crack cocaine

Summary

Summary: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs
    Kora deBeck
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
    CMAJ 181:585-9. 2009
  2. ncbi Childhood trauma, impulsivity, and executive functioning in crack cocaine users
    Joana C M Narvaez
    Bipolar Disorders Program and INCT Translational Medicine, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre CEP 90035 003, Brazil
    Compr Psychiatry 53:238-44. 2012
  3. ncbi Profile of cocaine and crack users in Brazil
    Lígia Bonacim Duailibi
    Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 24:s545-57. 2008
  4. ncbi Key drug use, health and socio-economic characteristics of young crack users in two Brazilian cities
    Marcelo Santos Cruz
    Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Int J Drug Policy 24:432-8. 2013
  5. ncbi Mortality rate among crack/cocaine-dependent patients: a 12-year prospective cohort study conducted in Brazil
    Andréa C Dias
    INPAD National Institute on Alcohol and Drug Policies, Department of Psychiatry, Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Subst Abuse Treat 41:273-8. 2011
  6. ncbi Uptake, benefits of and barriers to safer crack use kit (SCUK) distribution programmes in Victoria, Canada--a qualitative exploration
    Andrew Ivsins
    Department of Sociology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
    Int J Drug Policy 22:292-300. 2011
  7. ncbi Crack cocaine craving: behaviors and coping strategies among current and former users
    Tharcila V Chaves
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Saude Publica 45:1168-75. 2011
  8. ncbi Use of health care services by women who use crack cocaine
    L R Metsch
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health and Comprehensive Drug Research Center, University of Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Women Health 30:35-51. 1999
  9. ncbi Modelling crack cocaine use trends over 10 years in a Canadian setting
    Dan Werb
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
    Drug Alcohol Rev 29:271-7. 2010
  10. ncbi Crack across Canada: Comparing crack users and crack non-users in a Canadian multi-city cohort of illicit opioid users
    Benedikt Fischer
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Univrersity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Addiction 101:1760-70. 2006

Detail Information

Publications255 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs
    Kora deBeck
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
    CMAJ 181:585-9. 2009
    Little is known about the possible role that smoking crack cocaine has on the incidence of HIV infection...
  2. ncbi Childhood trauma, impulsivity, and executive functioning in crack cocaine users
    Joana C M Narvaez
    Bipolar Disorders Program and INCT Translational Medicine, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre CEP 90035 003, Brazil
    Compr Psychiatry 53:238-44. 2012
    The use of crack cocaine is a major public health concern in Brazil and internationally. Recent data suggest that childhood trauma is associated with worse outcomes among cocaine users...
  3. ncbi Profile of cocaine and crack users in Brazil
    Lígia Bonacim Duailibi
    Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 24:s545-57. 2008
    ....
  4. ncbi Key drug use, health and socio-economic characteristics of young crack users in two Brazilian cities
    Marcelo Santos Cruz
    Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Int J Drug Policy 24:432-8. 2013
    ..To address this issue, this study aimed to assess key characteristics of young crack users in two Brazilian cities...
  5. ncbi Mortality rate among crack/cocaine-dependent patients: a 12-year prospective cohort study conducted in Brazil
    Andréa C Dias
    INPAD National Institute on Alcohol and Drug Policies, Department of Psychiatry, Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Subst Abuse Treat 41:273-8. 2011
    ..This research highlights the importance of ongoing programs to manage crack/cocaine use along with other treatment features within this population...
  6. ncbi Uptake, benefits of and barriers to safer crack use kit (SCUK) distribution programmes in Victoria, Canada--a qualitative exploration
    Andrew Ivsins
    Department of Sociology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
    Int J Drug Policy 22:292-300. 2011
    ..This study explored uptake and benefits of, barriers to, and possible improvements to two recently implemented SCUK distribution programme in Victoria, Canada...
  7. ncbi Crack cocaine craving: behaviors and coping strategies among current and former users
    Tharcila V Chaves
    Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Saude Publica 45:1168-75. 2011
    To understand crack cocaine craving among users and describe craving behaviors and coping strategies.
  8. ncbi Use of health care services by women who use crack cocaine
    L R Metsch
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health and Comprehensive Drug Research Center, University of Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Women Health 30:35-51. 1999
    ..Results indicate that women utilized health care more than men; however, crack use among women appears to be an inhibitory factor in the utilization of health services by women...
  9. ncbi Modelling crack cocaine use trends over 10 years in a Canadian setting
    Dan Werb
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
    Drug Alcohol Rev 29:271-7. 2010
    b>Crack cocaine use among illicit drug users is associated with a range of health and community harms...
  10. ncbi Crack across Canada: Comparing crack users and crack non-users in a Canadian multi-city cohort of illicit opioid users
    Benedikt Fischer
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Univrersity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Addiction 101:1760-70. 2006
    ..To examine possible differences between crack users and crack non-users across Canada...
  11. pmc Crack cocaine, disease progression, and mortality in a multicenter cohort of HIV-1 positive women
    Judith A Cook
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS 22:1355-63. 2008
    Longitudinal associations between patterns of crack cocaine use and progression of HIV-1 disease are poorly understood, especially among women...
  12. ncbi Health-related service utilization and HIV risk behaviors among HIV infected injection drug users and crack smokers
    R E Booth
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver 80211, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 55:69-78. 1999
    ..These findings suggest that it may be necessary to increase the attractiveness of health-related services, not just funding for services, for HIV infected substance abusers...
  13. ncbi [Crack usage circuits in the downtown area of the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil)]
    Luciane Raupp
    Faculdade de Saude Publica, Universidade de São Paulo Av Dr Arnaldo 715, Cerqueira César 01246 904 São Paulo SP
    Cien Saude Colet 16:2613-22. 2011
    ..It is suggested that the advanced degree of degradation of the region researched is not only the result of the people and activities practiced in the area, but also mainly of the urban process that led to such a social scenario...
  14. ncbi Crack use as a public health problem in Canada: call for an evaluation of 'safer crack use kits'
    Emma Haydon
    University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
    Can J Public Health 96:185-8. 2005
    ..Systematic evaluation of the crack kits is urgently needed in order to produce definitive evidence of their health and other benefits, and to allow for evidence-based program and policy decisions in the interest of public health...
  15. pmc A pilot randomized clinical trial of two medication adherence and drug use interventions for HIV+ crack cocaine users
    Karen S Ingersoll
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22911, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 116:177-87. 2011
    b>Crack cocaine use undermines adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  16. ncbi Crack cocaine use increases the incidence of AIDS-defining events in French Guiana
    Mathieu Nacher
    Centre d Investigation Clinique Epidémiologie Clinique Antilles Guyane CIC EC CIE802, French Guiana
    AIDS 23:2223-6. 2009
    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the influence of crack cocaine use on the outcomes of HIV infection. The use of crack cocaine was associated with an increased incidence of AIDS: 27.8 per 100 person-years versus 6...
  17. ncbi The prevalence of psychiatric disorder among a community sample of crack cocaine users: an exploratory study with practical implications
    Russel S Falck
    Department of Community Health, Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 192:503-7. 2004
    ..Schedule for DSM-IV was used to assess the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder among not-in-treatment crack cocaine users (N = 313). The most common dependencies involved cocaine (59.7%), alcohol (37.7%), and cannabis (12.1%)...
  18. pmc Associations between use of crack cocaine and HIV-1 disease progression: research findings and implications for mother-to-infant transmission
    Judith A Cook
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States
    Life Sci 88:931-9. 2011
    ....
  19. pmc Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV
    Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho
    Preventive Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil
    Clinics (Sao Paulo) 64:857-66. 2009
    To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence.
  20. ncbi Crack cocaine use in Barcelona: a reason of worry
    Lucio Garcia Oliveira
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Subst Use Misuse 45:2291-300. 2010
    In Spain, crack cocaine use is silently increasing. In Barcelona, an intentional sample was selected to describe the general characteristics of this consumption...
  21. ncbi Comparison of desipramine or carbamazepine to placebo for crack cocaine-dependent patients
    Jan Campbell
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA
    Am J Addict 12:122-36. 2003
    ..This finding supports previous reports of a possible role for desipramine in cocaine abuse treatment...
  22. ncbi Is crack cocaine use associated with greater violence than powdered cocaine use? Results from a national sample
    Michael G Vaughn
    School of Social Work and Department of Community Health, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 36:181-6. 2010
    The question of whether crack cocaine use is associated with increased violence compared to powdered cocaine use has not been adequately explored in large nationally representative general population samples.
  23. ncbi Sexual risk behaviours and STIs in drug abuse treatment populations whose drug of choice is crack cocaine
    Michael W Ross
    WHO Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, University of Texas, PO Box 20186, Houston TX 77225, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 13:769-74. 2002
    ..Data analysis focused on differences between those for whom crack cocaine was the drug of preference compared with other drugs, since crack is associated with sexual arousal and a sex ..
  24. ncbi Urinary elimination of cocaine metabolites in chronic cocaine users during cessation
    Kenzie L Preston
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 26:393-400. 2002
    ....
  25. ncbi Depressive symptoms in crack and inhalant users in Southern Brazil
    Carlos Zubaran
    University of Western Sydney and Sydney West Area Health Service, Department of Psychiatry, New South Wales, Australia
    J Ethn Subst Abuse 9:221-36. 2010
    In this study the authors investigated depressive symptoms and correlated psychopathology in crack cocaine and inhalant users in Southern Brazil...
  26. ncbi Crack-cocaine use and health status as defined by the SF-36
    R S Falck
    Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    Addict Behav 25:579-84. 2000
    ..The SF-36 produces reliable data on the health status of crack users and, as such, may have a useful role in assessments involving crack-using populations...
  27. ncbi Peripheral toxicity in crack cocaine use disorders
    Joana C M Narvaez
    Bipolar Disorders Program and INCT Translational Medicine, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Neurosci Lett 544:80-4. 2013
    A growing body of evidence suggests that crack cocaine misuse has widespread systemic and cognitive consequences, but little attention has been given to its systemic pathophysiology...
  28. pmc Current interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors and crack cocaine use among HIV-infected individuals
    Wendee M Wechsberg
    Substance Abuse, Treatment, Evaluations and Interventions Program, RTI International, 3040 East Cornwallis Road, PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2194 USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 9:385-93. 2012
    The dual global epidemics of crack cocaine use and HIV have resulted in a large number of people living with HIV who use crack cocaine, many of whom continue to engage in unprotected sex...
  29. ncbi Crack use in North American cities: the neglected 'epidemic'
    Benedikt Fischer
    Addiction 102:1340-1. 2007
  30. ncbi Pseudosclerodermatous triad of perniosis, pulp atrophy and 'parrot-beaked' clawing of the nails--a newly recognized syndrome of chronic crack cocaine use
    J J Payne-James
    Forensic Healthcare Services Ltd, 19 Speldhurst Road, London, UK
    J Forensic Leg Med 14:65-71. 2007
    ..The syndrome consisting of the triad of perniosis, pulp atrophy and parrot-beaked clawing of the nails should alert the clinician to the possibility of prolonged crack-cocaine misuse...
  31. pmc Intimate partner violence among HIV-infected crack cocaine users
    Ameeta S Kalokhe
    Emory University School of Medicine Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 26:234-40. 2012
    HIV-infected crack cocaine users are at high risk for HIV transmission and disease progression because they encounter difficulty practicing safe sex, entering and remaining in HIV care, and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  32. ncbi From the first drug to crack: the sequence of drugs taken in a group of users in the city of São Paulo
    Zila van der Meer Sanchez
    Department of Psychobiology, The Federal University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Subst Use Misuse 42:177-88. 2007
    ..This pilot study's findings are limited in generalizability to its sample. Further research is needed...
  33. ncbi Crack users show high rates of antisocial personality disorder, engagement in illegal activities and other psychosocial problems
    Felix Henrique Paim Kessler
    Center for Drug and Alcohol Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    Am J Addict 21:370-80. 2012
    The aim of this study was to compare three groups of Brazilian psychoactive substance (PAS) abuse patients (crack cocaine users, cocaine snorters, and non-cocaine PAS users) in terms of psychiatric comorbidities and severity of ..
  34. pmc Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm (CATCH): new pharmacological treatment options for crack-cocaine dependence in the Netherlands
    Mascha Nuijten
    Parnassia Addiction Research Centre PARC, Brijder Addiction Treatment, PO Box 53002, 2505 AA The Hague, The Netherlands
    BMC Psychiatry 11:135. 2011
    ..The present study (Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm; CATCH) investigates the possibilities and problems associated with new pharmacological treatments for crack dependent patients...
  35. ncbi Family ties of crack cocaine users cared for in a psychiatric emergency department
    Maycon Rogério Seleghim
    Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR, Brazil
    Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 19:1163-70. 2011
    This study characterizes the family ties of crack cocaine users cared for in a psychiatric emergency department in southern Brazil...
  36. ncbi Correlates of exchanging sex for drugs or money among women who use crack cocaine
    Jessica M Edwards
    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 2812, USA
    AIDS Educ Prev 18:420-9. 2006
    This study examined the correlates of trading sex for drugs or money among women who use crack cocaine. Using baseline data (n = 669) from a woman-focused HIV intervention study among African American women who use crack cocaine, we ..
  37. ncbi [Crack cocaine users who attend outpatient services]
    Rogério Lessa Horta
    Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Rua Jary 671, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil
    Cad Saude Publica 27:2263-70. 2011
    This paper describes the profile of 95 crack cocaine users attending three community mental health services (CAPS) in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from August 2009 to March 2010...
  38. ncbi Route of cocaine administration: patterns of use and problems among a Brazilian sample
    C P Ferri
    National Addiction Centre, London, UK
    Addict Behav 24:815-21. 1999
    ..cross-sectional study investigates patterns of consumption and cocaine-related problems among snorting and crack cocaine users in São Paulo and outlines changes in route of cocaine administration in Brazil between 1980-1997...
  39. ncbi Longitudinal outcomes among a cohort of crack users after 12 years from treatment discharge
    Andréa Costa Dias
    National Institute on Alcohol and Drug Policies INPAD, Department of Psychiatry, Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Addict Dis 30:271-80. 2011
    ..The study showed dynamic changes of crack use patterns over time and a high involvement in illegal activities (p = 0.00) among drug users. Discontinuation of care and stigmatization of crack users has been discussed...
  40. ncbi Barriers to formal drug abuse treatment in the rural south: a preliminary ethnographic assessment
    Rocky L Sexton
    Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research, Department of Community Health, Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 40:121-9. 2008
    ..The study findings can inform further examination of rural treatment barriers and have important implications for developing strategies to overcome these obstacles...
  41. pmc Past and future research on the crack cocaine-domestic violence link
    Devon D Brewer
    Am J Public Health 95:1493; author reply 1493-4. 2005
  42. ncbi Risk behaviors for HCV- and HIV-seroprevalence among female crack users in Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Lisia von Diemen
    Center for Drug and Alcohol Research, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Ramiro Barcelos 2350, room 2201B, Porto Alegre 90035 903, Brazil
    Arch Womens Ment Health 13:185-91. 2010
    ..51-CI 95%; 1.18-17.27). We found a very high prevalence of HIV and HCV infection among female crack users, and low education was the most significant risk factor associated with both infections...
  43. ncbi Cocaine/crack cocaine consumption, treatment demand, seizures, related offences, prices, average purity levels and deaths in the UK (1990 - 2004)
    Fabrizio Schifano
    Pharmacy and Postgraduate Medical Schools, School of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire, UK
    J Psychopharmacol 22:71-9. 2008
    A recent trend of escalating use of cocaine/crack cocaine was observed in the UK...
  44. pmc Personal and partner measures in stages of consistent condom use among African-American heterosexual crack cocaine smokers
    U E Pallonen
    Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, University of Texas School of Public Health, 7000 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    AIDS Care 20:205-13. 2008
    ....
  45. ncbi Early life sexual abuse as a risk factor for crack cocaine use in a sample of community-recruited women at high risk for illicit drug use
    Robert C Freeman
    NOVA Research Company, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 28:109-31. 2002
    ..Given that many of these subjects reported drug treatment experience, such programs may provide the best setting for helping women with both substance use and sexual abuse issues...
  46. ncbi Cocaine use in New South Wales, Australia, 1996-2000: 5 year monitoring of trends in price, purity, availability and use from the illicit drug reporting system
    Shane Darke
    National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
    Drug Alcohol Depend 67:81-8. 2002
    ..The regular and formal monitoring of illicit drug trends enabled substantial changes in the cocaine market in Sydney to be detected, and the information to be fed back to the health and law enforcement sectors...
  47. pmc Decision-making deficits linked to real-life social dysfunction in crack cocaine-dependent individuals
    Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha
    Interdisciplinary Group of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo College of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Am J Addict 20:78-86. 2011
    b>Crack cocaine-dependent individuals (CCDI) present abnormalities in both social adjustment and decision making, but few studies have examined this association...
  48. ncbi Mapping violence and policing as an environmental-structural barrier to health service and syringe availability among substance-using women in street-level sex work
    K Shannon
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Canada
    Int J Drug Policy 19:140-7. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi Differences in impulsivity and risk-taking propensity between primary users of crack cocaine and primary users of heroin in a residential substance-use program
    Marina A Bornovalova
    Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:311-8. 2005
    b>Crack cocaine use is more associated with impulsivity and a propensity to take risks than heroin use, yet no studies have examined this relationship in the absence of acute drug effects...
  50. pmc Factors that help injecting drug users to access and benefit from services: A qualitative study
    Joanne Neale
    Research Fellow, Leeds West Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UK
    Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2:31. 2007
    ..Responding to this gap in knowledge, our paper explores IDUs' own suggestions for improving service engagement and their reports of other factors enabling them to seek help...
  51. ncbi Cocaine use in Europe - a multi-centre study. Methodology and prevalence estimates
    Christian Haasen
    Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Suchtforschung, Klinik für Psychiatrie and Psychotherapie, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Eur Addict Res 10:139-46. 2004
    ..Specific strategies need to be developed to address problematic cocaine use in these subgroups...
  52. pmc Surviving crack: a qualitative study of the strategies and tactics developed by Brazilian users to deal with the risks associated with the drug
    Luciana A Ribeiro
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo Psychobiology Department, Brazilian Center of Information of Psychotropic Drugs CEBRID, Rua Napoleao de Barros, 925 Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    BMC Public Health 10:671. 2010
    ..However, there is evidence that some users manage to stay alive and active while using crack cocaine for many years, despite the numerous adversities and risks involved with this behavior...
  53. ncbi Violence, homelessness, and HIV risk among crack-using African-American women
    Wendee M Wechsberg
    Substance Abuse Treatment Formulations and Interventions, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 2194, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 38:669-700. 2003
    ....
  54. pmc Binge use of crack cocaine and sexual risk behaviors among African-American, HIV-positive users
    Amy Jo Harzke
    Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, School of Public Health, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, University Center Tower, Houston, TX, 77030, USA
    AIDS Behav 13:1106-18. 2009
    This study describes binge use of crack cocaine, binge users, and their sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 303 African-American, HIV-positive users...
  55. ncbi Cocaine use in Europe - a multi-centre study: patterns of use in different groups
    Michael Prinzleve
    Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Suchtforschung der Universität Hamburg, Germany
    Eur Addict Res 10:147-55. 2004
    The study investigates patterns of cocaine powder and crack cocaine use of different groups in nine European cities.
  56. ncbi Risks associated with crack cocaine smoking among exotic dancers in Baltimore, MD
    Susan G Sherman
    Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 114:249-52. 2011
    There is a dearth of research focusing on sex work in exotic dance clubs. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence and correlates of crack cocaine smoking among a sample of exotic dancers.
  57. ncbi Injection drug use and crack cocaine smoking: independent and dual risk behaviors for HIV infection
    Clyde B McCoy
    Comprehensive Drug Research Center, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 14:535-42. 2004
    Previous studies have examined the practices of injecting drugs or smoking crack cocaine as high-risk, but independent, factors for HIV transmission...
  58. ncbi Condom use behaviors in HIV-infected African American crack cocaine users
    Sandra C Timpson
    Center for Health Promotion and Prevention, School of Public Health, University of Texas Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Subst Abus 24:211-20. 2003
    ..The inconsistent condom use by these HIV+ individuals threatens the progress that has been made to stem the epidemic...
  59. pmc Sustainability of intervention effects of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for African American women who smoke crack cocaine
    Wendee M Wechsberg
    RTI International, Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2194 USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 109:205-12. 2010
    ..Thus, we conducted a long-term (mean 4.4 years) follow-up of a woman-focused HIV intervention for African American crack smokers, for which we had previously observed beneficial short-term gains...
  60. ncbi Supporting the habit: income generation activities of frequent crack users compared with frequent users of other hard drugs
    J C Cross
    Vassar College, Box 500, Poughkeepsie, New York, NY 12604, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 64:191-201. 2001
    US Federal sentencing guidelines punish possession of crack cocaine very differently from powder cocaine, based partially upon the assumption that crack users engage more frequently in criminal behavior to pay for their habit...
  61. pmc Stages of consistent condom use, partner intimacy, condom use attitude, and self-efficacy in African-American crack cocaine users
    Unto E Pallonen
    Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 7000 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 38:149-58. 2009
    ..Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366)...
  62. ncbi Drug use, street crime, and sex-trading among cocaine-dependent women: implications for public health and criminal justice policy
    J A Inciardi
    Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies, University of Delaware, Newark 19716-2582, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 33:379-89. 2001
    ..Analyses focus on drug use, criminality and HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Implications for policy alternatives in criminal justice and public health approaches for assisting this population are discussed...
  63. ncbi Effectiveness of a risk reduction intervention among African American women who use crack cocaine
    Claire E Sterk
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    AIDS Educ Prev 15:15-32. 2003
    ..of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV intervention for African American women who use crack cocaine. Two hundred sixty-five women (aged 18-59 years) were randomly assigned to one of two enhanced intervention ..
  64. ncbi HIV and HCV prevalence and gender-specific risk profiles of crack cocaine smokers and dual users of injection drugs
    Kate Shannon
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Subst Use Misuse 43:521-34. 2008
    ..10-2.81). These findings highlight the need for evidence-based prevention and harm reduction initiatives that directly targeting crack cocaine smokers, with particular attention given to female dual users of injection drugs.
  65. pmc Sexual activity in HIV-positive African American crack cocaine smokers
    Sandra C Timpson
    Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, University of Texas School of Public Health, 7000 Fannin, Suite 2516, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 39:1353-8. 2010
    ..serostatus, treatment with HIV antiretroviral medications for a minimum of 3 months prior to interview, crack cocaine use at least once in the 7 days prior to being interviewed, willingness to provide a urine sample to confirm ..
  66. ncbi [Crack-syndrome: the pulmonary complications of inhaled cocaine. A review a propos a case report]
    T O Hirche
    Zentrum für Innere Medizin II, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie und Allergologie, Germany
    Pneumologie 56:684-8. 2002
    ..As the consumption of crack cocaine in Germany has markedly increased over the past decade, a higher prevalence of the reported syndrome has to be ..
  67. ncbi Epidemiological estimates of risk in the process of becoming dependent upon cocaine: cocaine hydrochloride powder versus crack cocaine
    Chuan Yu Chen
    Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 624 N Broadway, 8th Floor, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 172:78-86. 2004
    ..To estimate the risk of experiencing clinical features of cocaine dependence within 1-2 years of starting cocaine use, and to examine whether crack smoking might increase this risk...
  68. ncbi "I inject less as I have easier access to pipes": injecting, and sharing of crack-smoking materials, decline as safer crack-smoking resources are distributed
    Lynne Leonard
    Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada
    Int J Drug Policy 19:255-64. 2008
    ..01). Since distributing safer crack-smoking materials by a NEP contributes to transition to safer methods of drug ingestion and significantly reduces disease-related risk practices, other NEPs should adopt this practice...
  69. pmc Crack cocaine and infectious tuberculosis
    Alistair Story
    Tuberculosis Section, Respiratory Diseases Department, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1466-9. 2008
    We hypothesize that crack cocaine is independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB)...
  70. ncbi African-American women who use crack cocaine: a comparison of mothers who live with and have been separated from their children
    Wendy K K Lam
    RTI International, Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Child Abuse Negl 28:1229-47. 2004
    This study examined factors that influenced caregiver status for African-American mothers who use crack cocaine but are not receiving drug treatment and participated in an HIV prevention study in North Carolina.
  71. ncbi HIV/AIDS risk among female sex workers who use crack in Southern Brazil
    Monica Malta
    Departamento de Ciências Sociais, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública SérgioArouca, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Rev Saude Publica 42:830-7. 2008
    ..Transcript data was entered into Atlas.ti software and grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the data and develop a conceptual model as a result of this study...
  72. ncbi Crack users, sexual behavior and risk of HIV infection
    Renata Cruz Soares de Azevedo
    Department of Medical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
    Rev Bras Psiquiatr 29:26-30. 2007
    ..To compare a sample of injecting cocaine users and crack users, assessing sexual behavior, risk for infection by HIV and its seroprevalence...
  73. ncbi Documenting practices and perceptions of 'safer' crack use: a Canadian pilot study
    Leslie Malchy
    School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, 302 6190 Agronomy Road, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z3, Canada
    Int J Drug Policy 19:339-41. 2008
    People who smoke crack cocaine have a distinct social profile when compared to other drug user groups (e.g...
  74. pmc Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in substance users: a comparison across substances
    Matthew J Smith
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Compr Psychiatry 50:245-50. 2009
    ..To establish this, we interviewed individuals who had wide experience of commonly used drugs...
  75. ncbi Perceived neighborhood safety and depressive symptoms among African American crack users
    William A Zule
    RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 2194, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 43:445-68. 2008
    ..between perceived neighborhood safety and depressive symptoms among 443 out-of-treatment African American crack cocaine users interviewed between 2000 and 2002 in North Carolina and tested the regression of depression on perceived ..
  76. ncbi Modulating effect of alcohol use on cocaine use
    S Magura
    National Development and Research Institutes, Inc, NewYork, NY 10048, USA
    Addict Behav 25:117-22. 2000
    ..Thus, treating alcohol abuse in this population must take into account the important function it serves in modulating cocaine/crack use...
  77. ncbi Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil
    E Labigalini
    Departamento de Psiquiatria, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Psychoactive Drugs 31:451-5. 1999
    ..The authors discuss some psychological, pharmacological and cultural aspects of these findings...
  78. ncbi Causes of death among crack cocaine users
    Marcelo Ribeiro
    Unidade de Pesquisa em Alcool e Drogas, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Botucatu 394, Vila Clementino, 04038 001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Rev Bras Psiquiatr 28:196-202. 2006
    ..The study accompanied 131 crack-cocaine users over a 5-year period, and examined mortality patterns, as well as the causes of death among them...
  79. ncbi [Characterization of the crack cocaine culture in the city of São Paulo: a controlled pattern of use]
    Lucio Garcia de Oliveira
    Centro de Informações sobre Saúde e Alcool, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Saude Publica 42:664-71. 2008
    To characterize the situation regarding crack cocaine use in the city of São Paulo, along with the sociodemographic profile of its users.
  80. ncbi Demographic, HIV risk behavior, and health status characteristics of "crack" cocaine injectors compared to other injection drug users in three New England cities
    David Buchanan
    School of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, 306 Arnold House, Amherst 01002, MA 01003, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 81:221-9. 2006
    ..To compare demographic, HIV risk behaviors, and health status characteristics of injection drug users (IDUs) who have injected "crack" cocaine with IDUs who have not...
  81. ncbi Concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine: differences in patterns of use and problems among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder
    Michael Gossop
    National Addiction Centre, Maudsley Hospital Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Alcohol Alcohol 41:121-5. 2006
    To investigate differences in alcohol and drug consumption behaviours and related problems among users of cocaine powder versus crack cocaine.
  82. ncbi Concurrent use and order of use of cocaine and alcohol: behavioural differences between users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder
    Michael Gossop
    National Addiction Centre, 4 Windsor Walk, London, UK
    Addiction 101:1292-8. 2006
    ..The study further investigates differences in the combined use of the two substances by users of cocaine powder and crack cocaine.
  83. ncbi Assessing risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among female crack cocaine users inSalvador--Bahia, Brazil
    Ceuci L X Nunes
    Bahiana School of Medicine, Bahiana Foundation for Science Development, Salvador, BA, Brazil
    Braz J Infect Dis 11:561-6. 2007
    b>Crack cocaine use is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV...
  84. ncbi Capturing crack cocaine use: estimating the prevalence of crack cocaine use in London using capture-recapture with covariates
    Vivian D Hope
    Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Addiction 100:1701-8. 2005
    To estimate the prevalence of crack cocaine use in 12 London Boroughs (and London as a whole).
  85. ncbi Experiences with and perceptions of, barriers to substance abuse and HIV services among African American women who use crack cocaine
    Samuel A MacMaster
    University of Tennessee, College of Social Work, Nashville, TN 37210, USA
    J Ethn Subst Abuse 4:53-75. 2005
    ..some research that identifies barriers to treatment access and engagement for African American women who use crack cocaine, these barriers require further examination...
  86. ncbi Initiating HIV care: attitudes and perceptions of HIV positive crack cocaine users
    Toye H Brewer
    Department of Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1400 NW 10th Avenue Ste 813 D 90A, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    AIDS Behav 11:897-904. 2007
    There is limited data on the initiation and use of HIV care services by HIV-positive crack cocaine users. We analyzed data from a study of 286 recently infected HIV-positive persons recruited from 4 U.S. cities...
  87. ncbi Social network ties, self-efficacy, and condom use among women who use crack cocaine: a pilot study
    I D Montoya
    Affiliated Systems Corporation, Our Lady of the Lake University, Houston, Texas 77027 6022, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 33:2049-73. 1998
    So far, attempts to change the sexual risk behavior of women who use crack cocaine have been less successful than efforts to change the needle risk behavior of injection drug users...
  88. ncbi Association between crack cocaine use and high-risk sexual behaviors after HIV diagnosis
    M L Campsmith
    Division of HIV AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 25:192-8. 2000
    To describe the prevalence of crack cocaine use in an HIV-infected population and to examine the association between crack use after HIV diagnosis and high-risk sexual behaviors for heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and men who have ..
  89. ncbi Drug treatment experiences: rural and urban comparisons
    L R Metsch
    Comprehensive Drug Research Center, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33136, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 34:763-84. 1999
    ..57 times more likely to have been in drug treatment compared to their rural counterparts. This differential may be explained in terms of the availability, accessibility, and acceptability of health care services...
  90. ncbi Women's health and use of crack cocaine in context: structural and 'everyday' violence
    Vicky Bungay
    School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, T201 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Int J Drug Policy 21:321-9. 2010
    There is increasing public health evidence that women who use crack cocaine and are street-involved experience significant health problems and are more isolated with regards to accessing harm reduction and other health-related services...
  91. ncbi Treatment readiness among out-of-treatment African-American crack users
    William A Zule
    RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Psychoactive Drugs 35:503-10. 2003
    b>Crack cocaine use is linked to high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, as well as violence and criminal activity. Substance abuse treatment can play an important role in reducing drug use and related problems...
  92. ncbi Neuropsychological assessment of current and past crack cocaine users
    Lucio Garcia De Oliveira
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Universidade de Sao Paulo USP, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil corrected
    Subst Use Misuse 44:1941-57. 2009
    Cognitive changes due to crack cocaine consumption remain unclear.
  93. ncbi A cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors in crack and injection drug users
    Scott L Hershberger
    Department of Psychology, Center for Behavioral Research and Services, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840, USA
    AIDS Behav 7:229-43. 2003
    ..It is concluded that the theory-based cognitive-behavioral intervention has limited advantage over the standard intervention in terms of both magnitude and frequency of HIV risk reduction achieved by high-risk, active drug users...
  94. ncbi Crack cocaine trajectories among users in a midwestern American city
    Russel S Falck
    Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research, Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    Addiction 102:1421-31. 2007
    Although crack cocaine first appeared in cities in the United States in the mid-1980s, little is known about its use over long periods of time. This study identified crack cocaine user groups on the basis of long-term trajectories.
  95. ncbi Age and HIV risk in a national sample of injection drug and crack cocaine users
    A J Richard
    Affiliated Systems Corporation, Houston, Texas 77027 6022, USA
    Subst Use Misuse 35:1385-404. 2000
    A national sample of 25,106 out-of-treatment crack cocaine and injection drug users was examined to determine the effect of aging on HIV risk behavior...
  96. ncbi Changes in use of crack cocaine after drug misuse treatment: 4-5 year follow-up results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS)
    Michael Gossop
    National Addiction Centre, The Maudsley Institute of Psychiatry, 4 Windsor Walk, SE5 8AF, London, UK
    Drug Alcohol Depend 66:21-8. 2002
    b>Crack cocaine outcomes at 4-5 years are reported for 496 drug users recruited from UK treatment programmes. About one-third used crack at intake and at 4-5 years. The results show different outcome profiles...
  97. ncbi Crack cocaine--a two-year follow-up of treated patients
    R Laranjeira
    UNIAD, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Addict Dis 20:43-8. 2001
    To investigate the 2-year outcome of the first 131 crack cocaine users who had been admitted for a period of inpatient treatment.
  98. ncbi Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine
    Priscilla Y Hsue
    Division of Cardiology, San Francisco General Hospital, CA 94110, USA
    Circulation 105:1592-5. 2002
    ..Although single case reports have described acute aortic dissection in relation to cocaine use, this condition is not widely recognized, and the features of cocaine-related aortic dissection have not been defined...
  99. ncbi Follow-up study of crack cocaine users: situation of the patients after 2, 5, and 12 years
    Andréa Costa Dias
    UNIAD, Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Subst Abus 29:71-9. 2008
    ..On the other hand, the mortality rate was extremely high and probably more related with socioeconomic factors instead of the drug use itself...
  100. ncbi The crack life: an ethnographic overview of crack use and sexual behavior among African-Americans in a midwest metropolitan city
    R G Carlson
    School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435
    J Psychoactive Drugs 23:11-20. 1991
    The use of crack cocaine and its associations with high-risk sexual behavior in view of the AIDS epidemic is reported commonly for major East and West Coast urban centers...
  101. ncbi Predictors of drug abuse treatment entry among crack-cocaine smokers
    Harvey A Siegal
    Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research, Wright State University School of Medicine, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 68:159-66. 2002
    ..Developing a strategy to practically apply these findings may facilitate treatment entry among a population involved with a dangerous and debilitating drug...

Research Grants62

  1. Prevalence of DSM-IV Disorders in an Multi-Center HIV+ Women's Cohort
    Judith A Cook; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The second aim is to conduct analyses addressing associations between 2 specific MH/SUDs -- depression and crack cocaine abuse/dependence - and immunological and virological components of disease progression and immune ..
  2. Miami Womens Interagency HIV Study WIHS
    Lisa R Metsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of HIV-1 non-B subtype infections on the clinical course of HIV and response to therapy;and the interplay of crack cocaine use and associated co-occurring epidemics (mental health, poverty, unemployment and interpersonal violence ..
  3. Cigarette Smoking and Tuberculosis among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico
    SANGHYUK SAM SHIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of HIV status and patterns of illicit drug use, including injecting illicit drugs and smoking marijuana, crack cocaine, and methamphetamines;2) describe the relationship between the dosage and duration of cigarette smoking and TB ..
  4. Reducing HIV risk among episodic substance-using MSM
    Phillip O Coffin; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We will focus on use of methamphetamine, powder or crack cocaine, poppers, and binge drinking (>5 drinks) during sex because these substances are most consistently ..
  5. Neural Basis of Adjunct Use of a Cognitive Enhancer in Treating Cocaine Addiction
    ASHLEY P KENNEDY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The treatment of crack/cocaine addiction facilitated by psychotherapy with adjunct pharmacotherapy will also aid in decreasing recidivism in this drug-dependent population. ..
  6. Reducing drug use and HIV risk in drug-dependent adults arrested for prostitution
    Anthony DeFulio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The combination of using injection drugs, smoking crack cocaine, having multiple sex partners, and inconsistent condom use results in substantial risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, and many ..
  7. Social Predictors for Transition into Injection Drug Use
    Crystal Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Logistic regression analyses and marginal models will be constructed using generalized estimating equations to account for potential intra-class correlation of repeated measures within an individual over time. ..
  8. The Therapeutic Workplace Intervention in Community Settings.
    Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our application focuses on methadone patients who use injection or crack cocaine because of their increased risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV through injection or drug-related sexual ..
  9. Finding, Testing and Treating High-risk Probationers and Parolees with HIV
    Alexander H Kral; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..targeted, community-based strategy to identify, recruit, and provide rapid HIV testing and counseling to 2,250 crack cocaine and injection drug users on probation or parole;and Aim 2: To conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of ..
  10. The Times are Changing: A Qualitative Study of Older and Younger Marijuana Users
    SHEIGLA BRIGHID MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At no point in their drug using careers will they have been in treatment for heroin, powder or crack cocaine, methamphetamine, other club drugs, psychedelics, or prescription drugs...
  11. HPV Epidemiology and Response to Screening (HEARTS)
    Elise D Riley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., HIV, HCV, gonorrhea and Chlamydia) and drug use (e.g., tobacco and crack cocaine);and the feasibility of a larger randomized study among homeless and marginally housed women...
  12. Binge Cocaine During Pregnancy in the Rat
    Diana L Dow Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, we will assess the blood and brain levels of cocaine and metabolites resulting from chronic bingeing to enable comparisons with human exposures. ..
  13. Randomized Controlled Trial Computer-Base Intervention to Augment Drug Counseling
    MARK Z ROSENTHAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, 180 adult outpatients with crack cocaine dependence will be randomly assigned to receive 6 months of I/GDC alone (weekly individual and group ..
  14. Project RETAIN: Providing Integrated Care for HIV-Infected Crack Cocaine Users
    Lisa R Metsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A particularly difficult group to retain in HIV care is HIV-infected crack cocaine users...
  15. Implicit and explicit mechanisms in crack cocaine and sex trade association
    CATALINA KOPETZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Previous research has showed that crack cocaine dependencies frequently associated with engagement in sex exchange for drugs and/or money...
  16. Effects of Drug Use on Prefrontal Cortex Function in HIV+ Women
    VANESSA GRAUZAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the proposed research training program is to better understand the interactive effects of HIV and recent crack cocaine use on cognitive function...
  17. A Qualitative Study of Female Methamphetamine Users Drug Acquisition Behaviors
    Stephen K Koester; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, in recent years, understandings of crack cocaine use have expanded considerably, resulting in a reconsideration of research and interventions based on the ..
  18. Combined cocaine and HIV vaccine
    Timothy J Cardozo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Substance abusers are one of the key high-risk groups, and, specifically, inner city crack cocaine users are three times more likely than non-users to be infected with HIV...
  19. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE HIV SEXUAL RISK PRACTICES
    Robert Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..out-of-treatment crack cocaine smokers and their sexual partners in Washington, D.C. The study has two related purposes, First...
  20. Progesterone Treatment for Cocaine-Dependent Women
    Suzette Evans; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..73%) of all cocaine treatment admissions are for smoked cocaine and 42% of individuals admitted for smoking crack cocaine were women...
  21. HIV TRANSMISSION IN CRACK INJECTION PRACTICES
    Michael Clatts; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Ethnographic data and results of laboratory studies will be used to develop a curriculum for training public health practitioners on risk reduction messages and strategies for crack injectors. ..
  22. RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF THE BRIEF NEGOTIATED INTERVIEW
    Edward Bernstein; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  23. Cocaine, Self-Regulation, and Maternal/Child Aggression
    Denise Hien; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..One independently initiated revision includes: (1) addition of a cultural consultant (and his team) with expertise in child assessment and parenting across cultural groups. ..
  24. Virtuality Reality Cue Exposure for Crack Cocaine
    Barbara Rothbaum; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Treatments of most SUDs are promising, although the success rate with crack cocaine users is not encouraging...
  25. HIV RISK AND KETAMINE INJECTION AMONG HIGH RISK YOUTH
    STEPHEN LANKENAU; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..a descriptive typology of heroin injection practices, and are currently applying this methodology to describe crack cocaine injection...
  26. Predictors of Drug Related Attentional Biases among Crack/Cocaine Users with PTSD
    MATTHEW TULL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Consequently, this study will have tremendous public health benefits. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. CASE MANAGEMENT TREATMENT ENHANCEMENT
    Harvey Siegal; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Approximately 77% identify crack cocaine as their primary drug problem...
  28. METHAMPHETAMINE DISPOSTION KINETICS IN ANIMALS
    Michael Mayersohn; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Currently, the use of "ice" in Hawaii is as wide-spread as that of crack cocaine. Recent literature has referred to this new threat as, "the drug plague of the 1990s"0...
  29. REAL TIME ASSESSMENT OF CRACK COCAINE RELAPSE RISK
    LEA PULLEY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..for a new investigator interested in preventing relapse in homeless persons with cocaine use (primarily crack cocaine) disorders...
  30. COCAINE SMOKING EFFECTS ON LUNG IMMUNITY & HOST DEFENSE
    Michael Roth; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..the past 8 years we have identified several novel and potentially serious health consequences associated with crack cocaine. Our research has examined two general areas: 1) the effects of crack cocaine on lung inflammation, injury and ..
  31. QEEG ATLAS FOR STUDYING CHANGE IN ABSTINENT DRUG ABUSERS
    Kenneth Alper; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..qEEG data base of 250 normal adults aged 17 to 90, as well as qEEG database of over 100 subjects with crack cocaine dependence, built by previous and ongoing NIDA grant support...
  32. Evaluating Impact of a Resource Center for Drug Users
    ALEXANDER KRAL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..To accomplish these aims, six serial cohorts of 80 injection drug users (IDUs) and crack cocaine smokers (CCSs) will be recruited and followed for six months (n=480)...
  33. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AIDS RISK AMONG DRUG USERS
    Merrill Singer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..set of interrelated critical issues in AIDS prevention among out-of-treatment injection drug users (IDUs) and crack cocaine users (CCUs)...
  34. Club Drugs: Ecstasy Use Patterns and HIV Risk
    Claire Sterk; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..is an arousal drug that yields different unsafe sex than the HIV sex risks common with barter drugs such as crack cocaine. Little is known about the HIV risk and protective behaviors among the users of club drugs...
  35. Family Intervention for Children and Crack-Using Mothers
    Antonio Morgan Lopez; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..R21) study will address an unmet need among preteen youths and their African-American mothers who abuse crack cocaine. The strong link between adolescent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors makes adolescent children of ..
  36. PEER INTERVENTION EFFECT ON HIV RISK IN DRUG USING WOMEN
    Judith Cohen; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..including women of all racial groups, sex workers, IV drug users, women who use drugs such as alcohol and crack cocaine but do not inject drugs, as well as women with sexual partners with known high risk behavior of HIV infection ..
  37. An Educational Intervention for Older Crack Users
    Wendell Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of HIV risks factors which are specific to middle-aged and older African American male and female users of crack cocaine, and; 2) demonstrate the effectiveness of an age- specific outreach intervention designed to gain access to ..
  38. AN ETHNOGRAPHY--DRUG USE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN
    Emma Brown; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The escalation of crack cocaine-related problems has compounded drug abuse problems among African American populations...
  39. NOVEL NEUROREGULATION OF CRACK DEPENDENCE
    Frank Gawin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..but definitively investigate a new neurochemical avenue to help combat the decimation created by dependence on crack cocaine smoking...
  40. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF CRACK COCAINES CARDIAC TOXICITY
    James Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: Applicant's Abstract Cocaine and crack cocaine abuse have been reported to produce clinically significant cardiac depression, which in some patients may present as acute heart failure with cardiogenic pulmonary edema...
  41. DUAL DIAGNOSIS ADHERENCE STRATEGIES
    Dennis Daley; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..It builds on our work in an open dual diagnosis treatment clinic and will complement, not conflict with, the aims of our NlDA cocaine collaborative study. ..
  42. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF DRUG CRAVING IN COCAINE ADDICTION
    Clinton Kilts; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..specific aims: Specific aim #1 would compare the neural correlates of human drug craving associated with crack cocaine versus nicotine dependence...
  43. PATHWAYS TO HIGH RISK DRUG ABUSE AMONG URBAN YOUTH
    Jean Schensul; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..with two populations (in-school youth at risk for substance abuse and other risks; and injection drug and crack cocaine users), have not yet reached very high risk youth in the target age group, especially in smaller urban areas...
  44. Biobehavioral Heterogeneity of Crack Cocaine Dependence
    Leslie Prichep; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Application of new mathematical algorithms will permit identification of the most probable neuroanatomical sources generating the QEEG, which may improve understanding of underlying mechanisms and help target new medications. ..
  45. WOMEN CENTERED HIV RISK REDUCTION RESEARCH STUDY
    Sally Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The study will enroll an ethnically diverse sample of out-of-treatment female injection drug users (IDUs), crack cocaine users (CcUs) and drug and non-drug using female sexual partners of injection drug users (FsPs)...
  46. Situational Adaptations to Katrina and HIV Risk
    Michael Clatts; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable]..
  47. BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR CRACK COCAINE DEPENDENT
    PRINCE SMITH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Intensive analysis of the sample 1 data, aided by extrapolation from sample 2, will emphasize index construction and hypothesis testing to achieve the study's specific aims. ..
  48. Risk Factors in the Relationship between Gender and Crack Cocaine
    Elizabeth Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. HEPATITIS C VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN CRACK COCAINE SMOKERS
    Brian Edlin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) on reposited serum from a large epidemiologic study of young adult crack cocaine smokers and nonsmokers, in order to answer questions about the epidemiology and non-parental modes of ..
  50. PTSD TREATMENT OUTCOMES FOR COCAINE DEPENDENT WOMEN
    Denise Hien; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  51. HIV GENDER- SPECIFIC INTERVENTION FOR AT- RISK WOMEN
    Claire Sterk; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..interventions will be developed for three comparison groups of women: (1) injection drug users, (2) crack cocaine users, and (3) non-using sex partners of male injection users...
  52. Anxiety Vulnerabilities in Heroin Users
    Autumn Paulson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. WOMEN DRUG USERS, THEIR MALE PARTNERS AND HIV RISK
    Stephanie Tortu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Results of this project will be used to develop interventions targeted at drug using couples to reduce HIV risk behaviors and assist those who are living with HIV. ..
  54. TASTE CUES IN MORPHINE CONDITIONING
    MICHAEL BARDO; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Similarly, crack cocaine may become associated to the odor cues occurring with the inhalation process, as well as with distinct visual ..
  55. PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES OF SMOKED SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    Donald Tashkin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..the first national conference focused specifically on the pulmonary and immune consequences of marijuana and crack cocaine, which, after tobacco, are the second and third most commonly smoked substances in our society...
  56. REDUCING HIV RISK IN DRUG ABUSING YOUTH
    Jessy Devieux; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..AIM 3 is to evaluate if drug abuse (particularly crack cocaine) may mediate the relationships between our interventions and HIV risk outcome...
  57. Couples HIV Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial
    James McMahon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Incremental cost-effectiveness analyses will also be performed. ..
  58. THEORY BASED HIV SEXUAL RISK REDUCTION FOR DRUG USERS
    Fen Rhodes; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will focus on developing and implementing theoretically derived sexual risk-reduction interventions targeting crack cocaine users who are not in drug treatment...
  59. Impulsivity Processes Underlying Drug Choice/Sexual Risk
    Marina Bornovalova; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. Global changes in gene expression during sensitization
    KEVIN LEASE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results of these studies should shed light on the molecular basis of sensitization to drugs of abuse. This information could lead to new pharmacological targets for treatment of drug addiction. ..
  61. A GENETIC STUDY OF DROSOPHILA RESPONSES TO COCAINE
    ROLAND BAINTON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our genetic analysis should yield tools for the study of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that underlie stimulant induced responses. ..
  62. WOMEN DRUG USERS, AIDS, AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
    Stephanie Tortu; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Informed by information gained in this study, an advisory group will be convened to develop recommendations for risk reduction strategies for women drug users. ..