 2009
    ..Overall, our study does not support the assumptions of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy...
  68. pmc Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior
    Ann M Swartz
    Physical Activity and Health Research Laboratory, Department of Human Movement Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Enderis Hall Room 453, PO Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 0413, USA
    Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8:69. 2011
    ....
  69. ncbi Basal metabolic rate in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field vole, Microtus agrestis
    P Meerlo
    Zoological Laboratory, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Physiol Zool 70:362-9. 1997
    ..The study does not provide support for an intraindividual association of basal metabolic rate with daily energy expenditure in the field...
  70. ncbi Energy metabolism in African Americans: potential risk factors for obesity
    C Weyer
    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 70:13-20. 1999
    ..Recent reports have identified a lower resting metabolic rate in African Americans than in whites, but most studies included only females and used short-term measurements with ventilated-hood systems...
  71. ncbi Effect of sampling regime on estimation of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss using flow-through respirometry
    C E Cooper
    Centre for Ecosystem Diversity and Dynamics in the Department of Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, P O Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia
    Physiol Biochem Zool 83:385-93. 2010
    ....
  72. ncbi Thermoregulatory and metabolic phenotypes of mice lacking noradrenaline and adrenaline
    S A Thomas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7370, USA
    Nature 387:94-7. 1997
    ..The unexpected increase in basal metabolic rate is not due to hyperthyroidism, compensation by the widely expressed uncoupling protein UCP2, or shivering...
  73. ncbi Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate
    Aneta Ksiazek
    Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, Swierkowa 20B, 15 950 Białystok, Poland
    Physiol Biochem Zool 85:51-61. 2012
    ..More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR...
  74. ncbi Increased O2 cost of basal metabolism and excitation-contraction coupling in hearts from type 2 diabetic mice
    Neoma Boardman
    Dept of Medical Physiology, Institute of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Univ of Tromsø, N 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296:H1373-9. 2009
    ..myocardial O(2) consumption (unloaded MVo(2)), indicating higher O(2) use for nonmechanical processes such as basal metabolism (MVo(2)(BM)) and excitation-contraction coupling (MVo(2)(ECC))...
  75. ncbi Lower resting metabolic rate and higher velocity of weight gain in a prospective study of stunted vs nonstunted girls living in the shantytowns of São Paulo, Brazil
    L P Grillol
    Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Balneario Camboriu, Santa Catarina, Brazil
    Eur J Clin Nutr 59:835-42. 2005
    ..This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stunting, weight gain, and resting metabolic rate...
  76. pmc Lower metabolic rate in individuals heterozygous for either a frameshift or a functional missense MC4R variant
    Jonathan Krakoff
    Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Diabetes 57:3267-72. 2008
    ..Humans with functional variants in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) are obese, hyperphagic, and hyperinsulinemic but have been reported to have no difference in energy expenditure...
  77. ncbi The reconstruction of Kleiber's law at the organ-tissue level
    Z Wang
    Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA
    J Nutr 131:2967-70. 2001
    ..76)) is similar to that observed by Kleiber on the whole-body level. Modeling mammalian REE at the organ-tissue level provides new insights and pathways for future mechanistic explorations of REE-body composition relationships...
  78. ncbi Mammalian metabolic allometry: do intraspecific variation, phylogeny, and regression models matter?
    Annette E Sieg
    Department of Biology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Am Nat 174:720-33. 2009
    ..We returned to the original literature and culled nearly all unique measurements of body mass and basal metabolism for 695 mammal species and (1) phylogenetically corrected the data using the fullest available phylogeny, (2) ..
  79. ncbi Allometric scaling of maximal metabolic rate in mammals: muscle aerobic capacity as determinant factor
    Ewald R Weibel
    Department of Anatomy, University of Berne, Buhlstrasse 26, CH 3000, Berne 9, Switzerland
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 140:115-32. 2004
    ..We conclude that the scaling of maximal metabolic rate is explained by features and mechanisms different from those determining basal metabolic rate...
  80. ncbi Prediction of basal metabolism from organ size in the rat: relationship to strain, feeding, age, and obesity
    P C Even
    Unite Mixte de Recherche, Physiologie de la Nutrition et du Comportement Alimentaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 75005 Paris, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280:R1887-96. 2001
    ..of the weight of various organs and tissues together with their specific metabolic activity for prediction of basal metabolism (BM) seems to be promising...
  81. ncbi No evidence of mass dependency of specific organ metabolic rate in healthy humans
    Wiebke Later
    Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:1004-9. 2008
    ..However, interspecies data suggest allometric relations between body mass and organ metabolic rate with higher specific metabolic rates in mammals with a smaller body mass...
  82. ncbi World Health Organization equations have shortcomings for predicting resting energy expenditure in persons from a modern, affluent population: generation of a new reference standard from a retrospective analysis of a German database of resting energy expe
    Manfred J Muller
    Christian Albrechts Universitat zu Kiel, Institut fur Humanernahrung und Lebensmittelkunde, Kiel, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1379-90. 2004
    ..Reference standards for resting energy expenditure (REE) are widely used. Current standards are based on measurements made in the first part of the past century in various races and locations...
  83. ncbi Energy expenditure in African American and white boys and girls in a 2-y follow-up of the Baton Rouge Children's Study
    James P Delany
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:268-73. 2004
    ..Previously reported race and sex differences in energy expenditure (EE) may play a role in body fat gain...
  84. ncbi Hormonal correlates and thermoregulatory consequences of molting on metabolic rate in a northerly wintering shorebird
    François Vézina
    Department of Marine Ecology and Evolution, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P O Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
    Physiol Biochem Zool 82:129-42. 2009
    ..Our interpretation is supported by a positive relationship between the individual changes in conductance and the change in BMR from summer to the molting period...
  85. pmc Environment, migratory tendency, phylogeny and basal metabolic rate in birds
    Walter Jetz
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3261. 2008
    ..The strong effects of temperature-related variables and varying phylogenetic effects reiterate the importance of addressing both broad-scale and individual-scale variation for understanding the determinants of BMR...
  86. ncbi Membranes as possible pacemakers of metabolism
    A J Hulbert
    Departments of Biological and, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
    J Theor Biol 199:257-74. 1999
    ..The percentage contribution of various processes to basal metabolism is remarkably consistent between different vertebrates and when BMR varies, the components of metabolic ..
  87. ncbi Acclimation to different thermal conditions in a northerly wintering shorebird is driven by body mass-related changes in organ size
    François Vézina
    Department of Marine Ecology and Evolution, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 209:3141-54. 2006
    ....
  88. ncbi Body-composition differences between African American and white women: relation to resting energy requirements
    Alfredo Jones
    Department of Medicine, Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Weight Control Unit, 1090 Amsterdam Avenue, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10025, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:780-6. 2004
    ..Body composition differs between African American (AA) and white women, and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) is likely to be lower in AA women than in white women...
  89. ncbi Seasonal metabolic acclimatization in mountain chickadees and juniper titmice
    Sheldon J Cooper
    Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan 84322 5305, USA
    Physiol Biochem Zool 75:386-95. 2002
    ..Chickadees and titmice show metabolic acclimatization similar to other temperate species...
  90. ncbi Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
    James A Levine
    Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Nutr Rev 62:S82-97. 2004
    ..It appears that changes in NEAT accompany experimentally induced changes in energy balance and may be important in the physiology of weight change. NEAT and a sedentary lifestyle may thus be of profound importance in obesity...
  91. ncbi Validation of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in adult outpatients and inpatients
    Peter J M Weijs
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, VU University Medical Center, P O Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Nutr 27:150-7. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze which resting energy expenditure (REE) predictive equation was the best alternative to indirect calorimetry in adult patients...
  92. ncbi Nonshivering thermogenesis capacity associated to mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and gender in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula
    Pierre Fontanillas
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Mol Ecol 14:661-70. 2005
    ..Altogether, our results suggest a sexually antagonistic cyto-nuclear selection on thermogenesis...
  93. ncbi Resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient: results from a genome-wide scan in the Quebec Family Study
    Peter Jacobson
    Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:1527-33. 2006
    ....
  94. ncbi Annual changes in body mass and resting metabolism in captive barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis): the importance of wing moult
    Steven J Portugal
    Centre for Ornithology, School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Exp Biol 210:1391-7. 2007
    ..We conclude that the increase in metabolism led to the use of endogenous energy reserves because the birds reduced rather than increased their food intake rates, and as a result, the barnacle geese lost body mass during wing moult...
  95. ncbi Limits to sustained energy intake. VIII. Resting metabolic rate and organ morphology of laboratory mice lactating at thermoneutrality
    E Krol
    Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity ACERO, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK
    J Exp Biol 206:4283-91. 2003
    ..We discuss these changes in the context of the potential thermoregulatory benefits from use of the heat generated as a by-product of milk synthesis...
  96. ncbi Ethnicity, energy expenditure and obesity: are the observed black/white differences meaningful?
    Amy Luke
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 14:370-3. 2007
    ..These findings initiated much research on race as a primary biological determinant of obesity and energy expenditure as a potential pathway. Race is a difficult construct to use in biomedical research...
  97. ncbi Validation of energy intake by dietary recall against different methods to assess energy expenditure
    M Lof
    Division of Nutrition, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden
    J Hum Nutr Diet 17:471-80. 2004
    ..To provide an example showing how procedures based on recalls of physical activity can assess the validity of dietary recalls and identify subjects constantly underreporting their energy intake (EI)...
  98. ncbi The intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in fishes depends on lifestyle and temperature
    Shaun S Killen
    Station Mediterraneenne de l Environnement Littoral, Institut des Sciences de l Evolution de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier II, Sete 34200, France
    Ecol Lett 13:184-93. 2010
    ..This effect of lifestyle on b may be related to varying amounts of energetically expensive tissues associated with different capacities for swimming during predator-prey interactions...
  99. ncbi Standard equations are not accurate in assessing resting energy expenditure in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Michael S Sherman
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA
    JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 28:442-6. 2004
    ..To assess the utility of standard equations for calculating caloric requirements in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
  100. ncbi Validity and reproducibility of resting metabolic rate measurements in rural Bangladeshi women: comparison of measurements obtained by Medgem and by Deltatrac device
    D S Alam
    Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Eur J Clin Nutr 59:651-7. 2005
    ....
  101. ncbi Is resting metabolic rate different between men and women?
    A C Buchholz
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto and The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Br J Nutr 86:641-6. 2001
    ..28, P=0.0038), but not in men (r(2) 0.03, P=0.3301). The relationships between body fat and the various subcompartments of BCM and RMR require further elucidation...

Research Grants63

  1. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF NUCLEAR MEMBRANE INSP3 RECEPTOR
    J Kevin Foskett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..signals that regulate many physiological processes in cells, including, as we have discovered, autophagy and basal metabolism, as well as cell survival and death decisions...
  2. Neurochemistry/physiology of proopiomelanocortin neurons
    MALCOLM JAMES LOW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  3. The Role of the Central Melanocortin System in the Muscle Wasting of Cachexia
    THEODORE PAUL BRAUN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A mechanistic understanding of this pathway will provide insight into the care of these patients and provide future targets for rational drug design. ..
  4. Hypothalamic Mechanisms in Cachexia
    Daniel L Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our data argues strongly that the hypothalamic melanocortin system plays a critical role in the transduction of illness-induced cachexia and therefore represents an important target for future therapeutic intervention. ..
  5. ROCK and Obesity
    JAMES KUANG JAN LIAO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific aim 1 will test the hypothesis that deletion of ROCK2 leads to altered basal metabolism, impaired energy expenditure, and obesity...
  6. Modulation of Oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondrial soluble adenylyl cyclase
    Giovanni Manfredi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inducible sAC selectively targeted to the mitochondrial matrix (mito-sAC), which is expected produce high basal metabolism. In aim2, we will generate COXIV-1 S58A knockin mice, lacking the phosphorylated site, and thus incapable of ..
  7. Failure of metabolite clearance in a model of multi-lacunar infarcts
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed studies will provide fundamental new insight into cognitive impairment in vascular dementia, and will likely also improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of brain injury following stroke and head trauma. ..
  8. Sleep deprivation and energy balance
    Virend K Somers; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These findings will help explain whether the reduced sleep duration in the general population may be contributing to the current epidemic of obesity, and suggest novel strategies for weight control. ..
  9. Interactions Between Obesity Risk and Insufficient Sleep
    Virend K Somers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  10. UCSF Comprehensive Lab Animal Monitoring System
    Allison W Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Lab Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) that enables efficient and precise measurements of feeding, basal metabolism, motor activities, and thermoregulation in mice...
  11. HYPOTHALAMIC CONTROL OF FEEDING AND METABOLISM
    ROGER CONE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, the specific hypothesis that altered levels of POMC gene expression may be a risk factor for obesity will be directly tested by Dr. Boston and his collaborators (project II). ..
  12. PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO THERMAL INJURY
    EDWARD PAVLIN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In elucidating these mechanisms of resistance to NDMR at the neuromuscular junction, we hope to gain some insight into metabolic adaptations and responses to trauma...
  13. THE ROLE OF LIPOXINS IN BONE CELL METABOLISM
    Dimitris Tatakis; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Effects on basal metabolism will be assessed by cell proliferation and protein synthesis...
  14. MECHANISMS OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION IN DEVELOPMENT
    VALERIE GALTON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Taken together these studies will provide unique, previously unattainable insights into the significance of TH metabolic processes under a variety of clinically relevant physiological conditions. ..
  15. Energy Expenditure and Gastric-Bypass Surgery
    James Levine; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This may have dramatic implications for bariatric surgery and obesity management in general. ..
  16. Energy Expenditure and Gastric-Bypass Surgery
    James Levine; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This may have dramatic implications for bariatric surgery and obesity management in general. ..
  17. Abnormal Energy Homeostasis in ALS
    Robert Kalb; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..If food consumption and metabolic rate are related to neurodegenerative disease then new forms of intervention (i.e., diet, exercise, pharmacology) may prove useful therapeutically. ..
  18. ENERGY-NUTRITION OF URBAN WOMEN IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
    G Spurr; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The results will provide much needed information on how energy expenditures of third-world urban women related to their nutritional intakes, and will have important implications for policy makers...
  19. Role of Leptin in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    Antonio La Cava; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Leptin is a hormone primarily involved in the regulation of basal metabolism and with an important role in immune responses. Leptin promotes inflammation and can accelerate onset and progression of several autoimmune diseases in mice...
  20. GENETICS OF THYROID HORMONES IN MEXICAN AMERICANS
    PAUL SAMOLLOW; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..from Investigator's Abstract) Thyroid hormones play major roles in the regulation of protein synthesis, basal metabolism, and lipolysis and lipogenesis...
  21. MINORITY INSTITUTION MENTORED RESEARCH SCIENTIST AWARD
    Maciej Buchowski; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..As a result, these studies may be of immediate relevance to the clinical management of the HbSS patient. (End of Abstract) ..
  22. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND THE INCIDENCE OF OBESITY
    William Dietz; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  23. Predicting Energy Balance in Midlife Women
    Marla Reicks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. WEIGHT LOSS, EXERCISE AND AGE--EFFECTS ON INSULIN ACTION
    LYNDON JOSEPH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This study hopes to provide new and important information about effective therapies for the treatment of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and NIDDM. ..
  25. INTENSITY OF SLEEP OVER THE HUMAN LIFE SPAN
    HAROLD ZEPELIN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  26. Growth hormone as a determinant of weight regulation
    Jeffrey Horowitz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Identifying factors responsible for predisposing individuals to weight-gain will help combat the alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity. ..
  27. DETERMINANTS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN PREPUBESCENT GIRLS
    Margarita Treuth; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This study is important since significant health problems are associated with childhood obesity; identification of the etiological factors of childhood obesity is required to prevent and to reduce the prevalence of obesity. ..
  28. DO IMMUNE MEDIATORS MODIFY THE EFFECTS OF DRUGS OF ABUSE
    Thomas Lynch; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..ability to alter pain perception and thermoregulation (including body temperature, whole-body heat loss and basal metabolism) when these substances are given alone or in combination with opioids...
  29. Exploring Growth Energy Expenditure in Normal-Weight and Overweight Children
    ZiMian Wang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETER
    Dale Schoeller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, this new instrument will provide new capacity in the form of the solids combustion inlet. This expands our potential users group in the area of development of dietary biomarkers. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. RNAi Mediated Gene Disruption in Caenorhabditis Elegans
    Wayne Van Voorhies; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Such worms could identify candidate genes affecting processes that act "downstream" from the metabolic rate and provide valuable insights into the causes of aging and mechanisms by which it can be attenuated. ..
  32. NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN HUMANS
    Dale Schoeller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will provide important guidelines for the prescription of exercise for the prevention and treatment of obesity. ..
  33. EXTRAMULAR RESEARCH FACILITIES IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
    Lewis Landsberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This plan will not only meet national research needs in neurodegenerative diseases, but will lead to more efficient utilization of over $3M/year in direct costs provided to these six investigators by NIH. ..
  34. ACTIVITY AND OBESITY IN US BLACK & NIGERIAN WOMEN
    Amy Luke; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed study will not use an ecologic design, since conclusions will be based relationships defined among individuals, not the comparison of group means. ..
  35. Frequency of aerobic/resistance training in older women
    Gary Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such information is critical to our understanding of ways to improve well being, quality of life, and independence of an aging population. ..
  36. Instruments for measuring physical activity
    James Levine; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This should allow us to better define the role of physical activity in health and disease. ..
  37. NEAT & Physical Activity Assessment in the Elderly
    James Levine; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies may potentially guide us to devise novel strategies to prevent sarcopenia and promote physical activity in the elderly. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. TRH in mediating the bradycardia of caloric restriction
    Steven Swoap; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Resting and intrinsic HRs will be measured before and during a caloric restriction period. ..
  39. Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
    James Levine; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In addition, these studies may provide information regarding the pathogenesis of obesity and potentially into novel modalities for preventing and treating obesity. ..
  40. Nutritional Restriction and Activity Thermogenesis
    James Levine; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..1 2 Description, ..
  41. Metabolic Effects of Differential Organ Growth Rates
    Dympna Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed studies will provide new insights into growth-related changes in REE and between-individual REE differences, notably those observed between race groups. ..
  42. An Exploratory Center for Obesity Research (RMI)
    Adam Drewnowski; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By promoting interagency collaborations, these efforts will help the NIH develop a roadmap on how to effectively translate research findings into national, state, and local health policy. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Oleic Acid Effects on Transit and Absorption in SBS
    Charlene Compher; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  44. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic obese youth
    Nancy Butte; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Newly proposed tests include chromogenic assays to measure lipid peroxidation end products and endotoxins, and ELISA and RIA to measure cytokine and markers of systemic inflammation. ..
  45. MRI Derived Organ & Tissue Mass Changes With Weight Loss
    Dympna Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed studies promise to answer important body composition related questions regarding the composition of weight loss at the organ/tissue level. ..
  46. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CF PULMONARY DISEASE
    Virginia Stallings; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These data will provide the scientific basis for early and effective nutritional intervention to promote normal growth and body composition as standard CF care. ..
  47. A new device for metabolic monitoring in infants
    Russell Rising; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. GENETICS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY
    Nancy Butte; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This QTL method will be implemented in the program package SOLAR using estimation procedures from FISHER. Lastly, we will test for pleiotropic effects of obesity-related QTLs across phenotypes. ..
  49. Inequality, social capital and health in Boliva
    William Leonard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Prediction of Energy Expenditure/Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents
    Nancy Butte; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..A new method based on direct ambulatory monitoring of HR and PA will be developed to accurately predict EE, and hence 24-h TEE and AEE in children and adolescents. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  51. Dietary Energy Restriction and Metabolic Aging in Humans
    Susan Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In addition, this study will contribute to the development of new avenues for long- term treatment of overweight and obesity. ..
  52. The 8th International Symposium on In-Vivo Body Composition Studies
    Dympna Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN INSULIN SENSITIVITY
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The chronic hyperinsulinemia that results from this defect will ultimately result in peripheral (skeletal muscle) insulin resistance. ..
  54. Role of the CRF2 Receptor in Ingestive Behavior
    Eric Zorrilla; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed studies will address these questions as well to understand better the role of the CRF2 receptor in feeding behavior. ..
  55. Novel Active Repressor Model of Human LDL-Receptor Regulation
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This would represent a new treatment approach for patients with atherosclerotic disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Glutathione in Environmental Toxicity and Disease
    HOWARD SHERTZER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our proposed research should therefore help focus future genotype-phenotype association studies between the appropriate DNA variant sites in the GCLC and GCLM genes and disease. ..
  57. Long-Term Weight Loss Maintenance
    Rena Wing; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such information is important for providing an accurate picture to those individuals seeking to lose weight of what it takes to be a successful weight loss maintainer. ..
  58. Odors maps in olfactory bulb by fMRI
    DEWAN SYED HYDER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Activity of single glomeruli can help elucidate mechanisms of olfactory processing. ..
  59. INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT AND RISK OF DISEASE IN ADOLESCENTS
    Michael Goran; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  60. Admixture Mapping for Insulin Complex Outcomes
    Jose Fernandez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the results of this investigation will serve as a tool for the development of effective preventive strategies to reduce the prevalence of diabetes and its related traits in racial/ethnic populations. ..
  61. Creatine: Is It a Body Builder for Cancer Patients?
    Aminah Jatoi; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..obtain longitudinal toxicity and quality of life data on this same cohort of 50 patients and will make direct comparisons between treatment arms on toxicity incidence and severity and on maximal quality of life scores ..
  62. Mechanisms of Response to GnRH Receptor Signaling
    MARK LAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Isolation of actively translated and total mRNA from treated and control cells will allow identification and quantification of global changes in gene expression. ..