thimerosal

Summary

Summary: A topical antiseptic used on skin and mucous membranes. It is also used as a preservative in pharmaceuticals.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life
    Dorota Mrozek-Budzyn
    Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 34:592-7. 2012
  2. ncbi Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism
    Cristofer S Price
    Abt Associates Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Pediatrics 126:656-64. 2010
  3. ncbi Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later
    John P Barile
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, USA
    J Pediatr Psychol 37:106-18. 2012
  4. pmc Two distinct Ca(2+) signaling pathways modulate sperm flagellar beating patterns in mice
    Haixin Chang
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Biol Reprod 85:296-305. 2011
  5. ncbi An inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-gated intracellular Ca(2+) store is involved in regulating sperm hyperactivated motility
    H C Ho
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Biol Reprod 65:1606-15. 2001
  6. ncbi Cleavage of focal adhesion kinase is an early marker and modulator of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis
    Md Firoz Mian
    Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790 784, South Korea
    Chem Biol Interact 171:57-66. 2008
  7. ncbi Thiomersal in vaccines: balancing the risk of adverse effects with the risk of vaccine-preventable disease
    Mark Bigham
    Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Drug Saf 28:89-101. 2005
  8. ncbi Toxicity of ethylmercury (and Thimerosal): a comparison with methylmercury
    Jose G Dorea
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919 970, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    J Appl Toxicol 33:700-11. 2013
  9. ncbi Thimerosal exposure & increasing trends of premature puberty in the vaccine safety datalink
    David A Geier
    The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA
    Indian J Med Res 131:500-7. 2010
  10. pmc Thimerosal exposure and the role of sulfation chemistry and thiol availability in autism
    Janet K Kern
    Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:3771-800. 2013

Detail Information

Publications280 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life
    Dorota Mrozek-Budzyn
    Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 34:592-7. 2012
    Despite the common use of Thimerosal as a preservative in childhood vaccines since the 1930s, there are not many studies on ethylmercury toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in infants...
  2. ncbi Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism
    Cristofer S Price
    Abt Associates Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Pediatrics 126:656-64. 2010
    Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
  3. ncbi Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later
    John P Barile
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, USA
    J Pediatr Psychol 37:106-18. 2012
    The authors used a public use data set to investigate associations between the receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines and immune globulins early in life and neuropsychological outcomes assessed at 7-10 years.
  4. pmc Two distinct Ca(2+) signaling pathways modulate sperm flagellar beating patterns in mice
    Haixin Chang
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Biol Reprod 85:296-305. 2011
    ..The CATSPER activators procaine and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) also induced high-amplitude pro-hook bends. Thimerosal, which triggers a Ca(2+) release from internal stores, induced high-amplitude anti-hook bends...
  5. ncbi An inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-gated intracellular Ca(2+) store is involved in regulating sperm hyperactivated motility
    H C Ho
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Biol Reprod 65:1606-15. 2001
    ..Hyperactivation was induced immediately in bull sperm by thapsigargin, caffeine, and thimerosal. The responses were dose-dependent and were induced in both capacitated and uncapacitated sperm...
  6. ncbi Cleavage of focal adhesion kinase is an early marker and modulator of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis
    Md Firoz Mian
    Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790 784, South Korea
    Chem Biol Interact 171:57-66. 2008
    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a signaling molecule associated with cell survival. Previously, we showed that thimerosal, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator, can acutely induce FAK tyrosine phosphorylation (within minutes) and ..
  7. ncbi Thiomersal in vaccines: balancing the risk of adverse effects with the risk of vaccine-preventable disease
    Mark Bigham
    Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Drug Saf 28:89-101. 2005
    A number of affluent countries are moving to eliminate thiomersal (thimerosal), an ethylmercury preservative, from vaccines as a precautionary measure because of concerns about the potential adverse effects of mercury in infants...
  8. ncbi Toxicity of ethylmercury (and Thimerosal): a comparison with methylmercury
    Jose G Dorea
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919 970, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    J Appl Toxicol 33:700-11. 2013
    Ethylmercury (etHg) is derived from the metabolism of thimerosal (o-carboxyphenyl-thio-ethyl-sodium salt), which is the most widely used form of organic mercury...
  9. ncbi Thimerosal exposure & increasing trends of premature puberty in the vaccine safety datalink
    David A Geier
    The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA
    Indian J Med Res 131:500-7. 2010
    ..An association between premature puberty and exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) was evaluated in computerized medical records within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)...
  10. pmc Thimerosal exposure and the role of sulfation chemistry and thiol availability in autism
    Janet K Kern
    Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:3771-800. 2013
    ..Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM) and other mercury (Hg) compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49...
  11. ncbi Speciation of methyl- and ethyl-mercury in hair of breastfed infants acutely exposed to thimerosal-containing vaccines
    Jose G Dorea
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Clin Chim Acta 412:1563-6. 2011
    ..The most controversial aspect of early post-natal exposure to organic mercury is ethylmercury (EtHg) in thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) still being used in many countries...
  12. ncbi Thimerosal induces TH2 responses via influencing cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells
    Anshu Agrawal
    Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 81:474-82. 2007
    b>Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that is used as a preservative in vaccines and pharmaceutical products. Recent studies have shown a TH2-skewing effect of mercury, although the underlying mechanisms have not been identified...
  13. ncbi Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal
    Mieszko Olczak
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, ul Sobieskiego 9, Warsaw, Poland
    Folia Neuropathol 48:258-69. 2010
    b>Thimerosal, an organomercurial added as a preservative to some vaccines, is a suspected iatrogenic factor, possibly contributing to paediatric neurodevelopmental disorders including autism...
  14. ncbi Mercury concentrations in brain and kidney following ethylmercury, methylmercury and Thimerosal administration to neonatal mice
    G Jean Harry
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, Neurotoxicology Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P O Box 12233, MD C1 04, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Toxicol Lett 154:183-9. 2004
    ..for EtHg chloride (6 microg) or Thimerosal (15.4 microg). For EtHg, approximately 0.39 +/- 0.06% of the injected mercury was detected in the brain and 3...
  15. ncbi Thimerosal induces apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in human leukemia cells
    Kyung Jin Woo
    Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu, South Korea
    Mol Carcinog 45:657-66. 2006
    b>Thimerosal is an organomercury compound with sulfhydryl-reactive properties. The ability of thimerosal to act as a sulfhydryl group is related to the presence of mercury...
  16. ncbi Mitochondrial mediated thimerosal-induced apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH)
    Michelle L Humphrey
    Department of Pharmacology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25704 9388, USA
    Neurotoxicology 26:407-16. 2005
    ..Recently the safety of thimerosal, an ethyl mercury-containing preservative used in vaccines, has been questioned due to exposure of infants ..
  17. pmc Thimerosal induces DNA breaks, caspase-3 activation, membrane damage, and cell death in cultured human neurons and fibroblasts
    David S Baskin
    Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, 6560 Fannin Suite 944, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Toxicol Sci 74:361-8. 2003
    b>Thimerosal is an organic mercurial compound used as a preservative in biomedical preparations...
  18. ncbi Thimerosal in the detection of clinically relevant allergic contact reactions
    T Suneja
    Division of Dermatology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 45:23-7. 2001
    b>Thimerosal, a mercuric derivative of thiosalicylic acid, is a preservative used in several types of consumer products, including cosmetics, ophthalmic and otolaryngologic medications, and vaccines...
  19. pmc Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
    Michalina Duszczyk-Budhathoki
    Marie Curie Chairs Program, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 02 957, Warsaw, Poland
    Neurochem Res 37:436-47. 2012
    b>Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders...
  20. ncbi The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds
    Thomas W Clarkson
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, New York, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 36:609-62. 2006
    ..Ethylmercury in the form of a preservative, thimerosal, added to certain vaccines, is the most recent form of mercury that has become a public health concern...
  21. ncbi Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature
    Stephen T Schultz
    University of Texas, Health Science School, San Antonio, TX, USA
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 70:187-95. 2010
    This report reviews current literature regarding the association of the pharmaceutical preservative thimerosal and other mercury exposures with the risk for autism...
  22. ncbi Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization
    G A Westphal
    Abteilung für Arbeits und Sozialmedizin, Georg August Universitat Gottingen, Germany
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 73:384-8. 2000
    b>Thimerosal is an important preservative in vaccines and ophthalmologic preparations. The substance is known to be a type IV sensitizing agent...
  23. ncbi Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent
    M Hornig
    Jerome L and Dawn Greene Infectious Disease Laboratory, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:833-45. 2004
    ..How population-based variability affects the safety of the ethylmercury-containing vaccine preservative, thimerosal, is unknown...
  24. pmc The three modern faces of mercury
    Thomas W Clarkson
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 110:11-23. 2002
    ..of people to methyl mercury in fish, mercury vapor from amalgam tooth fillings, and ethyl mercury in the form of thimerosal added as an antiseptic to widely used vaccines...
  25. ncbi Identification and distribution of mercury species in rat tissues following administration of thimerosal or methylmercury
    Jairo L Rodrigues
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto FCFRP, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, USP, Avenida do Café, S N, Monte Alegre, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14040 903, Brazil
    Arch Toxicol 84:891-6. 2010
    ..Sodium ethyl mercury thiosalicylate, thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (Et-Hg)-containing preservative that has been used in manufacturing vaccines in many ..
  26. ncbi Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association
    Nick Andrews
    Statistics Unit, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatrics 114:584-91. 2004
    After concerns about the possible toxicity of thimerosal-containing vaccines in the United States, this study was designed to investigate whether there is a relationship between the amount of thimerosal that an infant receives via ..
  27. ncbi Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria
    Leman Yel
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Int J Mol Med 16:971-7. 2005
    There is a worldwide increasing concern over the neurological risks of thimerosal (ethylmercury thiosalicylate) which is an organic mercury compound that is commonly used as an antimicrobial preservative...
  28. ncbi The evidence for the safety of thiomersal in newborn and infant vaccines
    C John Clements
    Centre for International Health, The Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health Ltd, GPO Box 2284, Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
    Vaccine 22:1854-61. 2004
    ..Given the same levels of exposure, adults are at much lower levels of risk because of increased body mass. It is not possible to prove that thiomersal is completely safe-epidemiology can only quantify a risk, not prove its absence...
  29. ncbi A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders following vaccines administered from 1994 through 2000 in the United States
    David A Geier
    The Institute for Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 27:401-13. 2006
    b>Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing compound (49.6% mercury by weight) used as at the preservative level in vaccines (0.005% to 0.01%).
  30. pmc Thimerosal stimulates Ca2+ flux through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, but not type 3, via modulation of an isoform-specific Ca2+-dependent intramolecular interaction
    Geert Bultynck
    Laboratorium voor Fysiologie, K U Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg O N, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem J 381:87-96. 2004
    Thiol-reactive agents such as thimerosal have been shown to modulate the Ca2+-flux properties of IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) receptor (IP3R) via an as yet unidentified mechanism [Parys, Missiaen, De Smedt, Droogmans and Casteels (..
  31. ncbi Molecular structures of thimerosal (Merthiolate) and other arylthiolate mercury alkyl compounds
    Jonathan G Melnick
    Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Inorg Chem 47:6421-6. 2008
    The molecular structure of sodium ethylmercury thiosalicylate (also known as thimerosal and Merthiolate) and related arylthiolate mercury alkyl compounds, namely PhSHgMe and PhSHgEt, have been determined by single crystal X-ray ..
  32. ncbi Pitfalls in anti-influenza T cell detection by Elispot using thimerosal containing pandemic H1N1 vaccine as antigen
    A Chauvat
    Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service d Immunologie Biologique, Paris, France
    J Immunol Methods 378:81-7. 2012
    ..We found that the preservative thimerosal present in most H1N1 pandemic vaccines, induced in vitro abortive activation of T cells followed by cell death ..
  33. ncbi Perinatal hepatitis B transmission and vaccination timing in a managed care cohort: assessment of the temporary delay in newborn hepatitis B vaccination due to thimerosal content
    Soju Chang
    Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:329-33. 2007
    From July to September 1999, due to a concern of toxicity from exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S...
  34. ncbi Effects of thimerosal on NGF signal transduction and cell death in neuroblastoma cells
    Damani K Parran
    Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory for Neurotoxicity Studies, Virginia Tech, 1 Duckpond Drive, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 0442, USA
    Toxicol Sci 86:132-40. 2005
    ..The present study examined the effects of the organic mercury compound thimerosal on nerve growth factor signal transduction and cell death in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y cells)...
  35. ncbi Property of thimerosal-induced decrease in cellular content of glutathione in rat thymocytes: a flow cytometric study with 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate
    T Ueha-Ishibashi
    Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Minami Jyosanjima 1 1, Tokushima 770 8502, Japan
    Toxicol In Vitro 18:563-9. 2004
    There is a concern on the part of public health community that adverse health consequences by thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines for infants, may occur among infants during immunization schedule...
  36. ncbi Calcium release of heat-shocked porcine oocytes induced by thimerosal or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)
    J K Tseng
    Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC
    Anim Reprod Sci 111:41-53. 2009
    ..In Experiment 1 (eight replicates), matured oocytes were activated by thimerosal (200 microM, 10 min) following HS...
  37. ncbi Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors
    S J James
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Neurotoxicology 26:1-8. 2005
    ..b>Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines...
  38. ncbi Thiol-modulated mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of thimerosal and inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II alpha
    Xing Wu
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, 50 Sifton Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:483-93. 2008
    b>Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that is widely used as a preservative in vaccines and other solution formulations...
  39. ncbi Oxidation by thimerosal increases calcium levelsin renal tubular cells
    Chung Ren Jan
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 813
    Pharmacol Toxicol 93:123-7. 2003
    The effect of thimerosal, a reactive oxidant, on cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was explored by using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2...
  40. ncbi Reversible activation of secretory phospholipase A2 by sulfhydryl reagents
    Maiko Nabemoto
    Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260 8675, Japan
    Arch Biochem Biophys 436:145-53. 2005
    ..In this study, we examined the effects of thimerosal, another sulfhydryl reagent, to clarify the sulfhydryl modification and activation of sPLA(2) molecules in cells...
  41. ncbi Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives
    C Migdal
    Universite Lyon 1, EA 41 69, Laboratoire de Recherche Dermatologique, Pavillon R, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 246:66-73. 2010
    Several cases of skin sensitization have been reported following the application of thimerosal, which is composed of ethyl mercury and thiosalicylic acid (TSA)...
  42. ncbi Skin reactivity to thimerosal and phenol-preserved Montenegro antigen in Brazil
    Aline Fagundes
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas, Departamento de MicroImunoParasitologia, Servico de Parasitologia, Av Brasil, 4365 Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21 045 900, Brazil
    Acta Trop 101:25-30. 2007
    ..performed to determine the frequency of positive reactions to the Montenegro antigen (leishmanin) preserved in thimerosal (Merthiolate) 1:10,000 or phenol 0.4%...
  43. ncbi Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines
    Vijendra K Singh
    Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA
    J Biomed Sci 11:607-10. 2004
    ..antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines...
  44. pmc Contributions of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ to regulation of sperm motility: Release of intracellular stores can hyperactivate CatSper1 and CatSper2 null sperm
    Becky Marquez
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Dev Biol 303:214-21. 2007
    ..b>Thimerosal, which releases Ca(2+) from internal stores, induced hyperactivation in mouse sperm within seconds, even when ..
  45. ncbi Thimerosal: contact (non)allergen of the year
    Donald V Belsito
    Department of Medicine Dermatology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 7319, USA
    Am J Contact Dermat 13:1-2. 2002
  46. ncbi Predicted mercury concentrations in hair from infant immunizations: cause for concern
    L Redwood
    Coalition for Safe Minds, Cranford, NJ 07016, USA
    Neurotoxicology 22:691-7. 2001
    ..Recently, another common source of exposure has been identified. Thimerosal (TMS), a preservative found in many infant vaccines, contains 49...
  47. ncbi Sensitization to thimerosal (Merthiolate) is still present today
    A J van 't Veen
    Department of Dermatovenerology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Academic Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, The Netherlands
    Contact Dermatitis 31:293-8. 1994
    The results on thimerosal (Merthiolate) hypersensitivity of a retrospective study, together with the relevant data on thimerosal hypersensitivity referred to in the literature up to 1993, are presented...
  48. ncbi Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants
    Jose G Dorea
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919 970 Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    Curr Med Chem 20:4060-9. 2013
    ..toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of low-dose mercury resulting from acute ethylmercury (etHg) exposure in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV)...
  49. ncbi Stimulation by thimerosal of histamine-induced Ca(2+) release in intact HeLa cells seen with aequorin targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum
    M Montero
    , , Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, , E-47005 Valladolid, Spain
    Cell Calcium 30:181-90. 2001
    The oxidizing thiol reagent, thimerosal, has been shown to activate reversibly the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor in several cell types...
  50. ncbi ITPKC susceptibility in Kawasaki syndrome as a sensitizing factor for autoimmunity and coronary arterial wall relaxation induced by thimerosal's effects on calcium signaling via IP3
    Deniz Yeter
    Shawnee, Kansas, USA
    Autoimmun Rev 11:903-8. 2012
    ..This led us to an attractive candidate, thimerosal, an organomercurial medical preservative still used in several pediatric vaccines...
  51. ncbi Route of decomposition of thiomersal (thimerosal)
    M Tan
    School of Pharmacy, Curtin University of Technology, G P O Box U 1987, WA 6845, Perth, Australia
    Int J Pharm 208:23-34. 2000
    The route of formation and identification of the principal degradation products of thimerosal (thiomersal) has been undertaken...
  52. ncbi Prenatal exposure to organomercury, thimerosal, persistently impairs the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat brain: implications for association with developmental disorders
    Michiru Ida-Eto
    Department of Anatomy II, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514 8507, Japan
    Brain Dev 35:261-4. 2013
    b>Thimerosal, an organomercury compound, has been widely used as a preservative. Therefore, concerns have been raised about its neurotoxicity...
  53. ncbi Enhancement of eicosanoid synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages by the organic mercury compound thimerosal
    V Kaever
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical School Hannover, FRG
    Prostaglandins 35:885-902. 1988
    ..Prostaglandins 32:373. 1986.) that the organic mercury compound thimerosal in murine peritoneal macrophages inhibits arachidonic acid reincorporation into cellular lipids, thereby leading ..
  54. pmc Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells occurs through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway
    Wen Xue Li
    Department of Toxicology, Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e49064. 2012
    b>Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is one of the most widely used preservatives and found in a variety of biological products. Concerns over its possible toxicity have reemerged recently due to its use in vaccines...
  55. ncbi Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal
    Donald R Branch
    Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 61:133-6. 2009
    A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial...
  56. ncbi Neurotoxic character of thimerosal and the allometric extrapolation of adult clearance half-time to infants
    L Magos
    J Appl Toxicol 23:263-9. 2003
    ..Thus methylmercury damages the brain more than thimerosal does, and when intake limits set for methylmercury are applied to thimerosal the safety margin is increased even ..
  57. ncbi Thimerosal allergy and clinical relevance in Thailand
    Penpun Wattanakrai
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 90:1775-9. 2007
    b>Thimerosal or merthiolate is used as an antiseptic and a preservative in topical medicaments, cosmetics, and vaccines. Thimerosal is known to cause delayed type hypersensitivity...
  58. ncbi Immuno-biochemical evaluations of phenol and thimerosal as antigen preservatives in Montenegro skin test
    Wilson Mayrink
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Depto de Parasitologia, Brazil
    Acta Trop 98:87-93. 2006
    ..Most antigen formulations used for the MST contain thimerosal as preservative...
  59. ncbi Thimerosal induces apoptosis in a neuroblastoma model via the cJun N-terminal kinase pathway
    Michelle L Herdman
    Department of Pharmacology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704, USA
    Toxicol Sci 92:246-53. 2006
    ..In this study, we investigated the role that the JNK pathway plays in neurotoxicity caused by thimerosal, an ethylmercury-containing preservative...
  60. ncbi Thimerosal decreases TRPV1 activity by oxidation of extracellular sulfhydryl residues
    Yunju Jin
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 799, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 369:250-5. 2004
    ..b>Thimerosal, which oxidizes sulfhydryls, blocked the capsaicin-activated inward current (I(cap)) in cultured sensory neurons,..
  61. ncbi Use of adsorption process to remove organic mercury thimerosal from industrial process wastewater
    Magdalena Velicu
    Villanova Center for the Environment, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085, USA
    J Hazard Mater 148:599-605. 2007
    Carbon adsorption process is tested for removal of high concentration of organic mercury (thimerosal) from industrial process wastewater, in batch and continuously flow through column systems...
  62. ncbi Modulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding to the various inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms by thimerosal and cyclic ADP-ribose
    S Vanlingen
    Laboratorium voor Fysiologie, K.U. Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg O/N, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Biochem Pharmacol 61:803-9. 2001
    ..We compared the effects of oxidizing reagents, in particular thimerosal, and of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) on IP3 binding to the various IP3R isoforms...
  63. ncbi Toxicokinetics of mercury after long-term repeated exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine
    Lars Barregard
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Toxicol Sci 120:499-506. 2011
    The preservative thimerosal contains ethyl mercury (EtHg). Concerns over possible toxicity have re-emerged recently due to its presence in (swine and other) flu vaccines...
  64. ncbi Thimerosal and vaccines--a cautionary tale
    Paul A Offit
    Division of Infectious Diseases at the Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA
    N Engl J Med 357:1278-9. 2007
  65. ncbi Comparison of organic and inorganic mercury distribution in suckling rat
    Tatjana Orct
    Mineral Metabolism Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia
    J Appl Toxicol 26:536-9. 2006
    ..However, the brain and blood concentrations of mercury were higher in the thiomersal exposed group. These results need to be clarified by additional data on the kinetic pathways of ethylmercury compared with inorganic mercury...
  66. ncbi Patch testing of Singapore children and adolescents: our experience over 18 years
    Anthony Teik Jin Goon
    National Skin Center, Singapore
    Pediatr Dermatol 23:117-20. 2006
    ..The most common allergens were: nickel (40%), thimerosal (15%), colophony (9%), lanolin (8%), cobalt (8%), fragrance mix (5%), and neomycin (4%)...
  67. pmc Mercury levels in premature and low birth weight newborn infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines
    Michael E Pichichero
    University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
    J Pediatr 155:495-9. 2009
    ....
  68. ncbi Low-level neonatal thimerosal exposure: further evaluation of altered neurotoxic potential in SJL mice
    Robert F Berman
    Department of Neurological Surgery and the Center for Children s Environmental Health, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Toxicol Sci 101:294-309. 2008
    Ethylmercury in thimerosal-preserved childhood vaccines has been suggested to be neurotoxic and to contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism...
  69. ncbi Neonate exposure to thimerosal mercury from hepatitis B vaccines
    Jose G Dorea
    Universidade de Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    Am J Perinatol 26:523-7. 2009
    ..EtHg) has not only increased but is starting earlier as a result of the current immunization schedule that uses thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs)...
  70. ncbi Functional properties of the type-3 InsP3 receptor in 16HBE14o- bronchial mucosal cells
    L Missiaen
    Laboratorium voor Fysiologie, K U Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 273:8983-6. 1998
    ..The sulfhydryl reagent thimerosal also did not stimulate InsP3-induced Ca2+ release in 16HBE14o- cells, again in contrast to its effect in A7r5 ..
  71. ncbi Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association
    Jon Heron
    Unit of Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Department of Community Based Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Pediatrics 114:577-83. 2004
    ..b>Thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), a preservative used in a number of children's vaccines, contains ethylmercury (an ..
  72. ncbi Effects of glucan on immunosuppressive actions of mercury
    Vaclav Vetvicka
    Department of Pathology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    J Med Food 12:1098-104. 2009
    ..Two types of mercury, thimerosal and mercury acetate, were administered in a dose of 2-8 mg/L of drinking water to mice...
  73. ncbi Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls
    Maria Dorota Majewska
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 70:196-208. 2010
    ..The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age...
  74. ncbi Modulation of type 1, 2 and 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors by cyclic ADP-ribose and thimerosal
    S Vanlingen
    Laboratorium voor Fysiologie, KULeuven, Campus Gasthuisberg O N, Belgium
    Cell Calcium 25:107-14. 1999
    ..how [3H]IP3 binding to the three IP3R isoforms is modulated by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and by the SH-reagent thimerosal. We used rabbit cerebellum, RBL-2H3 rat mucosal mast cells and 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells as ..
  75. ncbi Automated speciation of mercury in the hair of breastfed infants exposed to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines
    Jose G Dorea
    Universidade de Brasilia, C P 04322, 70919 970, Brasilia, Federal District, Brasil
    Biol Trace Elem Res 140:262-71. 2011
    ..levels of maternal sources that include both fish consumption and dental amalgam) and to EtHg in vaccines (from thimerosal)...
  76. ncbi Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine: influence of gestational age and birth weight
    Laura Hewitson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 73:1298-313. 2010
    ..macaques was influenced by receipt of a single neonatal dose of hepatitis B vaccine containing the preservative thimerosal (Th)...
  77. ncbi Low molecular weight thiols reduce thimerosal neurotoxicity in vitro: modulation by proteins
    E Zieminska
    Mossakowski Medical Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5, 02 106 Warsaw, Poland
    Toxicology 276:154-63. 2010
    b>Thimerosal (TH), an ethylmercury complex of thiosalicylic acid has been used as preservative in vaccines. In vitro neurotoxicity of TH at high nM concentrations has been reported...
  78. ncbi Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed
    Mark F Blaxill
    Safe Minds Sensible Action For Ending Mercury Induced Neurological Disorders, 14 Commerce Drive, PH Cranford, New Jersey 07016, USA
    Med Hypotheses 62:788-94. 2004
    ..In a recent review, Nelson and Bauman argue that a link between the preservative thimerosal, the source of the mercury in childhood vaccines, is improbable...
  79. ncbi Flow-cytometric analysis on cytotoxic effect of thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines, on lymphocytes dissociated from rat thymic glands
    T Ueha-Ishibashi
    Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Minami Jyosanjima 1 1, Tokushima 770 8502, Japan
    Toxicol In Vitro 19:191-8. 2005
    There is a concern on the part of public health community that adverse health consequence by thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines for infants, may occur among infants during immunization schedule...
  80. ncbi Embryonic exposure to thimerosal, an organomercury compound, causes abnormal early development of serotonergic neurons
    Michiru Ida-Eto
    Department of Anatomy II, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 505:61-4. 2011
    Even though neuronal toxicity due to organomercury compounds is well known, thimerosal, an organomercury compound, is widely used in pediatric vaccine preservation...
  81. ncbi Sensitization effect of thimerosal is mediated in vitro via reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling
    Camille Migdal
    EA 41 69, Universite Lyon 1, Pavillon R, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 69437 Lyon Cedex 03, France
    Toxicology 274:1-9. 2010
    b>Thimerosal, a mercury derivative composed of ethyl mercury chloride (EtHgCl) and thiosalicylic acid (TSA), is widely used as a preservative in vaccines and cosmetic products and causes cutaneous reactions...
  82. ncbi Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study
    Laura Hewitson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 70:147-64. 2010
    ..The macaque infant is a relevant animal model in which to investigate specific environmental exposures and structural/functional neuroimaging during neurodevelopment...
  83. pmc Neonatal administration of thimerosal causes persistent changes in mu opioid receptors in the rat brain
    Mieszko Olczak
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
    Neurochem Res 35:1840-7. 2010
    b>Thimerosal added to some pediatric vaccines is suspected in pathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental disorders...
  84. ncbi Expression of metallothionein mRNAs on mouse cerebellum microglia cells by thimerosal and its metabolites
    Takeshi Minami
    Department of Life Sciences, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3 4 1 Kowakae, Higashi Osaka, Osaka 577 8502, Japan
    Toxicology 261:25-32. 2009
    Effects of thimerosal and its metabolites, ethyl mercury and thiosalicylate, on the expression of metallothionein (MT) mRNAs in mouse cerebellum microglia cell line, C8-B4 cells, were studied...
  85. ncbi In vitro uptake of glutamate in GLAST- and GLT-1-transfected mutant CHO-K1 cells is inhibited by the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal
    Lysette Mutkus
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Biol Trace Elem Res 105:71-86. 2005
    b>Thimerosal, also known as thimersal, Merthrolate, or sodiumethyl-mercurithiosalicylate, is an organic mercurial compound that is used in a variety of commercial as well as biomedical applications...
  86. ncbi Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats
    Mieszko Olczak
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 02 957 Warsaw, Poland
    Behav Brain Res 223:107-18. 2011
    The neurotoxic organomercurial thimerosal (THIM), used for decades as vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the pathogenesis of some neurodevelopmental disorders...
  87. ncbi Effect of thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines, on intracellular Ca2+ concentration of rat cerebellar neurons
    Toshiko Ueha-Ishibashi
    Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770 8502, Japan
    Toxicology 195:77-84. 2004
    The effect of thimerosal, an organomercurial preservative in vaccines, on cerebellar neurons dissociated from 2-week-old rats was compared with those of methylmercury using a flow cytometer with appropriate fluorescent dyes...
  88. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated thimerosal-free influenza vaccine in infants and children
    Terry Nolan
    Vaccine and Immunisation Research Group at the Murdoch Children s Research Institute and the Melbourne School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 3:315-25. 2009
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a thimerosal-free inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluvax; CSL Limited, Parkville, Australia) in children aged 6 months to <..
  89. ncbi An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States
    David A Geier
    The Genetic Centers of America, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 69:1481-95. 2006
    b>Thimerosal is an ethylmercury (49.55% mercury by weight) preservative historically added to some vaccines...
  90. ncbi Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines
    Jose G Dorea
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, CP 04322, 70919 970, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
    Neurochem Res 36:927-38. 2011
    ..with uncertainties surrounding pregnant mothers, newborns and young children who must receive repeated doses of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs)...
  91. ncbi Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002
    Carolyn M Gallagher
    PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University Medical Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 73:1665-77. 2010
    ..Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk...
  92. ncbi An assessment of thimerosal use in childhood vaccines
    L K Ball
    Division of Vaccines and Related Products Applications, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Foodand Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Pediatrics 107:1147-54. 2001
    ..American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service issued a joint statement calling for removal of thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, from vaccines...
  93. ncbi A review of Thimerosal (Merthiolate) and its ethylmercury breakdown product: specific historical considerations regarding safety and effectiveness
    David A Geier
    The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10:575-96. 2007
    b>Thimerosal (Merthiolate) is an ethylmercury-containing pharmaceutical compound that is 49.55% mercury and that was developed in 1927...
  94. ncbi Luteolin and thiosalicylate inhibit HgCl(2) and thimerosal-induced VEGF release from human mast cells
    S Asadi
    Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23:1015-20. 2010
    HgCl2 is a known environemental neurotoxin, but is also used as preservative in vaccines as thimerosal containing ethyl mercury covalently linked to thiosalicylate...
  95. pmc Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories
    Jeffrey P Baker
    Trent Center for Bioethics, Humanities, and History of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 3040, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Am J Public Health 98:244-53. 2008
    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored...
  96. ncbi Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge
    Stephen J Walker
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27156, USA
    Neurotoxicology 27:685-92. 2006
    ..b>Thimerosal, an anti-microbial preservative previously added routinely to childhood multi-dose vaccines, is composed of 49...
  97. ncbi Biochemical and molecular basis of thimerosal-induced apoptosis in T cells: a major role of mitochondrial pathway
    S Makani
    Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratories, Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Irvine 92697, USA
    Genes Immun 3:270-8. 2002
    The major source of thimerosal (ethyl mercury thiosalicylate) exposure is childhood vaccines. It is believed that the children are exposed to significant accumulative dosage of thimerosal during the first 2 years of life via immunization...
  98. ncbi Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines: lack of consistent evidence for an association
    Paul Stehr-Green
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Am J Prev Med 25:101-6. 2003
    In 1999, concerns were raised that vaccines containing the preservative Thimerosal might increase the risk of autism and/or other neurodevelopmental disorders.
  99. ncbi Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice
    S Havarinasab
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology AIR, Linkoping University, SE 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 204:109-21. 2005
    The possible health effects of the organic mercury compound thimerosal (ethylmercurithiosalicylate), which is rapidly metabolized to ethylmercury (EtHg), have recently been much debated and the effect of this compound on the immune system ..
  100. ncbi A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis
    David A Geier
    MedCon, Inc, USA
    Med Sci Monit 11:CR160-70. 2005
    b>Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing preservative in vaccines. Toxicokinetic studies have shown children received doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) that were in excess of safety guidelines...
  101. ncbi Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats
    Mieszko Olczak
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
    Brain Res 1301:143-51. 2009
    b>Thimerosal (THIM), an organomercury preservative added to many child vaccines is a suspected factor in pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. We examined the pharmacokinetics of Hg in the brain, liver and kidneys after i.m...

Research Grants24

  1. Stability and functionality of the Immunoject single-dose, auto-reconstitution de
    Brian Quinn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..commercialization by demonstrating that the device will maintain its functionality and the thermal stability of thimerosal-free hepatitis-B vaccine stored within its powder compartment...
  2. Mechanism of Thimerosal Induced Neurotoxicity
    KINSLEY KININGHAM; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate (thimerosal) is a widely used ethyl mercury containing preservative used in over-the-counter medications, cleaners and ..
  3. Annual Autism, Genes and the Environment Conference
    Isaac Pessah; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Three workshops for parents and caregivers will address the following: Dietary Factors Influencing Autistic Behaviors; Pharmacological Interventions, and Behavioral Interventions. ..
  4. ENHANCING MUCOSAL IMMUNE RESPONSES BY MICROENCAPSULATION
    Paul Offit; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The availability of microencapsulated virus provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between APC and protective mucosal immune responses. ..
  5. Neuroprotection and Promotion of Repair Following Neurotoxic Injury
    Isaac Pessah; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. Metabolic Biomarkers of Autism: Predictive Potential and Genetic Susceptibility
    SANDRA JILL JAMES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  7. 9th International Neurotoxicology Assoc (INA9) Meeting
    Michael Aschner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  8. UNSTUDIED INFANTS: LOW RISK BABIES IN A HIGH RISK PLACE
    Marie McCormick; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Results will identify sites with better outcomes and the practices associated with them. These outcomes represent achievable goals well within the scope of current technology. ..
  9. Prenatal Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in the EMA Study
    Lisa A Croen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the long-term, a better understanding of the underlying biology may suggest appropriate strategies for early intervention and contribute to the eventual prevention of this often devastating and usually life-long disability. ..
  10. METHANOL EXPOSURE EFFECTS ON PRIMATE DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS BURBACHER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  11. Studies on the Eppin family of proteins on chromosome 20
    MICHAEL G O apos RAND; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This aim will test the hypothesis that anti-Eppin antibodies disrupt Eppin's modulation of PSA activity. ..
  12. Regulation of breast cancer growth by activation peptide
    Vaclav Vetvicka; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The overall goal is to generate a pharmacological agent for breast cancer based on blockage of the autocrine growth factor activity of pCD. ..
  13. Cerebellum Gene Expression Changes With Chronic Ethanol
    Stephen Walker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Identifying the molecular basis of neuropathology in the nonhuman primate brain resulting from chronic ethanol self-administration should have direct relevance to better understanding human alcoholism. ..
  14. Prenatal and Neonatal Biologic Markers for Autism
    Lisa Croen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. DETERMINING/UNDERSTANDING BARRIERS TO ADULT IMMUNIZATION
    Richard Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This project will furnish relevant, up-to-date to enhance policy planning, practice management and medical education. ..
  16. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF METHYLMERCURY
    THOMAS BURBACHER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed studies take full advantage of the history of these monkeys and represents the best possible use of this valuable resource. ..
  17. IN SITU LIGATION FOR DETECTION OF SPECIFIC DNA DAMAGE
    David Baskin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..It, therefore, can be used in molecular and cell biology research, as well as by clinicians in many fields, including pathology oncology, cardiology and the clinical neurosciences. ..
  18. VOLTAGE SENSITIVE CALCIUM CHANNELS IN BRAIN INJURY
    Robert Berman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  19. Analyzing Vaccine Programs/Policies in Western Europe
    Gary Freed; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Dendritic cell mediated modulation of tolerance by apoptotic cells in aging
    Anshu Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..2) to analyze a role of dendritic cells in age-associated alterations in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Regulation of capacitative calcium entry in porcine oocytes
    Zoltan Machaty; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..By using the animals with specific genetic alterations it will be possible to better understand the mechanism of diseases and develop new and effective therapies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Regulation of GRP94: Targeting Novel Cancer Therapeutics
    Jeffrey Baker; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Together, the proposed analysis will lead to a greater understanding of GRP94 as a novel anti-cancer target. ..
  23. Maternal fatty acids, birth weight and child development
    Emily Oken; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..