aerosols

Summary

Summary: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus
    Raymond Tellier
    Division of Microbiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1657-62. 2006
  2. pmc Aerosol transmission of influenza A virus: a review of new studies
    Raymond Tellier
    Provincial Laboratory for Public Health of Alberta, Calgary, Canada
    J R Soc Interface 6:S783-90. 2009
  3. pmc Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks
    Donald K Milton
    Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003205. 2013
  4. pmc Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations
    Eoin L Brodie
    Ecology Department, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:299-304. 2007
  5. pmc Variability of infectious aerosols produced during coughing by patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
    Kevin P Fennelly
    Southeastern National Tuberculosis Center, Emerging Pathogens Institute, Room 257, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:450-7. 2012
  6. pmc Cough aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis predict new infection: a household contact study
    Edward C Jones-Lopez
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 187:1007-15. 2013
  7. ncbi Exposure to influenza virus aerosols during routine patient care
    Werner E Bischoff
    Section on Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Infect Dis 207:1037-46. 2013
  8. ncbi A novel exposure system for the efficient and controlled deposition of aerosol particles onto cell cultures
    Melanie Savi
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 42:5667-74. 2008
  9. ncbi Therapeutic liposomal dry powder inhalation aerosols for targeted lung delivery
    Lauren Willis
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Drug Development Division, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 S Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536 0596, USA
    Lung 190:251-62. 2012
  10. pmc Measurements of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs
    William G Lindsley
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15100. 2010

Detail Information

Publications367 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus
    Raymond Tellier
    Division of Microbiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1657-62. 2006
    In theory, influenza viruses can be transmitted through aerosols, large droplets, or direct contact with secretions (or fomites). These 3 modes are not mutually exclusive...
  2. pmc Aerosol transmission of influenza A virus: a review of new studies
    Raymond Tellier
    Provincial Laboratory for Public Health of Alberta, Calgary, Canada
    J R Soc Interface 6:S783-90. 2009
    ..These recent results and their implication for infection control of influenza are discussed in this review...
  3. pmc Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks
    Donald K Milton
    Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003205. 2013
    ..However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza...
  4. pmc Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations
    Eoin L Brodie
    Ecology Department, Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:299-304. 2007
    ..S. cities over 17 weeks. These urban aerosols contained at least 1,800 diverse bacterial types, a richness approaching that of some soil bacterial communities...
  5. pmc Variability of infectious aerosols produced during coughing by patients with pulmonary tuberculosis
    Kevin P Fennelly
    Southeastern National Tuberculosis Center, Emerging Pathogens Institute, Room 257, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:450-7. 2012
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is transmitted by infectious aerosols, but assessing infectiousness currently relies on sputum microscopy that does not accurately predict the variability in transmission.
  6. pmc Cough aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis predict new infection: a household contact study
    Edward C Jones-Lopez
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 187:1007-15. 2013
    ..Airborne transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from incompletely characterized host, bacterial, and environmental factors. Sputum smear microscopy is associated with considerable variability in transmission...
  7. ncbi Exposure to influenza virus aerosols during routine patient care
    Werner E Bischoff
    Section on Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Infect Dis 207:1037-46. 2013
    ..Defining dispersal of influenza virus via aerosol is essential for the development of prevention measures...
  8. ncbi A novel exposure system for the efficient and controlled deposition of aerosol particles onto cell cultures
    Melanie Savi
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 42:5667-74. 2008
    ..In situ analyses of the lung cells, e.g., the ciliary beat frequency, indicative of the defense capability of the cells, are complemented by off-line biochemical, physiological, and morphological cell analyses...
  9. ncbi Therapeutic liposomal dry powder inhalation aerosols for targeted lung delivery
    Lauren Willis
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Drug Development Division, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, 789 S Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536 0596, USA
    Lung 190:251-62. 2012
    ..This state-of-the-art review presents these novel aspects in depth...
  10. pmc Measurements of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs
    William G Lindsley
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15100. 2010
    ..Viable influenza virus was detected in the cough aerosols from 2 of 21 subjects with influenza...
  11. ncbi High infectivity and pathogenicity of influenza A virus via aerosol and droplet transmission
    Peter F M Teunis
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, RIVM, Anthonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, Netherlands
    Epidemics 2:215-22. 2010
    ..More studies are needed to clarify the role of different modes of transmission in other settings...
  12. ncbi Detection of infectious influenza virus in cough aerosols generated in a simulated patient examination room
    John D Noti
    Health Effects Laboratory Division HELD, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Morgantown, WV, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:1569-77. 2012
    ....
  13. ncbi Physical characterization of component particles included in dry powder inhalers. I. Strategy review and static characteristics
    Anthony J Hickey
    Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Campus Box 7360, 1310 Kerr Hall, Kerr Hall, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7360, USA
    J Pharm Sci 96:1282-301. 2007
    The performance of dry powder aerosols for the delivery of drugs to the lungs has been studied extensively in the last decade...
  14. ncbi Pulmonary and systemic immune response to inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes
    Leah A Mitchell
    College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 0001, USA
    Toxicol Sci 100:203-14. 2007
    ..No changes in gene expression were observed in lung; however, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and NAD(P)H oxidoreductase 1 mRNA levels were increased in spleen...
  15. pmc Transmission of a 2009 pandemic influenza virus shows a sensitivity to temperature and humidity similar to that of an H3N2 seasonal strain
    John Steel
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1124, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 85:1400-2. 2011
    ..Our data indicate that the observed differences in the timings of outbreaks with regard to the seasons are most likely not due to intrinsic differences in transmission between the pandemic H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses...
  16. pmc Transmission of influenza virus via aerosols and fomites in the guinea pig model
    Samira Mubareka
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:858-65. 2009
    ..The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes of influenza virus spread and strain-specific differences in the efficiency of transmission...
  17. ncbi Measurement of airborne influenza virus in a hospital emergency department
    Francoise M Blachere
    Division of Health Effects Laboratory, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:438-40. 2009
    ..Our results provide evidence that influenza virus may spread through the airborne route...
  18. ncbi Dose-controlled exposure of A549 epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface to airborne ultrafine carbonaceous particles
    E Bitterle
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute for Inhalation Biology, Ingolstaedter Landstr 1, D 85764 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    Chemosphere 65:1784-90. 2006
    ..The 2.7-fold (p < or = 0.05) increased transcription of heme oxygenase-1 indicated a sensitive antioxidant and stress response, while cell viability did not reveal a toxic mechanism...
  19. ncbi Effects of inhaled nano-TiO2 aerosols showing two distinct agglomeration states on rat lungs
    A Noel
    Département de santé environnementale et de santé au travail, Institut de Recherche en Santé Publique, Universite de Montreal, Canada
    Toxicol Lett 214:109-19. 2012
    Nano-aerosols composed of large agglomerates (LA) (>100nm) are more likely to promote pulmonary clearance via macrophages phagocytosis...
  20. ncbi Burkholderia pseudomallei aerosol infection results in differential inflammatory responses in BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice
    Gek Yen Gladys Tan
    Medical Countermeasures Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore 117510
    J Med Microbiol 57:508-15. 2008
    ..This suggests that high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are detrimental and contribute to the immunopathogenesis of the infection...
  21. ncbi Cellular responses after exposure of lung cell cultures to secondary organic aerosol particles
    Annina Gaschen
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 44:1424-30. 2010
    ..In addition, cellular responses were found to correlate with particle number concentration, as interleukin-8 production was increased in pig explants exposed to TMB-SOA with high particle numbers...
  22. ncbi Toward understanding the risk of secondary airborne infection: emission of respirable pathogens
    Mark Nicas
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 2:143-54. 2005
    ..Based on our analysis of the sparse literature on respiratory aerosols, we estimated that emitted particles quickly decrease in diameter due to water loss to one-half the initial ..
  23. ncbi Aerosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North Atlantic climate variability
    Ben B B Booth
    Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK
    Nature 484:228-32. 2012
    ..A number of studies have provided evidence that aerosols can influence long-term changes in sea surface temperatures, but climate models have so far failed to reproduce ..
  24. pmc Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles f
    Samantha A Meenach
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Drug Development Division, University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, KY, USA
    Int J Nanomedicine 8:275-93. 2013
    ..Advanced dry powder inhalers of inhalable lipopolymers for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery were successfully achieved...
  25. ncbi The suppression of lung tumorigenesis by aerosol-delivered folate-chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine/Akt1 shRNA complexes through the Akt signaling pathway
    Hu Lin Jiang
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56 1, Sillim 9 Dong, Gwanak Gu, Seoul 151 921, Republic of Korea
    Biomaterials 30:5844-52. 2009
    ..Together, these results suggest that FC-g-PEI may be useful for shRNA-based gene therapy...
  26. pmc Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton
    Adina Paytan
    Institute of Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4601-5. 2009
    ..we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species...
  27. ncbi Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects
    J Douwes
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Ann Occup Hyg 47:187-200. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi Cough-generated aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new method to study infectiousness
    Kevin P Fennelly
    Department of Medicine, Center for the Study of Emerging and Re Emerging Pathogens, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 169:604-9. 2004
    The concentration and size distribution of infectious aerosols produced by patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has never been directly measured...
  29. ncbi Exhalation of respiratory viruses by breathing, coughing, and talking
    Sacha Stelzer-Braid
    Faculty of Science, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia
    J Med Virol 81:1674-9. 2009
    There is a lack of quantitative information about the generation of virus aerosols by infected subjects...
  30. ncbi Personal exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms in agricultural environments
    Shu An Lee
    Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0056, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 3:118-30. 2006
    ..Overall, the combined exposure to airborne dust and microorganisms was found to be more severe during harvesting than in animal confinements...
  31. ncbi Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin
    Jitendra K Gupta
    National Air Transportation Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
    Indoor Air 21:3-11. 2011
    ..The total airborne droplet fraction reduced to 48, 32, 20, and 12% after they entered the cabin for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, because of the ventilation from the environmental control system...
  32. ncbi In vitro particle size distributions in electronic and conventional cigarette aerosols suggest comparable deposition patterns
    Yaping Zhang
    School of Engineering and Applied Science, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 633110, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:501-8. 2013
    Electronic cigarette users ("vapers") inhale aerosols of water, nicotine, and propylene glycol (PG) or vegetable glycerin (VG). Aerosol particle sizes should affect deposition patterns in vapers and bystanders.
  33. pmc Sampling port for real-time analysis of bioaerosol in whole body exposure system for animal aerosol model development
    Divey Saini
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, PO Box 103020, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 63:143-9. 2011
    Multiple factors influence the viability of aerosolized bacteria. The delivery of aerosols is affected by chamber conditions (humidity, temperature, and pressure) and bioaerosol characteristics (particle number, particle size distribution,..
  34. pmc Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice
    Seth A Faith
    Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:126. 2012
    ..Environmental factors and growth conditions should be evaluated when developing new animal models for aerosol infection, particularly for vegetative bacterial pathogens...
  35. pmc A chimeric Sindbis-based vaccine protects cynomolgus macaques against a lethal aerosol challenge of eastern equine encephalitis virus
    Chad J Roy
    Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, United States
    Vaccine 31:1464-70. 2013
    ..These results demonstrate that the chimeric SIN/NAEEEV vaccine candidate protects against an aerosol EEEV exposure...
  36. ncbi Regional particle size dependent deposition of inhaled aerosols in rats and mice
    Philip J Kuehl
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 24:27-35. 2012
    The current data analysis tools in nuclear medicine have not been used to evaluate intra organ regional deposition patterns of pharmaceutical aerosols in preclinical species.
  37. ncbi Temporal evolution of nanoparticle aerosols in workplace exposure
    M Seipenbusch
    Institut für Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitat Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Ann Occup Hyg 52:707-16. 2008
    ..It is shown that the NPs are still chemically present in the aerosol after becoming attached to background particles, thus remaining airborne while being invisible in the size distribution...
  38. ncbi Possible role of aerosol transmission in a hospital outbreak of influenza
    Bonnie C K Wong
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1176-83. 2010
    ..We examined the role of aerosol transmission of influenza in an acute ward setting...
  39. pmc Pulmonary drug delivery. Part I: physiological factors affecting therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications
    N R Labiris
    Department of Medicine at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 56:588-99. 2003
    ..In addition, a drug's efficacy may be affected by where in the respiratory tract it is deposited, its delivered dose and the disease it may be trying to treat...
  40. ncbi Electrostatic charge characteristics of jet nebulized aerosols
    Philip Chi Lip Kwok
    Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 23:149-59. 2010
    ..The electrostatic properties of jet nebulized aerosols and their potential effects on lung deposition have hardly been studied...
  41. ncbi Nasally inhaled pulsating aerosols: lung, sinus and nose deposition
    W Moller
    Institute for Lung Biology and Disease, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
    Rhinology 49:286-91. 2011
    ....
  42. ncbi Silver nanoparticles and total aerosols emitted by nanotechnology-related consumer spray products
    Marina E Quadros
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, 418 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 45:10713-9. 2011
    ..Products emitted 0.24-56 ng of silver in aerosols per spray action. The plurality of silver was found in aerosols 1-2.5 μm in diameter for two products...
  43. ncbi Seasonal and regional variations of primary and secondary organic aerosols over the continental United States: semi-empirical estimates and model evaluation
    Shaocai Yu
    Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division, Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:4690-7. 2007
    Seasonal and regional variations of primary (OC(pri)) and secondary (OC(sec)) organic carbon aerosols across the continental United States for the year 2001 were examined by a semi-empirical technique using observed OC and elemental ..
  44. ncbi The size and concentration of droplets generated by coughing in human subjects
    Shinhao Yang
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Toko University, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Aerosol Med 20:484-94. 2007
    ..Comparison of the droplet concentrations for subjects in different age groups demonstrated that subjects in the 30-50-year age group have the largest droplet concentrations...
  45. ncbi Chemical compositions and source identification of PM₂.₅ aerosols for estimation of a diesel source surrogate
    Manoranjan Sahu
    Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory, Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Sci Total Environ 409:2642-51. 2011
    ..The difference in ECAT and ECAD, however, was less than one standard deviation. Thus, a cost benefit consideration should be used when deciding on the benefits of an eight or two carbon approach...
  46. ncbi Advanced spray-dried design, physicochemical characterization, and aerosol dispersion performance of vancomycin and clarithromycin multifunctional controlled release particles for targeted respiratory delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols
    Chun Woong Park
    University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Drug Development Division, Lexington, KY 40536 0596, USA
    Int J Pharm 455:374-92. 2013
    ..DPPC), for controlled release pulmonary nanomedicine delivery as inhalable dry powder aerosols. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of molar ratios of co-SD VCM:DPPC ..
  47. ncbi Transcriptional profiling of host responses in mouse lungs following aerosol infection with type A Francisella tularensis
    Henrik Andersson
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology, Umea University, SE 901 85 Umea, Sweden
    J Med Microbiol 55:263-71. 2006
    ..In keeping with this finding, tumour necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon levels were found to be increased significantly in bronchoalveolar lavage on day 4...
  48. ncbi Pulsating aerosols for drug delivery to the sinuses in healthy volunteers
    Winfried Möller
    Institute for Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Research Center for Environmental Health, Gauting, Germany
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 142:382-8. 2010
    ....
  49. pmc Therapeutic approach of human peritoneal carcinomatosis with Dbait in combination with capnoperitoneum: proof of concept
    Wiebke Solass
    Department of Surgery, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    Surg Endosc 26:847-52. 2012
    ..We have treated a human sample of peritoneal carcinomatosis from an endometrial adenocarcinoma ex vivo just after surgery...
  50. pmc Qualitative real-time schlieren and shadowgraph imaging of human exhaled airflows: an aid to aerosol infection control
    Julian W Tang
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
    PLoS ONE 6:e21392. 2011
    ....
  51. ncbi Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettes
    Maciej L Goniewicz
    Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland
    Nicotine Tob Res 15:158-66. 2013
    ..The study was designed to assess efficacy and consistency of various ECs in converting nicotine to vapor and to analyze dynamics of nicotine vaporization...
  52. ncbi Prokaryotic abundance and 16S rRNA gene sequences detected in marine aerosols on the East Sea (Korea)
    Byung Cheol Cho
    Microbial Oceanography Laboratory, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 76:327-41. 2011
    ..7-1.2 × 10(5) cells m(-3) . Partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from the aerosols were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes...
  53. pmc Characterization and deposition of respirable large- and small-particle bioaerosols
    Richard J Thomas
    Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6437-43. 2008
    The deposition patterns of large-particle microbiological aerosols within the respiratory tract are not well characterized...
  54. pmc Combination chemotherapeutic dry powder aerosols via controlled nanoparticle agglomeration
    Nashwa El-Gendy
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66047, USA
    Pharm Res 26:1752-63. 2009
    ..Concurrently, aerosolized chemotherapy is generating interest as a means to treat certain types of lung cancer more effectively with less systemic exposure to the compound...
  55. pmc Pulmonary drug delivery. Part II: the role of inhalant delivery devices and drug formulations in therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications
    N R Labiris
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 56:600-12. 2003
    ....
  56. pmc To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial
    Margaret Pinder
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trials 12:147. 2011
    ....
  57. ncbi Protection of MP-12-vaccinated rhesus macaques against parenteral and aerosol challenge with virulent rift valley fever virus
    John C Morrill
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:229-36. 2011
    ..The mutagen-attenuated RVF MP-12 vaccine was determined to be protective against intravenous and aerosol challenge with virulent RVFV in these macaques, which suggests further development as a vaccine for humans is warranted...
  58. ncbi Nanoparticles: a review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure
    Shahnaz Bakand
    School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Inhal Toxicol 24:125-35. 2012
    ..Current advances and limitations of toxicity assessment methods of nanoparticles are discussed highlighting the recent improvements of in vitro screening tools for the safety evaluation of the rapidly expanding area of nanotechnology...
  59. ncbi Viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection
    S C Chen
    Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Indoor Air 19:401-13. 2009
    ....
  60. pmc Genetic immunization in the lung induces potent local and systemic immune responses
    Kaimei Song
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22213-8. 2010
    ..Thus, genetic immunization in the lung offers a powerful platform approach to generating protective immune responses against respiratory pathogens...
  61. pmc Unraveling different chemical fingerprints between a champagne wine and its aerosols
    Gerard Liger-Belair
    Laboratoire d OEnologie et Chimie Appliquee, Unité de Recherche Vigne et Vins de Champagne Unité Propre de Recherche et de l Enseignement Supérieur EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16545-9. 2009
    ..radiate a multitude of tiny droplets above the free surface into the form of very characteristic and refreshing aerosols. Ultrahigh-resolution MS was used as a nontargeted approach to discriminate hundreds of surface active compounds ..
  62. pmc Aerosol and nasal transmission of chronic wasting disease in cervidized mice
    Nathaniel D Denkers
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1619, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:1651-8. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted by aerosol (as well as nasal) exposure and suggest that exposure via the respiratory system merits consideration for prion disease transmission and biosafety...
  63. pmc Design, assembly, and validation of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for studies of aerosolized viable influenza H5N1 virus in ferrets
    Richard S Tuttle
    Aerosol Research and Engineering Laboratories, 13300 West 98th Street, Lenexa, Kansas 66215, USA
    Virol J 7:135. 2010
    ..Particular attention was paid towards system safety, efficacy of dissemination, the viability of aerosolized virus, and sampling methodology...
  64. ncbi Origins of primary and secondary organic aerosol in Atlanta: results of time-resolved measurements during the Atlanta Supersite Experiment
    Ho Jin Lim
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 36:4489-96. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi The effect of formulation excipients on protein stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried powders of a recombinant humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody
    J D Andya
    Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Pharm Res 16:350-8. 1999
    ..To study the effect of trehalose, lactose, and mannitol on the biochemical stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried powders of an anti-IgE humanized monoclonal antibody...
  66. pmc Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: a meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies
    E Neil Schachter
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L, Levy Place 1232, New York, NY, USA
    Environ Health 8:1. 2009
    ..Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies...
  67. ncbi Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview
    A Bleise
    International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Department of Nuclear Science and Applications, Wagramer Strasse 5, P O Box 100, A 1400 Vienna, Austria
    J Environ Radioact 64:93-112. 2003
    ..They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation...
  68. pmc Associations of primary and secondary organic aerosols with airway and systemic inflammation in an elderly panel cohort
    Ralph J Delfino
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617 7555, USA
    Epidemiology 21:892-902. 2010
    ....
  69. pmc Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols
    David A Edwards
    Harvard University, 322 Pierce Hall, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17383-8. 2004
    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing...
  70. pmc Higher lung deposition with Respimat Soft Mist inhaler than HFA-MDI in COPD patients with poor technique
    Peter Brand
    RWTH, Aachen, Germany
    Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 3:763-70. 2008
    b>Aerosols delivered by Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) are slower-moving and longer-lasting than those from pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), improving the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery to patients...
  71. pmc Aerosol infection of BALB/c mice with Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus and protective efficacy against aerosol challenge
    M M Kahl-McDonagh
    Texas A and M University, Department of Pathobiology, College Station, TX 77843 4467, USA
    Infect Immun 75:4923-32. 2007
    ....
  72. pmc The effect of environmental parameters on the survival of airborne infectious agents
    Julian W Tang
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Republic of Singapore
    J R Soc Interface 6:S737-46. 2009
    ....
  73. ncbi The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations--a review
    Alan M Jones
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Sci Total Environ 326:151-80. 2004
    ..The vertical concentration of bacteria is noted to decline less rapidly than that of fungal spores. The short-term variation of pollen, fungal spore, and bacterial concentrations are also considered...
  74. pmc Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1)
    John A Lednicky
    Energy and Life Sciences Division, Midwest Research Institute, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
    Virol J 7:231. 2010
    ..The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed...
  75. pmc High temperature (30 degrees C) blocks aerosol but not contact transmission of influenza virus
    Anice C Lowen
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 82:5650-2. 2008
    ..Our data imply that contact or short-range spread predominates in the tropics and offer an explanation for the lack of a well-defined, recurrent influenza season affecting tropical and subtropical regions of the world...
  76. ncbi The mechanism of breath aerosol formation
    Graham Richard Johnson
    International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 22:229-37. 2009
    ..That mechanism is not consistent with a high degree of asymmetry between aerosol production during inhalation and exhalation. The objective was to investigate production symmetry during breathing...
  77. pmc Exhaled droplets due to talking and coughing
    Xiaojian Xie
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, People s Republic of China
    J R Soc Interface 6:S703-14. 2009
    ..Smaller droplets were also detected by the aerosol spectrometer. More droplets seemed to be generated when a food dye was used...
  78. ncbi Non-invasive pulmonary aerosol delivery in mice by the endotracheal route
    Maytal Bivas-Benita
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm 61:214-8. 2005
    ..The technique is especially useful for the pulmonary application of vaccines, since it enables multiple administrations without a need for analgesics...
  79. ncbi Surface-modified PLGA nanosphere with chitosan improved pulmonary delivery of calcitonin by mucoadhesion and opening of the intercellular tight junctions
    Hiromitsu Yamamoto
    Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5 6 1, Mitahora higashi Gifu 502 8585, Japan
    J Control Release 102:373-81. 2005
    ..4000)>FD-21 (Mw. 21,000)>FD70 (Mw. 70,000), which corresponded to the molecular weights ([Mw.] given in parentheses). The absorption-enhancing effect may have been caused by opening the intercellular tight junctions...
  80. ncbi Airborne transmission of communicable infection--the elusive pathway
    Chad J Roy
    Center for Aerobiological Sciences, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:1710-2. 2004
  81. ncbi A randomised clinical trial of nebulised tobramycin or colistin in cystic fibrosis
    M E Hodson
    Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London, UK
    Eur Respir J 20:658-64. 2002
    ..Both treatments reduced the bacterial load...
  82. ncbi The automated bioaerosol exposure system: preclinical platform development and a respiratory dosimetry application with nonhuman primates
    Justin M Hartings
    Hartings Consulting, Inc, USA
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 49:39-55. 2004
    ..In addition to control over homeostatic and aerosol conditions, the ABES incorporates a dosimetry function based on respiratory performance of the test animal during inhalation...
  83. ncbi Characterization of the rat pneumonic plague model: infection kinetics following aerosolization of Yersinia pestis CO92
    Stacy L Agar
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, UTMB, 301 University Boulevard, MRB 3 142H, Galveston, TX 77555 1070, USA
    Microbes Infect 11:205-14. 2009
    ..Further, we showed direct transmission of plague bacteria from infected to uninfected rats. Taken together, the data allowed us to characterize for the first time a rat pneumonic plague model following aerosolization of Y. pestis...
  84. ncbi Deposition, retention, and translocation of ultrafine particles from the central airways and lung periphery
    Winfried Möller
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health Institute for Inhalation Biology, Robert Koch Allee 29, D 82131 Gauting, Germany
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:426-32. 2008
    ..Little is known about clearance of ultrafine carbon particles from the different regions of the human lung. These particles may accumulate and present a health hazard because of their high surface area...
  85. pmc Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles
    Gunter Oberdorster
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 113:823-39. 2005
    ..An interdisciplinary team approach (e.g., toxicology, materials science, medicine, molecular biology, and bioinformatics, to name a few) is mandatory for nanotoxicology research to arrive at an appropriate risk assessment...
  86. ncbi Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols
    Jessica B Mills
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 10:250-8. 2013
    ..DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium ..
  87. ncbi Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols
    M Z Jacobson
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, California 94305 4020, USA
    Nature 409:695-7. 2001
    b>Aerosols affect the Earth's temperature and climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere...
  88. ncbi An improved in vitro model for testing the pulmonary toxicity of complex mixtures such as cigarette smoke
    Michaela Aufderheide
    Department of In Vitro Toxicology, Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 55:51-7. 2003
    ..Therefore, fresh, physically and chemically unmodified cigarette mainstream smoke can be tested using this novel system...
  89. pmc Comparison of two in vitro systems to assess cellular effects of nanoparticles-containing aerosols
    Eleonore Fröhlich
    Center for Medical Research, and Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    Toxicol In Vitro 27:409-17. 2013
    Inhalation treatment with nanoparticle containing aerosols appears a promising new therapeutic option but new formulations have to be assessed for efficacy and toxicity...
  90. ncbi Aerosolized gemcitabine in patients with carcinoma of the lung: feasibility and safety study
    Etienne Lemarie
    INSERM U 618, IFR135, Bretonneau University Hospital, Francois Rabelais University, Tours, France
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 24:261-70. 2011
    ..We investigated the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, safety profile, and feasibility of aerosolized gemcitabine (GCB) in patients with lung carcinoma...
  91. ncbi Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 2. Ipratropium bromide monohydrate and fluticasone propionate
    Zhen Xu
    Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7360, USA
    J Pharm Sci 99:3415-29. 2010
    ..The novel PADE offers a robust method for evaluating aerodynamic performance of dry powder formulations within a defined tau(s) range...
  92. pmc Inhalation vs. aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in C57BL/6 mice: inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and mutagenesis
    A A Shvedova
    Health Effects Laboratory Div, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L552-65. 2008
    ..SWCNT inhalation was more effective than aspiration in causing inflammatory response, oxidative stress, collagen deposition, and fibrosis as well as mutations of K-ras gene locus in the lung of C57BL/6 mice...
  93. ncbi Characteristics of aerosols collected in central Taiwan during an Asian dust event in spring 2000
    M T Cheng
    Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC
    Chemosphere 61:1439-50. 2005
    ..It is noted that during the dust event, the ratio of Mg/Al in PM(2.5-10) ranged from 0.21 to 0.25 while that of Ca/Al ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, levels more constant than those obtained in non-dust period...
  94. pmc Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage
    Ning Li
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:455-60. 2003
    ..This may contribute to oxidative stress. Our studies demonstrate that the increased biological potency of UFPs is related to the content of redox cycling organic chemicals and their ability to damage mitochondria...
  95. ncbi Association of Inhalation Toxicologists (AIT) working party recommendation for standard delivered dose calculation and expression in non-clinical aerosol inhalation toxicology studies with pharmaceuticals
    David J Alexander
    D A Non clinical Safety, Godmanchester, UK
    Inhal Toxicol 20:1179-89. 2008
    ..4. Dose should always be presented in mg/Kg but may also bepresented in other ways, such as mg/unit body surface area, as supplementary information...
  96. pmc Aerosol generating procedures and risk of transmission of acute respiratory infections to healthcare workers: a systematic review
    Khai Tran
    Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health CADTH, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e35797. 2012
    ..Our findings suggest that some procedures potentially capable of generating aerosols have been associated with increased risk of SARS transmission to HCWs or were a risk factor for transmission, ..
  97. ncbi Cellular response to the deposition of diesel exhaust particle aerosols onto human lung cells grown at the air-liquid interface by inertial impaction
    Daniel J Cooney
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Toxicol In Vitro 25:1953-65. 2011
    ..This is not representative of in vivo exposure, where aerosols are deposited onto cell surfaces at the air-liquid interface (ALI)...
  98. ncbi Characterization of water-soluble organic carbon in urban atmospheric aerosols using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy
    Poulomi Sannigrahi
    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 0340, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:666-72. 2006
    ..The NMR results demonstrate the potential of this technique to investigate aerosol WSOC composition and to study its variations with changes in parameters such aerosol sources...
  99. pmc Aerosol inoculation with a sub-lethal influenza virus leads to exacerbated morbidity and pulmonary disease pathogenesis
    Jennifer Humberd Smith
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Viral Immunol 24:131-42. 2011
    ..cross-reactive and protective immune responses have used intranasal (IN) virus inoculation; however, infectious aerosols are a common means of transmitting influenza in the human population...
  100. pmc Immunization by a bacterial aerosol
    Lucila Garcia-Contreras
    University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7360, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4656-60. 2008
    ....
  101. pmc NanoCipro encapsulation in monodisperse large porous PLGA microparticles
    Matthew M Arnold
    Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, United States
    J Control Release 121:100-9. 2007
    ..A dry powder formulation with the potential to control particle deposition and sustain release to the lung was developed and insight to improve nanoparticle encapsulation is discussed...

Research Grants65

  1. OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA ASOCIATED WITH SEAFOOD PROCESSING
    Thomas Robins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Another aim is to isolate and characterize the seafood antigens present in aerosols generated during the processing of West Coast rock lobster and saltwater bony fish...
  2. Inhalation Dosimetry/Exposure Index of Fiber Aerosol
    Yung Sung Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This proposal has three objectives: (1) to develop experimental information on the deposition of fibrous aerosols as a function of fiber diameter and length in realistic human respiratory tract replicas, (2) to verify and ..
  3. Hospital and Household Studies of Respiratory Cryptosporidiosis and Transmission
    Jeffrey K Griffiths; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..infection (R21AI 068474). This suggests that Cr. transmission may occur via aerosols or respiratory droplets ejected during coughing...
  4. Regional Biocontainment Laboratory
    Charles Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..animal rooms in the BSL2 [unreadable]portion 'of the facility, allowing work that does not involve aerosols and does not require BSL3-level containment...
  5. Legionella pneumophila developmental cycle & virulence
    PAUL STOKES HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..pneumophila) resides in aquatic habitats as an intracellular parasite of protozoa and when transmitted in aerosols to susceptible humans, produces an acute pneumonia known as Legionnaires'disease...
  6. TYPE II SECRETION AND LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA INFECTION
    Nicholas P Cianciotto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is ubiquitous in natural and man-made water systems and infects the lungs after the inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In water and the lungs, Lp grows as an intracellular parasite, infecting either aquatic protozoa, macrophages, ..
  7. New Personal Sampling Methods that Conform to an Aerosol Deposition Convention
    DARRAH KAYE SLEETH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The true biologically-relevant dose would therefore not include the exhaled aerosols. A promising method for a "deposition sampler" involves porous polyurethane foam inserts that act as collection ..
  8. Microvascular Health and Nanoparticle Exposure
    Timothy R Nurkiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Rats will be exposed to carbon nanotube or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols. After exposure, microvascular reactivity will be studied in skeletal muscle and the coronary microcirculation...
  9. Transcriptomic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Responses to Air Pollutants
    Ralph J Delfino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1 um), to organic aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, and to the overall oxidative potential of PM exposures...
  10. Studies to Evaluate the Toxic Carcinogenic Potential of Test Agents
    JEFFERY DILL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that are to be tested via the inhalation route of exposure, some are vapors while others are liquid or solid aerosols. This contract includes prechronic studies to evaluate the fibrotic potential and lung burden of 6 abrasive ..
  11. Multifunctional nanoparticles for enhanced drug delivery to the lung
    HUGH DAVID SMYTH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) have occurred over the past 30 years due to drug delivery via inhalation aerosols. However, the efficacy inhaled therapies is dramatically reduced in CF patients because of the presence of a ..
  12. The Role of Antibody-Mediated Protective Immunity Against Q fever
    Guoquan Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Natural human infections commonly occur via inhalation of infectious aerosols, manifest clinically as atypical pneumonia, and can develop into a severe, fatal chronic disease. C...
  13. Studies to Evaluate the Toxic Carcinogenic Potential of Test Agents
    JEFFERY DILL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that are to be tested via the inhalation route of exposure, some are vapors while others are liquid or solid aerosols. This contract includes prechronic studies to evaluate the fibrotic potential and lung burden of 6 abrasive ..
  14. Studies to Evaluate the Toxic Carcinogenic Potential of Test Agents
    JEFFERY DILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that are to be tested via the inhalation route of exposure, some are vapors while others are liquid or solid aerosols. This contract includes prechronic studies to evaluate the fibrotic potential and lung burden of 6 abrasive ..
  15. Macaque model of TB/AIDS co-infection via natural routes of exposure
    Deepak Kaushal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2. Determine if rhesus macaques latently infected with low-dose aerosols of M...
  16. Inhaled aerosols for prevention and treatment of respiratory infections
    Robert W Clarke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stimulation of the innate and adaptive immunological responses to both viral and bacterial pathogens, by cationic aerosols. These novel aerosols have been shown to: reduce exhaled bioaerosols in humans;arrest transmission of and treat ..
  17. Genetic Requirements for the survival of Tubercle Bacilli in Nonhuman Primates
    Deepak Kaushal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We studied genes essential for growth/survival of Mtb in the NHP lungs experimentally exposed to high doses of aerosols of an Mtb transposon mutant library. In this acute model of TB, 33...
  18. Counter-irritation by Menthol: Molecular Targets and Role in Airway Disease
    John B Morris; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Aerosols from electronic cigarettes elicited strong irritation responses in mice, comparable to responses elicited by ..
  19. Impact of Ambient Ultrafine Particle Exposures on Alzheimer's Disease Progression
    MICHAEL KERRY O'BANION; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Plan: We hypothesize that inhalation exposures to ultrafine particle-enriched ambient air pollution (HUCAPS) aerosols will accelerate AD-associated pathology and that early life exposures will lead to more severe pathology than ..
  20. Intra-pulmonary aerosol delivery for intubated pediatric patients
    AMIR A NAQWI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This IPAG will be capable of generating micro- aerosols that would reach the remote airways and alveoli with an efficiency approaching 100%...
  21. EFFECTS OF INHALED FLORIDA RED TIDE BREVETOXINS
    Daniel G Baden; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Research Project 1 "Characterization of Red Tide Aerosols" correlates bloom dynamics with the size, composition, and aerosol potency, and adds meteorlogic modeling to data ..
  22. Effective Delivery of Pharmaceutical Aerosols during Non-Invasive Ventilation
    P Worth Longest; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..typically have underlying respiratory and systemic conditions that can be effectively treated with pharmaceutical aerosols. Administration of aerosol therapy simultaneously with NIV allows for continuous ventilation support...
  23. Transcriptomics of Tuberculosis Latency and Reactivation in Primates
    Deepak Kaushal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have established a model of human TB, by exposing NHPs to true Mtb aerosols. While many research groups focus on the bacterial factors of latency and reactivation, we would like to leverage ..
  24. In vitro fluid capacity-limited dissolution testing and its kinetic relation to i
    Masahiro Sakagami; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..deposition and disposition kinetics model to explain or extrapolate APSD-dependent pharmacokinetics of the FP aerosols for OGD's three investigational DPIs...
  25. Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants from Ozone Reactions on Ventilation Systems
    Hugo Destaillats; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of particle-laden HVAC filters that react with ozone to generate volatile indoor pollutants and secondary organic aerosols. Used and unused sections of HVAC filters will be exposed to atmospheres containing various ozone and humidity ..
  26. Design, evaluation, and validation of a next-generation inhalable aerosol sampler
    John Volckens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..test the performance of a low-cost, easy to use, disposable sampler to measure personal exposures to inhalable aerosols in the workplace...
  27. Characterization of Floor Level Aerosol (PM) Exposure and Childhood Asthma
    Stuart Shalat; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, it will open up an avenue for more precise estimation of early childhood exposures to asthmagens in the PM10 fraction of aerosols.
  28. An Immunoprotectant for Marburg Virus
    Larry Zeitlin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..not only causes acute and terrifying disease with high mortality rates, but it is relatively stable in wet or dry aerosols;it is highly infectious (LD50 is approximately 1 plaque-forming unit, or PFU) whether infection occurs ..
  29. Coxiella burnetii Regulation of Macrophage cAMP/PKA Signaling
    Daniel E Voth; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..C. burnetii is spread by contaminated aerosols and targets alveolar macrophages in vivo, where the pathogen regulates vesicular trafficking to establish a ..
  30. Transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in mammals
    Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..did not transmit among ferrets (an established influenza virus transmission model) via respiratory droplets (aerosols), but acquired this ability after two passages in ferrets that resulted in the selection of additional mutations ..
  31. Pediatric asthma, photochemical oxidant air pollutants, and climate change vulner
    Ralph J Delfino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..there is much less information about the importance of the photochemical oxidant pollutants in secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which in many respects have the potential to do greater harm to respiratory health than ambient O3...
  32. Photodegradation Reactions Mono and Dinitro PAHs
    Rafael Arce; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..at the solid/air interface or in the liquid-like environment of the organic fraction of the combustion derived aerosols can have a significant impact on controlling their residence time in the environment...
  33. Effect of HIV Infection on Pulmonary MDR-TB Transmission and Virulence
    Ashwin S Dharmadhikari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..potentially less infectious than HIV-uninfected MDR-TB patients by comparing their production of culturable cough aerosols and by comparing the infection rate of exposed sentinel guinea pigs after controlling for cough aerosol ..
  34. Advancement of a Defined, Protective, Live Attenuated Tularemia Vaccine
    Eileen M Barry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a type B strain, was developed and tested in the 1960's and conferred partial protection against exposure to aerosols containing virulent type A F. tularensis. While providing proof of principle that a live attenuated F...
  35. Hypertonic Saline for Cystic Fibrosis
    Benjamin Yerxa; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of time commitment, which is superimposed on the ~2 hours of care typically asked of these patients for other aerosols and physiotherapy...
  36. TB Diagnosis Based on Promiscuous PE-PGRS Epitopes
    Suman Laal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..propose to identify the PE-PGRS genes that are highly expressed in the lungs of tuberculous rabbits infected with aerosols of clinical isolates of M...
  37. Development of a Novel Aerosol Mass Spectrometric Technology for Rapid and Sensit
    Manjula Canagaratna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A prototype DOD interface will be developed and characterized in the laboratory with test aerosols containing known toxicants, and with archived blood samples from epidemiological studies...
  38. Engineering an in vitro lung model for air pollutant deposition and toxicology
    John Volckens; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..model will accomplish this task by approximating particle size-specific deposition patterns of particulate aerosols to pulmonary epithelial cells housed within a state-of-the-art in vitro lung model...
  39. Hypertonic Saline for Cystic Fibrosis
    BILL THELIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of time commitment, which is superimposed on the ~2 hours of care typically asked of these patients for other aerosols and physiotherapy...
  40. The Role of Pathogen-Environment Interactions in the Pandemic Potential of Influe
    LINSEY MARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, evaporation-induced changes in the chemica composition of aerosols, such as lowered pH, increased salt and protein concentrations, crystallization, and/or phase separations, affect ..
  41. Real-time Threshold Exposure Monitor for Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic
    PETER C ARIESSOHN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The specific aims of the proposed project are to: 1. Demonstrate real-time measurement of ambient aerosols at exposure threshold levels using an aerodynamic lens aerosol concentrator and a compact, low-cost optical dust ..
  42. Translational Research: From Mechanisms of Influenza Transmission to Prevention
    Donald Kirby Milton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..can limit release of infectious virus from influenza patients, and provide a basis for determining when and if respirators capable of capturing fine particle aerosols are needed to protect health care workers treating influenza patients.
  43. Personal Aerosol Sensor Platform to Link Children's Exposures to Asthma Severity
    CHARLES ERIC RODES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..low-burden personal aerosol exposure platform for pulmonary diseases to sample and sense sized and speciated aerosols and link them with selected biological markers of disease severity;(2) add parallel acute and chronic metrics for ..
  44. Novel COG Compounds to Treat Asthma
    MICHAEL PETER VITEK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Based on the data collected in these proposed studies, we will be able to define how COG130 aerosols are tolerated in healthy mice and how they can reduce the signs and symptoms of disease in a house dust mite-..
  45. Imaging of Pulmonary Mucociliary Clearance
    TIMOTHY EDWARD CORCORAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The design of a new system for more precise, repeatable, and targeted delivery of the aerosols used to assess pulmonary clearance is also proposed...
  46. Retrocyclin reinforcement of pulmonary defenses against viral aerosols
    Robert Lehrer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Broad, Long term objectives: To use retrocyclins to enhance pulmonary defenses to viral aerosols. Specific aims. 1...
  47. Predictive Lung Deposition Models for Safety and Efficacy of Orally Inhaled Drug
    P Worth Longest; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..can be assessed for a population Specific Aim 3: Simulation of transport and deposition of polydisperse DPI aerosols in the entire airways of healthy small, medium, and large subjects with different breathing patterns and assess ..
  48. A Portable Spectrometer for Inhalable Aerosol Size Distributions
    John Volckens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inhalable aerosols hazards are a significant contributor to the burden of occupational respiratory disease in this country...
  49. Aerosol Management Platform with Exposure Chamber
    William A Altemeier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The whole body exposure system will also be used to deliver particulate aerosols such as diesel exhaust to study mechanisms of cardiopulmonary disease in response to particulate pollution ..
  50. Hawaii Island Community Lung Assessment and Scientific Studies (HICLASS)
    ELIZABETH K TAM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the emissions create a natural experiment in which some communities are spared exposure to SO2 and acid aerosols whereas others are frequently exposed to this volcanic air pollution, or "vog...
  51. Program to Assess Health Effects Associated with Exposures to Volcanic Emissions
    ELIZABETH K TAM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mountains create a natural experiment in which some communities are almost chronically exposed to SO2, some acid aerosols, and some communities to virtually no volcanic air pollution...
  52. Nanoaerosols from Wick Electrospray for Improved Drug Delivery to Infants
    P Worth Longest; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system (WES) for highly efficient delivery of electrostatically charged submicrometer and nanometer scale aerosols to the respiratory airways of neonates and infants during invasive mechanical ventilation...
  53. Quantitative MRI-based Assessment of Aerosol Deposition in the Lung
    Chantal Darquenne; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Detailed knowledge of the fate of aerosols in the lung is essential in understanding the effect of exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and infectious agents as well as in assessing the ..
  54. Advanced Sampler for Measuring Exposure to Biological Aerosols
    Gediminas Mainelis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Advanced Sampler for Measuring Exposure to Biological Aerosols To improve assessment of exposures to airborne microorganisms, and to protect the populations and resources at risk from such exposures, ..
  55. DEPOSITION OF VOLATILE AEROSOLS IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
    Sidney Soderholm; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..There is one class of airborne contaminants, volatile aerosols, for which there is little or no information on deposition efficiency in humans or animals...
  56. Antibiofilm tubing to reduce occupational exposure to biohazards in dentistry
    Yuyu Sun; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..will be free of biohazards during dental operations, improving the microbial quality of dental unit water and aerosols. The antibiofilm activity is anticipated to be stable for a reasonably long period of time (e.g...
  57. University of Chicago Biomedical Cleanroom
    Michael D Hopkins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..probes and devices that are fabricated in highly-controlled environments that are low in airborne dust, microbes, aerosols, and chemical vapors than can contaminate or damage the devices that are being fabricated...
  58. Vaccines for Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses
    Robert Whalen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..has been "weaponized" for use in biowarfare, due largely to its considerable stability and high infectivity in aerosols. EEEV and WEEV are less well studied than VEEV, but both have potential uses as agents of biowarfare or ..
  59. RESPIRATOR EFFICACY VERSUS TUBERCULOSIS AEROSOLS
    John Koerner; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by defining the performance of respiratory protection with respect to mycobacterium aerosols. The specific aims are: 1) to determine the density of the droplet nuclei that result from the aerosolization of ..
  60. Aerosol Delivery of Lung Cancer Drugs
    Brian Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Delivery of anticancer drugs as inhaled aerosols is an attractive possibility for the treatment of lung cancer...
  61. Improved Lung Delivery of Medical Aerosols through Enhanced Condensation Growth
    P Worth Longest; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols are often deposited in the lung at very low deposition efficiencies...
  62. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF PATHOGENICITY IN LEGIONELLA
    Lucy Tompkins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..humans may develop a fulminant pneumonia called Legionnaires disease following inhalation of contaminated water aerosols. This opportunistic pathogen contributes significantly to community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia infection ..
  63. Airborne Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Applications
    Amir Naqwi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..extensive animal studies to determine the safety and efficacy of certain drugs, when delivered in the form of aerosols. The anti-proliferative drug 5-FU will be tested in combination with low molecular weight heparin...
  64. Asthma Treatment with a Novel Drug Aerosol Generator
    William Shen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..of (1) the difficulty in coordinating actuation and inspiration, (2) excessively large particle size of generated aerosols inadequate for delivery to therapeutically important small bronchioles, and (3) difficulty in formulation...
  65. Synergistic Drug Strategies Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms
    Jennifer Fiegel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research is significant because it is expected to provide knowledge needed for the clinical development of inhalable co-delivery aerosols for the treatment of bacterial biofilms.