pharmaceutical preservatives

Summary

Summary: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives
    Vickie L Timm-Knudson
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Dermatol Nurs 18:130-6. 2006
  2. ncbi Are multidose over-the-counter artificial tears adequately preserved?
    Colin Charnock
    Department of Health Sciences, Oslo University College, Oslo, Norway
    Cornea 25:432-7. 2006
  3. ncbi Travoprost 0.004% with and without benzalkonium chloride: a comparison of safety and efficacy
    Richard A Lewis
    Grutzmacher and Lewis, Inc, Sacramento, CA, USA
    J Glaucoma 16:98-103. 2007
  4. ncbi Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey
    Ayse Boyvat
    Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Ibni Sina Hastanesi, Samanpazari Ankara, Turkey
    Contact Dermatitis 52:329-32. 2005
  5. ncbi Preservatives sensitivity in Israel: a 10-year overview (1995-2004)
    Lilach Zoller
    Department of Dermatology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Contact Dermatitis 55:227-9. 2006
  6. ncbi Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system
    S Oishi
    Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, 3 24 1, Hyakunin cho, Shinjuku ku, Japan
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1807-13. 2002
  7. ncbi Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens
    Christina E Cowan-Ellsberry
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 55:321-9. 2009
  8. ncbi A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health
    Robert Golden
    ToxLogic LC, Potomac, Maryland 20854, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:435-58. 2005
  9. pmc Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1843-6. 2006
  10. ncbi An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines
    L K Ball
    Division of Vaccines and Related Products Applications, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Foodand Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Pediatrics 107:1147-54. 2001

Detail Information

Publications191 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives
    Vickie L Timm-Knudson
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
    Dermatol Nurs 18:130-6. 2006
    ..The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis...
  2. ncbi Are multidose over-the-counter artificial tears adequately preserved?
    Colin Charnock
    Department of Health Sciences, Oslo University College, Oslo, Norway
    Cornea 25:432-7. 2006
    ..Based on the challenge test outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia, products were tested in their original containers to see whether their component preservative had sufficient activity...
  3. ncbi Travoprost 0.004% with and without benzalkonium chloride: a comparison of safety and efficacy
    Richard A Lewis
    Grutzmacher and Lewis, Inc, Sacramento, CA, USA
    J Glaucoma 16:98-103. 2007
    ..To compare the safety and efficacy of travoprost 0.004% without benzalkonium chloride (BAC) to that of the marketed formulation of travoprost 0.004% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension...
  4. ncbi Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey
    Ayse Boyvat
    Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Ibni Sina Hastanesi, Samanpazari Ankara, Turkey
    Contact Dermatitis 52:329-32. 2005
    ..Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients...
  5. ncbi Preservatives sensitivity in Israel: a 10-year overview (1995-2004)
    Lilach Zoller
    Department of Dermatology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa 31096, Israel
    Contact Dermatitis 55:227-9. 2006
    ..Overall, this extensive survey showed a concerning increase in the sensitivity rates for MCI/MI, formaldehyde, and MDBGN...
  6. ncbi Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system
    S Oishi
    Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, 3 24 1, Hyakunin cho, Shinjuku ku, Japan
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1807-13. 2002
    ..The exposure level at which this effect was observed is the same as the upper-limit acceptable daily intake (10 mg/kg body weight/day) of parabens in the European Community and Japan...
  7. ncbi Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens
    Christina E Cowan-Ellsberry
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 55:321-9. 2009
    ..Comparison to the 95th percentile of these data showed that these refined estimates were still conservative by factors of 2-92. All of our refined estimates of aggregate exposure are less than the ADI of 10mg/kg/day for parabens...
  8. ncbi A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health
    Robert Golden
    ToxLogic LC, Potomac, Maryland 20854, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:435-58. 2005
    ....
  9. pmc Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1843-6. 2006
    ..In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure...
  10. ncbi An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines
    L K Ball
    Division of Vaccines and Related Products Applications, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Foodand Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Pediatrics 107:1147-54. 2001
    ..This action was prompted in part by a risk assessment from the Food and Drug Administration that is presented here...
  11. ncbi Safety assessment of propyl paraben: a review of the published literature
    M G Soni
    Burdock and Associates, Inc, 622 Beachland Blvd, Vero Beach, FL 32963, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:513-32. 2001
    ..Allergic reactions to ingested parabens have been reported, although rigorous evidence of the allergenicity of ingested paraben is lacking...
  12. ncbi Multiple endpoint analysis of the 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelium after treatment with benzalkonium chloride: early detection of toxic damage
    Aude Pauly
    University of Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, UMR S592, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:1644-52. 2009
    ..To investigate the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the human reconstituted corneal epithelial model (HCE) and to optimize the operating potential of this model in the field of ophthalmic toxicology...
  13. ncbi Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study
    Michael E Pichichero
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, NY, USA
    Lancet 360:1737-41. 2002
    ..We aimed to measure concentrations of mercury in blood, urine, and stools of infants who received such vaccines...
  14. ncbi In vitro effects of preservative-free tafluprost and preserved latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost in a conjunctival epithelial cell line
    Emmanuelle Brasnu
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Curr Eye Res 33:303-12. 2008
    ....
  15. ncbi New tools for the evaluation of toxic ocular surface changes in the rat
    Aude Pauly
    INSERM Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U598, Cordeliers Biomedical Institute, University of Paris 5, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:5473-83. 2007
    ..To assess the usefulness of noninvasive combined technologies used to observe ocular surface changes in toxicology studies...
  16. ncbi Comparison of toxicological profiles of benzalkonium chloride and polyquaternium-1: an experimental study
    Antoine Labbe
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, and INSERM U598, Cordeliers Biomedical Institute, University of Paris 5, Paris, France
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 22:267-78. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to compare, in vivo on a rat model, two different preservatives- benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1)-using new experimental approaches...
  17. ncbi In vitro studies of antiglaucomatous prostaglandin analogues: travoprost with and without benzalkonium chloride and preserved latanoprost
    Christophe Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology 3, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:4123-8. 2007
    ..004% containing 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), travoprost Z 0.004%, a new formulation without BAK, and latanoprost 0.005% containing 0.02% BAK...
  18. ncbi Assessment of corneal epithelial integrity after acute exposure to ocular hypotensive agents preserved with and without benzalkonium chloride
    Jess T Whitson
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9057, USA
    Adv Ther 23:663-71. 2006
    ..004% preserved without BAK did not cause corneal epithelial toxicity; latanoprost 0.005% induced superficial cell loss, most likely caused by the presence of a relatively high concentration of BAK (0.02%)...
  19. ncbi In vitro comparison of cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost on conjunctiva-derived epithelial cells
    Jean Marc Guenoun
    Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4594-9. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi Comparison of the relative toxicity of travoprost 0.004% without benzalkonium chloride and latanoprost 0.005% in an immortalized human cornea epithelial cell culture system
    Richard W Yee
    Department of Ophthalmology Hermann Eye Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Adv Ther 23:511-9. 2006
    ..004% preserved without BAK showed significantly less toxicity on HCEs than did latanoprost 0.005%. This difference may have ramifications in terms of tolerability for patients who use these topical glaucoma drugs on a long-term basis...
  21. ncbi In vitro study of inflammatory potential and toxicity profile of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost in conjunctiva-derived epithelial cells
    Jean Marc Guenoun
    Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:2444-50. 2005
    ..e., conjunctival hyperemia)...
  22. ncbi Conjunctival proinflammatory and proapoptotic effects of latanoprost and preserved and unpreserved timolol: an ex vivo and in vitro study
    Pierre Jean Pisella
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Tours, Tours, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:1360-8. 2004
    ..The proapoptotic effect of the same drugs was also evaluated in vitro in a conjunctival cell line and compared with that of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)...
  23. pmc Microbial contamination of preservative free eye drops in multiple application containers
    M Q Rahman
    Tennent Institute of Ophthalmology, Gartnavel General Hospital, 1053, Great Western Road, Glasgow G12 0YN, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:139-41. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of microbial contamination of preservative free drops dispensed from multiusage containers...
  24. ncbi Mitochondrial activity and glutathione injury in apoptosis induced by unpreserved and preserved beta-blockers on Chang conjunctival cells
    C Debbasch
    Unité de Pharmaco Toxicologie Cellulaire, Centre Hospitalier National d Ophtalmologie CHNO des Quinze Vingts, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:2525-33. 2001
    ....
  25. ncbi In vivo corneal epithelial permeability following treatment with prostaglandin analogs [correction of analoges] with or without benzalkonium chloride
    Bernard McCarey
    Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University Eye Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 23:445-51. 2007
    ..Agents such as travoprost Z with an alternative preservative decreased the epithelial toxicity associated with the long-term use of IOP-lowering agents preserved with BAK...
  26. ncbi Detrimental effect of preservatives in eyedrops: implications for the treatment of glaucoma
    Christophe Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Acta Ophthalmol 86:716-26. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that preservative-free antiglaucoma treatments have clinically relevant benefits for patients...
  27. ncbi Comparison of corneal and conjunctival changes after dosing of travoprost preserved with sofZia, latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride, and preservative-free artificial tears
    Malik Y Kahook
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USA
    Cornea 27:339-43. 2008
    ..To evaluate corneal and conjunctival changes after chronic, once-daily dosing of travoprost preserved with sofZia, latanoprost preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), or preservative-free artificial tears...
  28. ncbi Comparison of paraben stability in human and rat skin
    Heather M Harville
    Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Drug Metab Lett 1:17-21. 2007
    ..The typical cutaneous metabolism model, rat skin, hydrolyzes parabens much faster than human skin. Chronic application and absorption of parabens, combined with low metabolism rates, may lead to prolonged estrogenic effects in the skin...
  29. ncbi Endocrine disrupters and human health: could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women?
    Philip W Harvey
    Department of Toxicology, Covance Laboratories Ltd, Otley Road, Harrogate, North Yorkshire HG3 1PY, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 24:167-76. 2004
    ..The exposure issues are clear and the exposed population is large, and these factors should provide the necessary impetus to investigate this potential issue of public health...
  30. ncbi Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours
    P D Darbre
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 24:5-13. 2004
    ....
  31. ncbi Neurotoxic character of thimerosal and the allometric extrapolation of adult clearance half-time to infants
    L Magos
    J Appl Toxicol 23:263-9. 2003
    ..Blood mercury concentrations observed after vaccination showed agreement with allometrically extrapolated concentrations...
  32. ncbi Significance of the detection of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours
    Philip W Harvey
    J Appl Toxicol 24:1-4. 2004
    ..the toxicology of these compounds and 4). the limitations of the existing toxicology database and the need to consider data that is appropriate to human exposures...
  33. ncbi Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed
    Mark F Blaxill
    Safe Minds Sensible Action For Ending Mercury Induced Neurological Disorders, 14 Commerce Drive, PH Cranford, New Jersey 07016, USA
    Med Hypotheses 62:788-94. 2004
    ..We provide evidence here to refute the Nelson and Bauman critique and to defend the autism-mercury hypothesis...
  34. ncbi Parabens: a review of epidemiology, structure, allergenicity, and hormonal properties
    Allison L Cashman
    University of Minnesota, School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, and the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Dermatitis 16:57-66; quiz 55-6. 2005
    ..The epidemiology, structural properties, allergenicity, hormonal properties, and hypotheses regarding the "paraben paradox" are addressed in this review...
  35. ncbi Thiomersal in vaccines: a regulatory perspective WHO Consultation, Geneva, 15-16 April 2002
    I Knezevic
    Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Vaccine 22:1836-41. 2004
  36. ncbi Hepatitis B vaccine coverage among infants born to women without prenatal screening for hepatitis B virus infection: effects of the Joint Statement on Thimerosal in Vaccines
    Ann R Thomas
    Oregon Department of Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology, 800 NE Oregon Street, Suite 772, Portland, OR 97232, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:313-8. 2004
    ..We investigated the effect of these recommendation changes on the management of Oregon infants born to women whose HBsAg status was "unknown."..
  37. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis from methyldibromo glutaronitrile--clinical cases from 2003
    C Zachariae
    Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark
    Contact Dermatitis 52:6-8. 2005
    ..p.m. to 473 p.p.m. MDBGN in products used by the patients. Based on the present clinical study and accumulated evidence in the literature, it is concluded that MDBGN is not suitable for use in any type of cosmetic product...
  38. ncbi Thimerosal--is it really irrelevant?
    Dan Slodownik
    Department of Dermatology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    Contact Dermatitis 53:324-6. 2005
    ..0001). Although previous reports found thimerosal highly irrelevant, our daily experience being supported by the above data indicates that positive reactions to thimerosal could be relevant for many patients...
  39. ncbi Cosmetic dermatitis in Chinese eczema patients patch tested with a modified European standard series of allergens
    Wen Hui Wang
    Department of Dermatology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China
    Contact Dermatitis 53:314-9. 2005
    ..These results suggested that CACD is very common in CEP patch tested. PPD and FM are the leading allergens identified. CACD should be strongly considered in CEP with positive PT reactions to PPD, FM and imidazolidinylurea...
  40. ncbi Comparison of the efficacy and safety of two formulations of diclofenac sodium 0.1% eyedrops in controlling postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery
    B Bodaghi
    Service d Ophtalmologie, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Eur J Ophthalmol 15:702-11. 2005
    ..1% eyedrops, in controlling postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery...
  41. ncbi Patch testing with methyldibromo glutaronitrile, a multicentre study within the EECDRG
    B Gruvberger
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Malmo University Hospital, S 205 02 Malmo, Sweden
    Contact Dermatitis 52:14-8. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi Repeated open application test with methyldibromo glutaronitrile, a multicentre study within the EECDRG
    B Gruvberger
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Malmo University Hospital, S 205 02 Malmo, Sweden
    Contact Dermatitis 52:19-23. 2005
    ..The study demonstrates that patch testing with MDBGN at 0.3% and 0.1% will miss clinically relevant patch test reactions to MDBGN...
  43. ncbi Application of a capillary electrophoresis method for simultaneous determination of preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations
    Małgorzata Jaworska
    Department of Biochemistry and Biopharmaceuticals, National Institute of Public Health, 00 725 Warsaw, Poland
    J Sep Sci 28:137-43. 2005
    ..The method was successfully validated and applied to the determination of preservatives in a number of pharmaceuticals. Results from the CE method were compared with those from reference methods...
  44. ncbi Systematic study of factors affecting eye drop size and dosing variability
    Z Sklubalova
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
    Pharmazie 60:917-21. 2005
    ..3%. Using a dispensing angle of 45 degrees from horizontal led to a decrease in drop volume and, in addition, to greater volume variability due to the formation of air bubbles inside the dropper tip chamber...
  45. ncbi Quantitative patch and repeated open application testing in methyldibromo glutaronitrile-sensitive patients
    A Schnuch
    Information Network of Department of Dermatology IVDK, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Contact Dermatitis 52:197-206. 2005
    ..By contrast, with other contact allergens, dose-response use tests may be able to identify a non-eliciting concentration, which could give valuable clues to a non-inducing (i.e., safe) concentration in products...
  46. ncbi Contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile--data from a 'front line' network
    Jeanne D Johansen
    National Allergy Research Centre, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Contact Dermatitis 52:138-41. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Bindi dermatitis due to thimerosal and gallate mix
    C Laxmisha
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 20:1370-2. 2006
  48. ncbi Is the irritant benzalkonium chloride a contact allergen? A contribution to the ongoing debate from a clinical perspective
    Wolfgang Uter
    Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Contact Dermatitis 58:359-63. 2008
    ..Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a well-recognized irritant. However, doubts exist that it is also a contact allergen...
  49. ncbi Patients with vulval pruritus: patch test results
    Serap Utas
    Department of Dermatology, Medical Faculty, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
    Contact Dermatitis 58:296-8. 2008
    ..Allergic contact sensitivity is an important factor in such patients but may also occur as a secondary event in women with vulval dermatoses...
  50. ncbi Breakdown evaluation of corneal epithelial barrier caused by antiallergic eyedrops using an electrophysiologic method
    Mikiro Nakashima
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 24:43-51. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of an electrophysiologic method for predicting corneal epithelial breakdown by antiallergic eyedrops and comparing the results with those in other appraisal methods...
  51. ncbi Trabeculectomy trapdoor separation with allergic periorbital dermatitis: an unusual late-onset complication of guarded filtration surgery
    Kenneth G J Ooi
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 35:578-9. 2007
    ....
  52. ncbi Corneal critical barrier against the penetration of dexamethasone and lomefloxacin hydrochloride: evaluation by the activation energy for drug partition and diffusion in cornea
    Shin ichi Yasueda
    Senju Pharmaceutical Co, LTD Hiranomachi, Chuo Ku, Osaka, Japan
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm 33:805-11. 2007
    ..Thermodynamic evaluation of activation energy for the drug permeation parameters is a good approach to investigate the mechanism of drug permeability...
  53. ncbi [Conditions bordering on allergy]
    C Baudouin
    Centre Hospitalier National d Ophtalmologie des Quinze Vingts, Service d ophtalmologie 3, 28 rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris
    J Fr Ophtalmol 30:306-13. 2007
    ....
  54. ncbi Cross-reactions among parabens, para-phenylenediamine, and benzocaine: a retrospective analysis of patch testing
    Irina Turchin
    McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, PQ, Canada
    Dermatitis 17:192-5. 2006
    ..Cross-reactions with para-amino compounds, namely, benzocaine and para-phenylenediamine (PPD), have been reported but are thought to be extremely rare...
  55. ncbi Effect of formulation factors on in-vitro permeation of diclofenac from experimental and marketed aqueous eye drops through excised goat cornea
    Munish Ahuja
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Haryana, India
    Yakugaku Zasshi 126:1369-75. 2006
    ..The marketed formulations showed corneal hydration >83% suggesting corneal damaging potential...
  56. ncbi Formulation and in vitro evaluation of cysteamine hydrochloride viscous solutions for the treatment of corneal cystinosis
    Sibel Bozdag
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm 70:260-9. 2008
    ..2% and 85.3% of CH were released from the viscous solutions containing 1.5% and 1% HPMC, respectively, in 8h. No irritation was observed when the viscous solutions were tested on rabbit and human eyes...
  57. pmc Conjunctival markers as predictable markers for preoperative glaucoma assessment
    P J Pisella
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:1335-6. 2006
  58. ncbi Identification and classification of skin sensitizers: identifying false positives and false negatives
    David A Basketter
    Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    Contact Dermatitis 55:268-73. 2006
    ....
  59. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol ricinoleate in a lipstick
    Junko Sowa
    Department of Dermatology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Daido Hospital, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
    Contact Dermatitis 48:228-9. 2003
  60. pmc Conjunctival and corneal reactions in rabbits following short- and repeated exposure to preservative-free tafluprost, commercially available latanoprost and 0.02% benzalkonium chloride
    H Liang
    Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Biological and Pharmacological Sciences, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Br J Ophthalmol 92:1275-82. 2008
    ..To compare the conjunctival and corneal reactions of commercially available solution of latanoprost (Xalatan) and preservative-free (PF) tafluprost in rabbits...
  61. ncbi Comparison of the short-term effects on the human corneal surface of topical timolol maleate with and without benzalkonium chloride
    Takeshi Ishibashi
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
    J Glaucoma 12:486-90. 2003
    ..To compare the short-term effects of timolol maleate with and without preservative (0.005% benzalkonium chloride) on pre-corneal tear film stability and corneal epithelial barrier function...
  62. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis due to propylene glycol and parabens in an ultrasonic gel
    Patricia Eguino
    Department of Dermatology, Cruces Hospital, 48903 Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain
    Contact Dermatitis 48:290. 2003
  63. ncbi [Effect of preservatives on the conjunctiva: a comparative study of beta-blocker eye drops with and without preservatives in glaucoma patients]
    P J Pisella
    Service d Ophtalmologie, CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37044 Tours Cedex 1
    J Fr Ophtalmol 26:675-9. 2003
    ..To compare the effect of timolol with or without preservatives on the conjunctival epithelium of glaucoma patients...
  64. ncbi Corneal and conjunctival changes caused by commonly used glaucoma medications
    Robert J Noecker
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85711, USA
    Cornea 23:490-6. 2004
    ..To evaluate the extent of epithelial corneal and conjunctival changes associated with prolonged use of topical glaucoma medications...
  65. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis caused by parabens in a compress
    N Oiso
    Department of Dermatology, Saiseikai Tondabayashi Hospital, 1 3 36 Koyodai, Tondabayashi, Osaka 584 0082, Japan
    Contact Dermatitis 50:317. 2004
  66. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis from mercury antiseptics and derivatives: study protocol of tolerance to intramuscular injections of thimerosal
    Maria Teresa Audicana
    Department of Allergy and Immunology, Santiago Apostol Hospital, Vitoria Gasteiz, Spain
    Am J Contact Dermat 13:3-9. 2002
    ..Mercury derivatives are frequent contact allergens and their cross-reactivity is not constant. Thimerosal is an organic mercurial used as an antiseptic and as a preservative in most vaccines...
  67. ncbi Contact allergy to corticosteroids in patients using inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids for allergic rhinitis or asthma
    M L Bennett
    Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine and the Skin Surgery Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27106, USA
    Am J Contact Dermat 12:193-6. 2001
    ..The corticosteroids or added agents such as preservatives can be causative and may result in allergic or irritant reactions, which can be relevant to clinical symptoms...
  68. ncbi Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to thimerosal
    Marta Kiec-Swierczynska
    Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 Sw Teresy St, 90 950 Lodz, Poland
    Contact Dermatitis 48:337-8. 2003
  69. ncbi [Flow cytometric analysis of HLA-DR, IL-6 and IL-8 expression by conjunctival epithelial cells from patients with prolonged topical antiglaucoma treatments]
    L Bensoussan
    Centre Hospitalier National d Ophtalmologie des Quinze Vingts, EA 3123 Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6
    J Fr Ophtalmol 26:782-9. 2003
    ..To investigate the expression of three inflammation markers, HLA-DR, IL-6, and IL-8, by conjunctival epithelial cells obtained using impression cytology (IC) samples from long-term treated glaucoma patients...
  70. ncbi Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis: an experimental study
    C D Jensen
    Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Sdr Boulevard 29, 5000 Odense C, Denmark
    Br J Dermatol 150:90-5. 2004
    ..Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from rinse-off products has been less studied...
  71. ncbi Allergic contact dermatitis from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) - an update
    L E Bryld
    Department of Dermatology, Gentofte University Hospital, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark
    Contact Dermatitis 44:276-8. 2001
    ..2 of the 7 reported cases with IPBC allergy were also found positive to thiuram, and possible cross-reactivity between IPBC and thiuram is discussed...
  72. ncbi [The tolerability of nasal drugs with special regard to preservatives and physico-chemical parameters]
    Th Verse
    Universitäts Hals Nasen Ohrenklinik Mannheim
    Laryngorhinootologie 82:782-9. 2003
    ..New pharmaceutical formulations for better tolerable nasal sprays are now possible and consequently reformulations introduced to the market. Therefore, a representative and systematic overview on comparable products is mandatory...
  73. ncbi Thimerosal in the detection of clinically relevant allergic contact reactions
    T Suneja
    Division of Dermatology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 45:23-7. 2001
    ....
  74. ncbi Corneal punctate staining with latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in healthy subjects
    William C Stewart
    Pharmaceutical Research Network, Charleston, SC 29412 2464, USA
    J Glaucoma 12:475-9. 2003
    ..To evaluate short-term conjunctival and corneal punctate staining with latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in healthy individuals...
  75. ncbi Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs and preservatives on morphologic characteristics and migration of canine corneal epithelial cells in tissue culture
    Diane V H Hendrix
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences University of Tennessee, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Knoxville, 37996 4544, USA
    Vet Ophthalmol 5:127-35. 2002
    ..To determine the effects of commonly used ophthalmic corticosteroids, suprofen, polysulfated glycosaminoglycan and preservatives on morphologic characteristics and migration of canine corneal epithelium grown in cell culture...
  76. ncbi [Ocular tolerance of a new formulation of nonpreserved diclofenac]
    F Chiambaretta
    Service d Ophtalmologie, CHU de Clermont Ferrand, Hopital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont Ferrand, France
    J Fr Ophtalmol 27:739-44. 2004
    ..To compare the ocular tolerance of nonpreserved diclofenac versus thiomersal-preserved diclofenac in healthy volunteers...
  77. ncbi Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate
    Sonia Badreshia
    Department of Dermatology, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
    Am J Contact Dermat 13:77-9. 2002
    ..As the use of this seemingly safe preservative becomes vast, an increased number of cases of IPBC-induced contact allergy is likely...
  78. ncbi Iodopropynylbutyl carbamate 0.2% is suggested for patch testing of patients with eczema possibly related to preservatives
    J Brasch
    Department of Dermatology, University of Schleswig Holstein, Kiel, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 151:608-15. 2004
    ..Although cases of allergic contact dermatitis to IPBC have been reported, it is not known whether the usual test concentration of 0.1% is appropriate for screening tests with IPBC...
  79. ncbi A comparison of the effects of ocular preservatives on mammalian and microbial ATP and glutathione levels
    Paul R Ingram
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
    Free Radic Res 38:739-50. 2004
    ..The lower toxicity of NaClO2 to the ocular cells, compared with BAK and H2O2, is in agreement with fewer reported adverse effects of application in the eye...
  80. ncbi [Contact sensitization to external agents]
    S M Erdmann
    Hautklinik, Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen, Aachen
    Hautarzt 54:331-7. 2003
    ..Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups...
  81. ncbi National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). Statement on thimerosal
    Ian Gemmill
    Can Commun Dis Rep 29:1-10. 2003
  82. ncbi Cytoprotective effects of hyaluronic acid and Carbomer 934P in ocular surface epithelial cells
    Caroline Debbasch
    Cellular Pharmacotoxicology Unit, Toxicology Laboratory, Quinze Vingts, National Hospital Center for Ophthalmology, Ambroise Paré AP HP, University of Paris V, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3409-15. 2002
    ..To investigate in vitro the cell toxicity and antioxidant effects of two major tear substitutes, hyaluronic acid and a widely used carbomer, with and without preservative...
  83. ncbi What's new in contact dermatitis: allergy to topical steroids in Israeli patients with contact dermatitis
    Arieh Ingber
    Department of Dermatology, Hadassah University Hospital, Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 4:867. 2002
  84. ncbi Chlorobutanol: maternal serum levels and placental transfer in the mouse
    I W Smoak
    Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh 27606, USA
    Vet Hum Toxicol 39:287-90. 1997
    ..Placental transfer, as demonstrated here in the mouse, may allow embryonic accumulation of CB to potentially toxic levels...
  85. ncbi Recent advances in drugs and prodrugs design of chitosan
    J Vinsova
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho 1203, 500 05 Hradec Kralove
    Curr Pharm Des 14:1311-26. 2008
    ..The design of chitosan macromolecule prodrugs is also discussed...
  86. ncbi Formulation of a liquid ovine Fab-based antivenom for the treatment of envenomation by the Nigerian carpet viper (Echis ocellatus)
    Ibrahim Al-Abdulla
    MicroPharm Ltd, 51 53 Bartholomew Close, London EC1A 7BE
    Toxicon 42:399-404. 2003
    ....
  87. ncbi Possible adverse reactions to preservatives in high-dose pyridoxine hydrochloride i.v. injection
    Anthony M Burda
    Illinois Poison Center, 222 South Riverside, Plaza, Suite 1900, Chicago, IL 60606, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 59:1886-7. 2002
  88. ncbi A further characteristic of susceptibility to contact allergy: sensitization to a weak contact allergen is associated with polysensitization. Results of the IVDK
    Axel Schnuch
    Information Network of Departments of Dermatology IVDK, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Contact Dermatitis 56:331-7. 2007
    ..PS can be regarded as a phenotype to be considered in genetic studies...
  89. ncbi Epithelial activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cultured bovine lenses recovering from pharmaceutical-induced optical damage
    Andrew T E Hartwick
    School of Optometry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Vis 9:594-600. 2003
    ..This work investigated the epithelial activity of the metabolic enzymes hexokinase (HK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in lenses recovering from anesthetic-induced damage...
  90. ncbi Effect of propyl paraben on the dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid vesicles
    Lata Panicker
    Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India
    J Colloid Interface Sci 311:407-16. 2007
    ..However, the transition temperatures of these new phases are not significantly changed with increasing PPB concentration. The effect of inclusion of cholesterol in the PPB-free and PPB-doped DPPA dispersion was also studied...
  91. pmc Trefoil factor family 1, MUC5AC and human leucocyte antigen-DR expression by conjunctival cells in patients with glaucoma treated with chronic drugs: could these markers predict the success of glaucoma surgery?
    M Souchier
    Service d Ophtalmologie, Hopital General, 21000 Dijon, France
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:1366-9. 2006
    ....
  92. ncbi Partitioning of parabens between phases of submicron emulsions stabilized with egg lecithin
    Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Medical University of Gdansk, Hallera 107, Gdansk 80 416, Poland
    Int J Pharm 312:174-8. 2006
    ..e. 3.0-6.0% for both preservatives. Substantial accumulation, i.e. 38-58% was found in the interface and the partitioning into this region was related to the oil/lecithin ratio rather than to lipophilicity of the preservative...
  93. ncbi Intracameral antibiotics: questions for the United States based on prospective studies
    Thomas J Liesegang
    Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA
    J Cataract Refract Surg 34:505-9. 2008
    ..A multipronged approach to limit endophthalmitis risk is also needed, with antibiotics as only part of the strategy...
  94. ncbi A rabbit dry eye model induced by topical medication of a preservative benzalkonium chloride
    Cuiju Xiong
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1850-6. 2008
    ..To establish a rabbit dry eye model with topical medication of the ocular preparation preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC)...
  95. ncbi The importance of the cosolvent propylene glycol on the antimicrobial preservative efficacy of a pharmaceutical formulation by DOE-ruggedness testing
    B De Spiegeleer
    Drug Quality and Registration DruQuaR Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
    Pharm Dev Technol 11:275-84. 2006
    ..It was concluded that the cosolvent propylene glycol is at least of equal preservative importance than both parabens...
  96. ncbi Comparison of the effects of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones on corneal re-epithelialization in rabbit eyes
    Majid Moshirfar
    John A Moran Eye Center, Old Mill Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121, USA
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:1455-61. 2008
    ..005% benzalkonium chloride, whereas moxifloxacin is unpreserved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of commercially prepared topical gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin on corneal re-epithelialization in rabbit eyes...
  97. ncbi Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Wade S Smith
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Calif 94134 0114, USA
    Stroke 35:2518-22. 2004
    ..Papaverine is used to vasodilate cerebral arteries undergoing vasospasm from subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, papaverine inhibits cellular respiration in vitro and could cause neurotoxicity in humans...
  98. ncbi Biodegradation of thiomersal containing effluents by a mercury resistant Pseudomonas putida strain
    Raquel Fortunato
    REQUIMTE CQFB, Department of Chemistry, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829 516 Caparica, Portugal
    Water Res 39:3511-22. 2005
    ..022 to 0.1 h(-1)...
  99. ncbi [Structural and immunohistochemical changes of conjunctiva induced by topical glaucoma medication]
    A Nenciu
    Clinica de Oftalmologie Spitalul Clinic de Urgeţă Militar Central Dr Carol Davila, Bucuresti
    Oftalmologia 48:35-42. 2004
    ..The topical medication represents the first line therapy for the primary open angle glaucoma. The study is aimed at assessing the structural and immunohistochemical changes of conjunctiva induced by topical glaucoma medication...
  100. ncbi Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options
    Indu Pal Kaur
    University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 28:93-103. 2009
    ..Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area...
  101. ncbi Evaluation of the frequency of contact allergic reactions to Kathon CG in the Maastricht area--1987-1990
    G P Lucker
    Department of Dermatology, State University Hospital, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Dermatology 184:90-3. 1992
    ..Of these patients, 84 (8.4%) showed a positive reaction (70% females). In 62% of these cases clinical relevance was established. Most of them suffered from contact dermatitis of the face, the hands or the perianal region...

Research Grants19

  1. ENHANCING MUCOSAL IMMUNE RESPONSES BY MICROENCAPSULATION
    Paul Offit; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The availability of microencapsulated virus provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between APC and protective mucosal immune responses. ..
  2. Prenatal Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in the EMA Study
    Lisa A Croen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the long-term, a better understanding of the underlying biology may suggest appropriate strategies for early intervention and contribute to the eventual prevention of this often devastating and usually life-long disability. ..
  3. The Role of BCL-2 in Corneal Epithelial Cell Shedding
    DANIELLE ROBERTSON; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..4) That events leading to increased apoptosis such as UV light signal surface cell apoptosis through the phosphorylation of BCL-2. ..
  4. METHANOL EXPOSURE EFFECTS ON PRIMATE DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS BURBACHER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  5. OCULAR HYPERTENSION TREATMENT STUDY (OHTS)
    Ronald Gross; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  6. 9th International Neurotoxicology Assoc (INA9) Meeting
    Michael Aschner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  7. IN SITU LIGATION FOR DETECTION OF SPECIFIC DNA DAMAGE
    David Baskin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It, therefore, can be used in molecular and cell biology research, as well as by clinicians in many fields, including pathology oncology, cardiology and the clinical neurosciences. ..
  8. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  9. MODELS FOR TESTING CANDIDATE TOPICAL MICROBICIDES FOR CYTOTOXICITY AND ACTIVITY A
    Mary Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF METHYLMERCURY
    THOMAS BURBACHER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed studies take full advantage of the history of these monkeys and represents the best possible use of this valuable resource. ..
  11. VOLTAGE SENSITIVE CALCIUM CHANNELS IN BRAIN INJURY
    Robert Berman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  12. Prenatal and Neonatal Biologic Markers for Autism
    Lisa Croen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Regulation of capacitative calcium entry in porcine oocytes
    Zoltan Machaty; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..By using the animals with specific genetic alterations it will be possible to better understand the mechanism of diseases and develop new and effective therapies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. COLLABORATIVE INITIAL GLAUCOMA TREATMENT STUDY
    Ronald Gross; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  15. Nonlinear Acoustic Fields in Tissue Mimicking Media
    Timothy Stiles; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3) Assessment of accuracy of numerical methods for models related to imaging: TM liquids with greater attenuation coefficient, including 0.5 and 0.7 dB/cm/MHz, obstetrical, and other tissue models. ..
  16. MOLECULAR STUDIES OF THE THIEL-BEHNKE CORNEAL DYSTROPHY
    Richard Yee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  17. Regulation of GRP94: Targeting Novel Cancer Therapeutics
    Jeffrey Baker; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Together, the proposed analysis will lead to a greater understanding of GRP94 as a novel anti-cancer target. ..
  18. Maternal fatty acids, birth weight and child development
    Emily Oken; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Bio-Psych Stress Measure Associations and Preterm Birth
    Gwen Latendresse; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..