parabens

Summary

Summary: Proprietary name for the methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Parabens: a review of epidemiology, structure, allergenicity, and hormonal properties
    Allison L Cashman
    University of Minnesota, School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, and the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Dermatitis 16:57-66; quiz 55-6. 2005
  2. ncbi Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans
    Nadeem Rezaq Janjua
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Int J Androl 31:118-30. 2008
  3. pmc Predictors and variability of urinary paraben concentrations in men and women, including before and during pregnancy
    Kristen W Smith
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 120:1538-43. 2012
  4. pmc Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:679-85. 2010
  5. pmc Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico
    John D Meeker
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 47:3439-47. 2013
  6. ncbi Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites
    Julie Boberg
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Søborg, Denmark
    Reprod Toxicol 30:301-12. 2010
  7. ncbi Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs
    Hanne Frederiksen
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Section 5064, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark Electronic address
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 216:772-83. 2013
  8. ncbi Exposure patterns of UV filters, fragrances, parabens, phthalates, organochlor pesticides, PBDEs, and PCBs in human milk: correlation of UV filters with use of cosmetics
    Margret Schlumpf
    GREEN Tox and Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, Switzerland
    Chemosphere 81:1171-83. 2010
  9. ncbi Safety assessment of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens)
    M G Soni
    Burdock Group, 2001 9th Avenue, Suite 3001, Vero Beach, FL 32960, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 43:985-1015. 2005
  10. ncbi Estrogenicity of parabens revisited: impact of parabens on early pregnancy and an uterotrophic assay in mice
    Jordan Shaw
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 28:26-31. 2009

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications227 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Parabens: a review of epidemiology, structure, allergenicity, and hormonal properties
    Allison L Cashman
    University of Minnesota, School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, and the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Dermatitis 16:57-66; quiz 55-6. 2005
    b>Parabens are the most commonly used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products...
  2. ncbi Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans
    Nadeem Rezaq Janjua
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Int J Androl 31:118-30. 2008
    ..The three chemicals are systemically absorbed, metabolized and excreted in urine following application on the skin in a cream preparation. More DEP than DBP was absorbed, presumably because of a faster absorption rate for DEP...
  3. pmc Predictors and variability of urinary paraben concentrations in men and women, including before and during pregnancy
    Kristen W Smith
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 120:1538-43. 2012
    b>Parabens are suspected endocrine disruptors and ubiquitous preservatives used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. No studies have assessed the variability of parabens in women, including during pregnancy.
  4. pmc Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:679-85. 2010
    b>Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, -pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing.
  5. pmc Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico
    John D Meeker
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 47:3439-47. 2013
    ..We measured the urinary concentrations of five phenols and three parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol (24-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (25-DCP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (..
  6. ncbi Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites
    Julie Boberg
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Søborg, Denmark
    Reprod Toxicol 30:301-12. 2010
    b>Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects...
  7. ncbi Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs
    Hanne Frederiksen
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Section 5064, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark Electronic address
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 216:772-83. 2013
    Some phthalates, parabens and phenols have shown adverse endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are also suspected to be involved in human reproductive problems...
  8. ncbi Exposure patterns of UV filters, fragrances, parabens, phthalates, organochlor pesticides, PBDEs, and PCBs in human milk: correlation of UV filters with use of cosmetics
    Margret Schlumpf
    GREEN Tox and Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, Switzerland
    Chemosphere 81:1171-83. 2010
    ..2004, 2005, 2006) of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time, cosmetic UV filters, synthetic musks, parabens and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants (POPs), i...
  9. ncbi Safety assessment of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens)
    M G Soni
    Burdock Group, 2001 9th Avenue, Suite 3001, Vero Beach, FL 32960, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 43:985-1015. 2005
    b>Parabens are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Acute, subchronic, and chronic studies in rodents indicate that parabens are practically non-toxic...
  10. ncbi Estrogenicity of parabens revisited: impact of parabens on early pregnancy and an uterotrophic assay in mice
    Jordan Shaw
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada
    Reprod Toxicol 28:26-31. 2009
    b>Parabens, a class of preservatives routinely added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods, have estrogenic properties...
  11. ncbi ER-dependent estrogenic activity of parabens assessed by proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and expression of ERalpha and PR
    T Okubo
    Department of Toxicology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, 3-24-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, 169-0073, Tokyo, Japan
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:1225-32. 2001
    ..The cell-proliferative effects of parabens were completely suppressed by anti-estrogen ICI 182,780...
  12. ncbi Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
    Hanne Frederiksen
    Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 21:262-71. 2011
    b>Parabens are used as anti-microbial preservatives in a range of consumer products, especially in cosmetics...
  13. ncbi Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture
    Christopher Jewell
    Toxicology Unit, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4EA, UK
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 225:221-8. 2007
    b>Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals...
  14. pmc Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation
    Pan Hu
    Department of Nutrition, The Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, 130021, China
    Toxicol Sci 131:56-70. 2013
    b>Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben...
  15. ncbi Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells
    Sugandha Khanna
    Biomedical Sciences Section, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6UB, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 33:378-82. 2013
    b>Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are used extensively as preservatives in consumer products, and intact esters have been measured in several human tissues...
  16. ncbi Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women
    Sayaka Shirai
    Department of Environmental Studies, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan
    Reprod Toxicol 35:96-101. 2013
    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women...
  17. pmc Characterization of PcaQ, a LysR-type transcriptional activator required for catabolism of phenolic compounds, from Agrobacterium tumefaciens
    D Parke
    Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8103, USA
    J Bacteriol 178:266-72. 1996
    ....
  18. pmc BenR, a XylS homologue, regulates three different pathways of aromatic acid degradation in Pseudomonas putida
    C E Cowles
    Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Bacteriol 182:6339-46. 2000
    ..The action of BenR in repressing 4-HBA uptake is probably indirect...
  19. ncbi Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system
    S Oishi
    Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, 3 24 1, Hyakunin cho, Shinjuku ku, Japan
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1807-13. 2002
    b>Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compounds widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals...
  20. ncbi Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks
    Philippa D Darbre
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 28:561-78. 2008
    ..the past four years since publication in 2004 of the first measurement of intact esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast cancer tissues, and the suggestion that their presence in the human body might originate from ..
  21. ncbi Decreased sperm number and motile activity on the F1 offspring maternally exposed to butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (butyl paraben)
    Kyung Sun Kang
    Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine and School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Suwon, Korea
    J Vet Med Sci 64:227-35. 2002
    ..Taken together, these results indicated that maternal exposure of BP might have adverse effects on the F1 male offspring...
  22. ncbi Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of a cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymer with butylparaben or triclosan
    L Qian
    State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
    Int J Pharm 357:244-51. 2008
    ..Due to the targeting effect after the complexation with CPbetaCD, the antimicrobial activity of butylparaben can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, this improvement effect was not obvious for triclosan...
  23. ncbi Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis?
    Camilla Taxvig
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, DK 2860 Søborg, Denmark
    Toxicol Sci 106:206-13. 2008
    ..Additionally, both parabens were tested in vitro in the H295R steroidogenesis assay and in the T-screen assay, the later to test for their ..
  24. ncbi Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method with peak focusing for measuring parabens, triclosan, and other environmental phenols in human milk
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States
    Anal Chim Acta 622:150-6. 2008
    b>Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and triclosan are widely used as preservatives and antimicrobial agents, respectively, in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and food processing...
  25. ncbi Automated on-line column-switching HPLC-MS/MS method for measuring environmental phenols and parabens in serum
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Talanta 76:865-71. 2008
    ..tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to measure the serum concentrations of seven environmental phenols and five parabens: bisphenol A; ortho-phenylphenol; 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-dichlorophenol; 2,4,5-trichlorophenol; benzophenone-3; ..
  26. ncbi Stability of the conjugated species of environmental phenols and parabens in human serum
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Environ Int 35:1160-3. 2009
    ..of the conjugates of four phenols-bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and 2,5-dichlorophenol-and two parabens-methyl paraben and propyl paraben-in 16 human serum samples for 30 days at above-freezing temperature storage ..
  27. ncbi Burkholderia cepacia infections associated with intrinsically contaminated ultrasound gel: the role of microbial degradation of parabens
    Jim Hutchinson
    Healthcare Corporation of St John s, Newfoundland, Canada
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 25:291-6. 2004
    ..To describe an outbreak of serious nosocomial Burkholderia cepacia infections occurring after transrectal prostate biopsy associated with ultrasound gel intrinsically contaminated with paraben-degrading microorganisms...
  28. ncbi Estrogenic activity of cosmetic components in reporter cell lines: parabens, UV screens, and musks
    E Gomez
    Département Sciences de l Environnement et Santé Publique, UMR Hydrosciences, Faculte de Pharmacie, Montpellier, France
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 68:239-51. 2005
    In this work, the estrogenic effects of three classes of substances included in cosmetic formulations-parabens, ultraviolet (UV) screens, and musk fragrances-were studied...
  29. ncbi A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health
    Robert Golden
    ToxLogic LC, Potomac, Maryland 20854, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:435-58. 2005
    b>Parabens are a group of the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and typically include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, and benzylparaben...
  30. ncbi Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens
    Christina E Cowan-Ellsberry
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 55:321-9. 2009
    ..in the aggregate exposure from incorporating these data is illustrated using methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, the most widely used preservative system in personal care and cosmetic products...
  31. ncbi In vivo and in vitro estrogen bioactivities of alkyl parabens
    Cristina Lemini
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510, D F Mexico
    Toxicol Ind Health 19:69-79. 2003
    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid known as parabens (Pbens) are used as preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations. They have been reported as estrogenic...
  32. ncbi The effects of parabens on the mechanosensitive channels of E. coli
    Thom Nguyen
    School of Medicine and Pharmacology, QEII Medical Centre, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
    Eur Biophys J 34:389-95. 2005
    b>Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid used as preservatives in a wide range of food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products. Despite their common use for over 50 years, their mechanism of action is still unclear...
  33. ncbi Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics
    J A van Meeuwen
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 230:372-82. 2008
    ..Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are ..
  34. ncbi Determination of parabens in house dust by pressurised hot water extraction followed by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Noelia Ramírez
    Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcel li Domingo s n, Sescelades Campus, Tarragona 43007, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 1218:6226-31. 2011
    This study describes the development of a new method for determining p-hydroxybenzoic esters (parabens) in house dust...
  35. ncbi Plasma concentrations of parabens in postmenopausal women and self-reported use of personal care products: the NOWAC postgenome study
    Torkjel M Sandanger
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 21:595-600. 2011
    b>Parabens are used extensively in personal care products; however, their estrogenic properties have raised concern over risks to human health...
  36. pmc In vitro analyses of the effects of heparin and parabens on Candida albicans biofilms and planktonic cells
    Marisa H Miceli
    Department of Internal Medicine, Oakwood Hospital and Medical Center, Dearborn, Michigan, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:148-53. 2012
    ..Investigation of high-dose heparin-based strategies (e.g., heparin locks) in combination with traditional antifungal agents for the treatment and/or prevention of C. albicans biofilms is warranted...
  37. ncbi Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum
    L Barr
    The Genesis Breast Cancer Prevention Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 32:219-32. 2012
    The concentrations of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) were measured using HPLC-MS/MS at four serial locations across the human breast from axilla to sternum using human breast tissue collected from 40 mastectomies for ..
  38. pmc Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization
    Jessica H Savage
    Johns Hopkins Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 130:453-60.e7. 2012
    ..Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have immune-modulating effects. We were interested in determining their association with allergic sensitization...
  39. pmc Urinary concentrations of parabens and serum hormone levels, semen quality parameters, and sperm DNA damage
    John D Meeker
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:252-7. 2011
    b>Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing...
  40. ncbi Determination of parabens in pharmaceutical formulations by solid-phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry
    John K Lokhnauth
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Seton Hall University, 400 South Orange Avenue, South Orange, New Jersey 07079, USA
    Anal Chem 77:5938-46. 2005
    ..The parabens are extracted from the samples using SPME, and the analytes on the fiber are heated by the IMS desorber unit and ..
  41. pmc Discovery of a marine bacterium producing 4-hydroxybenzoate and its alkyl esters, parabens
    Xue Peng
    Marine Biotechnology Institute, 3 75 1 Heita, Kamaishi shi, Iwate 026 0001, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5556-61. 2006
    ..Its alkyl esters, called parabens, have been the most widely used preservatives by the food and cosmetic industries...
  42. ncbi Trace analysis of parabens, triclosan and related chlorophenols in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Jorge Regueiro
    Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 1216:4693-702. 2009
    An in situ derivatization solid-phase microextraction method has been developed for the determination of parabens, triclosan and related chlorophenols in water...
  43. ncbi Dissolution rate enhancement of parabens in PEG solid dispersions and its influence on the release from hydrophilic matrix tablets
    Farhad Tajarobi
    AstraZeneca R and D, SE 431 83 Molndal, Sweden
    J Pharm Sci 100:275-83. 2011
    The dissolution rate of a homologous series of parabens and their dispersions in PEG 4 × 10(3) was examined...
  44. ncbi Effect of a solution containing citrate/Methylene Blue/parabens on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and biofilm, and comparison with various heparin solutions
    Karin Sauer
    Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY at Binghamton, NY, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 63:937-45. 2009
    ..this study was to investigate the effect of a new antibacterial/antithrombotic solution, citrate/Methylene Blue/parabens (C/MB/P), versus various heparin solutions on the viability and the structure of preformed mature biofilms of ..
  45. ncbi Guest molecular size-dependent inclusion complexation of parabens with cholic acid by cogrinding
    Kunikazu Moribe
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba 260 8675, Japan
    Int J Pharm 420:191-7. 2011
    ..Ethyl-, n-propyl-, and isopropyl-parabens formed equimolar inclusion complexes with CA, and the complex structures were of the β-trans bilayer type...
  46. ncbi Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Xinghua Fan
    Health Canada, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Environ Monit 12:1891-7. 2010
    An integrated analytical method for the simultaneous determination of five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-), triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust was developed based on gas chromatographic-mass ..
  47. ncbi Partitioning of parabens between phases of submicron emulsions stabilized with egg lecithin
    Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Medical University of Gdansk, Hallera 107, Gdansk 80 416, Poland
    Int J Pharm 312:174-8. 2006
    Partitioning of methyl and propyl parabens (methyl and propyl hydroxybenzoate, paraben M and P) between the major phases in the parenteral submicron emulsions was studied. The investigated emulsions contained 10% or 20% soya-bean oil, 1...
  48. ncbi Purification and characterization of 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain
    M Suarez
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular IV, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
    Arch Microbiol 164:70-7. 1995
    ..6. Steady-state kinetics were analyzed; the initial velocity patterns were consistent with a concerted substitution mechanism. The purified enzyme had 362 amino acid residues, and a tyrosine seemed to be involved in substrate activation...
  49. ncbi A simple solvent collection technique for a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of parabens from aqueous samples using low-density organic solvent
    Hasan Cabuk
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, Turkey
    J Sep Sci 35:2645-52. 2012
    ..The limits of detection ranged from 0.021 to 0.046 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied for the determination of parabens in tap water and fruit juice samples and good recoveries (61-108%) were achieved for spiked samples.
  50. ncbi Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens
    Walter J Crinnion
    Environmental Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ, USA
    Altern Med Rev 15:190-6. 2010
    ..Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation...
  51. pmc Aerobic metabolism of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in Archaea via an unusual pathway involving an intramolecular migration (NIH shift)
    D J Fairley
    Queen s University Environmental Science and Technology Research Centre, The Queen s University of Belfast, Northern Ireland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:6246-55. 2002
    ..strain D1 involves a hydroxylation-induced intramolecular migration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pathway which involves such a transformation (called an NIH shift) in the domain Archaea...
  52. ncbi Estrogen receptor α is involved in the induction of Calbindin-D(9k) and progesterone receptor by parabens in GH3 cells: a biomarker gene for screening xenoestrogens
    Thuy T B Vo
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Republic of Korea
    Steroids 76:675-81. 2011
    ..an estrogenic biomarker gene - Calbindin-D(9k) (CaBP-9k) to investigate the xenoestrogenic activity of a panel of parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutylparabens) in GH3 rat pituitary cancer cell line...
  53. ncbi An evaluation of estrogenic activity of parabens using uterine calbindin-d9k gene in an immature rat model
    Thuy T B Vo
    Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361 763, Korea
    Toxicol Sci 112:68-77. 2009
    ..chemicals in vivo and in vitro, was adopted to examine the potential estrogen-like property of the following parabens: propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutylparaben...
  54. pmc Exposure to bisphenol A and other phenols in neonatal intensive care unit premature infants
    Antonia M Calafat
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:639-44. 2009
    ..For 42 of these infants, we evaluated urinary concentrations of several phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), in association with the use of the same medical devices...
  55. pmc Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1843-6. 2006
    b>Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens...
  56. ncbi Potential estrogenic effect(s) of parabens at the prepubertal stage of a postnatal female rat model
    Thuy T B Vo
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
    Reprod Toxicol 29:306-16. 2010
    In this study, a female pubertal assay on the effects of parabens, including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutylparaben, was performed in a female Sprague-Dawley rat model during the juvenile-peripubertal period...
  57. ncbi Potential use of antioxidants for control of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on whole maize grain
    A M Torres
    Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto, Cordoba, Argentina
    Int J Food Microbiol 83:319-24. 2003
    ..98 and 0.95 a(w). These results suggest that these antioxidants have potential for treatment of maize grain for controlling growth of these mycotoxigenic species and prevent fumonisin accumulation...
  58. ncbi Effects of butyl paraben on the male reproductive system in mice
    Shinshi Oishi
    Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, 3 24 1 Hyakunin cho, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 169 0073, Japan
    Arch Toxicol 76:423-9. 2002
    b>Parabens are alkyl ester compounds of p-hydroxybenzoic acid widely used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals...
  59. pmc Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics of p-hydroxybenzoate producing Pseudomonas putida S12: novel responses and implications for strain improvement
    Suzanne Verhoef
    Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628, BC, Delft, The Netherlands
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:679-90. 2010
    ..Eliminating the most prominent of these resulted in a 22% p-hydroxybenzoate yield improvement. Remarkably, the upregulation of genes contributing to p-hydroxybenzoate formation was much higher in glucose than in glycerol-cultured cells...
  60. ncbi Simultaneous, stability indicating, HPLC-DAD determination of guaifenesin and methyl and propyl-parabens in cough syrup
    Giorgio Grosa
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Alimentari, Farmaceutiche e Farmacologiche, Universita degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro, Via Bovio 6, 28100 Novara, Italy
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 41:798-803. 2006
    ..8, 0.7, and 0.4% for GUA, MHB, and PHB, respectively, from laboratory prepared samples. The applicability of the method was evaluated in commercial dosage form analysis as well as in stability studies...
  61. ncbi Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells
    J R Byford
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 80:49-60. 2002
    b>Parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters) have been recently reported to have oestrogenic activity in yeast cells and animal models...
  62. ncbi Inhibition of ochratoxin A production and growth of Aspergillus species by phenolic antioxidant compounds
    Jeffrey D Palumbo
    Plant Mycotoxin Research Unit, U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 800 Buchanan St, Albany, CA 94710, USA
    Mycopathologia 164:241-8. 2007
    ..In addition, inhibition of OTA production by antioxidant compounds may be useful in determining biosynthetic and regulatory genes involved in both OTA production and stress response in ochratoxigenic Aspergilli...
  63. ncbi In vitro effect of phenolic antioxidants on germination, growth and aflatoxin B accumulation by peanut Aspergillus section Flavi
    M A Passone
    Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 36, 5800 Córdoba, Argentina
    J Appl Microbiol 99:682-91. 2005
    ....
  64. ncbi Lack of effect of butylparaben and methylparaben on the reproductive system in male rats
    Alan M Hoberman
    Charles River Preclinical Services, Horsham, PA 19044, USA
    Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 83:123-33. 2008
    b>Parabens are widely used preservatives in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products, and approved as food additives. Parabens have been considered safe for these uses for many years...
  65. ncbi Lack of spermatotoxic effects of methyl and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in rats
    Shinshi Oishi
    Department of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, 3 24 1 Hyakunin cho, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 169 0073, Japan
    Food Chem Toxicol 42:1845-9. 2004
    b>Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid widely used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics toiletries and pharmaceuticals. These compounds are known to exert a weak estrogenic activity in estrogen receptor assays in vitro...
  66. ncbi Significance of the detection of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours
    Philip W Harvey
    J Appl Toxicol 24:1-4. 2004
    This issue of Journal of Applied Toxicology publishes the paper Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast Tumours by Darbre et al...
  67. ncbi Antiaflatoxigenic property of food grade antioxidants under different conditions of water activity in peanut grains
    María A Passone
    CONICET Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisico Quimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 36, km 601, 5800, Cordoba, Argentina
    Int J Food Microbiol 118:8-14. 2007
    ..The studied results suggest that IG antioxidant mixtures have potential for controlling growth of these mycotoxigenic species and prevent aflatoxin accumulation at the peanut storage system...
  68. ncbi Use of propyl paraben to control growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus section Nigri species on peanut meal extract agar
    Carla Barberis
    Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisico Quimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Cordoba, Argentina
    Int J Food Microbiol 136:133-6. 2009
    ..At 5, 10 and 20 mmol/L of PP the strains were not able to reach the exponential phase and completely inhibited fungal growth and OTA production regardless of a(W) used in all the evaluated strains...
  69. ncbi Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats
    S Oishi
    Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, Japan
    Toxicol Ind Health 17:31-9. 2001
    b>Parabens are a group of compounds widely used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals...
  70. ncbi Reaction of para-hydroxybenzoic acid esters with singlet oxygen in the presence of glutathione produces glutathione conjugates of hydroquinone, potent inducers of oxidative stress
    Chiho Nishizawa
    National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263 8555, Japan
    Free Radic Res 40:233-40. 2006
    ..and toxicological characterization of products of the reaction between p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) are very important because of the frequent use of parabens in cosmetics and ..
  71. ncbi In vitro control of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum using antioxidants under different water availability and temperature regimes
    M Etcheverry
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National University of Rio Cuarto, Cordoba, Argentina
    J Appl Microbiol 92:624-32. 2002
    ..proliferatum...
  72. ncbi Genotoxic effects of environmental estrogen-like compounds in CHO-K1 cells
    Sumiko Tayama
    Department of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan
    Mutat Res 649:114-25. 2008
    ..Our findings also suggest that E2, DES and BPA have aneuploidogenic properties, and that the former two of chemicals also are polyploidy-inducing agents...
  73. ncbi Bioproduction of p-hydroxybenzoate from renewable feedstock by solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12
    Suzanne Verhoef
    TNO Quality of Life, Business Unit Food and Biotechnology Innovations, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft, The Netherlands B Basic, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft, The Netherlands
    J Biotechnol 132:49-56. 2007
    ..7, indicating that Pal activity is the limiting factor when sufficient l-tyrosine is available. Thus, two major leads for further improvement of the p-hydroxybenzoate production by P. putida S12palB1 were identified...
  74. ncbi Optimisation of a solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of parabens in water samples at the low ng per litre level
    P Canosa
    Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 1124:3-10. 2006
    A procedure for the determination of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in water samples is presented...
  75. pmc Characterization of the pcaR regulatory gene from Pseudomonas putida, which is required for the complete degradation of p-hydroxybenzoate
    S Romero-Steiner
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303
    J Bacteriol 176:5771-9. 1994
    ....
  76. ncbi Simultaneous determination of seven phthalates and four parabens in cosmetic products using HPLC-DAD and GC-MS methods
    Hao Yu Shen
    Analysis and Testing Center, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, PR China
    J Sep Sci 30:48-54. 2007
    ..benzyl butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dioctyl phthalate, and four parabens, i.e...
  77. pmc Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products
    Jiangang Chen
    Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 221:278-84. 2007
    ..transcriptional activity assay was employed to evaluate the androgenic/antiandrogenic activity of parabens and selected other antimicrobials containing a phenolic moiety...
  78. ncbi Temporal stability of the conjugated species of bisphenol A, parabens, and other environmental phenols in human urine
    Xiaoyun Ye
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:567-72. 2007
    ....
  79. ncbi Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic
    E J Routledge
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 153:12-9. 1998
    ..in vitro and in vivo (uterotrophic) studies which confirm that a range of alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are weakly estrogenic...
  80. ncbi Assessment of principal parabens used in cosmetics after their passage through human epidermis-dermis layers (ex-vivo study)
    Sawsan El Hussein
    Cutaneous Engineering and Biology Laboratory EA 3183, IFR 133, University of Franche Comte, Besancon, France
    Exp Dermatol 16:830-6. 2007
    Concern is continuously raised about the safety of parabens which are present in most of the cosmetic preparations...
  81. ncbi Safety assessment of propyl paraben: a review of the published literature
    M G Soni
    Burdock and Associates, Inc, 622 Beachland Blvd, Vero Beach, FL 32963, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 39:513-32. 2001
    ..Sensitization has occurred when medications containing parabens have been applied to damaged or broken skin...
  82. ncbi Adaptive and cross-protective responses of Pseudomonas sp. DJ-12 to several aromatics and other stress shocks
    S H Park
    Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, and Research Institute for Genetic Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea
    Curr Microbiol 43:176-81. 2001
    ..The cells adapted to 42 degrees C exhibited markedly increased resistance to the lethal stresses of 46 degrees C as well as to 20% ethanol...
  83. ncbi Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours
    P D Darbre
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 24:5-13. 2004
    b>Parabens are used as preservatives in many thousands of cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products to which the human population is exposed...
  84. ncbi Comparison of paraben stability in human and rat skin
    Heather M Harville
    Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Drug Metab Lett 1:17-21. 2007
    b>Parabens are widely used preservatives in topical products, and are estrogenic in numerous experimental models. The typical cutaneous metabolism model, rat skin, hydrolyzes parabens much faster than human skin...
  85. ncbi Mass flows of endocrine disruptors in the Glatt River during varying weather conditions
    Niels Jonkers
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Pollut 157:714-23. 2009
    ..behaviour in wastewater and surface waters of several phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenolic compounds, phenylphenol (PhP) and bisphenol A (BPA)...
  86. pmc Characterization of the Escherichia coli AaeAB efflux pump: a metabolic relief valve?
    Tina K Van Dyk
    DuPont Company CR and D, Rt 141 and Powdermill Road, P O Box 80173, Wilmington, DE 19880 0173, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:7196-204. 2004
    ..The role of pHBA in normal E. coli metabolism and the highly regulated expression of the AaeAB efflux system suggests that the physiological role may be as a "metabolic relief valve" to alleviate toxic effects of imbalanced metabolism...
  87. ncbi Parabens in male infertility-is there a mitochondrial connection?
    Renata S Tavares
    Department of Zoology, Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology of Coimbra, University of Coimbra, 3004 517 Coimbra, Portugal
    Reprod Toxicol 27:1-7. 2009
    b>Parabens are widely used as preservatives in many foods, cosmetics, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals due to their relatively low toxicity profile and to a long history of safe use...
  88. ncbi The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity
    Kishore Kamaraju
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Biochemistry 47:10540-50. 2008
    ..p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are amphipathic compounds widely used as food and cosmetics preservatives, but the mechanisms of their broad ..
  89. ncbi Endocrine disrupters and human health: could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women?
    Philip W Harvey
    Department of Toxicology, Covance Laboratories Ltd, Otley Road, Harrogate, North Yorkshire HG3 1PY, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 24:167-76. 2004
    ..The most common group of body care cosmetic formulation excipients, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters or parabens, have been shown recently to be oestrogenic in vitro and in vivo and now have been detected in human breast ..
  90. ncbi A structural and thermal investigation of the inclusion of parabens in heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose
    Elise J C de Vries
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    Carbohydr Res 343:2433-8. 2008
    ..inclusion complexes formed by heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl parabens have been solved and analysed by X-ray diffraction...
  91. ncbi Determination of cisapride, its oxidation product, propyl and butyl parabens in pharmaceutical dosage form by reversed-phase liquid chromatography
    J E Belgaied
    Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologies, B P 676, 1080 Tunis Cedex, Tunisia
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 33:991-8. 2003
    ..high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for cisapride, its oxidation product (OP), propyl and butyl parabens in a pharmaceutical formulation is described...
  92. ncbi Combination of off-line solid-phase extraction and on-column sample stacking for sensitive determination of parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in waters by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis
    Eva Blanco
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Research and Food Analysis, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avda de las Ciencias s n, E 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Anal Chim Acta 647:104-11. 2009
    ..For the first time, a procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the simultaneous extraction of a group of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and benzyl p-hydroxybenzoates) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), from environmental ..
  93. ncbi Evaluation of the health aspects of methyl paraben: a review of the published literature
    M G Soni
    Burdock Group, Vero Beach, FL 32962, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 40:1335-73. 2002
    ..The mechanism of cytotoxic action of parabens may be linked to mitochondrial failure dependent on induction of membrane permeability transition accompanied by ..
  94. ncbi Parabens, oestrogenicity, underarm cosmetics and breast cancer: a perspective on a hypothesis
    Philip W Harvey
    J Appl Toxicol 23:285-8. 2003
    ..and scientific interest that requires perspective, particularly on the use of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as preservatives in underarm cosmetics...
  95. ncbi Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo
    P D Darbre
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 22:219-26. 2002
    The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are used widely as preservatives in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to which the human population is exposed...
  96. ncbi Identification and quantification of estrogenic compounds in recycled and virgin paper for household use as determined by an in vitro yeast estrogen screen and chemical analysis
    A M Vinggaard
    Institute of Food Safety and Toxicology and Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Morkhoj Bygade 19, 2860 Soborg, Denmark
    Chem Res Toxicol 13:1214-22. 2000
    ..These data indicate that bisphenol A may be useful as a purity indicator for recycled paper...
  97. ncbi Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben
    P D Darbre
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 23:43-51. 2003
    Previous work has demonstrated that the alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) possess oestrogenic activity, which increases with length of alkyl chain from methylparaben to n-butylparaben and with branching in the alkyl chain ..
  98. ncbi Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes
    S Ishiwatari
    Fancl Corporation, 12 13 Kamishinano, Yokohama 244 0806, Japan
    J Appl Toxicol 27:1-9. 2007
    ..The study focused on parabens which have been used extensively as antimicrobial preservatives in foods, drugs and cosmetics...
  99. ncbi Study of hydroxy propyl guar derivative for its gelling property and it's use in the formulation of tenoxicam gels
    N G N Swamy
    Government College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 027, India
    Pak J Pharm Sci 20:61-6. 2007
    ..Release studies of tenoxicam from formulations across hairless albino mice skin revealed a zero order drug release pattern from both the formulations...
  100. pmc Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use
    Magnus A Atemnkeng
    Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    Malar J 6:12. 2007
    ..In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed...
  101. ncbi Pharmaceutical gel analysis by NIR spectroscopy. Determination of the active principle and low concentration of preservatives
    M Blanco
    Departament de Quimica, Unitat de Quimica Analitica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    Eur J Pharm Sci 33:409-14. 2008
    ..pharmaceutical preparation exhibits strong absorption in the NIR spectral region; also, the two preservatives (parabens) are very similar in chemical and spectral terms, and present at low concentrations in the pharmaceutical...

Research Grants4

  1. Membrane Mechanics, Osmotic Stress, and the Yeast Stretch-Activated TRP
    Yoshiro Saimi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Consistent with the hypothesis, exogenously added aromatic compounds (tryptophan, indole, parabens, etc) have recently been found to activate Yvc1p in vivo and under patch clamp...
  2. Pneumocystis Biochemistry: Ubiquinones
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..carinii CoQ biosynthesis and growth in axenic cultures, and (4) develop atovaquone-resistant P. carinii populations to evaluate CoQ synthesis in sensitive and resistant organisms. ..
  3. NINTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOPS ON OPPORTUNISTIC PEOTISTS (IWOP-9)
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..As in several IWOP meetings in the past, the 2006 Workshops will be held jointly with the annual meetings of the International Society of Protistologists ( formerly Society of Protozoologists). ..
  4. Sterol Metabolism in Pneumocystis
    EDNA KANESHIRO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....