Summary: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Primary hepatocytes: current understanding of the regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporter proteins, and pharmaceutical practice for the use of hepatocytes in metabolism, enzyme induction, transporter, clearance, and hepatotoxicity studies
    Nicola J Hewitt
    Scientific Writing Services, Wingertstrasse, Erzhausen, Germany
    Drug Metab Rev 39:159-234. 2007
  2. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to synthetic and natural xenobiotics
    Xianchun Li
    Department of Entomology and BIO5, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 52:231-53. 2007
  3. pmc Xenobiotics shape the physiology and gene expression of the active human gut microbiome
    Corinne Ferrier Maurice
    FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 152:39-50. 2013
  4. pmc The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants
    A M Soto
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 103:113-22. 1995
  5. ncbi Induction of phase I, II and III drug metabolism/transport by xenobiotics
    Changjiang Xu
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Arch Pharm Res 28:249-68. 2005
  6. ncbi Inducibility of drug-metabolizing enzymes by xenobiotics in mice with liver-specific knockout of Ctnnb1
    Albert Braeuning
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Toxicology, University of Tubingen, Wilhelmstr 56, 72074 Tubingen, Germany
    Drug Metab Dispos 37:1138-45. 2009
  7. ncbi Transmembrane transport of endo- and xenobiotics by mammalian ATP-binding cassette multidrug resistance proteins
    Roger G Deeley
    Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Queen s University Kingdom, Ontario, Canada
    Physiol Rev 86:849-99. 2006
  8. ncbi The human hepatoma HepaRG cells: a highly differentiated model for studies of liver metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotics
    Andre Guillouzo
    INSERM U620, IFR 140, Universite de Rennes1, Rennes, France
    Chem Biol Interact 168:66-73. 2007
  9. ncbi Cross-induction of detoxification genes by environmental xenobiotics and insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti: impact on larval tolerance to chemical insecticides
    Rodolphe Poupardin
    Laboratoire d Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS Université Joseph Fourier 5553, Equipe Perturbations Environnementales et Xénobiotiques, Domaine Universitaire de Saint Martin d Hères 2233, rue de la piscine Bât D Biologie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:540-51. 2008
  10. ncbi Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in activation and detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    Tsutomu Shimada
    Department of Chemical Biology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan
    Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 21:257-76. 2006

Detail Information

Publications372 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Primary hepatocytes: current understanding of the regulation of metabolic enzymes and transporter proteins, and pharmaceutical practice for the use of hepatocytes in metabolism, enzyme induction, transporter, clearance, and hepatotoxicity studies
    Nicola J Hewitt
    Scientific Writing Services, Wingertstrasse, Erzhausen, Germany
    Drug Metab Rev 39:159-234. 2007
    ..We also report pharmaceutical perspectives of these topics and compare methods and interpretations for the drug development process...
  2. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to synthetic and natural xenobiotics
    Xianchun Li
    Department of Entomology and BIO5, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 52:231-53. 2007
    ..Differences in the selective regime imposed by allelochemicals and insecticides may account for the relative importance of regulatory or structural mutations in conferring resistance...
  3. pmc Xenobiotics shape the physiology and gene expression of the active human gut microbiome
    Corinne Ferrier Maurice
    FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 152:39-50. 2013
    The human gut contains trillions of microorganisms that influence our health by metabolizing xenobiotics, including host-targeted drugs and antibiotics...
  4. pmc The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants
    A M Soto
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 103:113-22. 1995
  5. ncbi Induction of phase I, II and III drug metabolism/transport by xenobiotics
    Changjiang Xu
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Arch Pharm Res 28:249-68. 2005
    Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play central roles in the metabolism, elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and drugs introduced into the human body...
  6. ncbi Inducibility of drug-metabolizing enzymes by xenobiotics in mice with liver-specific knockout of Ctnnb1
    Albert Braeuning
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Toxicology, University of Tubingen, Wilhelmstr 56, 72074 Tubingen, Germany
    Drug Metab Dispos 37:1138-45. 2009
  7. ncbi Transmembrane transport of endo- and xenobiotics by mammalian ATP-binding cassette multidrug resistance proteins
    Roger G Deeley
    Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Queen s University Kingdom, Ontario, Canada
    Physiol Rev 86:849-99. 2006
    ..We also summarize knowledge of their possible physiological functions and evidence that they may be involved in the clinical drug resistance of various forms of cancer...
  8. ncbi The human hepatoma HepaRG cells: a highly differentiated model for studies of liver metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotics
    Andre Guillouzo
    INSERM U620, IFR 140, Universite de Rennes1, Rennes, France
    Chem Biol Interact 168:66-73. 2007
    ..HepaRG cells could represent a surrogate to primary human hepatocytes for xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity studies and even more, a unique model system for analysing genotoxic compounds...
  9. ncbi Cross-induction of detoxification genes by environmental xenobiotics and insecticides in the mosquito Aedes aegypti: impact on larval tolerance to chemical insecticides
    Rodolphe Poupardin
    Laboratoire d Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS Université Joseph Fourier 5553, Equipe Perturbations Environnementales et Xénobiotiques, Domaine Universitaire de Saint Martin d Hères 2233, rue de la piscine Bât D Biologie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 38:540-51. 2008
    ..genes following exposure to each xenobiotic with the Aedes Detox Chip identified multiple genes induced by xenobiotics and insecticides...
  10. ncbi Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in activation and detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    Tsutomu Shimada
    Department of Chemical Biology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan
    Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 21:257-76. 2006
    ..Factors affecting such variations include induction and inhibition of enzymes by diverse chemicals and, more importantly, genetic polymorphisms of enzymes in humans...
  11. ncbi The aryl hydrocarbon receptor sans xenobiotics: endogenous function in genetic model systems
    Brian J McMillan
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Shool of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 72:487-98. 2007
    ..In this literature review, we survey the emerging picture of endogenous AHR biology from work in the vertebrate and invertebrate model systems Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster...
  12. ncbi Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
    Xinxin Ding
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 43:149-73. 2003
    ..Current research activities on the characterization of CYP expression, function, and regulation in these tissues, as well as future research needs, are discussed...
  13. ncbi Coordinate regulation of Phase I and II xenobiotic metabolisms by the Ah receptor and Nrf2
    Christoph Kohle
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Biochem Pharmacol 73:1853-62. 2007
    ..Better recognition of coordinate Phase I and II metabolisms may improve risk assessment of reactive toxic intermediates in the extrapolation to low level endo- and xenobiotic exposure...
  14. ncbi Polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and metabolism of xenobiotics in individual susceptibility to sporadic diffuse gastric cancer
    Annamaria Ruzzo
    Institute of Biochemistry G Fornaini, University of Urbino, Urbino, Italy
    Clin Chem Lab Med 45:822-8. 2007
    ..We carried out a case-control study to evaluate whether polymorphisms of DNA repair and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes modulate the risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer...
  15. pmc Ecologically appropriate xenobiotics induce cytochrome P450s in Apis mellifera
    Reed M Johnson
    Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e31051. 2012
    ..They cope with these and other xenobiotics primarily through enzymatic detoxificative processes, but the regulation of detoxificative enzymes in honey ..
  16. ncbi Effects of low-level exposure to xenobiotics present in paints on oxidative stress in workers
    Angela M Moro
    Post graduate Program of Pharmacology, Center of Healthy Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
    Sci Total Environ 408:4461-7. 2010
    ..After statistic test, toluene could be suggested as the principal factor responsible for increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of ALA-D enzyme; however, further studies on the inhibition of ALA-D enzyme by toluene are necessary...
  17. ncbi Environmental xenobiotics and nuclear receptors--interactions, effects and in vitro assessment
    J Janosek
    RECETOX, Masaryk University Brno, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
    Toxicol In Vitro 20:18-37. 2006
    ..A large number of environmental pollutants and other xenobiotics negatively affect signaling pathways, in which nuclear receptors are involved, and these modulations were ..
  18. ncbi Xenobiotics and loss of cell adhesion drive distinct transcriptional outcomes by aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling
    Nan Hao
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science Biochemistry and Australian Research Council Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    Mol Pharmacol 82:1082-93. 2012
    ..AhR) is a signal-regulated transcription factor, which is canonically activated by the direct binding of xenobiotics. In addition, switching cells from adherent to suspension culture also activates the AhR, representing a ..
  19. ncbi Inhibition of sulfotransferases by xenobiotics
    Li Quan Wang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Curr Drug Metab 7:83-104. 2006
    The sulfotransferase (SULT) family comprises important phase II conjugation enzymes for the detoxification of xenobiotics and modulation of the activity of physiologically important endobiotics such as thyroid hormones, steroids, and ..
  20. pmc The Mediator subunit MDT-15 confers metabolic adaptation to ingested material
    Stefan Taubert
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000021. 2008
    ..or mutation of the mdt-15 gene abrogated induction of specific detoxification genes in response to certain xenobiotics or heavy metals, rendering these animals hypersensitive to toxin exposure...
  21. ncbi ABCB- and ABCC-type transporters confer multixenobiotic resistance and form an environment-tissue barrier in bivalve gills
    Till Luckenbach
    Department of Cell Toxicology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, Leipzig, Germany
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R1919-29. 2008
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that ABC transporters form an active, physiological barrier at the tissue-environment interface in mussel gills, providing protection against environmental xenotoxicants...
  22. pmc Increased age reduces DAF-16 and SKN-1 signaling and the hormetic response of Caenorhabditis elegans to the xenobiotic juglone
    Aaron J Przybysz
    Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mech Ageing Dev 130:357-69. 2009
    ..Our studies provide a foundation for developing a molecular understanding of how age affects cytoprotective transcriptional pathways...
  23. ncbi Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and metabolism of anthelminthics in helminths
    Viktor Cvilink
    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    Drug Metab Rev 41:8-26. 2009
    ..In all organisms, XMEs serve as an efficient defense against the potential negative action of xenobiotics. The activities of XMEs determine both desired and undesired effects of drugs, and the knowledge of drug ..
  24. pmc Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures
    David O Carpenter
    School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health and Toxiciology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer 12144, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 110:25-42. 2002
    ..We present results of selected cellular and animal studies in which simple mixtures have been investigated. Finally, we discuss some of the effects of mixtures at a molecular level...
  25. ncbi The role of the placenta in fetal exposure to xenobiotics: importance of membrane transporters and human models for transfer studies
    Caroline Prouillac
    Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, VetAgroSup, Campus Vétérinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, Marcy l Etoile, France
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:1623-35. 2010
    ..metabolism, ATP-binding cassette transporters, solute carrier transporters, and their role in fetal exposure to xenobiotics. The study also compares the characteristics of different models of human placenta, in terms of membrane ..
  26. ncbi ABCG2 transports sulfated conjugates of steroids and xenobiotics
    Michiko Suzuki
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:22644-9. 2003
    ..It was suggested that ABCG2 preferentially transports sulfate conjugates and that E1S and DHEAS are the potential physiological substrates for this transporter...
  27. ncbi Xenobiotic metabolism gene expression in the EpiDermin vitro 3D human epidermis model compared to human skin
    T Hu
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, PO Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253, USA
    Toxicol In Vitro 24:1450-63. 2010
    ..skin and the EpiDerm model than that of Phase I enzymes, consistent with the role of skin in detoxification of xenobiotics. Though the basal expression of CYPs in particular was low in EpiDerm, significant induction of CYP1A1/1B1 ..
  28. ncbi Co-induction of glutathione-S-transferases and multidrug resistance associated protein by xenobiotics in wheat
    Frederica L Theodoulou
    Crop Performance and Improvement Division, IACR Rothamsted, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, UK
    Pest Manag Sci 59:202-14. 2003
    ..This work establishes herbicide safeners as useful tools for the identification of genes encoding herbicide-metabolising enzymes...
  29. ncbi Metabolic enzymes associated with xenobiotic and chemosensory responses in Nasonia vitripennis
    J G Oakeshott
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Entomology, Acton, ACT, Australia
    Insect Mol Biol 19:147-63. 2010
    ..vitripennis, that are thought to encounter a wider range of potentially toxic xenobiotics in their diet and habitat.
  30. ncbi Mammalian ABC transporters in health and disease
    P Borst
    Division of Molecular Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Annu Rev Biochem 71:537-92. 2002
    ..c) A rapidly increasing number of ABC transporters are found to play a role in lipid transport. Defects in each of these transporters are involved in human inborn or acquired diseases...
  31. ncbi Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes
    Petra Jancova
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
    Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 154:103-16. 2010
    ..The focus is on the presence of various forms, on tissue and cellular distribution, on the respective substrates, on genetic polymorphism and finally on the interspecies differences in these enzymes...
  32. ncbi Induction of xenobiotic enzymes by the MAP kinase pathway and the antioxidant or electrophile response element (ARE/EpRE)
    A N Kong
    Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacodynamics, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 33:255-71. 2001
    ..To better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms after exposure to xenobiotics or drugs, we studied the signal transduction pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the ..
  33. ncbi Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE)-type proteins as anchor transporters for the excretion of metabolic waste products and xenobiotics
    Y Moriyama
    Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Xenobiotica 38:1107-18. 2008
    ..H(+)/organic cation exporter that is responsible for the excretion of metabolic waste products and xenobiotics at renal brush border membranes and bile canaliculi...
  34. ncbi Lipid vesicles as membrane models for toxicological assessment of xenobiotics
    Helmut H Zepik
    Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Crit Rev Toxicol 38:1-11. 2008
    Traditionally animals and cell cultures have been used to assess the toxic potential of xenobiotics on cell membranes...
  35. ncbi Regulatory network of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors: roles for CAR, PXR, LXR, and FXR
    Christoph Handschin
    Department of Cell Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 433:387-96. 2005
    ..In this review, functional interactions between these nuclear receptors as well as the consequences on physiology and pathophysiology of the liver are discussed...
  36. ncbi Expression of cytochromes P450, conjugating enzymes and nuclear receptors in human hepatoma HepaRG cells
    Caroline Aninat
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U620, Universite de Rennes 1, France
    Drug Metab Dispos 34:75-83. 2006
  37. ncbi Mechanisms of induction of cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferase (GST) genes by xenobiotics and pro-inflammatory agents
    Larry G Higgins
    Biomedical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, United Kingdom
    Drug Metab Rev 43:92-137. 2011
    ..reviewed the literature describing the mechanisms by which cytosolic and microsomal GST are up-regulated by xenobiotics, drugs, cytokines and endotoxin...
  38. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of NF-E2 p45-related factor (NRF2) expression by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-xenobiotic response element signaling pathway: direct cross-talk between phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes
    Weimin Miao
    Montreal Center for Experimental Therapeutics in Cancer, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, The Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada
    J Biol Chem 280:20340-8. 2005
    ..Moreover, direct regulation of NRF2 by AHR contributes to couple phase I and II enzymes into an integrated system facilitating more effective xenobiotic and carcinogen detoxification...
  39. ncbi Epoxide hydrolases: biochemistry and molecular biology
    A J Fretland
    Department of Environmental Health, of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, 100 Seattle, WA 98105 6099, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 129:41-59. 2000
    ..The resultant epoxides are typically unstable in aqueous environments and chemically reactive. In the case of xenobiotics and certain endogenous substances, epoxide intermediates have been implicated as ultimate mutagenic and ..
  40. pmc Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its heterodimerization partner the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator
    J A Powell-Coffman
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:2844-9. 1998
    ..The discovery of these genes in a simple, genetically tractable invertebrate should allow elucidation of AHR-1 function and identification of its endogenous regulators...
  41. ncbi Expression profiles of 50 xenobiotic transporter genes in humans and pre-clinical species: a resource for investigations into drug disposition
    K Bleasby
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Xenobiotica 36:963-88. 2006
  42. ncbi Prediction of ligand binding affinity and orientation of xenoestrogens to the estrogen receptor by molecular dynamics simulations and the linear interaction energy method
    Marola M H van Lipzig
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Molecular Toxicology and Division of Molecular Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Med Chem 47:1018-30. 2004
    ..61 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol). In conclusion, our LIE model provides a very good method for prediction of absolute ligand binding affinities, as well as binding orientation of ligands...
  43. ncbi A systematic gene expression screen of Caenorhabditis elegans cytochrome P450 genes reveals CYP35 as strongly xenobiotic inducible
    R Menzel
    Department of Biology, Institute of Ecotoxicology and Biochemistry, Free University Berlin, Ehrenbergstrasse 26 28, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 395:158-68. 2001
    ..A few number of further CYP forms were found to be inducible by other xenobiotics like phenobarbital, atrazine, and clofibrate. In addition, a transgenic C...
  44. pmc Effects of uremic toxins on transport and metabolism of different biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system xenobiotics
    Maribel Reyes
    Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0912, USA
    J Pharm Sci 100:3831-42. 2011
    ..These studies indicate that the uremic toxins contained in HD serum play an important role in drug disposition through drug transporters, and that there would be differential effects depending on the BDDCS classification of the drug...
  45. ncbi Allelochemical induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and amelioration of xenobiotic toxicity in Helicoverpa zea
    Ren Sen Zeng
    Key Lab of Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People s Republic of China
    J Chem Ecol 33:449-61. 2007
  46. ncbi Evaluation of child/adult pharmacokinetic differences from a database derived from the therapeutic drug literature
    Gary Ginsberg
    Connecticut Department of Public Health, P O Box 340308, Mail Stop 11CHA, Hartford, Connecticut 06134, USA
    Toxicol Sci 66:185-200. 2002
    Pharmacokinetics (PK) of xenobiotics can differ widely between children and adults due to physiological differences and the immaturity of enzyme systems and clearance mechanisms...
  47. ncbi Transcript profiling of enzymes involved in detoxification of xenobiotics and reactive oxygen in human normal and simian virus 40 T antigen-immortalized oral keratinocytes
    Martin Vondracek
    Experimental Carcinogenesis, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Cancer 99:776-82. 2002
    ..In contrast, differences between NOK and SVpgC2a, e.g., for CYP1B1, may reflect alteration caused by immortalization and aid identification of early stage tumor markers in oral epithelium...
  48. ncbi The circadian PAR-domain basic leucine zipper transcription factors DBP, TEF, and HLF modulate basal and inducible xenobiotic detoxification
    Frederic Gachon
    Department of Molecular Biology, National Center of Competence in Research Frontiers in Genetics, Sciences III, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Cell Metab 4:25-36. 2006
    ..Indeed, PAR bZip triple knockout mice are hypersensitive to xenobiotic compounds, and the deficiency in detoxification may contribute to their early aging...
  49. ncbi Effects of self-fertilization, environmental stress and exposure to xenobiotics on fitness-related traits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis
    Marie Agnes Coutellec
    UMR 985 INRA Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualité des Hydrosystèmes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de St Brieuc, F 35042, Rennes Cedex, France
    Ecotoxicology 15:199-213. 2006
    ..Implications of such findings for environmental risk assessment of pesticides are discussed...
  50. ncbi Role of xenobiotic metabolism in cancer: involvement of transcriptional and miRNA regulation of P450s
    Viola Tamasi
    Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, PO Box 370, Budapest, 1445, Hungary
    Cell Mol Life Sci 68:1131-46. 2011
  51. pmc SXR, a novel steroid and xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor
    B Blumberg
    Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Genes Dev 12:3195-205. 1998
    ..These results strongly support the steroid sensor hypothesis and suggest that broad specificity sensing receptors may represent a novel branch of the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  52. pmc Nitromusk and polycyclic musk compounds as long-term inhibitors of cellular xenobiotic defense systems mediated by multidrug transporters
    Till Luckenbach
    Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California 93950, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:17-24. 2005
    ..74-2.56 microM. The immediate consequence of inhibition of efflux transporters is that normally excluded xenobiotics will now be able to enter the cell...
  53. ncbi Xenobiotic metabolism and the mechanism(s) of benzene toxicity
    Robert Snyder
    Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 36:531-47. 2004
  54. pmc Hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression through the life stages of the mouse
    Janice S Lee
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24381. 2011
    ..No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species...
  55. ncbi Application of the CFU-GM assay to predict acute drug-induced neutropenia: an international blind trial to validate a prediction model for the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of myelosuppressive xenobiotics
    A Pessina
    Institute of Microbiology, Milan, Italy
    Toxicol Sci 75:355-67. 2003
    ..independent in vitro tests (human and mouse) had been developed, to evaluate the potential hematotoxicity of xenobiotics from their direct and the adverse effects on granulocyte-macrophages (CFU-GM)...
  56. ncbi The mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases: molecular characterization and regulation of expression
    R N Hines
    Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 125:1-6. 1994
    ..by access to this stabilized intermediate, resulting in this enzyme's ability to metabolize a wide variety of xenobiotics. These include tertiary and secondary alkyl- and arylamines, many hydrazines, thiocarbamides, thioamides, ..
  57. ncbi A C. elegans orphan nuclear receptor contributes to xenobiotic resistance
    T H Lindblom
    Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Curr Biol 11:864-8. 2001
    ..We conclude that NHR-8 functions in the nematode xenobiotic defense system and that NHR-8 and PGP-3 have overlapping, but distinct, spectra of toxin specificity...
  58. ncbi Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator expression in human and rat placentas and transcription activity in human trophoblast cultures
    Lucie Stejskalova
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    Toxicol Sci 123:26-36. 2011
  59. ncbi Effects of typical inducers on olfactory xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and transcription factor expression in rats
    Nicolas Thiebaud
    Centre des Sciences du Gout et de l Alimentation, UMR 1324 INRA, UMR 6265 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, AgroSup Dijon, 17 rue Sully, Dijon, France
    Drug Metab Dispos 38:1865-75. 2010
    ..Dexamethasone and Aroclor enhanced olfactory Nrf2 expression. These results demonstrate that olfactory XME can be modulated by chemicals and that the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these enzymes are tissue-specific...
  60. ncbi Bioaccumulation kinetics of organic xenobiotic pollutants in the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex modeled with prediction intervals
    Roman Ashauer
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Toxicol Chem 29:1625-36. 2010
    ..45 to 20 d, and bioaccumulation factors ranged from 1.7 to 4,449 L/kg. The identified compounds with unexpectedly long elimination times should be given priority in future studies investigating the biotransformation of these compounds...
  61. ncbi The induction of cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) in the human liver and intestine is mediated by the xenobiotic sensors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutively activated receptor (CAR)
    Oliver Burk
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstrasse 112, D 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:38379-85. 2004
    Induction of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) by xenobiotics may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions. In contrast with other CYP3A family members, studies on the inducibility of CYP3A5 indicate conflicting results...
  62. pmc Profiling the reactive metabolites of xenobiotics using metabolomic technologies
    Feng Li
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160, United States
    Chem Res Toxicol 24:744-51. 2011
    ..In all these cases, a large number of trapped reactive metabolites were readily identified. These data indicate that this metabolomic approach is an efficient tool to profile xenobiotic bioactivation...
  63. pmc A soluble acetylcholinesterase provides chemical defense against xenobiotics in the pinewood nematode
    Jae Soon Kang
    Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    PLoS ONE 6:e19063. 2011
    ..In summary, BxACE-3 appears to have a non-neuronal function of chemical defense whereas both BxACE-1 and BxACE-2 have classical neuronal function of synaptic transmission...
  64. ncbi Influence of xenobiotics on rainbow trout liver estrogen receptor and vitellogenin gene expression
    G Flouriot
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire, URA CNRS 256, INRA, Universite de Rennes, France
    J Mol Endocrinol 15:143-51. 1995
    Rainbow trout hepatocyte primary culture was used to test the influence of some xenobiotics on the expression of two genes implicated in reproduction, those for the estrogen implicated in reproduction, those for the estrogen receptor (ER)..
  65. pmc A deficit of detoxification enzymes: pesticide sensitivity and environmental response in the honeybee
    C Claudianos
    Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
    Insect Mol Biol 15:615-36. 2006
    ..On the other hand there are some recent radiations in CYP6, CYP9 and certain CCE clades in A. mellifera that could be associated with the evolution of the hormonal and chemosensory processes underpinning its highly organized eusociality...
  66. ncbi An elegant means of self-protection in gram-negative bacteria by recognizing and extruding xenobiotics from the periplasmic space
    Shima Eda
    Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara 259 1193, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:2085-8. 2003
  67. ncbi Dietary inulin alleviates hepatic steatosis and xenobiotics-induced liver injury in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet: association with the suppression of hepatic cytochrome P450 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha expression
    Junko Sugatani
    Department of Pharmaco Biochemistry and COE21, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Drug Metab Dispos 34:1677-87. 2006
  68. ncbi Effects of epidermal growth factor on CYP inducibility by xenobiotics, DNA replication, and caspase activations in collagen I gel sandwich cultures of rat hepatocytes
    K De Smet
    Department of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090, Brussels, Belgium
    Biochem Pharmacol 61:1293-303. 2001
  69. pmc International issues on human health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures
    Victor J Feron
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Toxicology Division, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Environ Health Perspect 110:893-9. 2002
    ..Therefore, in view of limited resources for toxicological research, the focus in toxicology should be on priority mixtures--priority being determined by (estimated) health risk (= toxicity and exposure)...
  70. ncbi The power of size. 1. Rate constants and equilibrium ratios for accumulation of organic substances related to octanol-water partition ratio and species weight
    A J Hendriks
    Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment, P O Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad, The Netherlands
    Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1399-420. 2001
    ..The model is believed to facilitate various types of scientific interpretation as well as environmental risk assessment...
  71. ncbi Gene expression profiling of systems involved in the metabolism and the disposition of xenobiotics: comparison between human intestinal biopsy samples and colon cell lines
    Joanna Bourgine
    Equipe d accueil 4483, Faculté de Médecine Pôle Recherche, Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille, France
    Drug Metab Dispos 40:694-705. 2012
    ..report of the gene expression spectrum of proteins that are involved in the metabolism and the disposition of xenobiotics in these in vitro systems is not currently available...
  72. ncbi The human colonic microflora influences the alterations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by catechins in male F344 rats
    E F Lhoste
    INRA, Unit on Ecology and Physiology of the Digestive Tract, 78352 Jouy en Josas, France
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:695-702. 2003
    As other xenobiotics, polyphenols are metabolized both by the endogenous detoxication system and the gut microflora...
  73. ncbi Life stage- dependent bioconcentration of a nonylphenol isomer in Daphnia magna
    Thomas G Preuss
    Institute of Environmental Research Biology V, Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, D 52066 Aachen, Germany
    Environ Pollut 156:1211-7. 2008
    Bioaccumulation is an important aspect for the fate and effects of xenobiotics in the environment. In this study we used a radiolabeled nonylphenol isomer to investigate the bioconcentration in Daphnia magna at different ages...
  74. ncbi Validation of a larval zebrafish locomotor assay for assessing the seizure liability of early-stage development drugs
    Matthew J Winter
    AstraZeneca Global Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon TQ5 8BA, UK
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 57:176-87. 2008
    ..Here, we present methodology and validation data (on 25 compounds) from a larval zebrafish (Zf) convulsant assay, based on the quantification of high speed locomotion after exposure to a range of test compounds...
  75. ncbi Environmental genomics: exploring the unmined richness of microbes to degrade xenobiotics
    L Eyers
    Unit of Bioengineering, Catholic University of Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2 19, 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:123-30. 2004
    ..for understanding the impact of toxic compounds on microbial populations, the catabolic degradation pathways of xenobiotics and the set-up and improvement of bioremediation processes...
  76. ncbi Role of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in detoxification of xenobiotics in the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Vira M Ubiyvovk
    Institute of Cell Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Drahomanov Street, 14 16, Lviv 79005 Ukraine
    Cell Biol Int 30:665-71. 2006
    ..polymorpha and S. cerevisiae are involved in detoxification of electrophilic xenobiotics, as the corresponding mutants appeared to be defective in the disappearance of the fluorescent vacuolar complex ..
  77. ncbi Impact of gut microbiota on intestinal and hepatic levels of phase 2 xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the rat
    Walter Meinl
    Departments of Nutritional Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam Rehbrucke, Nuthetal, Germany
    Drug Metab Dispos 37:1179-86. 2009
    ..6-fold in females. In conclusion, intestinal microbiota can affect levels of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in large intestine and liver, but the effects observed were moderate compared with tissue-dependent expression differences...
  78. ncbi Cell lines: a tool for in vitro drug metabolism studies
    M T Donato
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valencia, and Unidad de Hepatología Experimental, Centro de Investigacion, Hospital La Fe, Spain
    Curr Drug Metab 9:1-11. 2008
    ..Therefore, pharmaceutical companies increasingly make use of cell lines to speed up the selection of new drugs with favourable pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties...
  79. ncbi Visualisation of the uptake of two model xenobiotics into bean leaves by confocal laser scanning microscopy: diffusion pathways and implication in phloem translocation
    Zhiqian Liu
    New Zealand Forest Research Institute, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand
    Pest Manag Sci 60:434-9. 2004
    ..The uptake rate of these model xenobiotics into bean foliage was measured using a standard leaf surface wash-off method...
  80. ncbi BOLD-MRI for the assessment of renal oxygenation in humans: acute effect of nephrotoxic xenobiotics
    L Hofmann
    Departement of Nephrology Hypertension, University and Inselspital, Berne, Switzerland
    Kidney Int 70:144-50. 2006
    ..Cyclosporine increased renal medullary oxygenation 2 h after ingestion of a single dose, whereas indomethacin and tacrolimus showed no effect on renal oxygenation. Injection of iodinated RCM decreased renal medullary oxygenation...
  81. ncbi The effects of cytochrome P450 induction by xenobiotics on endobiotic metabolism in pre-clinical safety studies
    David E Amacher
    Sciadvisor Toxicology Consultant, PO Box 254, Hadlyme, CT 06439, USA
    Toxicol Mech Methods 20:159-66. 2010
    ..P450 (CYP) enzymes, conjugating enzymes, and drug transporters involved in the phase I-III metabolism of xenobiotics is frequently encountered in pre-clinical drug safety studies...
  82. ncbi The intestinal environment in health and disease - recent insights on the potential of intestinal bacteria to influence human health
    Sam Possemiers
    Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Belgium
    Curr Pharm Des 15:2051-65. 2009
  83. pmc The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism
    Changcheng Zhou
    Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA
    Nucl Recept Signal 7:e001. 2009
    ..The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases...
  84. pmc Maternal transfer of xenobiotics and effects on larval striped bass in the San Francisco Estuary
    David J Ostrach
    John Muir Institute of the Environment, Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19354-9. 2008
    ..Using this methodology enabled us to present a conclusive line of evidence for the maternal transfer of xenobiotics and their adverse effects on larval striped bass in this estuary.
  85. ncbi Breast cancer risk and the combined effect of environmental estrogens
    Jesús m Ibarluzea Jm
    Department of Health Guipuzkoa, San Sebastian, Basque Country, Spain
    Cancer Causes Control 15:591-600. 2004
  86. ncbi Cytochromes P450 and metabolism of xenobiotics
    P Anzenbacher
    Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
    Cell Mol Life Sci 58:737-47. 2001
    ..Genetically dependent variabilities of individual P450 activities and levels are described, documenting the importance of pharmacogenetics aimed at explaining differences in the response of the organism to various drugs...
  87. ncbi Crosstalk between xenobiotics metabolism and circadian clock
    Thierry Claudel
    Department of Pediatrics, Research Laboratory, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, ND 9700 RB, The Netherlands
    FEBS Lett 581:3626-33. 2007
    ..As food seems to be the major regulator of peripheral clock, the possibility that food-contained toxic compounds participate in the entrainment of the clock will be discussed...
  88. ncbi Sulfotransferases in the bioactivation of xenobiotics
    H Glatt
    Department of Toxicology, Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung DIfE, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, D 14558, Potsdam Rehbrucke, Germany
    Chem Biol Interact 129:141-70. 2000
    Conjugation of xenobiotics is often associated with detoxification. However, this traditional view is one-sided...
  89. ncbi Structure of a human carcinogen-converting enzyme, SULT1A1. Structural and kinetic implications of substrate inhibition
    Niranjali U Gamage
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Biol Chem 278:7655-62. 2003
    ..catalyzed by sulfotransferase enzymes plays an important role in chemical defense mechanisms against various xenobiotics but also bioactivates carcinogens...
  90. ncbi Cancer and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes
    S A Sheweita
    Department of Bioscience and Technology, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Egypt
    Curr Drug Metab 4:45-58. 2003
    ..Determination of glutathione S-transferase isozymes in plasma or serum could be used as a biomarker for cancer in different organs and could give an early detection...
  91. pmc Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations
    Eva C Bonefeld-Jorgensen
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Build, 1260, University of Aarhus, DK 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
    Environ Health 5:12. 2006
  92. ncbi Markers of genetic susceptibility in human environmental hygiene and toxicology: the role of selected CYP, NAT and GST genes
    Ricarda Thier
    School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 206:149-71. 2003
    ..Studies of individual susceptibility to toxicants and gene-environment interaction are now emerging as an important component of molecular epidemiology...
  93. ncbi Glucuronidation activity of the UGT2B17 enzyme toward xenobiotics
    David Turgeon
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Centre de Recherche de l Université Laval, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:670-6. 2003
    ..pollutants, and dietary components, UGT2B17 received less attention for its capacity to glucuronidate xenobiotics. In the present study, more than 55 exogenous compounds belonging to several categories of compounds were ..
  94. ncbi Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes: methods, mechanisms, recommendations, and in vitro-in vivo correlations
    N J Hewitt
    CELLZDIRECT, 480 Hillsboro Street, Suite 130, Pittsboro, NC 27312, USA
    Xenobiotica 37:1196-224. 2007
    ..Relevant issues and considerations surrounding proper study design and the interpretation of in vitro results will be discussed in light of the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations...
  95. pmc Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis
    Jane V Higdon
    Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 6512, USA
    Pharmacol Res 55:224-36. 2007
  96. pmc The X and why of xenobiotics in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Roman Rieger
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 451 East Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Autoimmun 28:76-84. 2007
    ..bacteria and viruses, have been suggested as causative agents, but also environmental factors, such as chemical xenobiotics, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis...
  97. ncbi Simultaneous genotyping of nine polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by multiplex PCR amplification and single base extension
    Ad M Knaapen
    Department of Health Risk Analysis, Genomics and Bioinformatics, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Clin Chem 50:1664-8. 2004
  98. ncbi Chemical xenobiotics and mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis: identification of antibodies against a common environmental, cosmetic, and food additive, 2-octynoic acid
    Katsushi Amano
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Genomic and Biomedical Sciences Facility, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Immunol 174:5874-83. 2005
    ..Of the 107 xenobiotics, 33 had a significantly higher IgG reactivity against PBC sera compared with control sera...
  99. ncbi Xenobiotic response in Drosophila melanogaster: sex dependence of P450 and GST gene induction
    Gaelle Le Goff
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 36:674-82. 2006
    The effect of xenobiotics (phenobarbital and atrazine) on the expression of Drosophila melanogaster CYP genes encoding cytochromes P450, a gene family generally associated with detoxification, was analyzed by DNA microarray hybridization ..
  100. ncbi Therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of more than 800 drugs and other xenobiotics
    M Schulz
    Center for Drug Information and Pharmacy Practice, ABDA Federal Union of German Associations of Pharmacists, Berlin, Germany
    Pharmazie 58:447-74. 2003
    ..In addition, toxicologically relevant xenobiotics were listed...
  101. ncbi CYP35: xenobiotically induced gene expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    Ralph Menzel
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 438:93-102. 2005
    ..elegans CYP35A1, A2, A5, and C1 gene expression in response to four organic xenobiotics, namely atrazine, PCB52, fluoranthene, and lansoprazole...

Research Grants67

  1. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Nuclear Receptors
    John Y L Chiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..facilitate absorption, transport, distribution and disposal of steroids, nutrients, vitamins, metabolites and xenobiotics, but also are signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways and play critical ..
  2. Biochemical Characterization of Cytochrome b5 Reductase in Candida albicans
    ..drug resistance is a major problem in Candida, contributed by enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and pharmacological agents...
  3. Contribution of Gstm1 to the severity of hypertension and chronic kidney disease
    Thu H Le; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S-transferase m-1, or GSTM1 enzyme, that belongs to a superfamily of glutathione-S-transferases that metabolize xenobiotics and a broad range of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the highly reactive aldehydes (RAs) that are end ..
  4. Influence of Heme on Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Turnover
    Maria Almira Correia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including cytochromes P450 (P450s), hemoprotein enzymes engaged in the breakdown and clearance of endo- and xenobiotics such as drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products...
    Maria Almira Correia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..P450 (P450s) are endoplasmic-reticulum membrane-anchored enzymes engaged in the breakdown of endo- and xenobiotics i.e. drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products...
  6. Human hepatocytes for drug toxicity screening from Cardiac Death Donor livers
    Mark G Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Moreover, since the liver is the major site of metabolism of most xenobiotics it is essential to know how the liver metabolizes new drug...
    Eric F Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..P450 (CYP) monooxygenases oxidize a large variety of nutritive and non-nutritive lipids including man-made xenobiotics to reduce toxicity and increase their elimination...
  8. Organic Cation Transporter PMAT: Physiological Function and Role in Drug Disposit
    Joanne Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Organic cation transporters play important roles in the disposition, efficacy and toxicity of these OC xenobiotics. These transporters are also likely to be involved in various physiological pathways through their uptake of ..
  9. Protein Kinase C in the Repair of Cellular Functions
    Grazyna Nowak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on mitochondrial function and oxygen for energy (ATP) generation and large capacity for biotransformation of xenobiotics. Protein kinase signaling is emerging as a major mechanism regulating mitochondrial function...
    MARIA INES MORANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..human genomic sequence carrying all known and putative regulatory elements required to mediate induction to xenobiotics as in liver cells...
  11. 3D human skin models
    Meenhard Herlyn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..from human skin in its architecture and varies in response to environmental toxins (biological origin) and xenobiotics (synthetic chemicals)...
    Curtis J Omiecinski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathways that determine the fates of metabolism and toxicity associated with exposures to drugs, other xenobiotics, and endogenous substances such as bile acids, thyroid hormone, heme, and steroids...
  13. Regulation of Hepatic Uptake of Endogenous Signaling Molecules and Xenobiotics
    Ivan Csanaky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the molecular mechanism of hepatic uptake and systemic disposition of endogenous signaling molecules and xenobiotics. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) transport a broad range of organic anions...
  14. Cellular Determinants of Ah Receptor Signaling
    Thomas R Sutter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As dioxin toxicity does not require concordant exposure to xenobiotics, and dioxin is not metabolized to a reactive intermediate, additional physiologic processes must be disrupted ..
  15. Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase in Lung
    David E Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) oxygenate numerous drugs and other xenobiotics. Caucasians and Asians do not express functional pulmonary FMO2 but up to 50% of African individuals and 3-10% of ..
  16. Analysis of Redox Modulated Signaling Networks in Response to Ionizing Radiation
    Cristina Furdui; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to growth factors initiated signaling, radiation therapy, drugs/xenobiotics metabolism and other factors...
  17. Intestinal Microbiota, Diet and Risk of Colorectal Adenomas
    Robert S Sandler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intestinal bacteria play a prominent role in the etiology of CRC through diet, inflammation and metabolism of xenobiotics. We propose to test the hypothesis that adherent bacteria (adherent) are linked with elevated risk of ..
  18. Pharmacogenomics of Human P450 Oxidoreductase
    Walter L Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Most drugs, xenobiotics and environmental pollutants that enter the human body are metabolized by P450 enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells...
    Charles O Elson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..address the hypothesis that the absence of the mdr1a encoded membrane pump leads to dysfunctional handling of xenobiotics, which results in abnormal development and function in cell types that express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ..
  20. Identification of Lactobacillus Secreted Factors in Regulation of Pgp
    Seema Saksena; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pgp is involved in the protection of intestinal epithelia by mediating the efflux of xenobiotics and bacterial toxis from the mucosa into the lumen...
  21. The Effect of Genetic Diversity on Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2D6
    Laura L Furge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..humans are a family of heme-containing enzymes involved in metabolism of steroids, vitamins, eiconsanoids, and xenobiotics such as drugs, complex plant alkaloids, carcinogens, and other small molecules...
  22. GST alleles and oxidant pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for the detoxification of a wide range of xenobiotics and also for the response of cells to oxidative stress...
  23. Mechanisms of xenobiotic-induced biliary inflammation and fibrosis
    James P Luyendyk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Epidemiological studies link human exposure to environmental xenobiotics and cholestatic liver disease. Xenobiotic exposure can cause bile duct injury and chronic cholestasis...
  24. Understanding aromatic hydrocarbon uptake as the first step in biodegradation
    Bert van den Berg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While a huge body of literature exists for the intracellular fate of AH and other xenobiotics, virtually nothing is known about the uptake of such molecules...
  25. Signaling-pathway-based preventative strategies for alcoholic liver disease
    Albert J Fornace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Increased hepatic lipid accumulation enhances the ability of xenobiotics and endotoxins produced in the gut to potentiate alcoholic hepatitis and fibrosis, likely by increased ..
  26. microRNAs in Developmental Toxicology
    Mark E Hahn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..or teratogens in experimental animals and several human birth defects are associated with embryonic exposure to xenobiotics. Despite this understanding, the mechanisms by which most developmental toxicants and teratogens disrupt ..
  27. Corrinoid Response of the Human Gut Microbiota
    Andrew L Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..community composition influences our capacity for energy harvest, sensitivity to infection, processing of xenobiotics, and is implicated in Crohn's disease and other metabolic disorders...
  28. Neurovascular Unit on a Chip: Chemical Communication, Drug and Toxin Responses
    JOHN PETER WIKSWO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..interactions in the brain, and assess the effect of a wide range of drugs, chemicals, infectious agents and xenobiotics on various brain regions...
  29. Detoxification of Xenobiotics in Ocular Tissue
    YOGESH CHANDRA AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies would help in devising strategies to prevent/treat age-related degenerative ocular diseases such as cataract and ARMD. ..
    Bruce D Hammock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of blood pressure, inflammation and pain, it additionally represents a novel target for the action of xenobiotics. Similarly, inhibition of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase leads to acute xenobiotic toxicity...
  31. Protection of Oxidant Toxicity by GSTs
    YOGESH CHANDRA AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in this application should also help to develop prevention strategies against the toxicity of drugs and xenobiotics which is a major clinical and environmental problem...
  32. Altered Hepatic Disposition of Statins by Diabetes Mellitus
    Fatemeh Akhlaghi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..conditions differentially regulate DMEs and transport mechanisms, thus, resulting in the altered clearance of xenobiotics including ATV...
  33. P450-Mediated Dehydrogenation Mechanisms
    Garold S Yost; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bioactivation of xenobiotics to toxic intermediates through cytochrome P450 oxygenation mechanisms is a well recognized process...
  34. Susceptibility to methylmercury toxicity: A role for cytochrome p450 enzymes
    Matthew D Rand; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CYPs are Phase I metabolism enzymes that modify xenobiotics in detoxification pathways and perform essential activating reactions for endogenous and exogenous biomolecules...
    PETER STACPOOLE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is an environmentally important xenobiotics, widely distributed in our biosphere. It is also employed as an investigational drug for treatment of congenital forms of lactic acidosis (CLA)...
  36. Circadian Clock Disruption: A Mechanism for Dioxin-induced Metabolic Syndrome
    Shelley A Tischkau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..incidence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans with elevated body burden of certain lipophilic xenobiotics such as dioxins...
  37. Gene-Environment Interactions in an Autism Birth Cohort
    W Ian Lipkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for ASD, including targeted examination of pre- and perinatal candidate exposures (parental age;nutrition and xenobiotics;ultrasound and assisted reproductive technologies;infection and host immunity;immunizations and other ..
    MERRILL E GERSHWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..shown to inhibit AMA recognition and study changes in kinetics when such peptides are conjugated with specific xenobiotics. Under aim 2 we will explore the use of acetaminophen metabolite functionalization of the lipoylated region in ..
    Michael W Duffel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is a key component in the metabolic formation of cytotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic molecules from xenobiotics that include benzylic alcohols derived from alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxylamine ..
  40. The Regulation of Human Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase by Nuclear Receptor ROR
    Wen Xie; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..sulfotransferase SULT2A1, a Phase II enzyme important for the metabolism of bile acids and many other xenobiotics and endobiotics. RORs were previously known to play a role in tissue development and circadian rhythm...
  41. Effects of Xenobiotics on CYP26 Activity and Retinoic Acid Homeostasis
    Nina Isoherranen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): The long-term objective of this proposal is to identify interactions between xenobiotics and CYP26 enzymes that lead to altered all-trans retinoic acid (RA) concentrations in plasma and in different ..
  42. MAL2 regulation of hepatic protein trafficking: mechanisms and binding partners
    Pamela L Tuma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The liver is also the major detoxifying center, ridding the body of xenobiotics and endogenous waster products...
  43. Mechanisms Underlying Drug-Diet Interactions
    Mary F Paine; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Variable drug response is due in part to interindividual differences in processing xenobiotics via absorption, distribution, and elimination...
    John D Schuetz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..bind PG, in regulating testosterone biosynthesis in model systems;iv) determine if chemotherapeutic agents and xenobiotics known to alter testosterone levels do so by interfereing with Mrp4 function...
  45. Function and pharmacology of schistosome multidrug resistance proteins
    Robert M Greenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..physiological target for new anti-schistosoma drugs is the worm's system for excretion of wastes and xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins, is an ATP-dependent efflux ..
  46. A Novel Model for Assessing the Effects of BPA Exposures on Human Placentation
    Susan J Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the pathological changes that contribute to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, and the effects of xenobiotics that are associated with impaired growth, such as nicotine...
  47. Drug-Mediated Alteration of Cytochrome P450
    Yoichi Osawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these studies may provide a way to predict, evaluate, and refine, the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research furthers our understanding of how metabolism of drugs alters biological ..
  48. Protein Dynamics and Substrate Specificity in Cytochrome P450s
    MEGAN CORRINE THIELGES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is critical for human health as cyt P450s are involved in many biochemical processes, such as the metabolism of xenobiotics and the biosynthesis of hormones and fatty acids...
    Charles N Falany; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..conjugation reaction for many endogenous sterols, catecholamines, bile acids and thyroid hormones as well as xenobiotics and therapeutic drugs...
  50. Mechanisms of Drug Disposition During Pregnancy
    Jashvant D Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pregnancy are regulated by pregnancy- related hormones and/or growth factors and by exposure to drugs and xenobiotics. Elucidating these mechanisms and quantifying the pregnancy-induced changes in these CYP and transporter ..
  51. Regulation of P450 Activity by Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase
    JUNG JA P KIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms of the microsomal monooxygenation system that is responsible for the oxidative metabolism of various xenobiotics and endogenous compounds...
  52. Xenobiotic Transporter Regulation and IRIP Function
    Yan Shu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IRIP) regulates a variety of transporters in vitro mediating membrane transport of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics. Therefore, IRIP may represent a novel regulatory mechanism for transporter activity with a substantial effect ..
  53. 600MHz Varian VNMRS Console Upgrade
    Michael K Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Dr. Kevin Gardner is interested in how signal transduction of environmental cues, like xenobiotics, light, and oxygen are ultimately involved in gene regulation. Dr...
  54. Ontogeny of the Phase II cytosolic sulfotransferases and adverse drug reactions
    Ming Cheh Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..other vertebrates, sulfation as mediated by the SULTs is known to play a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. Of particular interest in this proposed research is the role that sulfation may play in influencing the ..
  55. A high throughput screen for inhibitors of nematode detoxification genes
    Kevin Strange; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..organisms, multidrug resistance is mediated by increased expression and activity of enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics. Pharmacological compounds that target xenobiotic detoxification pathways would provide much needed tools for ..
  56. Regulation and Role of CREB in Cellular Genotoxic Response to Xenobiotics
    Yoshiaki Tsuji; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore the unveiled new CREB regulation from successful completion of this proposal will enhance our understanding in various physiological and disease conditions closely associated with the CREB activity. ..
    Olufunmilayo I Olopade; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cancer risk" will determine whether sequence variation in genes involved in the metabolism of sex hormones and xenobiotics influence the risk to breast cancer using resources from existing case-control cohorts that are highly enriched ..
  58. Breast Cancer GWAS: Function and Environmental Interactions
    Michael A Newton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Primary cultures of HMEC will be exposed to xenobiotics chosen using prior knowledge...
  59. Intestinal P450 and xenobiotic metabolism
    Qing Yu Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that IE P450-mediated drug metabolism can substantially lower the oral bioavailability of numerous drugs/xenobiotics. In Aim 1, we will further characterize the newly generated IE-Cpr-null mouse, in order to identify its full ..
  60. Functions of the Nuclear Receptor CAR
    David D Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CAR (NR1I3) is responsible for the increase in hepatic drug metabolism that results from exposure to diverse xenobiotics. These include the well known inducer phenobarbital, which functions as an indirect CAR activator and a large ..
  61. Modeling liver metabolism with patient-specific iPS derived hepatocytes
    Markus Grompe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The liver is the main site of intermediary metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and xenobiotics. Metabolic pathways, especially those of xenobiotic compounds, are highly species specific and can vary even ..
  62. Mechanisms and Functions of Human Sulfotransferases
    Guangping Chen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..sulfation is important in the regulation of different hormones and the detoxification of drugs and other xenobiotics. Sulfation also leads to bioactivation of procarcinogens leading to toxic effect...
    Peter Traber; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The epithelial cells lining the small intestine and colon are exposed to many ingested xenobiotics including drugs and environmental carcinogens...
  64. Xenobiotics and Breast Epithelial Cell-ECM Signaling
    Raymond Novak; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): considerable controversy exists regarding the association of xenobiotics with breast cancer...
    James Lewis; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Many xenobiotics are immunotoxicologic by aberrantly stimulating the immune system inducing damage in the host. The association between chemicals, carcinogenesis and inflammation has long been noted...
    Andrew Parkinson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues and to determine the dual role of these isozymes in the metabolism of toxic xenobiotics (such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants and drugs) and endogenous substrates (such as steroids, ..
    Serrine Lau; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..It has recently been demonstrated that glutathione (GSH) conjugation with xenobiotics can result in the formation of reactive intermediates and the kidney appears particularly susceptible to the ..