Genomes and Genes
Summary: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Publications224 found, 100 shown here
- The N domain of human angiotensin-I-converting enzyme: the role of N-glycosylation and the crystal structure in complex with an N domain-specific phosphinic inhibitor, RXP407Colin S Anthony
Division of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
J Biol Chem 285:35685-93. 2010..0 Å resolution. The Ndom389 structure revealed a hinge region that may contribute to the breathing motion proposed for substrate binding...
- Roles of the two active sites of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme in the cleavage of angiotensin I and bradykinin: insights from selective inhibitorsDimitris Georgiadis
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, Athens, Greece
Circ Res 93:148-54. 2003..Based on these findings, it might be suggested that the gene duplication of ACE in vertebrates may represent a means for regulating the cleavage of Ang I differently from that of BK...
- Effects of electrically coupled inhibitory networks on local neuronal responses to intracortical microstimulationSergejus Butovas
Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Department of Cognitive Neurology, University Tübingen, Otfried Müller Str 27, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
J Neurophysiol 96:1227-36. 2006..Electrical coupling renders evoked cortical inhibition more precise and strong and ensures a uniform spread along the two cardinal axes of neocortical geometry...
- RXP 407, a phosphinic peptide, is a potent inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme able to differentiate between its two active sitesV Dive
Departement d Etudes et d Ingéniérie des Protéines, Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:4330-5. 1999....
- Investigating the domain specificity of phosphinic inhibitors RXPA380 and RXP407 in angiotensin-converting enzymeWendy L Kröger
Division of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town 7935, South Africa
Biochemistry 48:8405-12. 2009..Taken together, these data advance our understanding regarding the molecular basis for the remarkable ACE domain selectivity exhibited by these inhibitors...
- Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 novel agonist LSP1-2111 with anxiolytic, but not antidepressant-like activity, mediated by serotonergic and GABAergic systemsJoanna M Wieronska
Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31 343 Krakow, Poland
Neuropharmacology 59:627-34. 2010..Moreover, the compound was not effective in 5-HT depleted animals. The results of these studies indicate that the GABAergic and serotonergic systems are involved in the potential anxiolytic action of LSP1-2111...
- Development of domain-selective angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitorsPierre Redelinghuys
Division of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1056:160-75. 2005..This review summarizes the structural basis and recent synthetic chemistry approaches to the development of novel domain-selective inhibitors...
- Novel mechanism of inhibition of human angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) by a highly specific phosphinic tripeptideMohd Akif
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Biochem J 436:53-9. 2011..These features, for the first time, highlight the unusual architecture and flexibility of the active site of C-ACE, which could be further utilized for structure-based design of new C-ACE or vasopeptidase inhibitors...
- RXP 407, a selective inhibitor of the N-domain of angiotensin I-converting enzyme, blocks in vivo the degradation of hemoregulatory peptide acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro with no effect on angiotensin I hydrolysisC Junot
Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Service de Pharmacologie et d Immunologie, Gif sur Yvette, France
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 297:606-11. 2001..Thus, RXP 407 is the first ACE inhibitor that might be used to control selectively AcSDKP metabolism with no effect on blood pressure regulation...
- Aldehyde and phosphinate analogs of glutathione and glutathionylspermidine: potent, selective binding inhibitors of the E. coli bifunctional glutathionylspermidine synthetase/amidaseC H Lin
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Chem Biol 4:859-66. 1997..In E. coli, the Gsp synthetase is part of a bifunctional enzyme opposed by the hydrolytic Gsp amidase...
- Opposing efficacy of group III mGlu receptor activators, LSP1-2111 and AMN082, in animal models of positive symptoms of schizophreniaJoanna M Wieronska
Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31 343, Krakow, Poland
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 220:481-94. 2012..Several studies have suggested that modulation of the glutamatergic system via metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu) could be a new and efficient way to achieve antipsychotic-like activity...
- On the mechanism of anti-hyperthermic effects of LY379268 and LY487379, group II mGlu receptors activators, in the stress-induced hyperthermia in singly housed miceJ M Wieronska
Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31 343 Krakow, Poland
Neuropharmacology 62:322-31. 2012..Therefore, it seems that the antagonism towards GABA(A) receptors, presynaptic 5-HT(1A) and postsynaptic 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors is responsible for the phenomenon. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'...
- The GABA B receptor agonist CGP44532 and the positive modulator GS39783 reverse some behavioural changes related to positive syndromes of psychosis in miceJ M Wieronska
Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Pharmacology PAS, 31 343 Krakow, Poland
Br J Pharmacol 163:1034-47. 2011..The GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP51176 and CGP36742, agonist CGP44532 and positive allosteric modulator GS39783 were studied...
- Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 with a new agonist reverses experimental parkinsonismCorinne Beurrier
Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216 CNRS Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France
FASEB J 23:3619-28. 2009..Finally, systemic administration of LSP1-2111 counteracts haloperidol-induced catalepsy, opening promising perspectives for the development of antiparkinsonian therapeutic strategies focused on orthosteric mGlu4-receptor agonists...
- Effect of lesogaberan, a novel GABA(B)-receptor agonist, on transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in male subjectsG E Boeckxstaens
Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31:1208-17. 2010..Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are a major mechanism behind gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
- Synthesis of p-aminophenyl aryl H-phosphinic acids and esters via cross-coupling reactions: elaboration to phosphinic acid pseudopeptide analogues of pteroyl glutamic acid and related antifolatesYonghong Yang
Departments of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1055, USA
J Org Chem 72:5748-58. 2007The synthesis of suitably protected p-aminophenyl H-phosphinic acids and esters from the corresponding para-substituted aryl halides has been accomplished via the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of anilinium hypophosphite, either in ..
- Role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 oriens-lacunosum moleculare interneuronsIris Oren
Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
J Neurosci 29:939-50. 2009..Glutamatergic synapses on O-LM cells thus behave in a homogeneous manner and exhibit LTP dependent on Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors...
- Effects of lesogaberan on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter function in patients with gastroesophageal reflux diseaseGuy E Boeckxstaens
Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Gastroenterology 139:409-17. 2010....
- Structural determinants of RXPA380, a potent and highly selective inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme C-domainDimitris Georgiadis
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece
Biochemistry 43:8048-54. 2004..The structural insights provided by this study should enhance understanding of the factors controlling the selectivity of the two domains of somatic ACE and allow the design of new selective ACE inhibitors...
- (R)-(3-amino-2-fluoropropyl) phosphinic acid (AZD3355), a novel GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation through a peripheral mode of actionAnders Lehmann
AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal, Sweden
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 331:504-12. 2009..In summary, AZD3355 probably inhibits TLESR through stimulation of peripheral GABA(B) receptors and may offer a potential new approach to treatment of GERD...
- Combined use of selective inhibitors and fluorogenic substrates to study the specificity of somatic wild-type angiotensin-converting enzymeNicolas D Jullien
CEA, Département d Ingénerie et d Etudes des Protéines, Gif Yvette, France
FEBS J 273:1772-81. 2006..These results raise concerns about the interpretation of functional studies performed in animals using N-domain and C-domain substrate selectivity data derived only from human ACE...
- Phosphinic acid pseudopeptides analogous to glutamyl-gamma-glutamate: synthesis and coupling to pteroyl azides leads to potent inhibitors of folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetaseN Valiaeva
Departments of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055, USA
J Org Chem 66:5146-54. 2001....
- Functional conservation of the active sites of human and Drosophila angiotensin I-converting enzymeD Coates
School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Biochemistry 39:8963-9. 2000..The conservation of ACE enzymes with distinct active sites in the evolution of both vertebrate and invertebrate species provides further evidence that these two kinds of active sites have different physiological functions...
- Computer-aided optimization of phosphinic inhibitors of bacterial ureasesStamatia Vassiliou
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland
J Med Chem 53:5597-606. 2010..The designed compounds represent a competitive reversible class of urease inhibitors. The most potent, N-methyl-aminomethyl-P-hydroxymethylphosphinic acid, displayed K(i) = 360 nM against P. vulgaris enzyme...
- Potent inhibition of human folylpolyglutamate synthetase by a phosphinic acid mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediateJohn J McGuire
Grace Cancer Drug Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Biochem Pharmacol 65:315-8. 2003..Because of its exceedingly high potency as an FPGS inhibitor, MTX-phosphinate represents a lead structure from which cell-permeable analogs may be developed to test the hypothesis that FPGS inhibition is therapeutically efficacious...
- Prodrug forms of N-[(4-deoxy-4-amino-10-methyl)pteroyl]glutamate-gamma-[psiP(O)(OH)]-glutarate, a potent inhibitor of folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase: synthesis and hydrolytic stabilityYan Feng
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1055, USA
J Med Chem 49:770-88. 2006..H-phosphinic acids derived from N-Cbz vinyl glycine esters were converted to the desired pseudopeptides by Michael addition to ..
- A stereoselective synthesis of phosphinic acid phosphapeptides corresponding to glutamyl-gamma-glutamate and incorporation into potent inhibitors of folylpoly-gamma-glutamyl synthetaseDavid M Bartley
Departments of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1055, USA
J Org Chem 70:6757-74. 2005....
- Phosphinic peptides as zinc metalloproteinase inhibitorsV Dive
Départment d Ingénierie et d Etudes des Protéines DIEP, CEA, CE Saclay, 91191, Gif Yvette Cedex, France
Cell Mol Life Sci 61:2010-9. 2004..Specific properties of the inhibitors produced in recent years are reviewed, supporting the notion that phosphinic pseudo-peptides are useful tools for studying the structural and functional biology of zinc proteases...
- The structure of testis angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with the C domain-specific inhibitor RXPA380Hazel R Corradi
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom
Biochemistry 46:5473-8. 2007..The characterization of the extended active site and the binding of a potent C-domain-selective inhibitor provide the first structural data for the design of truly domain-specific pharmacophores...
- Nucleus-specific abnormalities of GABAergic synaptic transmission in a genetic model of absence seizuresThomas Bessaïh
Neurobiologie des Processus Adaptatifs, UMR 7102 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, 9 Quai St Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
J Neurophysiol 96:3074-81. 2006....
- 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1B receptors mediate presynaptic inhibition of monosynaptic IPSC in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleusToshimasa Matsuoka
Department of Physiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi Machi, Kurume 830 0011, Japan
Neurosci Res 48:229-38. 2004..These results suggest that activation of presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors depresses the release of GABA via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-protein in the rat DLSN...
- Distinct properties of presynaptic group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition of perforant pathway-CA1 EPSCsMarco Capogna
Medical Research Council, Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
Eur J Neurosci 19:2847-58. 2004..Groups II and III mGluRs are segregated at the presynaptic terminal, and there are distinct differences between the properties of the presynaptic inhibition mediated by these two groups of receptors...
- Distinct properties of functional KCC2 expression in immature mouse hippocampal neurons in culture and in acute slicesStanislav Khirug
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Eur J Neurosci 21:899-904. 2005....
- GABAergic modulation of the activity of globus pallidus neurons in primates: in vivo analysis of the functions of GABA receptors and GABA transportersAdriana Galvan
Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
J Neurophysiol 94:990-1000. 2005....
- Modulation of the components of the rat dark-adapted electroretinogram by the three subtypes of GABA receptorsAnna Möller
Department of Physiology, University of Iceland IS 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
Vis Neurosci 20:535-42. 2003..OPs are modified by stimulation of GABAa receptors, and the a- and b-waves by stimulation of all GABA receptor subtypes...
- The spinal GABAergic system is a strong modulator of burst frequency in the lamprey locomotor networkDavid E Schmitt
Nobel Inst for Neurophysiology, Dept of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
J Neurophysiol 92:2357-67. 2004..It is not required for burst generation, but acts as a powerful modulator...
- Mechanism of GABA receptor-mediated inhibition of spontaneous GABA release onto cerebellar Purkinje cellsVictoria L Harvey
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Eur J Neurosci 20:684-700. 2004..Together, these results suggest that GABA(B) inhibition occurs downstream of Ca(2+) influx and may be mediated, in part, by an inhibition of the vesicular release mechanism...
- Presynaptic NMDA autoreceptors facilitate axon excitability: a new molecular target for the anticonvulsant gabapentinLuz M Suárez
Servicio de Neurobiologia, Dpto de Investigación, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Ctra de Colmenar Km 9, Madrid 28034, Spain
Eur J Neurosci 21:197-209. 2005..These findings suggest that sodium entry through presynaptic NMDA-R channels facilitates axon excitability. The interaction of gabapentin with this newly described mechanism might contribute to its therapeutic benefits...
- Intraglomerular inhibition: signaling mechanisms of an olfactory microcircuitGabe J Murphy
Neuroscience Graduate Program and Department of Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0608, USA
Nat Neurosci 8:354-64. 2005..Ca(2+) spikes in periglomerular cells are evoked by powerful excitatory inputs from a single principal cell, and glutamate release from the dendrites of single principal neurons activates a large ensemble of periglomerular cells...
- Pharmacology of GABAC receptors: responses to agonists and antagonists distinguish A- and B-subtypes of homomeric rho receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytesYi Pan
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 1855 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Neurosci Lett 376:60-5. 2005..These results indicate that, in addition to the characteristic response properties identified previously, there is a pattern of pharmacological reactions that further distinguishes the A- and B-subtypes of GABA rho receptor...
- GABAB receptor antagonist-mediated antidepressant-like behavior is serotonin-dependentDavid A Slattery
Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research WSJ 386 344, Novartis, Basel, CH 4002, Switzerland
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 312:290-6. 2005..Together, these data demonstrate that GABA(B) receptor antagonists via an interaction with the serotonergic system display antidepressant-like properties and therefore represent a novel approach for the treatment of depression...
- Synaptic depolarizing GABA Response in adults is excitatory and proconvulsive when GABAB receptors are blockedJoshua T Kantrowitz
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
J Neurophysiol 93:2656-67. 2005..We show here that GABA(B) receptors exert control over the synaptic depolarizing GABA response and that block of GABA(B) receptors makes the depolarizing GABA response excitatory and proconvulsive...
- Cortical injury affects short-term plasticity of evoked excitatory synaptic currentsHuifang Li
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Room M016, 300 Pasteur Dr, Stanford, CA 94305 5122, USA
J Neurophysiol 93:146-56. 2005..Results are compatible with an increase in the probability of transmitter release at excitatory synapses in undercut cortex due to functional changes in presynaptic terminals...
- GABAB receptors in the medial septum/diagonal band slice from 16-25 day ratZ Henderson
School of Biomedical Sciences, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Neuroscience 132:789-800. 2005..These results suggest that GABA(B) receptors modulate rather than generate rhythmic activity in the MS/DB, and that this modulatory effect occurs via receptors located on presynaptic terminals...
- Anticonvulsant enaminones depress excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat brain by enhancing extracellular GABA levelsSamuel B Kombian
Department of Applied Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
Br J Pharmacol 145:945-53. 2005..Our data suggest that anticonvulsant enaminones cause EPSC depression by enhancing extracellular GABA levels possibly through the inhibition of either GABA reuptake or GABA-T enzyme, or both...
- Enaminones and norepinephrine employ convergent mechanisms to depress excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat nucleus accumbens in vitroSamuel B Kombian
Department of Applied Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Centre, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
Eur J Neurosci 24:2781-8. 2006....
- Effects of mu-opioid receptor modulation on GABAB receptor synaptic function in hippocampal CA1A Rory McQuiston
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
J Neurophysiol 97:2301-11. 2007..Therefore MOR suppresses GABA(B) synaptic hyperpolarizations in all layers of CA1 and most effectively facilitates excitatory activity in CA1 output layers...
- Characterization of the glycinergic input to bipolar cells of the mouse retinaElena Ivanova
Department Neuroanatomy, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt Main, Germany
Eur J Neurosci 23:350-64. 2006..Thus, different bipolar cell types receive kinetically fast glycinergic inputs, preferentially mediated by GlyRs composed of alpha1 and beta subunits...
- Functional evidence for GABA as modulator of the contractility of the longitudinal muscle in mouse duodenum: role of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptorsMaria Grazia Zizzo
Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e dello Sviluppo, Laboratorio di Fisiologia generale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Neuropharmacology 52:1685-90. 2007....
- Dual GABAergic synaptic response of fast excitation and slow inhibition in the medial habenula of rat epithalamusUhnoh Kim
Department of Neurosurgery and Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Program, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
J Neurophysiol 98:1323-32. 2007..Our study demonstrates that the dual activation of GABAergic excitation and inhibition through GABA A Rs and GABA B Rs generates distinct temporal patterns of cell firing that alter the cellular output in an activity-dependent manner...
- GABA(B) receptor modulation of feedforward inhibition through hippocampal neurogliaform cellsChristopher J Price
Medical Research Council Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Oxford OX1 3TH, United Kingdom
J Neurosci 28:6974-82. 2008..The NGFC-CA1 pyramidal cell connection therefore provides a unique and subtle mechanism to shape the integration time domain for signals arriving via a major excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal cells...
- Activation of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors induces glutamate release from parallel fiber synapsesBrandon M Stell
Laboratoire de Physiologie Cérébrale, Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biomédicale, Universite Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
J Neurosci 27:9022-31. 2007..From these data, we conclude that GABA(A)Rs located on parallel fibers depolarize parallel fiber terminals beyond the threshold for Na+ channel activation and thereby induce glutamate release onto MLIs and Purkinje cells...
- Enantioselective actions of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid and (3-amino-2-hydroxypropyl)methylphosphinic acid at recombinant GABA(C) receptorsTina Hinton
The Adrien Albert Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:402-4. 2008..These studies highlight the different stereochemical requirements for the hydroxy group in these analogues at GABA(A), GABA(B) and GABA(C) receptors...
- Influence of positive allosteric modulators on GABA(B) receptor coupling in rat brain: a scintillation proximity assay characterisation of G protein subtypesClotilde Mannoury La Cour
Psychopharmacology Department, Institut de Recherche Servier, Croissy sur Seine, France
J Neurochem 105:308-23. 2008..PAMs more markedly enhanced efficacy of coupling to Go versus Gi(1/3). It will be of interest to confirm these observations employing complementary techniques and to evaluate their potential therapeutic significance...
- Regulation of synaptic input to hypothalamic presympathetic neurons by GABA(B) receptorsQ Chen
Department of Anesthesiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Neuroscience 142:595-606. 2006..This presynaptic action of GABA(B) receptors is mediated by the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive G(i/o) proteins, but independent of voltage-gated Ca2+ and K+ channels...
- Hippocampal partial kindling decreased hippocampal GABAB receptor efficacy and wet dog shakes in ratsL Stan Leung
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A5C1
Behav Brain Res 173:274-81. 2006....
- Cellular and behavioral interactions of gabapentin with alcohol dependenceMarisa Roberto
Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Neurosci 28:5762-71. 2008....
- Distinct mechanisms of presynaptic inhibition at GABAergic synapses of the rat substantia nigra pars compactaMichela Giustizieri
Centro Europeo di Ricerca sul Cervello Fondazione Santa Lucia Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64, 00143 Rome, Italy
J Neurophysiol 94:1992-2003. 2005..These results indicate that group III mGluRs depress GABA release to DA neurons of the SNc through inhibition of presynaptic VDCCs, while presynaptic GABA(B) receptors directly impair transmitter exocytosis...
- Mechanisms contributing to the exacerbated epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices expressing a C-terminal truncated GABA(B2) receptor subunitSébastien J Thuault
Neurology and GI CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK
Epilepsy Res 65:41-51. 2005....
- Nicotine-induced switch in the nicotinic cholinergic mechanisms of facilitation of long-term potentiation inductionYoshihiko Yamazaki
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4550, USA
Eur J Neurosci 22:845-60. 2005..These ACh-independent mechanisms probably contribute to the nicotine-induced cognitive enhancement observed in the presence of cholinergic deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease patients...
- An NMDA receptor/nitric oxide cascade is involved in cerebellar LTD but is not localized to the parallel fiber terminalJung Hoon Shin
Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Neurophysiol 94:4281-9. 2005..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that an NMDA receptor/NO cascade involved in cerebellar LTD is localized to interneurons rather than parallel fibers...
- Independent roles of calcium and voltage-dependent potassium currents in controlling spike frequency adaptation in lateral amygdala pyramidal neuronsE S Louise Faber
Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Eur J Neurosci 22:1627-35. 2005..This dual mechanism of controlling firing patterns is unique to lateral amygdala neurons and is likely to contribute to the very low levels of firing seen in lateral amygdala neurons in vivo...
- Evidence for a functional role of GABA receptors in the rat mature hippocampusAnniina Alakuijala
Institute of Biotechnology, PO Box 56, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Eur J Neurosci 23:514-20. 2006..The lack of GABA(C) receptor activation by less intensive stimulation under control conditions suggests that these receptors are extrasynaptic and activated via spillover of synaptically released GABA...
- GABA(B) receptor-activation inhibits GABAergic synaptic transmission in parvocellular neurones of rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleusX Liu
Department of Basic Neuroscience, University Medical Centre, Geneva, Switzerland
J Neuroendocrinol 18:177-86. 2006..Activation of these receptors causes disinhibition of parvocellular neurosecretory and nonendocrine paraventricular neurones...
- Concentration-dependent effects of anticonvulsant enaminone methyl 4-(4'-bromophenyl)aminocyclohex-3-en-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-oate on neuronal excitability in vitroK V V Ananthalakshmi
Department of Applied Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, P O Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
Neuroscience 141:345-56. 2006..These two actions of methyl 4-(4'-bromophenyl)aminocyclohex-3-en-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-oate on neuronal excitability would have therapeutic implications in future clinical use of enaminones as anticonvulsants in seizure disorders...
- Origins of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated responses of globus pallidus induced after stimulation of the putamen in the monkeyHitoshi Kita
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
J Neurosci 26:6554-62. 2006....
- Developmental decrease in short-term facilitation at Schaffer collateral synapses in hippocampus is mGluR1 sensitiveHaley E Speed
Department of Neurobiology, Civitan International Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
J Neurophysiol 99:799-813. 2008....
- Cloning and functional expression of GABA(B) receptors from DrosophilaM Mezler
Bayer AG, Agricultural Centre, Molecular Target Research, Geb 6240, Alfred Nobel Strasse 50, 40789 Monheim, Germany
Eur J Neurosci 13:477-86. 2001..The pharmacology of the coexpressed D-GABA(B)R1/2 receptor was different from the mammalian GABA(B)Rs: e.g. baclofen, an agonist of mammalian GABA(B)Rs, showed no effect...
- Spontaneous epileptiform activity mediated by GABA(A) receptors and gap junctions in the rat hippocampal slice following long-term exposure to GABA(B) antagonistsMarylka Uusisaari
University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Animal Physiology, PO Box 65 Viikinkaari 1, Finland
Neuropharmacology 43:563-72. 2002..These data suggest that enhanced GABAergic activity with functional interneuronal connectivity via gjs is sufficient to trigger epileptiform activity in the absence of ionotropic glutamatergic transmission...
- GABAergic modulation of primary gustatory afferent synaptic efficacyAndrew A Sharp
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
J Neurobiol 52:133-43. 2002..The mechanism of action of GABA(B) receptors suggests a presynaptic locus of action for that receptor...
- Comparison of receptive field expansion produced by GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptor antagonists in raccoon primary somatosensory cortexS A Chowdhury
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7
Exp Brain Res 144:114-21. 2002..These results indicate that both GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptors play a role in shaping the normal receptive fields in somatosensory cortex...
- Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated synaptic responses by GABA(B) receptors in the rat hippocampusR A Morton
MRC Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
J Physiol 535:757-66. 2001..The mechanism of inhibition may involve both pre- and postsynaptic elements...
- Recombinant GABA(B) receptors formed from GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits selectively inhibit N-type Ca(2+) channels in NG108-15 cellsAlison Easter
Division of Neuroscience Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Eur J Pharmacol 440:17-25. 2002..In fact, in differentiated NG108-15 cells, the recombinant GABA(B) receptors couple only to N-type Ca(2+) channels...
- Differential ontogeny of GABA(B)-receptor-mediated pre- and postsynaptic modulation of GABA and glycine transmission in respiratory rhythm-generating network in mouseW Zhang
Centre of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Gottingen, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
J Physiol 540:435-46. 2002..GABA(B)-receptor-mediated presynaptic modulation develops with a longer postnatal latency, and becomes predominant within the first postnatal week...
- GABA(B) presynaptic inhibition has an in vivo time constant sufficiently rapid to allow modulation at theta frequencyBradley J Molyneaux
Department of Psychology, Program in Neuroscience, Boston University, 64 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
J Neurophysiol 87:1196-205. 2002..This heterosynaptic depression was significantly reduced by local infusion of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP55845A...
- Contribution of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to thalamic neuronal activity during spontaneous absence seizures in ratsR Staak
Institute of Physiology, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
J Neurosci 21:1378-84. 2001..This conclusion is in support of the view that the two subtypes of GABA receptors play a differential role in fast (5-10 Hz) and slow (3 Hz) spike-wave paroxysms observed during absence seizures...
- In vivo modulation of ventral tegmental area dopamine and glutamate efflux by local GABA(B) receptors is altered after repeated amphetamine treatmentM Giorgetti
Department of Neuroscience, FUHS The Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL 60064 3095, USA
Neuroscience 109:585-95. 2002..This is the first demonstration, in an intact animal, that drugs of abuse alter GABA(B) receptor transmission in the ventral tegmental area...
- Pre- and postsynaptic inhibition mediated by GABA(B) receptors in cerebellar inhibitory interneuronsPuah Mann-Metzer
Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Life Sciences and the Interdisciplinary Center for Neuronal Computation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
J Neurophysiol 87:183-90. 2002..These can serve a modulatory role as well as participating in shaping the temporal interactions between consecutive inputs...
- GABAC receptor sensitivity is modulated by interaction with MAP1BD Billups
Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
J Neurosci 20:8643-50. 2000..Thus, anchoring to the cytoskeleton lowers the sensitivity of GABA(C) receptors and provides a likely site for functional modulation of GABA(C) receptor-mediated inhibition...
- The ATP-mediated fast current of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons is a novel effector for GABA(B) receptor activationElena Sokolova
Biophysics Sector and INFM Unit, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste, Italy
Neurosci Lett 338:181-4. 2003..It is suggested that, on nociceptive DRG neurons, GABA produced slow inhibition of P2X(3) receptors via metabotropic GABA(B) receptors...
- Electrophysiological characterization of "giant" cells in stratum radiatum of the CA3 hippocampal regionN Savic
Neuroscience Programme and Istituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia Unit, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, 34014 Trieste, Italy
J Neurophysiol 85:1998-2007. 2001..We conclude that CA3 giant cells represent a particular class of hippocampal neuron located in st. radiatum that shares only some morphological and physiological properties with principal cells...
- GABAC receptors in the rat superior colliculus and pretectum participate in synaptic neurotransmissionMathias Boller
Department of Zoology and Neurobiology, Ruhr University, D 44780 Bochum, Germany
J Neurophysiol 89:2035-45. 2003..We conclude that GABA(C) receptors are, at least partially, located synaptically in SC and pretectal neurons in the rat, which indicates a direct function of this receptor type for synaptic processing in both structures...
- Presynaptic and postsynaptic GABAA receptors in rat suprachiasmatic nucleusM A Belenky
Department of Cell and Animal Biology Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
Neuroscience 118:909-23. 2003..Our results thus show that GABA(A) receptors are widely distributed in the SCN and may subserve both pre- and postsynaptic roles in controlling the mammalian circadian clock...
- Lamina-specific differences in GABA(B) autoreceptor-mediated regulation of spontaneous GABA release in rat entorhinal cortexSarah J Bailey
Department of Physiology and MRC Synaptic Plasticity Centre, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, BS8 1TD, Bristol, UK
Neuropharmacology 46:31-42. 2004..This demonstrates that GABA(B) autoreceptors are tonically activated by synaptically released GABA in layer V, and this may partly explain the lower level of spontaneous GABA release in the deep layer...
- Regulation of EPSPs by the synaptic activation of GABAB autoreceptors in rat hippocampusC H Davies
Department of Pharmacology, University of Edinburgh, UK
J Physiol 496:451-70. 1996..regulation of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSPs during various patterns of synaptic activation caused by the dynamic changes in GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition, which are orchestrated by GABAA autoreceptors in a frequency-dependent..
- Effects of intrahippocampal injection of GABAergic drugs on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in ratsM R Zarrindast
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
J Psychopharmacol 16:313-9. 2002..Atropine decreased memory retention by itself and potentiated the response of muscimol and baclofen. It is concluded that GABAA and GABAB receptor activation may be involved in the impairment of memory retention...
- Analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated responses in the pulmonary vascular bed of the catAlan D Kaye
Department of Anesthesiology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences, 3601 4th Street, Room 1C282, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
Anesth Analg 99:758-63, table of contents. 2004..Further, SKF-97541-induced vasodepression is mediated or modulated by an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel...
- Antitussive effects of GABAB agonists in the cat and guinea-pigD C Bolser
Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07033 0539
Br J Pharmacol 110:491-5. 1993..v.) and 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid (3 mg kg-1, i.v.).6. We show that baclofen and 3-APPi have antitussive effects in the guinea-pig and cat and these effects are mediated by GABAB receptors...
- GABAB receptor-positive modulators: enhancement of GABAB receptor agonist effects in vivoWouter Koek
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 335:163-71. 2010..Taken together, the results provide further evidence of pharmacologically distinct GABA(B) receptor subtypes, possibly allowing for a more selective therapeutic interference with the GABA(B) system...
- Effects of GABA(B) receptor agents on cocaine priming, discrete contextual cue and food induced relapsesMałgorzata Filip
Laboratory of Drug Addiction Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31 343 Krakow, 12 Smetna, Poland
Eur J Pharmacol 571:166-73. 2007....
- Cholinergic inhibition of neocortical pyramidal neuronsAllan T Gulledge
Division of Neuroscience, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
J Neurosci 25:10308-20. 2005..These data demonstrate that acetylcholine can directly inhibit the output of neocortical pyramidal neurons...
- Pharmacological and autoradiographic studies on the pathophysiological role of GABA(B) receptors in the dystonic hamster: pronounced antidystonic effects of baclofen after striatal injectionsS E Sander
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitat Berlin, Koserstr 20, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Neuroscience 162:423-30. 2009..In view of the absence of striatal changes in GABA(B) binding, the strong antidystonic effect of baclofen after its striatal microinjection is probably related to a suppression of a pathophysiologically increased synaptic activity...
- Kynurenic acid blocks nicotinic synaptic transmission to hippocampal interneurons in young ratsTrevor W Stone
Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8Q, UK
Eur J Neurosci 25:2656-65. 2007....
- Characterization of the antiabsence effects of SCH 50911, a GABA-B receptor antagonist, in the lethargic mouse, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, and pentylenetetrazole modelsD A Hosford
Department of Medicine Neurology, Duke University, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 274:1399-403. 1995..These findings suggest that antiabsence activity may be a defining feature of GABAB receptor antagonists and provide a rationale for pursuing clinical trials of GABAB receptor antagonists in human patients with absence seizures...
- Structure of malonic acid-based inhibitors bound to human neutrophil collagenase. A new binding mode explains apparently anomalous dataH Brandstetter
Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Abteilung Strukturforschung, Martinsried, Germany
Protein Sci 7:1303-9. 1998..Various classes of MMP inhibitors, including hydroxamic acids, phosphinic acids, and thiols, have been previously described...
- GABA(B) receptor modulators potentiate baclofen-induced depression of dopamine neuron activity in the rat ventral tegmental areaYing Chen
Eli Lilly and Co Ltd, Erl Wood Manor, Sunninghill Road, Windlesham, Surrey GU20 6PH
Br J Pharmacol 144:926-32. 2005..This finding suggests a therapeutic potential for GABA(B) potentiators for the treatment of diseases associated with a hyperfunctional mesocorticolimbic system...
- Gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB)-receptor mediation of different in vivo effects of gamma-butyrolactoneMauro A M Carai
CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Cagliari, Italy
J Pharmacol Sci 106:199-207. 2008..Vice versa, NCS-382 failed to exert any antagonistic or protective effect. These results suggest that the in vivo GBL effects tested in the present study are mediated by activation of the GABA(B) receptor...
- GABAergic system and imipramine-induced impairment of memory retention in ratsM R Zarrindast
Department of Pharmacology, Tehran University of Medical Science and Department of Biology, Shaheed Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 14:59-64. 2004..It is concluded that the GABA(B) receptor mechanism is involved in memory impairment induced by imipramine...
- Behavioral effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, its precursor gamma-butyrolactone, and GABA(B) receptor agonists: time course and differential antagonism by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348)Wouter Koek
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, Mail Code 7792, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 330:876-83. 2009..A better understanding of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms, and their involvement in the therapeutic effects of GHB and baclofen, could lead to more effective medications with fewer adverse effects...
- Bis[2-(3-carboxyphenoxy)carbonylethyl]phosphinic acid (m-BCCEP): a novel affinity cross-linking reagent for the beta-cleft modification of human hemoglobinHongyi Cai
Laboratory for Drug Design and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
Bioconjug Chem 21:1494-507. 2010..19 Torr) assayed under identical conditions. The measured Hill coefficient value of 1.91 of the m-BCCEP-modified Hb product points to the reasonable retainment of oxygen-binding cooperativity after the cross-link formation...
- Synthesis of α-carboxyphosphinopeptides derived from norleucineJan Picha
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, v v i, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo namesti 2, 166 10, Prague 6, Czech Republic
Amino Acids 39:1265-80. 2010....
- Enantioselective Synthesis of Phosphinate DerivativesJohn Cong Gui Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2012..Additionally, this research also offers an excellent opportunity for training the students from the underrepresented groups in the cutting-edge area of organocatalysis. ..
- RATIONAL DRUG DESIGN BASED ON CHEMICAL MECHANISMSJAMES COWARD; Fiscal Year: 2005..5. Complete the stereoselective synthesis of (2S) 3.3-difluoroglutamic acid and its incorporation into appropriate gammaglutamyl peptides for use in mechanistic studies of GH and FPGS catalysis. ..
- H-Phosphinic Acids in the Preparation of Active Organophosphorus CompoundsJean Luc Montchamp; Fiscal Year: 2008This proposal aims at the development of H-phosphinic acids (RP(O)(OH)H) as synthetic intermediates for the preparation of biologically-active phosphorus-containing compounds...
- Neuropharmacology of GHB discriminationWouter Koek; Fiscal Year: 2010..Increased knowledge about the activation and modulation of GABAB systems will help to develop effective approaches to treating sleep-, drug abuse-, and other CNS disorders. ..
- Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Alcohol in MiceWouter Koek; Fiscal Year: 2007..This future research will increase our understanding of risk factors for alcoholism and drug abuse and will help the development of effective approaches to prevention and treatment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Epidemiologic Case-control Study of Barrett's EsophagusNicholas Shaheen; Fiscal Year: 2005..Finally, by comparing subjects with Barrett's to controls with reflux, and controlling for severs of reflux, the impact of a Barrett's diagnosis on quality of life and psychological stress may be seen. ..
- The Perception of Cancer Risk in Patients with Barrett's EsophagusNicholas Shaheen; Fiscal Year: 2007..The resultant study application will assess health-related quality of life, health-related anxiety and healthcare utilization as outcomes. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- FOLYLPOLYGLUTAMATE SYNTHETASE IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPYJohn McGuire; Fiscal Year: 2003..This may explain why high-level resistance to pulse MTX can occur in the absence of a large decrease in total FPGS activity or a rise in glutamyl hydrolase activity. ..
- Enhancement of methotrexate uptake in childhood ALLJohn McGuire; Fiscal Year: 2009..If successful, this research could provide a way to increase the effectiveness of methotrexate, a key drug used in treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and thus increase the cure rate in this disease. ..
- Cannabinoids and Central Neuronal ActivityPaul Schweitzer; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Synaptic Transmission, Plasticity and Integration in the Subthalamic NucleusMark D Bevan; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- MOP Receptor Effects on the Hippocampal CA1 NetworkADAM MCQUISTON; Fiscal Year: 2008..The results from these studies will provide important information regarding MOP receptor-induced changes in network activity and may possibly lead to the development of treatments for opioid addiction. ..
- Serotonin Receptor Subtypes: Regulation and InteractionJULIE HENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2008..Studies of the regulation of 5-HT1A receptor function may have important implications for our understanding the role of this receptor in the therapeutic action of drugs used to treat mental illness [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MICROBIAL METABOLISM OF REDUCED PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDSWILLIAM METCALF; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cue-Reactivity and Alcohol Self-DosingElise Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2003..This research will additionally provide important information on the behavioral processes underlying conditioned responses to drug-related cues in animals which may be relevant to cue-reactivity and drug-taking in humans. ..
- MORPHOLOGIC BASIS FOR CENTRAL VESTIBULAR INHIBITIONGAY HOLSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- 5HT transporter & 1A receptor function in BDNF miceJULIE HENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2007..Region-specific and age-dependent changes in BDNF protein levels will be determined in selected brain regions of wild-type and BDNF () mice (Aim #3). [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Altered Function of a GABA-A receptor epilepsy mutationMathew Jones; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- GABA Modulation of Cocaine & Heroin Self-AdministrationDavid Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2003..The degree to which either IP or intracerebral injections of baclofen affect heroin self-administration will also be assessed. ..
- Behavioral Pharmacology and GHB Physical DependenceElise M Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2010..Physical dependence in the context of self-injection of GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD will also be evaluated. These studies will provide critical information on the behavioral pharmacology and dependence-producing effects of GHB. ..
- Alcohol Sensitivity and PET Derived Measures of Opioid ActivityElise M Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results of the proposed research will increase our understanding of to the relationship between individual variability in the opioid system and subjective sensitivity to alcohol. ..
- Alcohol Modulation of Cerebellar Synaptic CurrentsWilliam Proctor; Fiscal Year: 2006..The combination of our proposed and ongoing genetic studies may aid the identification of more sensitive drug targets and the development of novel drugs for rational therapeutic approaches to alcoholism. ..
- Studies on the role of GABA in Cocaine AddictionElise Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2005..The results of these studies will increase our understanding of the role of GABA in the behavioral effects of cocaine and may lead to the development of better medications for the treatment of cocaine addiction. ..
- Chemoanatomic bases for peripheral vestibular functionGAY HOLSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed research is unique, and will have direct bearing on the development of more effective therapeutic interventions, both medicinal and device-oriented, for peripheral vestibular disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Functional Recovery of Sensory Input to Olfactory BulbDALE WACHOWIAK; Fiscal Year: 2009..This work could potentially yield insight into treatment strategies for these and other syndromes related to inappropriate neuronal connections. ..