trichothecenes

Summary

Summary: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Deoxynivalenol: mechanisms of action, human exposure, and toxicological relevance
    James J Pestka
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Arch Toxicol 84:663-79. 2010
  2. ncbi Detoxification of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by a UDP-glucosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana
    Brigitte Poppenberger
    Center of Applied Genetics, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A 1190 Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 278:47905-14. 2003
  3. ncbi The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol affects nutrient absorption in human intestinal epithelial cells
    Marc Maresca
    Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition, Unité Mixte de Recherche Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Faculté des Sciences de Saint Jérôme, Marseille, France
    J Nutr 132:2723-31. 2002
  4. ncbi Toxicity of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives on the intestine: differential effects on morphology, barrier function, tight junction proteins, and mitogen-activated protein kinases
    Philippe Pinton
    INRA, UMR1331, Toxalim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, F 31027 Toulouse, France
    Toxicol Sci 130:180-90. 2012
  5. pmc The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol potentiates intestinal inflammation by Salmonella typhimurium in porcine ileal loops
    Virginie Vandenbroucke
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e23871. 2011
  6. ncbi Reduced virulence of Gibberella zeae caused by disruption of a trichothecene toxin biosynthetic gene
    R H Proctor
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS, National Center for Agriculture Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 8:593-601. 1995
  7. ncbi The ability to detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol colocalizes with a major quantitative trait locus for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat
    Marc Lemmens
    Institute for Plant Production Biotechnology, Department IFA Tulln, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenzstr 20, A 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:1318-24. 2005
  8. pmc Vulnerability of polarised intestinal porcine epithelial cells to mycotoxin deoxynivalenol depends on the route of application
    Anne Kathrin Diesing
    Medical Faculty, Institute of Anatomy, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e17472. 2011
  9. ncbi Structural and functional characterization of the TRI101 trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: kinetic insights to combating Fusarium head blight
    Graeme S Garvey
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:1660-9. 2008
  10. ncbi The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression
    Philippe Pinton
    INRA UR66, Toulouse, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:41-8. 2009

Detail Information

Publications298 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Deoxynivalenol: mechanisms of action, human exposure, and toxicological relevance
    James J Pestka
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Arch Toxicol 84:663-79. 2010
    ..Ultimately, a fusion of basic and translational research is needed to validate or refine existing risk assessments and regulatory standards for this common mycotoxin...
  2. ncbi Detoxification of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by a UDP-glucosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana
    Brigitte Poppenberger
    Center of Applied Genetics, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A 1190 Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 278:47905-14. 2003
    ..b>Trichothecenes are a class of mycotoxins produced by different Fusarium species that inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis ..
  3. ncbi The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol affects nutrient absorption in human intestinal epithelial cells
    Marc Maresca
    Institut Méditerranéen de Recherche en Nutrition, Unité Mixte de Recherche Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Faculté des Sciences de Saint Jérôme, Marseille, France
    J Nutr 132:2723-31. 2002
    ....
  4. ncbi Toxicity of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives on the intestine: differential effects on morphology, barrier function, tight junction proteins, and mitogen-activated protein kinases
    Philippe Pinton
    INRA, UMR1331, Toxalim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, F 31027 Toulouse, France
    Toxicol Sci 130:180-90. 2012
    ..Our results show that the higher toxicity of 15-DON is due to its ability to activate the MAPK. Given that cereal-based foods are contaminated with DON and acetylated-DON, the higher toxicity of 15-ADON should be taken into account...
  5. pmc The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol potentiates intestinal inflammation by Salmonella typhimurium in porcine ileal loops
    Virginie Vandenbroucke
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
    PLoS ONE 6:e23871. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to examine whether DON at low but relevant concentrations interacts with the intestinal inflammation induced by Salmonella Typhimurium...
  6. ncbi Reduced virulence of Gibberella zeae caused by disruption of a trichothecene toxin biosynthetic gene
    R H Proctor
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS, National Center for Agriculture Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 8:593-601. 1995
    ..Tri5- transformants were selected by screening for the inability to produce trichothecenes and by Southern blot analysis...
  7. ncbi The ability to detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol colocalizes with a major quantitative trait locus for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat
    Marc Lemmens
    Institute for Plant Production Biotechnology, Department IFA Tulln, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenzstr 20, A 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:1318-24. 2005
    ..84). We conclude that resistance to DON is important in the FHB resistance complex and hypothesize that Qfhs.ndsu-3BS either encodes a DON-glucosyl-transferase or regulates the expression of such an enzyme...
  8. pmc Vulnerability of polarised intestinal porcine epithelial cells to mycotoxin deoxynivalenol depends on the route of application
    Anne Kathrin Diesing
    Medical Faculty, Institute of Anatomy, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e17472. 2011
    ..In the present study, the impact of the direction of DON exposure on epithelial cell behaviour and intestinal barrier integrity was elucidated...
  9. ncbi Structural and functional characterization of the TRI101 trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: kinetic insights to combating Fusarium head blight
    Graeme S Garvey
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:1660-9. 2008
    ..The kinetic results reveal important differences in activity of these enzymes toward B-type trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol...
  10. ncbi The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression
    Philippe Pinton
    INRA UR66, Toulouse, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 237:41-8. 2009
    ..Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health...
  11. ncbi In vivo and in vitro effects of the mycotoxins zearalenone and deoxynivalenol on different non-reproductive and reproductive organs in female pigs: a review
    U Tiemann
    Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals, Wilhelm Stahl Allee 2, D 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
    Food Addit Contam 24:306-14. 2007
    ..However, DON affects reproduction in pigs via indirect effects such as reduced feed intake, resulting in reduced growth or impairment of function in vital organs such as liver and spleen...
  12. ncbi Genotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens fed low-protein feeds
    W A Awad
    Clinic for Avian, Reptile and Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinarplatz 1, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
    Poult Sci 91:550-5. 2012
    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide...
  13. ncbi Global gene regulation by Fusarium transcription factors Tri6 and Tri10 reveals adaptations for toxin biosynthesis
    Kye Yong Seong
    Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Mol Microbiol 72:354-67. 2009
    b>Trichothecenes are isoprenoid mycotoxins produced in wheat infected with the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum...
  14. ncbi In vitro effects of deoxynivalenol on small intestinal D-glucose uptake and absorption of deoxynivalenol across the isolated jejunal epithelium of laying hens
    W A Awad
    Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Science, Institute of Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary Medicine, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
    Poult Sci 86:15-20. 2007
    ..The results imply that the exposure to DON-contaminated feeds may negatively affect animal health and performance by local (i.e., inhibition of intestinal SGLT-1) and systemic effects...
  15. ncbi Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses--an overview
    John L Richard
    Romer Labs, Inc, 34423 N Wilderness Trail, Cave Creek, AZ 85331, USA
    Int J Food Microbiol 119:3-10. 2007
    ..Therefore, diagnosis of a mycotoxicoses is dependent upon adequate testing for mycotoxins involving sampling, sample preparation and analysis...
  16. ncbi Nutrient profiling reveals potent inducers of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum
    Donald M Gardiner
    CSIRO Plant Industry, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, Queensland, Australia
    Fungal Genet Biol 46:604-13. 2009
    ..The biosynthesis of trichothecenes by Fusarium spp...
  17. ncbi Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials
    Giuseppina Avantaggiato
    CNR Institute of Sciences of Food Production ISPA, Viale Einaudi 51, I 70125 Bari, Italy
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:817-24. 2004
    ..The binding activity of activated carbon for these trichothecenes was lower than that observed for zearalenone, a mycotoxin frequently co-occurring with them in naturally ..
  18. ncbi An adaptive evolutionary shift in Fusarium head blight pathogen populations is driving the rapid spread of more toxigenic Fusarium graminearum in North America
    Todd J Ward
    Microbial Genomics and Bioprocessing Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Fungal Genet Biol 45:473-84. 2008
    ..The discovery of this previously unrecognized pathogen diversity has significant implications for food safety and cereal production in North America...
  19. ncbi Masked mycotoxins: determination of a deoxynivalenol glucoside in artificially and naturally contaminated wheat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Franz Berthiller
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Research and Institute for Plant Production Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, A 3430 Tulln, Austria
    J Agric Food Chem 53:3421-5. 2005
    ..The results of this study indicate the importance to consider both DON and DON-3-glucoside with regard to food and feed safety...
  20. ncbi Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of 39 mycotoxins in wheat and maize
    Michael Sulyok
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Research, Department IFA Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenzstr 20, A 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 20:2649-59. 2006
    ..The 39 analytes included A- and B-trichothecenes (including deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside), zearalenone and related derivatives, fumonisins, enniatins, ergot ..
  21. pmc Biological detoxification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its use in genetically engineered crops and feed additives
    Petr Karlovsky
    Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research, University Goettingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077 Goettingen, Germany
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:491-504. 2011
    ..Feed additives claimed to de-epoxidize trichothecenes enzymatically are on the market but their efficacy has been disputed...
  22. ncbi Cellular and molecular mechanisms for immune modulation by deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes: unraveling a paradox
    James J Pestka
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, 234 G M Trout Food Science and Human Nutrition Bldg, East Lansing, MI 48824 1224, USA
    Toxicol Lett 153:61-73. 2004
    Macrophages, T cells, and B cells of the immune system are central targets of deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes-mycotoxins that can be immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive depending on dose, exposure frequency and timing of ..
  23. pmc Trichothecenes: from simple to complex mycotoxins
    Susan P McCormick
    Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U S Department of Agriculture Agriculture Research Service, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 3:802-14. 2011
    ..This review covers the types of trichothecenes, their complexity, and proposed biosynthetic pathways of trichothecenes.
  24. ncbi Deoxynivalenol transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cells and its effects on cellular metabolism at realistic intestinal concentrations
    Thérèse Sergent
    Laboratoire de Biochimie Cellulaire, Croix du Sud, 5, Institut des Sciences de la Vie and Université Catholique de Louvain, B 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Toxicol Lett 164:167-76. 2006
    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin of the trichothecenes family to which human exposure levels can be high. Epidemiological studies suggest a link between DON and gastrointestinal illness...
  25. pmc Trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium species: chemistry, genetics, and significance
    A E Desjardins
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, U S Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 61604
    Microbiol Rev 57:595-604. 1993
    Several species of the genus Fusarium and related fungi produce trichothecenes which are sesquiterpenoid epoxides that act as potent inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis...
  26. ncbi Effects of trichothecene mycotoxins on eukaryotic cells: a review
    O Rocha
    Molecular Plant Microbe interactions group, Department of Environmental Resource Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University College Dublin, Belfield, Ireland
    Food Addit Contam 22:369-78. 2005
    ..This paper briefly reviews the major effects of such trichothecenes on the gross morphology, cytology and molecular signalling within eukaryotic cells...
  27. ncbi Histological estimation of the small intestine wall after administration of feed containing deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in the pig
    K Obremski
    Division of Veterinary Prophylaxis and Feed Hygiene, Department of Veterinary Health Protection, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10 718 Olsztyn, Poland
    Pol J Vet Sci 11:339-45. 2008
    ..skin cells, lymphatic tissue, haemopoetic tissue and gastrointestinal tissue are the most sensitive for these trichothecenes action...
  28. ncbi Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants
    P H Rasmussen
    Department of Food Chemistry, DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK 2860, Søborg, Denmark
    Mycotoxin Res 28:181-90. 2012
    ..inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below the detection limit of the ..
  29. ncbi Ameliorative effect of a microbial feed additive on infectious bronchitis virus antibody titer and stress index in broiler chicks fed deoxynivalenol
    K Ghareeb
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
    Poult Sci 91:800-7. 2012
    ..However, the dietary Mycofix select supplementation as a detoxifying agent was successful in overcoming the mycotoxin-related effects...
  30. ncbi Effect of addition of a probiotic microorganism to broiler diets contaminated with deoxynivalenol on performance and histological alterations of intestinal villi of broiler chickens
    W A Awad
    Institute of Nutrition, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
    Poult Sci 85:974-9. 2006
    ..This indicates that in case of DON contamination of feedstuffs, the addition of PB would be a proper way to counteract the possible effects caused by this mycotoxin...
  31. ncbi Effects of increasing dietary concentrations of corn naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol on broiler and turkey poult performance and response to lipopolysaccharide
    L Xu
    Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    Poult Sci 90:2766-74. 2011
    ..aureus by cecal tonsil cells in non-LPS-challenged broilers, and greatly decreased heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in LPS-challenged broilers...
  32. ncbi The role of dietary nucleotides in reduction of DNA damage induced by T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in chicken leukocytes
    T Frankic
    Institute of Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Groblje 3, 1230 Domzale, Slovenia
    Food Chem Toxicol 44:1838-44. 2006
    ..This underlines their possible beneficial effect on the immune system in mycotoxin intoxication...
  33. pmc Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol affect rat intestinal epithelial cells: a concentration related study
    Giuseppe Bianco
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e52051. 2012
    ..Following their ingestion, intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to concentrations of these trichothecenes high enough to cause mycotoxicosis...
  34. pmc Gene regulation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2 is dependent on the site of deoxynivalenol toxicological action
    Anne Kathrin Diesing
    Institute of Anatomy, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 7:e34136. 2012
    ..The evaluation of toxicological potentials of mycotoxins should take this difference in gene regulation dependent on route of application into account...
  35. ncbi Chronic ingestion of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, alone or in interaction, induces morphological and immunological changes in the intestine of piglets
    Ana Paula F L Bracarense
    Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Lab Patologia Animal, Londrina, Brazil
    Br J Nutr 107:1776-86. 2012
    ..Taken together, the present data provide strong evidence that chronic ingestion of low doses of mycotoxins alters the intestine, and thus may predispose animals to infections by enteric pathogens...
  36. ncbi The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol elicits hydrogen peroxide production, programmed cell death and defence responses in wheat
    Olivia J Desmond
    CSIRO Plant Industry, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Brisbane 4067, Australia
    Mol Plant Pathol 9:435-45. 2008
    ....
  37. pmc Disruption of TRI101, the gene encoding trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase, from Fusarium sporotrichioides
    S P McCormick
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:5252-6. 1999
    ..T-2 toxin and accumulated isotrichodermol and small amounts of 3, 15-didecalonectrin and 3-decalonectrin, trichothecenes that are not observed in cultures of the parent strain...
  38. ncbi Validation of a candidate deoxynivalenol-inactivating UDP-glucosyltransferase from barley by heterologous expression in yeast
    Wolfgang Schweiger
    Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:977-86. 2010
    ..We also present evidence that the product of the TaUGT3 gene recently proposed to encode a DON-detoxification enzyme of wheat does not protect yeast against DON...
  39. ncbi Phytotoxicity of selected trichothecenes using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model systemt
    N J Alexander
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS, National Center for Agricutural Utilization Research, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA
    Nat Toxins 7:265-9. 1999
    b>Trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of cytoplasmic protein synthesis which can affect the severity of plant diseases such as wheat head scab...
  40. pmc Tri1 encodes the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase for C-8 hydroxylation during trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides and resides upstream of another new Tri gene
    Isaac B Meek
    Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1607-13. 2003
    ..The disruption of Tri1 blocks production of C-8-oxygenated trichothecenes and leads to the accumulation of 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, the same phenotype observed in the tri1 UV-induced ..
  41. pmc Genetic diversity and fitness of Fusarium graminearum populations from rice in Korea
    Jungkwan Lee
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Fungal Pathogenesis, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Republic of Korea
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:3289-95. 2009
    Fusarium graminearum is an important fungal pathogen of cereal crops and produces mycotoxins, such as the trichothecenes nivalenol and deoxynivalenol...
  42. pmc Hydrolytic fate of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside during digestion
    Franz Berthiller
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology IFA Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna BOKU, Konrad Lorenz Str 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Toxicol Lett 206:264-7. 2011
    ..Taken together these data indicate that D3G is of toxicological relevance and should be regarded as a masked mycotoxin...
  43. ncbi Evidence that a secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene cluster has grown by gene relocation during evolution of the filamentous fungus Fusarium
    Robert H Proctor
    U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL, USA
    Mol Microbiol 74:1128-42. 2009
    b>Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium...
  44. ncbi Effects of different carbon sources on trichothecene production and Tri gene expression by Fusarium graminearum in liquid culture
    Feng Jiao
    National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 285:212-9. 2008
    ..a disease of cereal crops that not only reduces crop yield and quality but also results in contamination with trichothecenes such as nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON)...
  45. ncbi Transcriptome analysis of the barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction
    Jayanand Boddu
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:407-17. 2006
    ..Our study provides a baseline and hypothesis-generating dataset in barley during F. graminearum infection and in other grasses during pathogen infection...
  46. ncbi Global molecular surveillance reveals novel Fusarium head blight species and trichothecene toxin diversity
    David E Starkey
    Microbial Genomics and Bioprocessing Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Fungal Genet Biol 44:1191-204. 2007
    ..S. In addition, we describe a highly divergent population of F. graminearum from the Gulf Coast of the U.S., and divergent isolates of F. acaciae-mearnsii from Australia and South Africa...
  47. ncbi Transcriptome analysis of the barley-deoxynivalenol interaction: evidence for a role of glutathione in deoxynivalenol detoxification
    Stephanie A Gardiner
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:962-76. 2010
    b>Trichothecenes are a major group of toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium graminearum. Trichothecenes inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and are toxicologically relevant mycotoxins for humans and animals...
  48. ncbi Molecular and genetic studies of fusarium trichothecene biosynthesis: pathways, genes, and evolution
    Makoto Kimura
    Plant and Microbial Metabolic Engineering Research Unit, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:2105-23. 2007
    b>Trichothecenes are a large family of sesquiterpenoid secondary metabolites of Fusarium species (e.g., F. graminearum) and other molds. They are major mycotoxins that can cause serious problems when consumed via contaminated cereal grains...
  49. ncbi Effects of luminal deoxynivalenol and L-proline on electrophysiological parameters in the jejunums of laying hens
    W A Awad
    Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Science, Institute of Nutrition, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
    Poult Sci 84:928-32. 2005
    ..1) the Isc after addition of proline, indicating that DON inhibited the Na+-amino acid co-transport. We concluded from the present study that the amino acid cotransporter activity appears to be highly sensitive to DON suppression...
  50. ncbi Toxicity and apoptosis induced by the mycotoxins nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1 in a human erythroleukemia cell line
    F Minervini
    Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Viale Einaudi, 51, 70125 Bari
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:21-8. 2004
    ....
  51. ncbi Novel genes of Fusarium graminearum that negatively regulate deoxynivalenol production and virulence
    Donald M Gardiner
    CSIRO Plant Industry, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22:1588-600. 2009
    ..graminearum but also point out the potential of this pathogen to evolve with an ability to produce massively increased amounts of toxins and increased virulence...
  52. ncbi Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) mediates biphasic cellular response in intestinal porcine epithelial cell lines IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2
    Anne Kathrin Diesing
    Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 200:8-18. 2011
    ..Low dose effects of DON on intestinal epithelial cells were triggered by mechanisms different from those responsible for the high dose toxicity...
  53. pmc Mycotoxins
    J W Bennett
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 16:497-516. 2003
    ..This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.
  54. pmc Ancestral polymorphism and adaptive evolution in the trichothecene mycotoxin gene cluster of phytopathogenic Fusarium
    Todd J Ward
    Microbial Genomics and Bioprocessing Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:9278-83. 2002
    ..Chemotype-specific differences in selective constraint and evidence of adaptive evolution within trichothecene genes are also reported...
  55. ncbi Thermal degradation of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol
    Michael Bretz
    Institut fur Lebensmittelchemie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstrasse 45, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Agric Food Chem 54:6445-51. 2006
    ..1 micromol/L, all other compounds did not show any significant effect up to 100 micromol/L. These findings indicate that the degradation of DON under thermal treatment might reduce the toxicity of DON contaminated food...
  56. ncbi Pathway of deoxynivalenol-induced apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells
    Fatma Bensassi
    Laboratory of Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds, Faculty of Dentistry, Rue Avicenne, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia
    Toxicology 264:104-9. 2009
    ..This mycotoxin induces direct DNA lesions and could be considered by this fact as a genotoxic agent inducing cell death via an apoptotic process...
  57. ncbi Comparative study of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or fumonisin B1 in human intestinal cell line Caco-2
    James H Kouadio
    Toxicology Department, University of Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France
    Toxicology 213:56-65. 2005
    ..Altogether the potency of the three mycotoxins in macromolecules inhibition is DON>ZEN>FB1 in Caco-2 cells. It appears then that FB1 acts rather through lipid peroxidation while DON affects rather DNA and protein synthesis...
  58. ncbi Effects of deoxynivalenol on general performance and electrophysiological properties of intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens
    W A Awad
    Institute of Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Science, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinarplatz 1, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
    Poult Sci 83:1964-72. 2004
    ..The addition of Eubacterium sp. may be useful in counteracting the toxic effects of DON on intestinal glucose transport...
  59. ncbi Systemic and local effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) are not alleviated by dietary supplementation of humic substances (HS)
    Sven Dänicke
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich Loeffler Institute FLI, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 50:979-88. 2012
    ..These changes had no consequences for nutrient digestibility or LPS levels in systemic blood (0.02-0.08 EU/mL). As portal LPS levels were not measured, FUS effects on intestinal LPS translocation cannot be excluded...
  60. pmc Assessment of deoxynivalenol metabolite profiles in UK adults
    Paul C Turner
    Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
    Food Chem Toxicol 49:132-5. 2011
    ..This study needs to be extended to understand whether the fD / DG ratio provides a phenotypic measure of DON susceptibility...
  61. ncbi ATP citrate lyase is required for normal sexual and asexual development in Gibberella zeae
    Hokyoung Son
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Fungal Pathogenesis, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Republic of Korea
    Fungal Genet Biol 48:408-17. 2011
    ..This study is the first report demonstrating a link between sexual development and ACL-mediated histone acetylation in fungi...
  62. ncbi Investigation of the hepatic glucuronidation pattern of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in various species
    Ronald Maul
    Division of Food Analysis, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing BAM, Richard Willstätter Straße 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany
    Chem Res Toxicol 25:2715-7. 2012
    ..While the activity of human liver microsomes was low (0.8 to 2.2 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1)), bovine liver and rat liver microsomes conjugated DON with activities of 525 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) and 80 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively...
  63. pmc Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol
    Sanghyun Shin
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, 411 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Buford Circle, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    J Exp Bot 63:4731-40. 2012
    ..This barley UGT is therefore a promising candidate for transgenic approaches aiming to increase DON and Fusarium resistance of crop plants without undesired collateral effects...
  64. pmc Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY
    Brenna M Flannery
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
    Toxicol Sci 130:289-97. 2012
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression...
  65. ncbi The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food
    Paul C Turner
    Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Nutr Res Rev 25:162-79. 2012
    ..Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health...
  66. ncbi JAK/STAT pathway plays a critical role in the proinflammatory gene expression and apoptosis of RAW264.7 cells induced by trichothecenes as DON and T-2 toxin
    Xu Wang
    National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues Huazhong Agricultural University Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China
    Toxicol Sci 127:412-24. 2012
    ..with inflammatory process and apoptosis and is worth investigating its role when cells were exposed to trichothecenes. The results showed that DON and T-2 upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, ..
  67. pmc Deoxynivalenol-induced proinflammatory gene expression: mechanisms and pathological sequelae
    James J Pestka
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 2:1300-17. 2010
    ..It is anticipated that these investigations will enable the identification of robust biomarkers of effect that will be applicable to epidemiological studies of the human health effects of this common mycotoxin...
  68. pmc Deoxynivalenol as a new factor in the persistence of intestinal inflammatory diseases: an emerging hypothesis through possible modulation of Th17-mediated response
    Patricia M Cano
    INRA, UMR1331, Toxalim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, Toulouse, France
    PLoS ONE 8:e53647. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of DON on the intestinal immune response...
  69. ncbi Studies on the toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON), sodium metabisulfite, DON-sulfonate (DONS) and de-epoxy-DON for porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell lines IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2, and on effects of DON and DONS
    S Danicke
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:2154-62. 2010
    ..Further studies should clarify the possible impact of SBS on the porcine immune system...
  70. ncbi Effects of chronic exposure of diets with reduced concentrations of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on growth and immune status of pigs
    A C Chaytor
    Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695, USA
    J Anim Sci 89:124-35. 2011
    ....
  71. ncbi Deoxynivalenol impairs porcine intestinal barrier function and decreases the protein expression of claudin-4 through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism
    Philippe Pinton
    Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie UR66, INRA, F 31931 Toulouse, France
    J Nutr 140:1956-62. 2010
    ..Given the high levels of DON in cereal grains, these observations of impaired barrier function have implications for human and animal health...
  72. ncbi Determinants of urinary deoxynivalenol and de-epoxy deoxynivalenol in male farmers from Normandy, France
    Paul C Turner
    Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics
    J Agric Food Chem 58:5206-12. 2010
    ..This is the first exposure biomarker survey for DON in a French population, and the first demonstration of urinary DOM-1 in humans. Further investigations into occupational activity, handling, or airborne exposures would be informative...
  73. ncbi Masked mycotoxins are efficiently hydrolyzed by human colonic microbiota releasing their aglycones
    Andrea Dall'erta
    Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
    Chem Res Toxicol 26:305-12. 2013
    ..For this reason, masked mycotoxins should be considered when evaluating population exposure...
  74. pmc Stable isotopic labelling-assisted untargeted metabolic profiling reveals novel conjugates of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat
    Bernhard Kluger
    Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department for Agrobiotechnology IFA Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Anal Bioanal Chem 405:5031-6. 2013
    ..Future MS/MS measurements shall reveal the molecular structures of the detected conjugates in more detail...
  75. ncbi Enzyme-assisted synthesis and structural characterization of the 3-, 8-, and 15-glucuronides of deoxynivalenol
    Silvio Uhlig
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway
    J Agric Food Chem 61:2006-12. 2013
    ..This glucuronide was finally identified as deoxynivalenol 8-O-β-D-glucuronide. The present study provides unequivocal structural evidence for three glucuronides of deoxynivalenol formed by liver enzymes...
  76. ncbi Functional characterization of two clusters of Brachypodium distachyon UDP-glycosyltransferases encoding putative deoxynivalenol detoxification genes
    Wolfgang Schweiger
    Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, A 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 26:781-92. 2013
    ..Seemingly, the UGT genes undergo rapid evolution and changes in copy number, making it difficult to identify orthologs with conserved substrate specificity...
  77. ncbi Assessment of human deoxynivalenol exposure using an LC-MS/MS based biomarker method
    Benedikt Warth
    Center for Analytical Chemistry and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Department for Agrobiotechnology IFA Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str 20, A 3430 Tulln, Austria
    Toxicol Lett 211:85-90. 2012
    ..The reported new findings clearly demonstrate the great potential of suitable biomarkers to critically assess exposure of humans and animals to DON...
  78. ncbi The velvet gene, FgVe1, affects fungal development and positively regulates trichothecene biosynthesis and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum
    Jawad Merhej
    INRA, UR1264 MycSA, 71, Avenue Edouard Bourleaux, BP81, F 33883 Villenave d Ornon, France
    Mol Plant Pathol 13:363-74. 2012
    b>Trichothecenes are a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) during the infection of crop plants, including wheat, maize, barley, oats, rye and rice...
  79. ncbi On the toxicokinetics and the metabolism of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the pig
    S Danicke
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre FAL Braunschweig, Germany
    Arch Anim Nutr 58:169-80. 2004
    ..It was concluded that de-epoxydation of DON, which primarily occurs in the hindgut, probably does not contribute much to a detoxification in the pig...
  80. ncbi Characterization of a transcriptional activator controlling trichothecene toxin biosynthesis
    T M Hohn
    National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, Illinois, 61604, USA
    Fungal Genet Biol 26:224-35. 1999
    ..Together, these data confirm our previous proposal that TRI6 is an activator of trichothecene pathway gene expression and that DNA binding employs the C-terminal region of TRI6 containing three predicted Cys2His2 zinc fingers...
  81. ncbi Characterization of the gene cluster for biosynthesis of macrocyclic trichothecenes in Myrothecium roridum
    S C Trapp
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Mol Gen Genet 257:421-32. 1998
    Macrocyclic trichothecenes are toxic sesquiterpenoids that are produced by certain fungi and plants...
  82. ncbi Metabolic pathways of trichothecenes
    Qinghua Wu
    National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues HZAU MAO Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People s Republic of China
    Drug Metab Rev 42:250-67. 2010
    b>Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by the fungi of Fusarium genus. Consumers are particularly concerned over the toxicity and food safety of trichothecenes and their metabolites from food-producing animals...
  83. ncbi Fusarium populations on Chinese barley show a dramatic gradient in mycotoxin profiles
    L Yang
    Institute for Plant Protection and Soil Sciences, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China
    Phytopathology 98:719-27. 2008
    ..graminearum isolates from these sampling sites were for the vast majority (27 of 28) DON producers, indicating that despite sharing the same habitat, these sympatric species apparently have unique mycotoxin chemotypes...
  84. ncbi Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis
    Jacqueline Van De Walle
    Institut des Sciences de la Vie and UCLouvain, B 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 245:291-8. 2010
    ....
  85. ncbi Lutein protects HT-29 cells against Deoxynivalenol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis: prevention of NF-kappaB nuclear localization and down regulation of NF-kappaB and Cyclo-Oxygenase-2 expression
    Rajashree Krishnaswamy
    School of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, India
    Free Radic Biol Med 49:50-60. 2010
    ..The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that lutein exerts a cytoprotective role in DON-induced toxicity...
  86. ncbi Fusarium graminearum TRI14 is required for high virulence and DON production on wheat but not for DON synthesis in vitro
    Rex B Dyer
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N University Street, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 53:9281-7. 2005
    ..We discuss a number of possible roles that TRI14 may play in the disease process...
  87. ncbi Transcriptome analysis of trichothecene-induced gene expression in barley
    Jayanand Boddu
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:1364-75. 2007
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in the TRI5 gene in F. graminearum result in the inability to synthesize trichothecenes and in reduced virulence on wheat...
  88. ncbi Synthesis and characterization of deoxynivalenol glucuronide: its comparative immunotoxicity with deoxynivalenol
    Xianai Wu
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, 224D Mackay Hall, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:1846-55. 2007
    ..DONGLU did not influence DON toxicity at 0.5 microM, 1.3 microM and 8.4 microM concentration combinations of each compound. These data verified that DONGLU is a detoxification product of DON...
  89. ncbi Fusarium graminearum exploits ethylene signalling to colonize dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants
    X Chen
    John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK
    New Phytol 182:975-83. 2009
    ..This demonstration of translation from model to crop species provides a foundation for improving resistance of cereal crops to FHB through identification of allelic variation for components of the ethylene-signalling pathway...
  90. ncbi Ribotoxic mycotoxin deoxynivalenol induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via p21Cip/WAF1 mRNA stabilization in human epithelial cells
    Hyun Yang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan 602 739, Republic of Korea
    Toxicology 243:145-54. 2008
    ..Particularly, ERK1/2 signal was associated with DON-induced p21 mRNA stabilization in the human epithelial cells. Taken together, deoxynivalenol arrested epithelial cell cycle at G(2)/M phase via elevated p21 gene expression...
  91. ncbi Structure-activity relationships of trichothecene toxins in an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf assay
    Anne E Desjardins
    National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 55:6487-92. 2007
    Many Fusarium species produce trichothecenes, sesquiterpene epoxides that differ in patterns of oxygenation and esterification at carbon positions C-3, C-4, C-7, C-8, and C-15...
  92. ncbi Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1beta effect and increase in the transepithel
    Marc Maresca
    Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Systèmes Membranaires IMSM, Universite Paul Cezanne, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Saint Jerome, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397, Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 228:84-92. 2008
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects...
  93. ncbi Inactivation of a cytochrome P-450 is a determinant of trichothecene diversity in Fusarium species
    Daren W Brown
    Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N University St, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    Fungal Genet Biol 36:224-33. 2002
    ..NIV and DON are identical except for this difference, whereas T-2 differs from these trichothecenes at three other carbon positions. Sequence and Northern analyses of the F...
  94. ncbi The ribotoxin deoxynivalenol affects the viability and functions of glial cells
    Helisoa Razafimanjato
    CRN2M, CNRS UMR 6231, INRA USC 2027, University of Aix Marseille 2 and Aix Marseille 3, Faculté des Sciences de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Glia 59:1672-83. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that environmental ribotoxins such as DON could, at low doses, cause modifications of brain homeostasis and possibly participate in the etiology of neurological diseases in which alterations of the glia are involved...
  95. ncbi The 3ADON population of Fusarium graminearum found in North Dakota is more aggressive and produces a higher level of DON than the prevalent 15ADON population in spring wheat
    Krishna D Puri
    Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 6050, USA
    Phytopathology 100:1007-14. 2010
    ..The information obtained in this study could have an impact on development of FHB-resistant wheat cultivars and disease management...
  96. ncbi A study on the effect of deoxynivalenol on serotonin receptor binding in pig brain membranes
    D B Prelusky
    Centre for Food and Animal Research Agriculture and Agri food Canada Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Environ Sci Health B 31:1103-17. 1996
    ....
  97. ncbi Effect of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol on brain biogenic monoamines concentrations in rats and chickens
    D W Fitzpatrick
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg
    J Environ Sci Health B 23:159-70. 1988
    ..These results suggest that DON influences brain biogenic amine metabolism, and that there may be intraspecies differences in the central effects of this mycotoxin...
  98. ncbi Deoxynivalenol-nonproducing fusarium graminearum causes initial infection, but does not cause disease spread in wheat spikes
    G H Bai
    Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078, USA
    Mycopathologia 153:91-8. 2002
    ..The results confirm that DON production plays a significant role in the spread of FHB within a spike, and are the first report that DON production is not necessary for initial infection by the fungus...
  99. ncbi Resistance in wheat to Fusarium infection and trichothecene formation
    C H A Snijders
    Zelder B V Plant Breeders and Seedsmen, P O Box 26, Gennep 6590 AA, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Lett 153:37-46. 2004
    ..A higher level of Fusarium head blight will guarantee lower risks for the farmer of crop loss due to reduced grain yield, low quality and mycotoxin contamination...
  100. ncbi Deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and enniatins: the major mycotoxins found in cereal-based products on the Czech market
    Alexandra Malachova
    Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    J Agric Food Chem 59:12990-7. 2011
    ..from the Czech retail market in 2010, the occurrence of "traditional" mycotoxins such as groups of A and B trichothecenes and zearalenone, less routinely determined Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and ..
  101. ncbi Differential upregulation of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 production by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) and other 8-ketotrichothecenes in a human macrophage model
    Y Sugita-Konishi
    Department of Biomedical Food Research, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 64:619-36. 2001
    ....

Research Grants9

  1. Trichothecene Toxicity and the Ribotoxic Stress Response
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The trichothecenes, a group of sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins commonly encountered as food contaminants worldwide, have been etiologically linked to human and animal illnesses with the immune system being a major target...
  2. Biomarkers for exposure to Stachybotrys
    Dorr Dearborn; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..4) Develop parallel assays for macrocyclic trichothecenes in environmental dust samples...
  3. Mechanisms of Trichothecene Toxicity
    James Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The trichothecenes are a large group of fungal toxins that are commonly encountered as food contaminants and that have been etiologically linked to human gastroenteritis worldwide...
  4. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF TERPENOIDS
    Duy Hua; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..of chiral pumiliotoxin alkaloids; and (d) continuation in the determination of antitumor activities of trichothecenes, synthetic intermediates and alkaloids...
  5. ENDOTOXIN AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS
    James Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..b>Trichothecenes are food and indoor air contaminants that include some of the most potent protein synthesis inhibitors known...
  6. DIETARY LIPIDS AND EXPERIMENTAL IGA NEPHROPATHY
    James Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and PCBs
    HAROLD MAY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is predicted that this innovative research will lead to the development of new technologies for the co-bioremediation of PCBs and petroleum. ..
  8. Integrating microbial biostimulation and electrolytic aeration to degrade POPs
    Harold D May; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Implementation of a tractable in situ detoxification process to organohalide impacted sites will mitigate exposure to the food chain and subsequent exposure risks to the general public. ..