placebos

Summary

Summary: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Validating a new non-penetrating sham acupuncture device: two randomised controlled trials
    Jongbae Park
    Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
    Acupunct Med 20:168-74. 2002
  2. pmc A randomized placebo-controlled trial of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women in the context of insecticide treated nets delivered through the antenatal clinic
    Clara Menendez
    Barcelona Center for International Health Research CRESIB and Department of Pathology Hospital Clinic, Institut d Investigacions Biomedicas August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS ONE 3:e1934. 2008
  3. ncbi Comparison of the effect of denosumab and alendronate on BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized, blinded, phase 3 trial
    Jacques P Brown
    Laval University, Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    J Bone Miner Res 24:153-61. 2009
  4. ncbi Placebo and opioid analgesia-- imaging a shared neuronal network
    Predrag Petrovic
    Cognitive Neurophysiology Research Group, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 76, Sweden, Pain Clinic, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, Finland
    Science 295:1737-40. 2002
  5. pmc Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments
    Ted J Kaptchuk
    Osher Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215 USA
    BMJ 332:391-7. 2006
  6. pmc Sodium-glucose cotransport inhibition with dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetes
    James F List
    Global Clinical Research, Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:650-7. 2009
  7. pmc How placebos change the patient's brain
    Fabrizio Benedetti
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:339-54. 2011
  8. pmc Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects
    Damien G Finniss
    University of Sydney Pain Management and Research Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia
    Lancet 375:686-95. 2010
  9. ncbi What's in placebos: who knows? Analysis of randomized, controlled trials
    Beatrice A Golomb
    University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA
    Ann Intern Med 153:532-5. 2010
  10. pmc Neurobiological mechanisms of placebo responses
    Jon Kar Zubieta
    Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1156:198-210. 2009

Detail Information

Publications301 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Validating a new non-penetrating sham acupuncture device: two randomised controlled trials
    Jongbae Park
    Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
    Acupunct Med 20:168-74. 2002
    ..It is therefore a valid control for acupuncture trials. The findings also lend support to the existence of de qi, a major concept underlying traditional Chinese acupuncture...
  2. pmc A randomized placebo-controlled trial of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women in the context of insecticide treated nets delivered through the antenatal clinic
    Clara Menendez
    Barcelona Center for International Health Research CRESIB and Department of Pathology Hospital Clinic, Institut d Investigacions Biomedicas August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS ONE 3:e1934. 2008
    ..Current recommendations to prevent malaria in African pregnant women rely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). However, there is no information on the safety and efficacy of their combined use...
  3. ncbi Comparison of the effect of denosumab and alendronate on BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: a randomized, blinded, phase 3 trial
    Jacques P Brown
    Laval University, Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    J Bone Miner Res 24:153-61. 2009
    ..Denosumab showed significantly larger gains in BMD and greater reduction in bone turnover markers compared with alendronate. The overall safety profile was similar for both treatments...
  4. ncbi Placebo and opioid analgesia-- imaging a shared neuronal network
    Predrag Petrovic
    Cognitive Neurophysiology Research Group, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 76, Sweden, Pain Clinic, Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, Finland
    Science 295:1737-40. 2002
    ..These findings indicate a related neural mechanism in placebo and opioid analgesia...
  5. pmc Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments
    Ted J Kaptchuk
    Osher Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215 USA
    BMJ 332:391-7. 2006
    ..To investigate whether a sham device (a validated sham acupuncture needle) has a greater placebo effect than an inert pill in patients with persistent arm pain...
  6. pmc Sodium-glucose cotransport inhibition with dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetes
    James F List
    Global Clinical Research, Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:650-7. 2009
    ..In this multiple-dose study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients...
  7. pmc How placebos change the patient's brain
    Fabrizio Benedetti
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin Medical School, Turin, Italy
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:339-54. 2011
    Although placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, today they represent an active and productive field of research and, because of the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually ..
  8. pmc Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects
    Damien G Finniss
    University of Sydney Pain Management and Research Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, Australia
    Lancet 375:686-95. 2010
    For many years, placebos have been defined by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice...
  9. ncbi What's in placebos: who knows? Analysis of randomized, controlled trials
    Beatrice A Golomb
    University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA
    Ann Intern Med 153:532-5. 2010
    No regulations govern placebo composition. The composition of placebos can influence trial outcomes and merits reporting.
  10. pmc Neurobiological mechanisms of placebo responses
    Jon Kar Zubieta
    Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1156:198-210. 2009
    ..These data confirm that specific neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems respond to the expectation of benefit during placebo administration, inducing measurable physiological changes...
  11. pmc Active albuterol or placebo, sham acupuncture, or no intervention in asthma
    Michael E Wechsler
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:119-26. 2011
    ..We compared the effects of a bronchodilator, two placebo interventions, and no intervention on outcomes in patients with asthma...
  12. ncbi Psychophysical outcomes from a randomized pilot study of manual, electro, and sham acupuncture treatment on experimentally induced thermal pain
    Jian Kong
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA
    J Pain 6:55-64. 2005
    ..This suggests that attributes of the deqi sensation may be useful clinical indicators of effective treatment...
  13. pmc Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome
    Ted J Kaptchuk
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15591. 2010
    ..We tested whether open-label placebo (non-deceptive and non-concealed administration) is superior to a no-treatment control with matched patient-provider interactions in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
  14. pmc A study of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving high doses of insulin plus insulin sensitizers: applicability of a novel insulin-independent treatment
    John P H Wilding
    University of Liverpool, School of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool, England
    Diabetes Care 32:1656-62. 2009
    ..To determine whether dapagliflozin, which selectively inhibits renal glucose reabsorption, lowers hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes that is poorly controlled with high insulin doses plus oral antidiabetic agents (OADs)...
  15. ncbi Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture
    Jérémie Pariente
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3BG London, UK
    Neuroimage 25:1161-7. 2005
    ..These results suggest that real acupuncture has a specific physiological effect and that patients' expectation and belief regarding a potentially beneficial treatment modulate activity in component areas of the reward system...
  16. ncbi Placebo use in clinical practice: report of the American Medical Association Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
    Nathan A Bostick
    American Medical Association, Chicago, USA
    J Clin Ethics 19:58-61. 2008
  17. pmc A randomized controlled trial of chloroquine for the treatment of dengue in Vietnamese adults
    Vianney Tricou
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e785. 2010
    ..There is currently no licensed antiviral drug for treatment of dengue. Chloroquine (CQ) inhibits the replication of dengue virus (DENV) in vitro...
  18. ncbi Widespread use of pure and impure placebo interventions by GPs in Germany
    Karin Meissner
    Institute of Medical Psychology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Goethestrasse 31, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Fam Pract 29:79-85. 2012
    ..To collect data on the use of placebo interventions by GPs in Germany...
  19. pmc Frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice--a systematic review of empirical studies
    Margrit Fässler
    Institute of Biomedical Ethics, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    BMC Med 8:15. 2010
    ..Little is known about the frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice. Our aim was to summarize the available empirical studies addressing these issues...
  20. pmc Prescribing "placebo treatments": results of national survey of US internists and rheumatologists
    Jon C Tilburt
    Department of Bioethics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    BMJ 337:a1938. 2008
    ..To describe the attitudes and behaviours regarding placebo treatments, defined as a treatment whose benefits derive from positive patient expectations and not from the physiological mechanism of the treatment itself...
  21. pmc Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of anaemia and malaria in Ghanaian children: a randomized, placebo controlled trial
    Margaret Kweku
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 3:e4000. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi Safety and pharmacodynamics of rontalizumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a phase I, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation study
    Jacqueline M McBride
    Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 64:3666-76. 2012
    ..The present report describes the safety results and the impact of rontalizumab on expression of IRGs, IFN-inducible proteins, and autoantibodies...
  23. ncbi A double-blind, randomized study of minocycline for the treatment of negative and cognitive symptoms in early-phase schizophrenia
    Yechiel Levkovitz
    The Emotion Cognition Research Center, The Shalvata Mental Health Care Center, P O B 94 Hod Hasharon, Israel
    J Clin Psychiatry 71:138-49. 2010
    ..Other proposed mechanisms of action include effects of minocycline on the dopaminergic system and its inhibition of microglial activation...
  24. ncbi Intrastriatal transplantation of microcarrier-bound human retinal pigment epithelial cells versus sham surgery in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial
    Robert E Gross
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Lancet Neurol 10:509-19. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of transplantation of microcarrier-bound human RPE cells versus a sham surgery control in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease...
  25. ncbi Antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer in healthy subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial
    Hyeong Geug Kim
    Liver and Immunology Research Center, Daejeon Oriental Hospital of Oriental Medical Collage of Daejeon University, 22 5 Daehung dong, Jung Gu, Daejeon 301 724, South Korea
    Food Chem Toxicol 49:2229-35. 2011
    ..ginseng was shown to have antioxidant property. It enhanced the antioxidant defense mechanism in healthy populations and the results may reinforce the use of P. ginseng as a potential antioxidant supplement...
  26. pmc Effect of praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy on immune responses to schistosome antigens among the offspring: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial
    Robert Tweyongyere
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 11:234. 2011
    ..Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosts maternal immune responses to schistosome antigens and reduces worm burden. Effects of praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on responses among offspring are unknown...
  27. ncbi Safety and pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir at standard and high dosages
    R Dutkowski
    Hoffmann La Roche Inc, Nutley, NJ, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:461-7. 2010
    ..Possible clinical benefit in severe influenza infections could be investigated at dosages higher than those currently recommended...
  28. ncbi Oral diindolylmethane (DIM): pilot evaluation of a nonsurgical treatment for cervical dysplasia
    Giuseppe Del Priore
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Dept of Ob Gyn, Div Gyn Oncology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5149, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 116:464-7. 2010
    ..Standard surgical treatment for CIN may impair fertility generating a need for alternative treatment options. We tested the efficacy and toxicity of oral DIM in the treatment of CIN 2 or 3 lesions...
  29. ncbi Efficacy and tolerability of extended release quetiapine fumarate monotherapy as maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Michael Liebowitz
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10128, USA
    Depress Anxiety 27:964-76. 2010
    ..evaluate the efficacy (time to recurrence of depressive symptoms) of once daily extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) as maintenance monotherapy treatment to prevent relapse for major depressive disorder (MDD)...
  30. ncbi Usefulness of vernakalant hydrochloride injection for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation
    Craig M Pratt
    Department of Cardiology, Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas, USA
    Am J Cardiol 106:1277-83. 2010
    ..In conclusion, vernakalant demonstrated a rapid and high rate of conversion for short-duration AF and was well tolerated...
  31. pmc Efficacy and safety comparison of liraglutide, glimepiride, and placebo, all in combination with metformin, in type 2 diabetes: the LEAD (liraglutide effect and action in diabetes)-2 study
    Michael Nauck
    Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg, Harz, Germany
    Diabetes Care 32:84-90. 2009
    ..The efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) to metformin were compared with addition of placebo or glimepiride to metformin in subjects previously treated with oral antidiabetes (OAD) therapy...
  32. ncbi Placebo response in the prophylaxis of migraine: a meta-analysis
    Ana Macedo
    Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Valles, Spain
    Eur J Pain 12:68-75. 2008
    ..Migraine constitutes a good model for the study of placebo response. It is a well-defined disease, affects a large population and a great number of clinical trials have been performed, which have given homogeneous outcomes...
  33. pmc Experimental hookworm infection: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in asthma
    J R Feary
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:299-306. 2010
    ..We now report the first clinical trial of experimental hookworm infection in people with allergic asthma...
  34. ncbi Placebo: new insights into an old enigma
    Edzard Ernst
    Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter, EX2 4NT, UK
    Drug Discov Today 12:413-8. 2007
    ..This article reviews new research on the mechanisms of placebo effects, discusses the role of placebos in clinical trials and explores the place of placebo in clinical practice...
  35. ncbi Intranasal oxytocin increases positive communication and reduces cortisol levels during couple conflict
    Beate Ditzen
    Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Biol Psychiatry 65:728-31. 2009
    ..However, to date there have been no studies investigating the effects of central oxytocin mechanisms on behavior and physiology in human couple interaction...
  36. pmc Personality change during depression treatment: a placebo-controlled trial
    Tony Z Tang
    Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:1322-30. 2009
    ..High neuroticism is a personality risk factor that reflects much of the genetic vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD), and low extraversion may increase risk as well. Both have been linked to the serotonin system...
  37. pmc An fMRI study on the interaction and dissociation between expectation of pain relief and acupuncture treatment
    Jian Kong
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 47:1066-76. 2009
    ..We hypothesize that as a peripheral-central modulation, acupuncture needle stimulation may inhibit incoming noxious stimuli; while as a top-down modulation, expectancy (placebo) may work through the emotional circuit...
  38. pmc Surgical "placebo" controls
    Robert Tenery
    Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois 60610, USA
    Ann Surg 235:303-7. 2002
    ..To set ethical guidelines on the use of surgical placebo controls in the design of surgical trials...
  39. ncbi Ethical framework for the use of sham procedures in clinical trials
    Sam Horng
    Department of Clinical Bioethics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1156, USA
    Crit Care Med 31:S126-30. 2003
    ....
  40. pmc Use of placebo interventions among Swiss primary care providers
    Margrit Fässler
    Institute of Biomedical Ethics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    BMC Health Serv Res 9:144. 2009
    ..We aimed to investigate to what extent and in which way Swiss primary care providers use placebo interventions. Furthermore we explored their ideas about the ethical and legal issues involved...
  41. ncbi Placebos that harm: sham surgery controls in clinical trials
    Alex John London
    Department of Philosophy and Centre for the Advancement of Applied Ethics, Carnegie Mellon University, 135 Bakes Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Stat Methods Med Res 11:413-27. 2002
    ..As a result, our arguments are centrally relevant to the emerging drive to subject therapies with a surgical component to the same rigorous standards of evaluation as those governing the approval of new pharmaceuticals...
  42. ncbi Measurement of symptoms, lung hyperinflation, and endurance during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    D E O'Donnell
    Respiratory Investigation Unit, Departments of Medicine, and Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1557-65. 1998
    ..35, p < 0.001). We concluded that Borg dyspnea ratings, and measurements of IC and endurance time during submaximal cycle exercise testing are highly reproducible and responsive to change in severe COPD...
  43. pmc Traditional Chinese acupuncture and placebo (sham) acupuncture are differentiated by their effects on mu-opioid receptors (MORs)
    Richard E Harris
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Neuroimage 47:1077-85. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that divergent MOR processes may mediate clinically relevant analgesic effects for acupuncture and sham acupuncture...
  44. ncbi Efficacy of pramipexole and transdermal rotigotine in advanced Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial
    Werner H Poewe
    Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Lancet Neurol 6:513-20. 2007
    ....
  45. ncbi Getting the pain you expect: mechanisms of placebo, nocebo and reappraisal effects in humans
    Irene Tracey
    Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics and Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Nat Med 16:1277-83. 2010
    ..The findings have relevance for chronic pain states and other disorders, where abnormal functioning of crucial brain regions might affect analgesic outcome even in the normal therapeutic setting...
  46. ncbi Meta-analysis: factors affecting placebo response rate in the irritable bowel syndrome
    A C Ford
    Department of Academic Medicine, St James s University Hospital, Leeds, UK
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:144-58. 2010
    ..Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a significant placebo response...
  47. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
    Matteo Monami
    Unit of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Florence and Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi, Florence, Italy
    Eur J Endocrinol 160:909-17. 2009
    ..The role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is debated; many recent trials, which were not included in previous meta-analyses, could add relevant information...
  48. pmc High dose atorvastatin decreases cellular markers of immune activation without affecting HIV-1 RNA levels: results of a double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial
    Anuradha Ganesan
    Division of Infectious Diseases, National Naval Medical Center, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:756-64. 2011
    ..Studies evaluating the antiviral activity of statins have yielded conflicting results...
  49. ncbi Morning light treatment hastens the antidepressant effect of citalopram: a placebo-controlled trial
    Francesco Benedetti
    Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatric Sciences, Milano, Italy
    J Clin Psychiatry 64:648-53. 2003
    ..The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of morning light therapy or placebo combined with citalopram in the treatment of patients affected by a major depressive episode without psychotic features...
  50. ncbi Acute ingestion of resistant starch reduces food intake in healthy adults
    Caroline L Bodinham
    Diabetes and Endocrinology, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7WG, UK
    Br J Nutr 103:917-22. 2010
    ..059). These results suggest that consumption of 48 g RS, over a 24-h period, may be useful in the management of the metabolic syndrome and appetite. Further studies are required to determine the exact mechanisms...
  51. ncbi The placebo needle, is it a valid and convincing placebo for use in acupuncture trials? A randomised, single-blind, cross-over pilot trial
    Peter White
    Complementary Medicine Research Unit, Mail Point OPH, Royal South Hants Hospital, University of Southampton, Brintons Terrace, Southampton, UK
    Pain 106:401-9. 2003
    ..Further work on inter-tester reliability and standardisation of technique is highly recommended before we can be confident about using this needle in further studies...
  52. pmc Nightly treatment of primary insomnia with prolonged release melatonin for 6 months: a randomized placebo controlled trial on age and endogenous melatonin as predictors of efficacy and safety
    Alan G Wade
    CPS Research, Glasgow, UK
    BMC Med 8:51. 2010
    ....
  53. pmc Academic physicians use placebos in clinical practice and believe in the mind-body connection
    Rachel Sherman
    University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 23:7-10. 2008
    The placebo and the placebo effect are often investigated in the context of clinical trials. Little data exist on the use of placebos in the course of routine health care.
  54. ncbi Long-term stimulant treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    C Gillberg
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Goteborg, Sweden
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 54:857-64. 1997
    ..We wanted to study the effects of amphetamine on symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over a longer period than has been reported in previous studies of central stimulants in this condition...
  55. pmc Prevention of symptomatic seasonal influenza in 2005-2006 by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines
    Suzanne E Ohmit
    University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:312-7. 2008
    ....
  56. ncbi Psychiatric adverse events in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of varenicline: a pooled analysis
    Serena Tonstad
    Department of Preventive Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ulleval, Oslo, Norway
    Drug Saf 33:289-301. 2010
    ..In postmarketing surveillance, neuropsychiatric symptoms have appeared; however, their incidence and causal relationship to varenicline is not known...
  57. ncbi The placebo effect and its determinants in osteoarthritis: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    W Zhang
    Academic Rheumatology, University of Nottingham, Clinical Sciences Building, City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:1716-23. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine: linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis
    Philip R Corlett
    Brain Mapping Unit, Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:611-21. 2006
    ..Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis...
  59. pmc Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in Tanzanian infants
    Matthew Cairns
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e9467. 2010
    ..This study investigated how protection against malaria given by SP, chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) and mefloquine (MQ), varied with time since administration of IPTi...
  60. pmc Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance
    Aimee E van Dijk
    Department of Health Sciences, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Diabetes Care 32:1023-5. 2009
    ..Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance...
  61. ncbi Advanced Parkinson disease treated with rotigotine transdermal system: PREFER Study
    Peter A LeWitt
    Clinical Neuroscience Center, Southfield, MI 48034, USA
    Neurology 68:1262-7. 2007
    ..In patients experiencing motor fluctuations, a major treatment challenge is the reduction of "off" time, particularly upon awakening. Rotigotine (Neupro) is a novel dopaminergic agonist with 24-hour transdermal delivery...
  62. ncbi Medical and neurological complications of ischemic stroke: experience from the RANTTAS trial. RANTTAS Investigators
    K C Johnston
    Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA
    Stroke 29:447-53. 1998
    ..Our objective was to identify the types, severity, and frequency of medical and neurological complications following acute ischemic stroke and to determine their role in mortality and functional outcome...
  63. ncbi Credibility of a newly designed placebo needle for clinical trials in acupuncture research
    M Fink
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hannover Medical School
    Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 8:368-72. 2001
    ..To test the credibility of a newly designed placebo needle for acupuncture research...
  64. ncbi Controlled trial of high-concentration capsaicin patch for treatment of painful HIV neuropathy
    David M Simpson
    Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratories and Neuro AIDS Program, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Neurology 70:2305-13. 2008
    ..Capsaicin desensitizes cutaneous nociceptors resulting in reduced pain. We report a placebo-controlled study of a high-concentration capsaicin dermal patch (NGX-4010) for the treatment of painful HIV-DSP...
  65. pmc Effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of acute major depression in adults: a systematic re-examination of published and unpublished data from randomized trials
    Corrado Barbui
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Section of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
    CMAJ 178:296-305. 2008
    ..We undertook a systematic review of published and unpublished clinical trial data to determine the effectiveness and acceptability of paroxetine...
  66. ncbi Effects of testosterone on sexual function in men: results of a meta-analysis
    Andrea M Isidori
    Cattedra di Andrologia, Universita La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63:381-94. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effects of T on the different domains of sexual life...
  67. ncbi High-dose thiamine therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study
    N Rabbani
    Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, University Hospital, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
    Diabetologia 52:208-12. 2009
    ..The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether oral supplements of thiamine could reverse microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  68. ncbi Effects of isoflavone and exercise on BMD and fat mass in postmenopausal Japanese women: a 1-year randomized placebo-controlled trial
    Jian Wu
    Division of Applied Food Research, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan
    J Bone Miner Res 21:780-9. 2006
    ..The combined intervention of isoflavone intake and walking exercise over 1 year in postmenopausal Japanese women exhibited a trend for a greater effect on prevention of bone loss at the total hip and Ward's triangle regions...
  69. ncbi Comparative and interactive human psychopharmacologic effects of ketamine and amphetamine: implications for glutamatergic and dopaminergic model psychoses and cognitive function
    John H Krystal
    Department of Psychiatry and Division of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06516, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:985-94. 2005
    ..Studying the comparative and interactive effects of these agents may provide insights into the roles of the glutamate and monoamine systems in psychosis and cognition...
  70. ncbi Vernakalant hydrochloride for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation: a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Denis Roy
    Montreal Heart Institute, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Circulation 117:1518-25. 2008
    ..The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride (RSD1235), a novel compound, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF)...
  71. ncbi Comparative cell-mediated immunogenicity of DNA/DNA, DNA/adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), or Ad5/Ad5 HIV-1 clade B gag vaccine prime-boost regimens
    David M Asmuth
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95618, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:132-41. 2010
    ..We report composite results from the Merck phase I program of near-consensus clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gag vaccines...
  72. ncbi Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial up to 6.4 years
    B Romanowski
    University of Alberta, 1000 8215 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2C8
    Lancet 374:1975-85. 2009
    ..Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have to provide sustained protection. We assessed efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine up to 6.4 years...
  73. ncbi Intranasal insulin reduces body fat in men but not in women
    Manfred Hallschmid
    Institute of Neuroendocrinology, University of Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Haus 23a, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Diabetes 53:3024-9. 2004
    ..Our results provide a strong, first confirmation in humans that insulin acts as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of adiposity and point to a differential sensitivity to the catabolic effects of insulin based on sex...
  74. ncbi Recombinant methionyl human leptin therapy in replacement doses improves insulin resistance and metabolic profile in patients with lipoatrophy and metabolic syndrome induced by the highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jennifer H Lee
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Stoneman 816, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2605-11. 2006
    ..A subset of patients with predominant lipoatrophy has low levels of the adipocyte-secreted hormone leptin...
  75. pmc Random allocation software for parallel group randomized trials
    Mahmood Saghaei
    Department of Anaesthesia, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    BMC Med Res Methodol 4:26. 2004
    ....
  76. pmc Scientific tools, fake treatments, or triggers for psychological healing: how clinical trial participants conceptualise placebos
    Felicity L Bishop
    University of Southampton School of Medicine, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 5ST, United Kingdom
    Soc Sci Med 74:767-74. 2012
    b>Placebos are an essential tool in randomised clinical trials, where they are used to control for bias and contextual healing effects...
  77. pmc Placebo conditioning and placebo analgesia modulate a common brain network during pain anticipation and perception
    Alison Watson
    Human Pain Research Group, University of Manchester Rheumatic Diseases Centre, Hope Hospital, Salford M6 8HD, UK
    Pain 145:24-30. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that the main effect of placebo arises from the reduction of anticipation of pain during placebo conditioning that is subsequently maintained during placebo analgesia...
  78. pmc Questionnaire survey on use of placebo
    Uriel Nitzan
    Herzog Hospital and Hadassah School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, POB 35300, Jerusalem 91351, Israel
    BMJ 329:944-6. 2004
    ..To gauge the frequency and circumstances of use of placebo in clinical practice and the attitudes towards its use among those who administer it...
  79. pmc Is it always unethical to use a placebo in a clinical trial?
    Andreas Stang
    Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometry, and Informatics at the Medical Faculty of the Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany
    PLoS Med 2:e72. 2005
    b>Placebos are used in trials to conceal whether a treatment is being given or not and hence to control for the psychosomatic effects of offering treatment. Placebo-controlled trials are controversial...
  80. ncbi Continuation of quetiapine versus switching to placebo or lithium for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder (Trial 144: a randomized controlled study)
    Richard H Weisler
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 72:1452-64. 2011
    ..This study investigated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine monotherapy as maintenance treatment in bipolar I disorder compared with switching to placebo or lithium...
  81. ncbi Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease
    R de la Fuente-Fernandez
    Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, TRIUMF, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2B5
    Science 293:1164-6. 2001
    The power of placebos has long been recognized for improving numerous medical conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known, however, about the mechanism underlying the placebo effect...
  82. ncbi Changes in morphine analgesia and side effects during daily subcutaneous administration in healthy volunteers
    Karin Lottrup Petersen
    Department of Neurology, UCSF Pain Clinical Research Center, University of San Francisco, CA, USA
    Pain 137:395-404. 2008
    ..As 4 days is the threshold for demonstrating analgesic tolerance to twice-daily morphine in animal models, a longer period of opioid exposure in healthy volunteers might be needed to detect analgesic tolerance...
  83. ncbi Effectiveness of laser in dentinal hypersensitivity treatment: a systematic review
    Fabrizio Sgolastra
    Department of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of L Aquila, L Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
    J Endod 37:297-303. 2011
    ..The secondary aim was to survey the literature regarding laser treatment safety...
  84. pmc Homeopathy for depression--DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study
    Ubiratan C Adler
    Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics Charité University Medical Center D 10098 Berlin, Germany
    Trials 12:43. 2011
    ..e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history...
  85. ncbi Placebo effect in the acute treatment of migraine: subcutaneous placebos are better than oral placebos
    A J de Craen
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurol 247:183-8. 2000
    ..The interpreting of placebo-controlled trial results must therefore consider that the effect in the drug arm of the trial depends in part on the route of administration...
  86. ncbi Family physicians believe the placebo effect is therapeutic but often use real drugs as placebos
    Rachel Kermen
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, USA
    Fam Med 42:636-42. 2010
    Few national data exist on physicians' use of and beliefs about placebos in routine health care.
  87. pmc Placebo acupuncture as a form of ritual touch healing: a neurophenomenological model
    Catherine E Kerr
    Osher Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, United States
    Conscious Cogn 20:784-91. 2011
    ..The conclusion offers a "neurophenomenological" account of the placebo effect by considering dynamic effects of attentional filtering on early sensory cortices, possibly underlying the phenomenology of placebo acupuncture...
  88. ncbi Sustained immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: up to 8.4 years of follow-up
    Cecilia M Roteli-Martins
    Hospital Leonor Mendes de Barros Secretaria da Saúde de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 8:390-7. 2012
    ..The safety profile was clinically acceptable for both vaccine and control groups. This is, to date, the longest follow-up study for a licensed cervical cancer vaccine...
  89. ncbi A duty to deceive: placebos in clinical practice
    Bennett Foddy
    Center for Human Values, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Am J Bioeth 9:4-12. 2009
    ..Although placebos can be shown to be always safe, often effective, and sometimes necessary, doctors are now effectively prohibited ..
  90. ncbi Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women
    Henry G Bone
    Michigan Bone and Mineral Clinic, 22201 Moross Road, Detroit, MI 48236, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2149-57. 2008
    ..Denosumab is an investigational fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand, a mediator of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast survival...
  91. ncbi Reversal of primary root caries lesions after daily intake of milk supplemented with fluoride and probiotic lactobacilli in older adults
    Lars G Petersson
    Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Maxillofacial Unit, County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden
    Acta Odontol Scand 69:321-7. 2011
    ..To evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with fluoride and/or probiotic bacteria on primary root caries lesions (PRCL) in older adults...
  92. ncbi Probiotics in infancy induce protective immune profiles that are characteristic for chronic low-grade inflammation
    E Marschan
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:611-8. 2008
    ..Probiotics are widely studied both in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases, but their mode of action is poorly known...
  93. pmc Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT
    Norbert Salih
    Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    BMC Complement Altern Med 10:81. 2010
    ..Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results...
  94. pmc Placebo effect studies are susceptible to response bias and to other types of biases
    Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
    The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Epidemiol 64:1223-9. 2011
    ..The history of placebo shows that assessment of its clinical significance has a real potential to be biased. We analyze and discuss typical types of bias in studies on placebo...
  95. ncbi Efficacy of inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine against culture-confirmed influenza in healthy adults: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Jiri Beran
    The Vaccination and Travel Medicine Center, University Hospital, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
    J Infect Dis 200:1861-9. 2009
    ..A new trivalent inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine (TIV) was recently introduced in the United States. We assessed the efficacy of TIV against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B...
  96. pmc Placebo interventions in practice: a questionnaire survey on the attitudes of patients and physicians
    Margrit Fässler
    Institute of Biomedical Ethics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Br J Gen Pract 61:101-7. 2011
    ..Few studies have investigated whether patients and physicians differ in their attitudes regarding placebo interventions in medical practice...
  97. ncbi The efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine against influenza-associated acute otitis media in children
    Stan L Block
    Kentucky Pediatric and Adult Research, Bardstown, KY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:203-7. 2011
    ..LAIV is approved for eligible children aged ≥ 2 years in the United States and in several other countries...
  98. ncbi What do we really know about the deliberate use of placebos in clinical practice?
    Pekka Louhiala
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Vuorikatu 17 as 3, Hämeenlinna 13100, Finland
    J Med Ethics 38:403-5. 2012
    ..of the concepts 'placebo' and 'placebo effect' in 12 empirical studies that have addressed the prescription of placebos by doctors in clinical practice...
  99. pmc Factors associated with viral rebound in HIV-1-infected individuals enrolled in a therapeutic HIV-1 gag vaccine trial
    Jonathan Z Li
    Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:976-83. 2011
    ..Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines directed to the cell-mediated immune system could have a role in lowering the plasma HIV-1 RNA set point, which may reduce infectivity and delay disease progression...
  100. ncbi Microbiological profiles in saliva and supragingival plaque from caries-active adolescents before and after a short-term daily intake of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria - a pilot study
    Michala Oron Lexner
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Oral Health Prev Dent 8:383-8. 2010
    ....

Research Grants63

  1. Lung VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (Lung VITAL)
    Diane R Gold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol;1600 IU [40 5g]/d) and fish oil (EPA [500 mg/d] + DHA [500 mg/d]) supplements (or placebos) independently...
  2. Phase III Study Comparing Albumin and Hetastarch Therapy in Acute Lung Injury
    Gregory S Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the greatest improvements in arterial oxygenation and systemic hemodynamics compared to treatment with dual placebos or furosemide alone...
  3. Omega 3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Diabetic Kidney Disease
    EDGAR RAYMOND MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in a crossover trial to four daily capsules of omega-3 fatty acid supplements or to identical appearing placebos (corn oil). Each participant will receive either a daily dose of 0, 0.9 or 3.6 g/day EPA+DHA ...
  4. Mechanism of Type I and II Caused Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction
    Firouz Daneshgari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Through this collaboration, the data generated from this proposal will provide Significant comprehensive insights into the pathogenesis of DBD and on potential therapeutic targets to prevent or treat DBD effectively. ..
  5. Randomized trial of inhaled nitric oxide to treat acute pulmonary embolism
    Jeffrey A Kline; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if NO+O2 corrects defective platelet oxidative metabolism associated with PE, and reduces release of CF DNA/RNA coincident with reduced clotting time and strength on thromboelastography. ..
  6. Effects of gastric bypass on the gut microbiota and energy balance
    Alice Liou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  7. VITamin D and omegA-3 triaL (VITAL)
    JOANN ELISABETH MANSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Willing and eligible respondents will be enrolled in a 3-month run-in, during which they will receive placebos. At the end of the run-in, those who remain willing and eligible, and who report having taken at least two-thirds ..
  8. Effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids on infectious diseases and hCAP18
    Carlos A Camargo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and continuing through July 2012, subjects will be enrolled in a 3-month run-in, during which they will receive placebos. At the end of the run-in, those who remain willing and eligible, and who report having taken at least two-thirds ..
  9. Interventions to Test the alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptor Model in Schizophrenia
    Stephen Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder will be randomly assigned to either combination treatment or placebos for both in a16 week trial...
  10. Phase 2 Study of CNTF on Photoreceptor Structure in Retinitis Pigmentosa
    JACQUE LYNNE DUNCAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The study will test the hypothesis that CNTF is safe and effective in preventing vision cell death and blindness in patients with inherited retinal degenerations. ..
  11. Maintenace rTMS for chronic tinnitus relief
    Mark S Mennemeier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We anticipate that these findings will support larger, multisite trials that can establish rTMS as a frst line treatment approach for tinnitus and gain FDA approval for this use. ..
  12. Predicting Placebo Responses Across Disease States
    Jon Kar Zubieta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Here we part from the usual view of placebos as inert control states...
  13. Long-term Comparative Effectiveness of Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment Strategies
    HAWRE JALAL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This evidence is primarily based on short-term randomized clinical trials (RCT) that compare biologics to placebos. Short-term comparative effectiveness evidence shows that biologics are more effective than non-biologics, but ..
  14. Conditioned Pharmacotherapeutic Effects in Hypertension
    JOHN DAVID BISOGNANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If we succeed in proving that patients can be treated with less drug by adding placebos to their regimen, it will have a very significant impact on the manner in which patients suffering from chronic ..
  15. Calpastatin overexpression as a therapeutic approach to traumatic brain injury
    KATHLEEN MARIE SCHOCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..My research aims will not only seek to establish a functional, neuroprotective role for calpastatin in brain trauma but also advance translational efforts for the treatment of brain injury. ..
  16. Neuroimaging Acupuncture Effects Brain Activity in Chronic low Back Pain
    Bruce R Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding the neural influence of somatosensation on acupuncture placebo effects will significantly impact our understanding of acupuncture and allow for development of more inert acupuncture placebos.
  17. Selective Cytopheresis Therapy in Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
    DEBORAH BUFFINGTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal may suggest a manner of altering the systemic inflammatory response and may lead to a new therapeutic approach to sepsis, SIRS and ARDS. ..
  18. Placebos as insights into intersections of pain and reward in a preclinical model
    JOHN K contact NEUBERT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In doing so, we will address the role that these effects have in determining the efficacy of drugs used in the treatment of pain, depression and addiction, in addition to uncovering the associated neurobiology. ..
  19. The neural bases of placebo effects and their relation to regulatory processes
    TOR DESSART WAGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include fundamental questions about a) the nature of the "pain-related" processes regulated by placebos (are they specific to pain, or general affective processes?) and b) the critical conditions required to create ..
  20. Analyzing Complex Healthcare Data to Determine Causality of Observed Drug Effects
    SEBASTIAN G SCHNEEWEISS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..how their effectiveness and safety compares with established alternatives, as new compounds are tested against placebos rather than active agents, and tested only in selected patients...
  21. HIV Microbicides and the Vaginal Microbiome
    Steven Zeichner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In some studies, patients using the microbicides had higher HIV transmission rates than did subjects using placebos. There is no clear explanation for these failures, but one hypothesis holds that microbicides alter the vaginal ..
  22. Statistical Modeling of Medication and Placebo Effects
    Robert L Stout; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..develop a statistical tool to shed light on how the time course of treatment outcome is affected by medications, placebos, and other relevant factors...
  23. POLYUNSATURATES AND KC1 TO CONTROL MILD HYPERTENSION
    Frank Sacks; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..for six months either 1) magnesium, 375mg, 2) potassium 60mmoles, 3) magnesium and potassium, or 4) matching placebos. To study the hypotensive mechanism of magnesium, changes in intracellular magnesium and free calcium will be ..
  24. HIV Microbicides and the Vaginal Microbiome
    Steven L Zeichner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In some studies, patients using the microbicides had higher HIV transmission rates than did subjects using placebos. There is no clear explanation for these failures, but one hypothesis holds that microbicides alter the vaginal ..
  25. Antioxidant Supplementation,Oxidative Stress & Enduranc*
    Maret Traber; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of four study groups: (1) placebos, (2) 1000 mg vitamin C (500 mg twice a day), (3) 400 IU vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate), or (4) both ..
  26. Homogeneous Transfer of Connexin 43 to Prevent Atrial Fibrillation in Pigs
    Hao Qin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..example, some drugs that decrease the occurrence of premature beats are associated with increased mortality than placebos. Ablation of rapidly depolarizing foci from pulmonary veins, although a practical solution for many drug ..
  27. BETA-CAROTENE/RETINAL CHEMOPREVENTION TRIAL IN ASBESTOS
    Mark Cullen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The double-blind two-arm randomized protocol compares placebos with a daily combination of 30mg beta- carotene plus 25,000 IU retinol...
  28. PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS OF CHILDREN WITH TOURETTES SYNDROME
    Floyd Sallee; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Pilot data show that at safe levels of intensity and frequency, decreased neuronal activity is evident at the stimulation site as well as a mirror site in the opposite hemisphere. ..
  29. Goal Activation, Expectations, and Placebo Analgesia
    ANDREW GEERS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A great deal of research indicates that placebos can have strong analgesic effects...
  30. Effects of Ginseng and Ginkgo on Drug Disposition in Man
    Aryeh Hurwitz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..groups of 15 each: 1) ginseng extract (Ginsana), 2) ginkgo extract (EGb761), 3) both herbs, or 4) matching placebos. Tolerability of herbs will be determined...
  31. CHEMOPREVENTION TRIAL BETA CAROTENE AND RETINOL
    John Balmes; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The double-blind two-arm randomized protocol compares placebos with a daily combination of 30 mg beta- carotene plus 25,000 IU retinol...
  32. Neurotherapy of fibromyalgia
    David Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This program of research may contribute to immediate clinical applications to reduce FM symptoms and to better understanding of mechanisms of FM. ..
  33. CHEMOPREVENTION OF LUNG CANCER--RETINOIDS/BETA-CAROTENE
    Barbara Valanis; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The double-blind two-arm randomized protocol compares placebos with a daily combination of 30 mg beta-carotene plus 25,000 IU retinol...
  34. PHASE IV CHEMOPREVENTION TRIAL BETA-CAROTENE/RETINOL
    James Keogh; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The double-blind, two- arm randomized protocol compares placebos with a daily combination of 30 mg beta-carotene plus 25,000 IU retinol...
  35. Effects of Massage on Immune System of Preterm Infants
    Jocelyn Ang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Data from this study could also impact future explorations on potential effects of MT on the immune responses to childhood vaccinations and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Conditioned Placebo Effects & Treatment of Hypertension
    Thomas Pickering; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The use of placebos is routine in trials of antihypertensive medication, but the placebo is nearly always given before the active ..
  37. Acupuncture/Reproductive Hormones/Ovulation/Polycystic
    Lisa Pastore; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g., normal insulin, smaller body mass index) are more responsive to acupuncture therapy. We will also compare enrollment strategies for population-based recruitment of women into an acupuncture clinical trial. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. R21 PROJECT--EFFICACY OF OSTEOPATHIC MANIPULATION IN COP
    DONALD NOLL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. ESTROGEN TREATMENT OF MOOD DISTURBANCES IN THE MENOPAUSE
    EDWARD KLAIBER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Estrogen treatment or placebos would be administered over five 28-day cycles...
  40. The Reliability of the Placebo Effect in Asthma
    Michael Wechsler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Placebos are commonly cited as improving signs and symptoms of a wide variety of human diseases both within clinical trials and, by implication, in actual clinical practice...
  41. Ethanol Interactions of the Melatonin Agonist PD6735
    Frank Zemlan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..All study medication and placebos will be identical in appearance, consistent with the double-blind study design...
  42. PRODUCTION ANALYSIS & DISTRIBUTION CANNABIS & MARIJUANA
    Mahmoud Elsohly; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The purpose of this contract is to obtain, prepare, test, and provide cannabis preparations of marijuana cigarettes of various strengths, placebos, and bulk marijuana to investigators in drug abuse and related research.
  43. RADIATION AND AMD PLANNING GRANT
    Stuart Fine; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Refine procedures for the AMDRT Coordinating Center, Reading Centers, and Radiological Physics Center; 4. Prepare grant applications for the AMDRT central resource centers and clinical centers. ..
  44. Interpersonal Perceptions and the Placebo/Nocebo Effect
    Carol Nemeroff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..There has been relatively little exploration thus far of how placebos/nocebos work in terms of mediating mechanisms or moderating factors...
  45. An Exploratory Study of Naltrexone Plus Aripiprazole for Alcohol Dependence
    Raymond Anton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..60 alcohol dependent individuals to receive either naltrexone, naltrexone plus aripiprazole, or their matching placebos over a 16-week treatment period...
  46. CONDITIONED DRUG EFFECTS: STEPS TOWARDS PRACTICAL USES
    Anthony Suchman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Conditioned" placebos might thus be substituted for a proportion of active drug doses, an advantageous strategy for drug treatment that ..
  47. PILOT STUDY OF SPINAL MANIPULATION FOR CHRONIC NECK PAIN
    Rand Swenson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  48. Massage for Treatment of Pain Advanced Cancer
    Barrie Cassileth; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..trial could be completed in less than two years, and if the 95 percent confidence interval for the difference between group means includes at least a 20 percent lower mean post-treatment pain score on massage than sham treatment ..
  49. COOPERATIVE CLINICAL TRIALS IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
    Donald Stablein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..used in the study, receiving, distributing, and labelling treatment devices, medications and placebos for the clinical trial and providing statistical analysis and reporting and contract monitoring based on interim ..
  50. Integrative Biology:The Brain, Inflammation/Asthma (RMI)
    Robert Rose; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of bronchoconstriction, central-peripheral communication in inflammation in asthma and in wound healing, and how placebos may modify autonomic and immune markers...
  51. DOXYCYCLINE FOR BLEEDING IN PROGESTIN ONLY CONTRACEPTORS
    David Archer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If successful, DOX treatment could become an important adjuvant for treatment of this and possibly other inflammatory disorders effecting reproductive tract tissues. ..
  52. Mechanistic bases for age-related androgen deficiency
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Knowing why testosterone falls should help foster new and safer ways to prevent the problem. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. ENSEMBLE MODEL OF STRESS ACTH-ADRENAL AXIS
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  54. THE AGING GH AXIS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..An enhanced knowledge base should aid ultimately in formulating more innovative preventive and interventional strategies to limit hyposomatotropism in older and/or estrogen-deficient humans. ..
  55. ACTIONS OF ESTROGEN IN MATURING GRAAFIAN FOLLICLES
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Understanding such fundamental interactions is important to the rational design of alternative strategies to interrupt normal and rescue impaired steroidogenesis in the maturing Graafian follicle and corpus luteum. ..
  56. Ensemble Disruption of the GnRH-LH-Testosterone Axis
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Expected corollary outcomes are enhanced diagnosis, assessment and management of more subtle pathophysiology of the male gonadal axis in puberty and adulthood. ..
  57. Novel Active Repressor Model of Human LDL-Receptor Regulation
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This would represent a new treatment approach for patients with atherosclerotic disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Analytical Reconstruction of Feedback Signaling in Aging Men
    Johannes Veldhuis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The present proposal develops a general biomathematical framework for dissecting otherwise observed pathways that control hormone output in aging, stress and disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. CANCER CHEMOPREVENTION--ROLE OF INFECTION/IMMUNITY
    Charles Loprinzi; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. Research Grants to Prevent Unintentional Injuries
    Jonathan Howland; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] Outcome Measures: Acute and residual driving impairment will be assessed using a driving simulator and[unreadable] an objective measure of sustained attention/reaction time, the Psychomotor Vioilance Test (PVT).[unreadable]..
  61. GABA Medications for Tobacco Addiction
    Mehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The findings of this study will provide valuable information to develop new pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. ..
  62. Therapeutic Placebos as Complementary Therapy in ADHD
    Adrian Sandler; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  63. Progestrone and the Effects of Nicotine
    Mehmet Sofuoglu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By characterizing the progesterone effects on nicotine dependence, this study may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms which mediate the sex and menstrual cycle phase effects on nicotine dependence. ..