benzalkonium compounds

Summary

Summary: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A rabbit dry eye model induced by topical medication of a preservative benzalkonium chloride
    Cuiju Xiong
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1850-6. 2008
  2. ncbi Preservatives in eyedrops: the good, the bad and the ugly
    Christophe Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, INSERM, U968, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, CNRS, UMR_7210, Paris F 75012, France
    Prog Retin Eye Res 29:312-34. 2010
  3. pmc Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) reactions to antiglaucoma prostaglandins with or without BAK-preservative in rabbit acute toxicity study
    Hong Liang
    INSERM, U968, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e33913. 2012
  4. ncbi Adaptive resistance to benzalkonium chloride, amikacin and tobramycin: the effect on susceptibility to other antimicrobials
    J A Joynson
    Kings College London, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 93:96-107. 2002
  5. ncbi Effects of benzalkonium chloride- and polyquad-preserved combination glaucoma medications on cultured human ocular surface cells
    David A Ammar
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, USA
    Adv Ther 28:501-10. 2011
  6. pmc A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits
    Francoise Brignole-Baudouin
    INSERM, U968, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e50180. 2012
  7. ncbi Effects of benzalkonium chloride-preserved, polyquad-preserved, and sofZia-preserved topical glaucoma medications on human ocular epithelial cells
    David A Ammar
    Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, 80045, USA
    Adv Ther 27:837-45. 2010
  8. pmc Conjunctival and corneal reactions in rabbits following short- and repeated exposure to preservative-free tafluprost, commercially available latanoprost and 0.02% benzalkonium chloride
    H Liang
    Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Biological and Pharmacological Sciences, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Br J Ophthalmol 92:1275-82. 2008
  9. pmc Postadaptational resistance to benzalkonium chloride and subsequent physicochemical modifications of Listeria monocytogenes
    Monica S To
    Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5258-64. 2002
  10. ncbi Screening of benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated during cold smoked fish production
    C Soumet
    Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA, Laboratoire d Etudes et de Recherches sur les Médicaments Vétérinaires et les Désinfectants, La Haute Marche, Fougeres
    Lett Appl Microbiol 41:291-6. 2005

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications195 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A rabbit dry eye model induced by topical medication of a preservative benzalkonium chloride
    Cuiju Xiong
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1850-6. 2008
    ..To establish a rabbit dry eye model with topical medication of the ocular preparation preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC)...
  2. ncbi Preservatives in eyedrops: the good, the bad and the ugly
    Christophe Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, INSERM, U968, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 968, Institut de la Vision, CNRS, UMR_7210, Paris F 75012, France
    Prog Retin Eye Res 29:312-34. 2010
    ..Indeed, mild symptoms should not be underestimated, neglected, or denied, because they may very well be the apparent manifestations of more severe, potentially threatening subclinical reactions that may later cause major concerns...
  3. pmc Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) reactions to antiglaucoma prostaglandins with or without BAK-preservative in rabbit acute toxicity study
    Hong Liang
    INSERM, U968, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e33913. 2012
    ..IVCM-CALT analysis could be a pertinent tool in the future for understanding the immunotoxicologic challenges in the ocular surface and would provide useful criteria for evaluating newly developed eye drops...
  4. ncbi Adaptive resistance to benzalkonium chloride, amikacin and tobramycin: the effect on susceptibility to other antimicrobials
    J A Joynson
    Kings College London, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 93:96-107. 2002
    ....
  5. ncbi Effects of benzalkonium chloride- and polyquad-preserved combination glaucoma medications on cultured human ocular surface cells
    David A Ammar
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, USA
    Adv Ther 28:501-10. 2011
    ..Fort Worth, TX, USA) on cultured ocular epithelial cells...
  6. pmc A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits
    Francoise Brignole-Baudouin
    INSERM, U968, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e50180. 2012
    ..Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for the treatment of glaucoma patients...
  7. ncbi Effects of benzalkonium chloride-preserved, polyquad-preserved, and sofZia-preserved topical glaucoma medications on human ocular epithelial cells
    David A Ammar
    Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, 80045, USA
    Adv Ther 27:837-45. 2010
    ..Substitution of BAK with polyquad or sofZia resulted in significantly higher percentages of live conjunctival and corneal cells. Further studies are needed to understand the- clinical implications of these findings...
  8. pmc Conjunctival and corneal reactions in rabbits following short- and repeated exposure to preservative-free tafluprost, commercially available latanoprost and 0.02% benzalkonium chloride
    H Liang
    Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Biological and Pharmacological Sciences, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Br J Ophthalmol 92:1275-82. 2008
    ..To compare the conjunctival and corneal reactions of commercially available solution of latanoprost (Xalatan) and preservative-free (PF) tafluprost in rabbits...
  9. pmc Postadaptational resistance to benzalkonium chloride and subsequent physicochemical modifications of Listeria monocytogenes
    Monica S To
    Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5258-64. 2002
    ..The changes in cell surface antigens, efflux pump utilization, and fatty acid profiles suggest that different mechanisms are used by resistant and sensitive strains for adaptation to BC...
  10. ncbi Screening of benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated during cold smoked fish production
    C Soumet
    Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments AFSSA, Laboratoire d Etudes et de Recherches sur les Médicaments Vétérinaires et les Désinfectants, La Haute Marche, Fougeres
    Lett Appl Microbiol 41:291-6. 2005
    ..To determine the susceptibility to disinfectants and cross-resistance to antibiotics in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from fish products and the fish-processing environment...
  11. ncbi Resistance to benzalkonium chloride, peracetic acid and nisin during formation of mature biofilms by Listeria monocytogenes
    P Saá Ibusquiza
    Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas C S I C Eduardo Cabello, 6 36208 Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
    Food Microbiol 28:418-25. 2011
    ..Finally, by comparing strains 5873 and 5873 adapted to BAC, several adaptative cross-responses between BAC and nisin or peracetic acid were identified...
  12. pmc Low sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to quaternary ammonium compounds
    L Mereghetti
    Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Faculte de Medecine de Tours, 37032 Tours Cedex, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:5083-6. 2000
    ..The high association between nontypeability by phages and the loss of sensitivity to quaternary ammonium compounds are suggestive of an intrinsic resistance due to modifications in the cell wall...
  13. ncbi The antimicrobial activity of a dentin conditioner combined with antibacterial agents
    Michael G Botelho
    Oral Rehabilitation University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Oper Dent 30:75-82. 2005
    ..The inhibitory effect of antibacterial agents was significantly reduced when combined with a dentin conditioner. Only the cetrimide-dentin conditioner combination produced significant inhibitory effects against all three test organisms...
  14. ncbi Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related bacteria
    Maan Singh Sidhu
    MATFORSK, Norwegian Food Research Institute, N 1430 As, Norway
    Microb Drug Resist 8:393-9. 2002
    ..In conclusion, BC resistance among food-associated Gram-negative bacteria and Enterococcus spp. is not frequent, but resistance may develop to user concentrations after exposure to sublethal concentrations of BC...
  15. pmc Corneal alternations induced by topical application of benzalkonium chloride in rabbit
    Wensheng Chen
    Eye Institute and affiliated Xiamen Eye Center of Xiamen University, Fujian, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e26103. 2011
    ..A high concentration of BAC breaks down the barrier integrity of corneal endothelium, concomitant with the disruption of PAMR and remodeling of apical junctional complex in vivo...
  16. pmc Multiple endpoint analysis of BAC-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on a 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model
    A Pauly
    INSERM, UMR_S968, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France
    Mol Vis 17:745-55. 2011
    ..To compare the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on the human 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model (3D-HCE)...
  17. ncbi Prevalence of ocular surface disease in glaucoma patients
    Eamon W Leung
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Glaucoma Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0946, USA
    J Glaucoma 17:350-5. 2008
    ..To examine the prevalence of ocular surface disease (OSD) in glaucoma patients...
  18. pmc Genetic characterization of plasmid-associated benzalkonium chloride resistance determinants in a Listeria monocytogenes strain from the 1998-1999 outbreak
    Driss Elhanafi
    Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 7624, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:8231-8. 2010
    ..The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes...
  19. pmc Differential adaptive response and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis planktonic and biofilm cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride
    Anil K Mangalappalli-Illathu
    Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, 51 Campus Dr, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3669-80. 2008
    ....
  20. pmc Comparative study on the cytotoxic effects of benzalkonium chloride on the Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctival and IOBA-NHC cell lines
    E Brasnu
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Mol Vis 14:394-402. 2008
    ..Therefore, we compared in these two cell types the toxic effects of the preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAC); its toxicity has been often reported on conjunctival in vivo and in vitro models...
  21. pmc Increased CCL2 expression and macrophage/monocyte migration during microbicide-induced vaginal irritation
    Carsten Alt
    Biosciences Division, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    Curr HIV Res 7:639-49. 2009
    ..We suggest that measurements of CCL2 and macrophages can serve as new inflammatory biomarkers to evaluate the safety of promising novel microbicides for prevention of HIV...
  22. pmc Role of efflux pumps in adaptation and resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to benzalkonium chloride
    N A Romanova
    Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, 43 McGilvray Street, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:3498-503. 2006
    ..05), but no such increase was observed for lde for two adapted strains of L. monocytogenes, LJH 381 (P = 0.91) and C719 (P = 0.11). This indicates that the efflux pump Mdrl is at least partly responsible for the adaptation to BC...
  23. pmc Listeria monocytogenes strains selected on ciprofloxacin or the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride exhibit reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, benzalkonium chloride, and other toxic compounds
    Mira Rakic-Martinez
    Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:8714-21. 2011
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that mutations in efflux systems are responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype of strains selected on ciprofloxacin or BC...
  24. ncbi Intrinsic and acquired resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related Pseudomonas spp
    S Langsrud
    MATFORSK, Norwegian Food Research Institute, Oslo, Norway
    J Appl Microbiol 95:874-82. 2003
    ..To determine whether the increase in bacterial resistance after adaptation to DDAC can be associated with phenotypic changes. To test the activity of alternative disinfectants to eliminate resistant Pseudomonas spp...
  25. ncbi The cytotoxic effects of preserved and preservative-free prostaglandin analogs on human corneal and conjunctival epithelium in vitro and the distribution of benzalkonium chloride homologs in ocular surface tissues in vivo
    Pertti Pellinen
    Santen Oy, Tampere, Finland
    Curr Eye Res 37:145-54. 2012
    ..The distribution of BAC homologs in rabbit ocular surface tissues in vivo was examined...
  26. pmc Action of disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds against Staphylococcus aureus
    Christopher J Ioannou
    Quest International, R and D, Kennington Road, Ashford, Kent TN24 0LT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:296-306. 2007
    ..Autolysis contributed to ADBAC and DDAC lethality, although high biocide concentrations may have inhibited autolytic enzyme activity...
  27. ncbi Benzalkonium chloride causes colposcopic changes and increased susceptibility to genital herpes infection in mice
    Kathleen L Vincent
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 37:579-84. 2010
    ..Endoscopic colposcopy could be employed in small animals allowing colposcopy to be used as one component in a multifactorial safety testing paradigm...
  28. ncbi Inhibition of benzalkonium chloride-induced skin inflammation in mice by an indol-1-ylpropan-2-one inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 α
    K Roebrock
    Institute of Immunology, University of Munster, Röntgenstrasse 21, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 166:306-16. 2012
    ..We are analysing the pharmacological and biological effects of a selective cPLA(2) α inhibitor...
  29. pmc Anaphylaxis caused by benzalkonium in a nebulizer solution
    Sang Hoon Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji Hospital, Eulji Medical College, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 19:289-90. 2004
    ..She was resuscitated with a subcutaneous injection of epinephrine and an infusion of saline. One month later, we conducted a bronchial provocation test with BAC, and she showed a positive response...
  30. ncbi Benzalkonium chloride induces anterior chamber inflammation in previously untreated patients with ocular hypertension as measured by flare meter: a randomized clinical trial
    Anna M Stevens
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
    Acta Ophthalmol 90:e221-4. 2012
    ..We wanted to know whether instillation of BAK-preserved timolol in one eye would result in higher laser flare values than the instillation of preservative-free timolol in the fellow eye...
  31. ncbi Comparative in vitro toxicology study of travoprost polyquad-preserved, travoprost BAK-preserved, and latanoprost BAK-preserved ophthalmic solutions on human conjunctival epithelial cells
    Francoise Brignole-Baudouin
    Paris, France
    Curr Eye Res 36:979-88. 2011
    ..004% ophthalmic solution (travoprost BAK) and BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% ophthalmic solution (latanoprost BAK)...
  32. ncbi Preservative use in topical glaucoma medications
    Charles S Tressler
    Pfizer Inc, New York, New York 10017, USA
    Ocul Surf 9:140-58. 2011
    ..Further studies to identify these populations are needed...
  33. ncbi Effect of benzalkonium chloride on transscleral drug delivery
    Komei Okabe
    Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University, University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Aichi 467 8061, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:703-8. 2005
    ..To investigate the effect and safety of benzalkonium chloride on transscleral drug delivery in the rabbit after continuous intrascleral administration...
  34. ncbi Influence of alkyl chain length of benzalkonium chloride on acute corneal epithelial toxicity
    Masafumi Uematsu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan
    Cornea 29:1296-301. 2010
    ..To evaluate acute corneal epithelial toxicity induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) homologs with different alkyl chain lengths using an in vivo electrophysiological method...
  35. ncbi Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety profiles of preserved and preservative-free tafluprost in healthy volunteers
    Hannu Uusitalo
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
    Acta Ophthalmol Suppl (Oxf ) 242:7-13. 2008
    ..Tafluprost is a newly synthesized PF(2alpha) derivative and represents the first PF(2alpha) analogue with a fully preservative-free formulation...
  36. ncbi Corneal epithelial cellular dysfunction from benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in vitro
    Seung Heon Cha
    Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 32:180-4. 2004
    ..To investigate the functional and morphological toxicity of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on corneal epithelial cells in vitro...
  37. ncbi In vitro effects of preservative-free tafluprost and preserved latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost in a conjunctival epithelial cell line
    Emmanuelle Brasnu
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Curr Eye Res 33:303-12. 2008
    ....
  38. ncbi Acute corneal epithelial change after instillation of benzalkonium chloride evaluated using a newly developed in vivo corneal transepithelial electric resistance measurement method
    Masafumi Uematsu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
    Ophthalmic Res 39:308-14. 2007
    ..Acute corneal permeability change after instillation of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was evaluated using a newly developed in vivo corneal transepithelial electric resistance (TER) measurement method...
  39. ncbi Quantitative analysis of conjunctival goblet cells after chronic application of topical drops
    Malik Y Kahook
    University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    Adv Ther 25:743-51. 2008
    ..02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) eye drops (Xalatan; Pfizer, NY, USA), travoprost preserved with sofZia eye drops (Travatan Z; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA), or preservative-free artificial tears (Refresh Plus; Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA)...
  40. pmc Heavy-metal and benzalkonium chloride resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from the environment of turkey-processing plants
    S Mullapudi
    Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 7624, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1464-8. 2008
    ..monocytogenes harboring resistance to cadmium and to BC and raise the possibility of common genetic elements or mechanisms mediating resistance to quaternary ammonium disinfectants and to cadmium in L. monocytogenes...
  41. ncbi A study of the potential of the pig as a model for the vaginal irritancy of benzalkonium chloride in comparison to the nonirritant microbicide PHI-443 and the spermicide vanadocene dithiocarbamate
    OSMOND J D'CRUZ
    Drug Discovery Program, Experimental Pathology, Parker Hughes Institute LLC, 2657 Patton Road, St Paul, MN 55113, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 33:465-76. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that key cervicovaginal inflammatory cytokines are useful in vivo biomarkers for predicting the mucosal toxicity potential of vaginal products in the physiologically relevant and sensitive porcine model...
  42. ncbi Effect of chitosan, benzalkonium chloride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on permeation of acyclovir across isolated rabbit cornea
    Soumyajit Majumdar
    Department of Pharmaceutics, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA
    Int J Pharm 348:175-8. 2008
    ..Further in vivo evaluation is warranted...
  43. ncbi In vitro modulation of preservative toxicity: high molecular weight hyaluronan decreases apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by benzalkonium chloride
    Thierry Pauloin
    Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
    Eur J Pharm Sci 34:263-73. 2008
    ..Hyaluronan (HA), a linear biopolymer, is involved in several biological processes. The aim of this work is to in vitro investigate if HA is able to decrease BAK toxicity...
  44. ncbi Differential mechanisms of conjunctival cell death induction by ultraviolet irradiation and benzalkonium chloride
    Nelly Buron
    INSERM Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U517, Faculty of Medicine, Dijon, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:4221-30. 2006
    ..To determine the molecular mechanisms of conjunctival cell death on exposure to the quaternary ammonium preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation...
  45. ncbi Corneal punctate staining with latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in healthy subjects
    William C Stewart
    Pharmaceutical Research Network, Charleston, SC 29412 2464, USA
    J Glaucoma 12:475-9. 2003
    ..To evaluate short-term conjunctival and corneal punctate staining with latanoprost, bimatoprost, and travoprost in healthy individuals...
  46. ncbi Corneal penetration into rabbit aqueous humor is comparable between preserved and preservative-free tafluprost
    Pertti Pellinen
    Santen Oy, Tampere, Finland
    Ophthalmic Res 41:118-22. 2009
    ..Tafluprost is a new prostaglandin F(2)(alpha) analog in clinical use for the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma...
  47. ncbi Switching from a preserved to a preservative-free prostaglandin preparation in topical glaucoma medication
    Hannu Uusitalo
    University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Finland
    Acta Ophthalmol 88:329-36. 2010
    ....
  48. pmc Evaluation of biomarkers of inflammation in response to benzalkonium chloride on corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells
    Seth P Epstein
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 25:415-24. 2009
    ..To evaluate the inflammation BAK causes to the ocular surface, enzyme linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) were utilized to quantify the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in response to BAK and/or H(2)O(2)...
  49. ncbi The Staphylococcus qacH gene product: a new member of the SMR family encoding multidrug resistance
    E Heir
    MATFORSK, Norwegian Food Research Institute, As, Norway
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 163:49-56. 1998
    ..An additional open reading frame on p2H6 encoded a putative protein with similarity to rolling circle replication proteins...
  50. ncbi Role of benzalkonium chloride in DNA strand breaks in human corneal epithelial cells
    Juan Ye
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009, China
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 249:1681-7. 2011
    ..To investigate the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a preservative commonly used in ophthalmic preparations, on DNA single- and double-strand breaks in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCEs)...
  51. pmc High resolution imaging of epithelial injury in the sheep cervicovaginal tract: a promising model for testing safety of candidate microbicides
    Kathleen L Vincent
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 36:312-8. 2009
    ..In addition, optical coherence tomography (OCT) could enable high resolution visualization of tissue morphology and noninvasive assessment of microbicide-induced epithelial injury...
  52. ncbi Surface chemistry study of the interactions of benzalkonium chloride with films of meibum, corneal cells lipids, and whole tears
    Georgi A Georgiev
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Sofia, Bulgaria
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:4645-54. 2011
    ..To perform a surface chemistry study of the interactions between benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a common preservative used in ophthalmic formulations, and tear film (TF) constituents...
  53. ncbi An in vivo confocal microscopy analysis of effects of topical antiglaucoma therapy with preservative on corneal innervation and morphology
    Gianluca Martone
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
    Am J Ophthalmol 147:725-735.e1. 2009
    ..To evaluate the long-term effects of preservative-free and preservative-containing antiglaucoma eye drops on the tear secretion and ocular surface...
  54. pmc A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride
    Zhirong Lin
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Mol Vis 17:257-64. 2011
    ..To develop a dry eye model of mouse induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and investigate the possible mechanisms...
  55. ncbi Multiple endpoint analysis of the 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelium after treatment with benzalkonium chloride: early detection of toxic damage
    Aude Pauly
    University of Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, UMR S592, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:1644-52. 2009
    ..To investigate the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the human reconstituted corneal epithelial model (HCE) and to optimize the operating potential of this model in the field of ophthalmic toxicology...
  56. ncbi New tools for the evaluation of toxic ocular surface changes in the rat
    Aude Pauly
    INSERM Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U598, Cordeliers Biomedical Institute, University of Paris 5, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:5473-83. 2007
    ..To assess the usefulness of noninvasive combined technologies used to observe ocular surface changes in toxicology studies...
  57. ncbi In vitro toxicity of topical ocular prostaglandin analogs and preservatives on corneal epithelial cells
    Malik Y Kahook
    Department of Ophthalmology, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 26:259-63. 2010
    ..To determine the effect of 4 formulations of commercially available prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro...
  58. ncbi Sensitive and real-time method for evaluating corneal barrier considering tear flow
    Tadahiro Nakamura
    Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki 852 8501, Japan
    Biol Pharm Bull 33:107-10. 2010
    ..The electrophysiological method mimicking tear flow was useful to evaluate the corneal barrier quantitatively. Using this method, we clarified that the tear flow was important to protect the corneal damage induced by preservatives...
  59. ncbi Cytoprotective effects of hyaluronic acid and Carbomer 934P in ocular surface epithelial cells
    Caroline Debbasch
    Cellular Pharmacotoxicology Unit, Toxicology Laboratory, Quinze Vingts, National Hospital Center for Ophthalmology, Ambroise Paré AP HP, University of Paris V, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3409-15. 2002
    ..To investigate in vitro the cell toxicity and antioxidant effects of two major tear substitutes, hyaluronic acid and a widely used carbomer, with and without preservative...
  60. ncbi Are multidose over-the-counter artificial tears adequately preserved?
    Colin Charnock
    Department of Health Sciences, Oslo University College, Oslo, Norway
    Cornea 25:432-7. 2006
    ..Based on the challenge test outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia, products were tested in their original containers to see whether their component preservative had sufficient activity...
  61. ncbi Effects of glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cell lines
    David A Ammar
    Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 95:1466-9. 2011
    ..We investigated the potential cytotoxicity of various topical ophthalmic glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell lines...
  62. ncbi Corneal and conjunctival changes caused by commonly used glaucoma medications
    Robert J Noecker
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85711, USA
    Cornea 23:490-6. 2004
    ..To evaluate the extent of epithelial corneal and conjunctival changes associated with prolonged use of topical glaucoma medications...
  63. ncbi In vitro effects of preserved and unpreserved antiglaucoma drugs on apoptotic marker expression by human trabecular cells
    Pascale Hamard
    Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze Vingts Hospital, 28 rue de Charenton, 75012 Paris, France
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 241:1037-43. 2003
    ....
  64. ncbi Benzalkonium chloride enhances the antibacterial efficacy of gatifloxacin in an experimental rabbit model of intrastromal keratitis
    Eric G Romanowski
    The Charles T Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 24:380-4. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether a preservative (0.005% benzalkonium chloride [BAK]) enhances the antibacterial efficacy of an antibiotic (0.3% gatifloxacin, [GAT]) in vivo...
  65. ncbi The dilution of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in the tear film
    Mitchell H Friedlaender
    Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California, USA
    Adv Ther 23:835-41. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi Comparison of the effects of preserved and unpreserved formulations of timolol on the ocular surface of albino rabbits
    P J Pisella
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ambroise Pare Hospital, APHP, and Toxicology Laboratory, University of Paris V René Descartes, Paris, France
    Ophthalmic Res 32:3-8. 2000
    ..This study confirms that using unpreserved timolol may be beneficial for the long-term treatment of glaucomatous patients as it increases tear film stability and decreases epithelial permeability and stromal aggression of the cornea...
  67. pmc Short-term comparative study of topical 2% carteolol with and without benzalkonium chloride in healthy volunteers
    C Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ambroise Paré, University of Paris V René Descartes, France
    Br J Ophthalmol 82:39-42. 1998
    ..A crossover, randomised double blind study was undertaken in 30 healthy volunteers, in order to compare the tolerance of 2% carteolol with and without preservative in short term use...
  68. ncbi Nasal toxicity of benzalkonium chloride
    Herbert Riechelmann
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Ulm, Medical School Prittwitzstr 43, 89075 Ulm, Germany
    Am J Rhinol 18:291-9. 2004
    ..Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is added to nasal preparations to prevent microbial contamination. Adverse effects of BAC on human nasal mucosa should be evaluated...
  69. ncbi Benzalkonium chloride induces dephosphorylation of Myosin light chain in cultured corneal epithelial cells
    Ying Guo
    School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:2001-8. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to investigate the effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a preservative in topical ophthalmic formulations, on MLC phosphorylation in primary cultures of bovine corneal epithelial cells (BCECs)...
  70. pmc Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride on corneal epithelium using an organotypic 3-D model
    Su Khoh-Reiter
    Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    BMC Ophthalmol 9:5. 2009
    ....
  71. ncbi Is the irritant benzalkonium chloride a contact allergen? A contribution to the ongoing debate from a clinical perspective
    Wolfgang Uter
    Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Contact Dermatitis 58:359-63. 2008
    ..Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a well-recognized irritant. However, doubts exist that it is also a contact allergen...
  72. ncbi In vitro effects of preserved or preservative-free antiglaucoma medications on human complement system
    Catherine Blondin
    Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze Vingts National Hospital, Paris, France
    Curr Eye Res 27:253-9. 2003
    ..However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of antiglaucoma medications on the complement system, an early mediator of the inflammatory response...
  73. ncbi Ocular surface tolerability of prostaglandin analogs in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension
    Jess T Whitson
    UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8866, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 26:287-92. 2010
    ..005% preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), bimatoprost 0.03% preserved with 0.005% BAK, and travoprost 0.004% preserved with the proprietary preservative system sofZia in patients previously treated with latanoprost...
  74. ncbi Comparison of toxicological profiles of benzalkonium chloride and polyquaternium-1: an experimental study
    Antoine Labbe
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, and INSERM U598, Cordeliers Biomedical Institute, University of Paris 5, Paris, France
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 22:267-78. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to compare, in vivo on a rat model, two different preservatives- benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1)-using new experimental approaches...
  75. ncbi Detrimental effect of preservatives in eyedrops: implications for the treatment of glaucoma
    Christophe Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Acta Ophthalmol 86:716-26. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that preservative-free antiglaucoma treatments have clinically relevant benefits for patients...
  76. pmc Comparative toxicity of preservatives on immortalized corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells
    Seth P Epstein
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 25:113-9. 2009
    ..To evaluate the potential toxicity of these common components and their comparative effects on the ocular surface, a tissue culture model utilizing immortalized corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells was utilized...
  77. ncbi Fluoroquinolone eye drop-induced cytotoxicity: role of preservative in P2X7 cell death receptor activation and apoptosis
    Mélody Dutot
    Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université René Descartes Paris, and Centre Hospitalier National d Ophtalmologie des Quinze Vingts, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:2812-9. 2006
    ..To investigate in vitro whether eye toxicity is attributable to the preservative or the fluoroquinolone used in ophthalmic formulations...
  78. ncbi Impact of short-term exposure of commercial eyedrops preserved with benzalkonium chloride on precorneal mucin
    So Hyang Chung
    Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Mol Vis 12:415-21. 2006
    ..The aim of this study is to investigate the short-term effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a preservative used in many ophthalmic topical solutions, on precorneal mucin in humans...
  79. ncbi Thymosin beta4 inhibits benzalkonium chloride-mediated apoptosis in corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro
    Gabriel Sosne
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Scott Hall 8314, 540 E Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Exp Eye Res 83:502-7. 2006
    ..This study suggests that Tbeta(4) may be able to overcome the apoptotic side effect of BAK, and may be a useful additive to solutions containing this preservative...
  80. ncbi In vitro studies of antiglaucomatous prostaglandin analogues: travoprost with and without benzalkonium chloride and preserved latanoprost
    Christophe Baudouin
    Department of Ophthalmology 3, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:4123-8. 2007
    ..004% containing 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), travoprost Z 0.004%, a new formulation without BAK, and latanoprost 0.005% containing 0.02% BAK...
  81. ncbi Comparison of corneal and conjunctival changes after dosing of travoprost preserved with sofZia, latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride, and preservative-free artificial tears
    Malik Y Kahook
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USA
    Cornea 27:339-43. 2008
    ..To evaluate corneal and conjunctival changes after chronic, once-daily dosing of travoprost preserved with sofZia, latanoprost preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), or preservative-free artificial tears...
  82. pmc Reduction of quaternary ammonium-induced ocular surface toxicity by emulsions: an in vivo study in rabbits
    H Liang
    Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Biological and Pharmacological Sciences, France
    Mol Vis 14:204-16. 2008
    ....
  83. ncbi [The influence of different alpha-sympathomimetic drugs and benzalkoniumchlorid on the ciliary beat frequency of in vitro cultured human nasal mucosa cells]
    A Mickenhagen
    Jean Uhrmacher Institut, Universitat zu Koln, Koln
    Laryngorhinootologie 87:30-8. 2008
    ..An appropriate in-vitro model of the human nasal mucosa was developed, which allowed to measure the influence of different pharmaceutical substances on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) under standardized conditions...
  84. ncbi In vivo corneal epithelial permeability following treatment with prostaglandin analogs [correction of analoges] with or without benzalkonium chloride
    Bernard McCarey
    Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University Eye Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 23:445-51. 2007
    ..Agents such as travoprost Z with an alternative preservative decreased the epithelial toxicity associated with the long-term use of IOP-lowering agents preserved with BAK...
  85. ncbi Comparison of the relative toxicity of travoprost 0.004% without benzalkonium chloride and latanoprost 0.005% in an immortalized human cornea epithelial cell culture system
    Richard W Yee
    Department of Ophthalmology Hermann Eye Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Adv Ther 23:511-9. 2006
    ..004% preserved without BAK showed significantly less toxicity on HCEs than did latanoprost 0.005%. This difference may have ramifications in terms of tolerability for patients who use these topical glaucoma drugs on a long-term basis...
  86. ncbi Assessment of corneal epithelial integrity after acute exposure to ocular hypotensive agents preserved with and without benzalkonium chloride
    Jess T Whitson
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9057, USA
    Adv Ther 23:663-71. 2006
    ..004% preserved without BAK did not cause corneal epithelial toxicity; latanoprost 0.005% induced superficial cell loss, most likely caused by the presence of a relatively high concentration of BAK (0.02%)...
  87. ncbi Travoprost 0.004% with and without benzalkonium chloride: a comparison of safety and efficacy
    Richard A Lewis
    Grutzmacher and Lewis, Inc, Sacramento, CA, USA
    J Glaucoma 16:98-103. 2007
    ..To compare the safety and efficacy of travoprost 0.004% without benzalkonium chloride (BAC) to that of the marketed formulation of travoprost 0.004% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension...
  88. ncbi In vitro comparison of cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost on conjunctiva-derived epithelial cells
    Jean Marc Guenoun
    Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4594-9. 2005
    ....
  89. ncbi Bronchoconstrictor additives in bronchodilator solutions
    M J Asmus
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610 0486, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 104:S53-60. 1999
    ..Ipratropium is available only as a sterile, additive-free unit-dose vial, as is levalbuterol...
  90. ncbi Kinetic characteristics and toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride following intravascular and oral administration in rats
    Yuying Xue
    Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, 89 1 Enya, Izumo, Shimane 693 8501, Japan
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 811:53-8. 2004
    ..The toxic degree of BZK was correlated with the BZK concentration in orally dosed rats. Lung and kidney had higher BZK concentrations compared to blood or liver, and they could be the target organs of BZK.Keyword: Benzalkonium chloride..
  91. ncbi Cytotoxicity of potential ocular permeation enhancers evaluated on rabbit and human corneal epithelial cell lines
    S Burgalassi
    Department of Bioorganic Chemistry and Biopharmaceutics, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 33, 1 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Toxicol Lett 122:1-8. 2001
    ..After 1 h exposure the order of decreasing cytotoxicity was PSE> or =BAC>CPC>PCO>EDTA. In all cases the presence of FBS appeared to exert a protective effect against the cytotoxic effect...
  92. ncbi Comparison of the short-term effects on the human corneal surface of topical timolol maleate with and without benzalkonium chloride
    Takeshi Ishibashi
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
    J Glaucoma 12:486-90. 2003
    ..To compare the short-term effects of timolol maleate with and without preservative (0.005% benzalkonium chloride) on pre-corneal tear film stability and corneal epithelial barrier function...
  93. ncbi Method for the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of benzalkonium chloride
    M J Smith
    Glasgow Marine Technology Centre, University of Glasgow, UK
    Water Res 36:1423-8. 2002
    ..The average value of the membrane cell integral diffusion coefficient D was 7.78 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1) at 25 degrees C and there was no significant effect of alkyl chain length on the measured value of D...
  94. ncbi Mitochondrial activity and glutathione injury in apoptosis induced by unpreserved and preserved beta-blockers on Chang conjunctival cells
    C Debbasch
    Unité de Pharmaco Toxicologie Cellulaire, Centre Hospitalier National d Ophtalmologie CHNO des Quinze Vingts, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:2525-33. 2001
    ....
  95. ncbi In vitro study of inflammatory potential and toxicity profile of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost in conjunctiva-derived epithelial cells
    Jean Marc Guenoun
    Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:2444-50. 2005
    ..e., conjunctival hyperemia)...
  96. ncbi Effects of preservatives in nasal formulations on the mucosal integrity: an electron microscopic study
    Erkan Lebe
    HNO Klinik, Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitat, Greifswald, Germany
    Pharmacology 72:113-20. 2004
    ..Therefore, it has been concluded that in vivo administration of the preservatives BZC and PS may be irritant to the respiratory epithelium of rats...
  97. ncbi Toxicity of preserved and unpreserved antiglaucoma topical drugs in an in vitro model of conjunctival cells
    M De Saint Jean
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Paris 5, Ambroise Pare Hospital, Boulogne, France
    Curr Eye Res 20:85-94. 2000
    ..To compare the toxicity of a short-time application of timolol with benzalkonium chloride (timolol-BAC+) and unpreserved timolol (timolol-BAC-) in a human conjunctival cell line...
  98. ncbi Conjunctival proinflammatory and proapoptotic effects of latanoprost and preserved and unpreserved timolol: an ex vivo and in vitro study
    Pierre Jean Pisella
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Tours, Tours, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:1360-8. 2004
    ..The proapoptotic effect of the same drugs was also evaluated in vitro in a conjunctival cell line and compared with that of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)...
  99. ncbi Very-high-frequency ultrasound corneal imaging as a new tool for early diagnosis of ocular surface toxicity in rabbits treated with a preserved glaucoma drug
    Alexandre Denoyer
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Tours, Tours, France
    Ophthalmic Res 40:298-308. 2008
    ..To evaluate very-high-frequency (VHF) ultrasound imaging as a new method to detect and quantify early corneal epithelium changes induced by chronic exposure to a benzalkonium-chloride-containing antiglaucoma drug...
  100. ncbi Disinfectant susceptibility testing of avian and swine Campylobacter isolates by a filtration method
    Laetitia Avrain
    Unité de Mycoplasmologie Bactériologie, Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, BP 53, F 22440, Ploufragan, France
    Vet Microbiol 96:35-40. 2003
    ..Both disinfectants were effective against the 34 Campylobacter strains tested after 5 min exposure under in vitro conditions. No link between resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics could be observed...
  101. ncbi [Flow cytometric analysis of HLA-DR, IL-6 and IL-8 expression by conjunctival epithelial cells from patients with prolonged topical antiglaucoma treatments]
    L Bensoussan
    Centre Hospitalier National d Ophtalmologie des Quinze Vingts, EA 3123 Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6
    J Fr Ophtalmol 26:782-9. 2003
    ..To investigate the expression of three inflammation markers, HLA-DR, IL-6, and IL-8, by conjunctival epithelial cells obtained using impression cytology (IC) samples from long-term treated glaucoma patients...

Research Grants20

  1. NOVEL CONTRACEPTIVES WITH ANTI-HIV ACTIVITY
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The preclinical data on in vivo efficacies of WHI-05 and WHI-07 will be essential to further explore the utility of these novel drugs for clinical studies in human patients. ..
  2. Stampidine: A Novel Broad-Spectrum Anti-HIV Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Specific Aims 1 and 2 may provide the foundation for the clinical development of STAMP in Phase II studies as a safe, effective broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicide without conception-inhibiting functions. ..
  3. In Vitro Tissue Model of Psoriasis
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  4. Validation of a Human In Vitro Vaginal Irritation Test
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed human tissue based assay will provide a sensitive and specific time-efficient method to screen a large number of chemicals/formulations at a reduced cost. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Vanadocenes as a New Class of Spermicidal Drugs
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. Validation of Organotypic Vaginal Tissue Based Assay for Endocrine Disruptors
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed human organotypic tissue based assay will provide a sensitive and specific assay method to screen a large number of endocrine disrupting chemicals at a reduced cost. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. HIV PREVENTION TRIALS UNIT - MALAWI
    Taha Taha; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We intend to continue these studies and to expand to additional sites. ..
  8. OCULAR HYPERTENSION TREATMENT STUDY (OHTS)
    Ronald Gross; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  9. Trichomonas Lipophosphoglycan in Regulation Immune Responses
    Raina Fichorova; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..vaginalis infections and complications. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. Phase II SBIR: WHI-07: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  11. Thymosin beta 4 and Corneal Wound Healing
    Gabriel Sosne; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Immortized Human Langerhans Cells
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally, a skin model containing immunologically competent cells would be extremely valuable to a large number of companies in evaluating whether their products are likely to cause allergic contact dermatitis...
  13. FLP-102: Rationally Engineered Antiviral Protein
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The preclinical data on FLP-102 will be essential to further explore the utility of this novel recombinant PAP mutant for Phase II. ..
  14. PHI 346: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Following successful completion of the Phase I in vivo efficacy studies, gel formulation of PHI-346 will be further explored as a vaginal dual-function microbicide in Phase II. ..
  15. Reconstruction of skin model containing Langerhans cells
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, based on these studies, an assay kit to predict whether a material is likely to act as a contact allergen will be developed. ..
  16. METVAN: A Novel Anticancer Agent
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The knowledge gained from these studies described under Specific Aims 1-2 is expected to facilitate the design of innovative treatment regimens employing METVAN for metastatic breast cancer and brain tumor patients. ..
  17. PHI-443: Novel Non-Spermicidal Anti-HIV Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Specific Aims 1 and 2 may provide the foundation for the clinical development of PHI-443 in Phase II studies as a safe, effective broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicide without conception-inhibiting functions. ..
  18. COLLABORATIVE INITIAL GLAUCOMA TREATMENT STUDY
    Ronald Gross; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  19. Thymosin beta 4 and Autoimmune Ocular Surface Disease
    Gabriel Sosne; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Localized modulation of RPE P-gp/MRP activity for back-of-the-eye drug delivery
    Soumyajit Majumdar; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..