kynuramine

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Antioxidant properties of the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK): scavenging of free radicals and prevention of protein destruction
    Anna Rebekka Ressmeyer
    Institut fur Zoologie, Anthropologie und Entwicklungsbiologie, Universitat Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Redox Rep 8:205-13. 2003
  2. ncbi Analysis of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine/N1-acetyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine formation from melatonin in mice
    Sida Niu
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    J Pineal Res 49:106-14. 2010
  3. ncbi High concentrations of the melatonin metabolite, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis: a possible immunomodulatory mechanism
    Sueli de Oliveira Silva
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 39:302-6. 2005
  4. ncbi Molecular characteristics of tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in guinea pig tissues
    Naoyuki Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Enzyme Pharmacology, Senshu University at Ishinomaki, Japan
    Life Sci 70:1519-31. 2002
  5. ncbi Inhibitory effects of ethaverine, a homologue of papaverine, on monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain
    S S Lee
    College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 24:838-40. 2001
  6. ncbi 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-3(2H)-carboxamide derivatives as potential novel class of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors: synthesis, evaluation, and role of urea moiety
    Shaoyong Ke
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Institute of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
    Bioorg Med Chem 16:7565-72. 2008
  7. ncbi Inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by β-carbolines and their interactions in live neuronal (PC12) and liver (HuH-7 and MH1C1) cells
    Michael F Santillo
    Division of Toxicology, Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U S Food and Drug Administration, 8301 Muirkirk Rd, Laurel, MD 20708, USA Electronic address
    Toxicol In Vitro 28:403-10. 2014
  8. ncbi The development of enhanced arterial serotonergic hyperresponsiveness in mineralocorticoid hypertension
    S W Watts
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, E Lansing 48824 1317, USA
    J Hypertens 16:811-22. 1998
  9. ncbi A novel enzyme-dependent melatonin metabolite in humans
    Chaoyue Li
    Department of Neurosurgery, Henan People s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
    J Pineal Res 54:100-6. 2013
  10. ncbi Melatonin: new places in therapy
    Deepa S Maharaj
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, P O Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
    Biosci Rep 27:299-320. 2007

Scientific Experts

  • Rudiger Hardeland
  • T Herraiz
  • Sangram Nag
  • Annia Galano
  • Zhengyin Yan
  • Fabienne Peyrot
  • Kailash Manda
  • Sandor Szanto
  • Martin J Kenny
  • Valdecir F Ximenes
  • J A Boutin
  • S W Watts
  • Alessandra Padiglia
  • Juan C Mayo
  • Annika Raitala
  • Fabrice Collin
  • Dun Xian Tan
  • Russel J Reiter
  • Ana Campa
  • Xiaochao Ma
  • Glaucia R Martinez
  • Paolo Di Mascio
  • Burkhard Poeggeler
  • Victor Tapias
  • Antonio Entrena
  • Hartmut Laatsch
  • Sueli de Oliveira Silva
  • Josefa Leon
  • Lucien C Manchester
  • Eduardo A Almeida
  • Luiz H Catalani
  • Antonio Espinosa
  • Germaine Escames
  • Dario Acuna-Castroviejo
  • Miguel A Gallo
  • Melissa M Gomes
  • Michael F Santillo
  • Tae Kang Kim
  • Kazuya Takahashi
  • Chandan Maitrani
  • Chaoyue Li
  • Janice Onuki
  • Marisa H G Medeiros
  • S S Lee
  • S El Aidy
  • Bing Li
  • Feng Li
  • Clécio F Klitzke
  • Belinda Strydom
  • Natasa Dragicevic
  • Rosa M Sainz
  • Anna Rebekka Ressmeyer
  • Jana T Kuesel
  • Sida Niu
  • Maria R Rodrigues
  • Jin Wang
  • Marcio Alberto Geihs
  • Frank J Gonzalez
  • Meike Schaefer
  • Jeffrey R Idle
  • Katinka Seever
  • Alexandra Nowak
  • Supriti Samantaray
  • Igor Semak
  • Shaoyong Ke
  • María D Carrión
  • Encarnación Camacho
  • Luis C Lopez
  • Deepa S Maharaj
  • Alexandre Budu
  • T Z E Jones
  • Tadeusz Z E Jones
  • Natalia Fagali
  • Christina Heer
  • Lyudmila V Kopylova
  • D X Tan
  • S Burkhardt
  • Rona R Ramsay
  • Jon P Ruddick
  • Dale E Edmondson
  • Fernanda M Prado
  • Ni Ni Than
  • Vedrana Filic
  • Anna L Guenther
  • Ana Paula B Vintém
  • Luiz Henrique Catalani
  • Hiroyasu Kinemuchi
  • Heiko Ness
  • Sueli O Silva
  • S O Silva

Detail Information

Publications94

  1. ncbi Antioxidant properties of the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK): scavenging of free radicals and prevention of protein destruction
    Anna Rebekka Ressmeyer
    Institut fur Zoologie, Anthropologie und Entwicklungsbiologie, Universitat Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Redox Rep 8:205-13. 2003
    ..AMK may contribute to the antioxidant properties of the indolic precursor melatonin...
  2. ncbi Analysis of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine/N1-acetyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine formation from melatonin in mice
    Sida Niu
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    J Pineal Res 49:106-14. 2010
    ..several products that include N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine (AMK)...
  3. ncbi High concentrations of the melatonin metabolite, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis: a possible immunomodulatory mechanism
    Sueli de Oliveira Silva
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 39:302-6. 2005
    ..This study supports our hypothesis that inflammation favors the formation of AFMK and that this compound has immunomodulatory activity in vivo...
  4. ncbi Molecular characteristics of tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in guinea pig tissues
    Naoyuki Kobayashi
    Laboratory of Enzyme Pharmacology, Senshu University at Ishinomaki, Japan
    Life Sci 70:1519-31. 2002
    ..characteristics of SSAO in these tissues (Km, Vmax values, enzyme efficiencies, approximate enzyme concentrations, and molecular turnover numbers) towards the substrate kynuramine (0.1 mM) at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C have been estimated.
  5. ncbi Inhibitory effects of ethaverine, a homologue of papaverine, on monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain
    S S Lee
    College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 24:838-40. 2001
    ..5 microm. Ethaverine non-competitively inhibited MAO activity with a substrate kynuramine. The Ki value for ethaverine was 11.9 microM...
  6. ncbi 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-3(2H)-carboxamide derivatives as potential novel class of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors: synthesis, evaluation, and role of urea moiety
    Shaoyong Ke
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Institute of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
    Bioorg Med Chem 16:7565-72. 2008
    ..The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their MAO inhibitory activity by kynuramine fluorimetric assay method...
  7. ncbi Inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by β-carbolines and their interactions in live neuronal (PC12) and liver (HuH-7 and MH1C1) cells
    Michael F Santillo
    Division of Toxicology, Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U S Food and Drug Administration, 8301 Muirkirk Rd, Laurel, MD 20708, USA Electronic address
    Toxicol In Vitro 28:403-10. 2014
    ..Using kynuramine assays, intracellular MAO inhibition by β-carbolines was measured in PC12 (rat pheochromocytoma), MH1C1 (rat ..
  8. ncbi The development of enhanced arterial serotonergic hyperresponsiveness in mineralocorticoid hypertension
    S W Watts
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, E Lansing 48824 1317, USA
    J Hypertens 16:811-22. 1998
    ..0% NaCl plus 0.2% KCl) therapy, and, as an extension of these studies, to test the hypothesis that this switch occurs prior to the development of hypertension...
  9. ncbi A novel enzyme-dependent melatonin metabolite in humans
    Chaoyue Li
    Department of Neurosurgery, Henan People s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
    J Pineal Res 54:100-6. 2013
    ..The antioxidant products of melatonin, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine, were not detected in human urine...
  10. ncbi Melatonin: new places in therapy
    Deepa S Maharaj
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, P O Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa
    Biosci Rep 27:299-320. 2007
    ..It is these free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of melatonin that has shifted the focus from that of merely strengthening circadian rhythms to that of neuroprotectant: a new place in therapy...
  11. ncbi Effect of melatonin in the antioxidant defense system in the locomotor muscles of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata (Decapoda, Brachyura)
    Marcio Alberto Geihs
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande FURG, Av Italia, Km 8, Rio Grande, RS 96201 900, Brazil
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 166:72-82. 2010
    ..05) and increased ACAP (p<0.05), possibly stimulating others components of the ADS. In conclusion, melatonin in the locomotor muscles of N. granulata affects the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance in a time and dosage dependent manner...
  12. ncbi Kynuramines, metabolites of melatonin and other indoles: the resurrection of an almost forgotten class of biogenic amines
    Rudiger Hardeland
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, D 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 47:109-26. 2009
    ..The earlier literature mainly focussed on cardiovascular effects of kynuramine, 5-hydroxykynuramine and their N(1),N(1)-dimethylated analogs, including indirect effects via release of ..
  13. ncbi Reactions of the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK) with the ABTS cation radical: identification of new oxidation products
    Ni Ni Than
    Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Redox Rep 11:15-24. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi Biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in a melanoma cell line and its metabolization by peroxidases
    Melissa M Gomes
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Biochem Pharmacol 88:393-401. 2014
    ..Here, we identified DMT and N,N-dimethyl-N-formyl-kynuramine (DMFK) in the supernatant of cultured SK-Mel-147 cells...
  15. ncbi Mutation of surface cysteine 374 to alanine in monoamine oxidase A alters substrate turnover and inactivation by cyclopropylamines
    Ana Paula B Vintém
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK
    Bioorg Med Chem 13:3487-95. 2005
    ..The data suggest that mutation of Cys374 influences MAO A catalysis, which has implications for MAO susceptibility to redox damage. These results are compared with previous work on the equivalent residue in MAO B, namely, cysteine 365...
  16. ncbi Anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin and its metabolites, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), in macrophages
    Juan C Mayo
    Departamento de Morfologia y Biologia Celular, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias, Espana
    J Neuroimmunol 165:139-49. 2005
    ..As a consequence, the present work suggests these substances as a new class of potential anti-inflammatory agents without the classical side effects due to COX-1 inhibition...
  17. ncbi One molecule, many derivatives: a never-ending interaction of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species?
    Dun Xian Tan
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas, Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    J Pineal Res 42:28-42. 2007
    ..It has been reported that the higher the oxidative state, the more AFMK is produced. The ratio of AFMK and another melatonin metabolite, cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, may serve as an indicator of the level of oxidative stress in organisms...
  18. ncbi Effect of metal substitution in copper amine oxidase from lentil seedlings
    A Padiglia
    Department of Sciences Applied to Biosystems University of Cagliari, I 09042 Cagliari, Italy
    J Biol Inorg Chem 4:608-13. 1999
    ..The results obtained show that although Co-substituted amine oxidase is catalytically competent, copper is essential for the catalytic mechanism...
  19. ncbi Proteoliposome-based capillary electrophoresis for screening membrane protein inhibitors
    Bing Li
    School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China
    J Chromatogr Sci 50:569-73. 2012
    ..inhibitor was carried out using capillary electrophoresis (CE) based on the interaction of MAO and its substrate kynuramine (Kyn)...
  20. ncbi On the free radical scavenging activities of melatonin's metabolites, AFMK and AMK
    Annia Galano
    Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, DF, Mexico
    J Pineal Res 54:245-57. 2013
    ..Thus, the presented results support the continuous protection exerted by melatonin, through the free radical scavenging cascade...
  21. ncbi Substituents effects on activity of kynureninase from Homo sapiens and Pseudomonas fluorescens
    Chandan Maitrani
    Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States
    Bioorg Med Chem 21:4670-7. 2013
    ..The increased activity of the 5-halokynurenines may be due to van der Waals contacts or hydrophobic effects. These results may be useful in the design of potent and/or selective inhibitors of human and bacterial kynureninase...
  22. ncbi 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT): a psychoactive substance used for recreational purposes is an inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase (MAO)
    Tomas Herraiz
    Spanish National Research Council CSIC, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición ICTAN, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006, Madrid, Spain
    Drug Test Anal 6:607-13. 2014
    ..This study investigated the effect of 5-IT on human MAO-A and -B isozymes using kynuramine as the substrate...
  23. ncbi Variations in activity and inhibition with pH: the protonated amine is the substrate for monoamine oxidase, but uncharged inhibitors bind better
    T Z E Jones
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK
    J Neural Transm 114:707-12. 2007
    ..5. The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for kynuramine oxidation by purified human MAO-A and for phenylethylamine oxidation by MAO-B in granulocytes at pH values from ..
  24. ncbi The microbiota and the gut-brain axis: insights from the temporal and spatial mucosal alterations during colonisation of the germfree mouse intestine
    S El Aidy
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Benef Microbes 3:251-9. 2012
    ..These results support a functional microbiota-neurohumoral relationship during conventionalisation and suggest a delayed neuronal response that is elicited only after the microbiota accommodating homeostasis has been accomplished...
  25. ncbi 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone as an irreversible and selective inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase
    Myung Koo Lee
    College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361 763, Korea
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 51:409-11. 2003
    ..3 microM using a substrate kynuramine, but did not inhibit type A MAO (MAO-A) activity...
  26. ncbi HPLC-based bioactivity profiling of plant extracts: a kinetic assay for the identification of monoamine oxidase-A inhibitors using human recombinant monoamine oxidase-A
    Kathrin Dittmann
    Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Semmelweisstrasse 10, D 07743 Jena, Germany
    Phytochemistry 65:2885-91. 2004
    ..recombinant MAO-A, expressed as GST-fusion protein in yeast, with a kinetic measurement of the conversion of kynuramine to 4-hydroxyquinoline...
  27. ncbi Tryptophan metabolism in the central nervous system: medical implications
    Jon P Ruddick
    Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Integrative Neuroscience and Endocrinology, University of Bristol, UK
    Expert Rev Mol Med 8:1-27. 2006
    ..3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid), the neurohormone melatonin, several neuroactive kynuramine metabolites of melatonin, and the trace amine tryptamine...
  28. ncbi Synthesis and evaluation of [¹⁸F]fluororasagiline, a novel positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B)
    S Nag
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Bioorg Med Chem 20:3065-71. 2012
    ..preparations were used in order to determine IC(50) values for compound 4 by use of an enzymatic assay employing kynuramine as substrate...
  29. pmc Metabolism of melatonin and biological activity of intermediates of melatoninergic pathway in human skin cells
    Tae Kang Kim
    Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
    FASEB J 27:2742-55. 2013
    ..Furthermore, melatonin and its metabolite AFMK stimulate differentiation in human epidermis, indicating their key role in building the skin barrier...
  30. ncbi The co-catalytic effect of chlorpromazine on peroxidase-mediated oxidation of melatonin: enhanced production of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine
    Valdecir F Ximenes
    Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP, Brasil
    J Pineal Res 44:115-20. 2008
    ..We suggest that CPZ is able to exacerbate the rate of oxidation of melatonin by an electron transfer mechanism where CPZ(*+), generated during the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, is able to efficiently oxidize melatonin...
  31. ncbi Spinal cord degeneration in C57BL/6N mice following induction of experimental parkinsonism with MPTP
    Supriti Samantaray
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurochem 104:1309-20. 2008
    ..Double immunofluorescent labeling and spectrofluorimetric assay via kynuramine oxidation showed MAO-B expression and activity in SC neurons...
  32. pmc A metabolomic perspective of melatonin metabolism in the mouse
    Xiaochao Ma
    Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Endocrinology 149:1869-79. 2008
    ..However, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine and N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine, known as MEL antioxidant products, were not detected in mouse urine...
  33. ncbi UV filter decomposition. A study of reactions of 4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxocrotonic acid with amino acids and antioxidants present in the human lens
    Lyudmila V Kopylova
    International Tomography Center, Institutskaya 3a, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Exp Eye Res 85:242-9. 2007
    ..2+/-5.6kJmol(-1), A(Cys)=(2.7+/-0.9)x10(8)M(-1)s(-1), E(Cys)=40.4+/-5.7kJmol(-1). The large difference in frequency factors for k(Cys) and k(GSH) is attributed to steric hindrance, peculiar to the bulky GSH molecule...
  34. ncbi Reactions of the NO redox forms NO+, *NO and HNO (protonated NO-) with the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine
    Rudiger Hardeland
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 43:382-8. 2007
    ..Therefore, all three NO congeners are, in principle, capable of nitrosating AMK and forming AMMC, but in biological material the reaction with NO+ is strongly limited by the extremely short life-time of this redox form...
  35. ncbi Interactions of imidazoline ligands with the active site of purified monoamine oxidase A
    Tadeusz Z E Jones
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, UK
    FEBS J 274:1567-75. 2007
    ..the active site, inhibition by guanabenz, 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline and idazoxan was competitive with kynuramine as substrate, giving K(i) values of 3 microM, 26 microM and 125 microM, respectively...
  36. ncbi Novel pathway for N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine: UVB-induced liberation of carbon monoxide from precursor N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine
    Katinka Seever
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 44:450-5. 2008
    ..With regard to the demonstration of melatonin in skin and substantial amounts of AFMK in keratinocytes, these findings may be of dermatologic relevance...
  37. pmc Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan catabolism accelerates collagen-induced arthritis in mice
    Sandor Szanto
    Section of Molecular Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Cohn Research Building, Room 708, 1735 W, Harrison, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 9:R50. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that IDO may play an important and novel role in the negative feedback of CIA and possibly in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis...
  38. ncbi The effect of melatonin and structural analogues on the lipid peroxidation of triglycerides enriched in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
    Natalia Fagali
    Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICET, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
    Life Sci 81:299-305. 2007
    ..0%, respectively. The possible formation of N(1)-acetyl-N(2) formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) during lipid peroxidation of triglycerides enriched in PUFAs with cumene hydroperoxide in the presence of melatonin was also analyzed...
  39. ncbi Potential role of tryptophan derivatives in stress responses characterized by the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
    Fabienne Peyrot
    Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
    J Pineal Res 45:235-46. 2008
    ....
  40. ncbi 8-Aryl- and alkyloxycaffeine analogues as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase
    Belinda Strydom
    Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
    Eur J Med Chem 46:3474-85. 2011
    ..166 μM. This study also reports possible binding orientations of selected oxy caffeines within the active site cavities of MAO-A and MAO-B...
  41. pmc Melatonin metabolism in the central nervous system
    Rudiger Hardeland
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    Curr Neuropharmacol 8:168-81. 2010
    ..Contrary to other nitrosated aromates, the nitrosated kynuramine metabolite, 3-acetamidomethyl-6-methoxycinnolinone, does not re-donate NO...
  42. ncbi Melatonin treatment restores mitochondrial function in Alzheimer's mice: a mitochondrial protective role of melatonin membrane receptor signaling
    Natasa Dragicevic
    Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
    J Pineal Res 51:75-86. 2011
    ....
  43. ncbi Oxidation of melatonin by taurine chloramine
    Valdecir F Ximenes
    Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Unesp Univ Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP, Brasil
    J Pineal Res 49:115-22. 2010
    ..These findings could contribute to the establishment of new functions for melatonin in inflammatory and parasitic diseases, where the role of this indoleamine has been extensively investigated...
  44. ncbi Reactions of the melatonin metabolite N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine with carbamoyl phosphate and related compounds
    Jana T Kuesel
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 48:47-54. 2010
    ....
  45. pmc High-level expression and purification of rat monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) in Pichia pastoris: comparison with human MAO A
    Jin Wang
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University, Rollins Research Center, 1510 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 70:211-7. 2010
    ..Compared with human MAO A, rat MAO A oxidizes serotonin or kynuramine with twofold higher k(cat)/K(m) values, oxidizes phenethylamine with a 6...
  46. ncbi Melatonin and its brain metabolite N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine prevent mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase induction in parkinsonian mice
    Victor Tapias
    Centro de Investigacion Biomedica, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    J Neurosci Res 87:3002-10. 2009
    ..These findings represent the first experimental evidence of a potential role for i-mtNOS in the mitochondrial failure of PD and support a novel mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of aMT and AMK...
  47. ncbi Online H/D exchange liquid chromatography as a support for the mass spectrometric identification of the oxidation products of melatonin
    Fabrice Collin
    Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8601, Universite Paris Descartes, 45 Rue des Saints Peres, 75006 Paris, France
    J Mass Spectrom 44:318-29. 2009
    ....
  48. ncbi MT3/QR2 melatonin binding site does not use melatonin as a substrate or a co-substrate
    Jean A Boutin
    Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Institut de Recherches Servier, Croissy sur Seine, France
    J Pineal Res 45:524-31. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi The melatonin metabolite N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine is a potent singlet oxygen scavenger
    Meike Schaefer
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 46:49-52. 2009
    ..In UV-exposed cells (keratinocytes, plant cells) it is likely to be more rapidly destroyed by singlet oxygen than formed from AFMK...
  50. ncbi Space radiation-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and memory impairment in mice: ameliorative potential of the melatonin metabolite, AFMK
    Kailash Manda
    National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, Japan
    J Pineal Res 45:430-8. 2008
    ....
  51. ncbi Reactions of the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK) with the tyrosine side-chain fragment, 4-ethylphenol
    Alexandra Nowak
    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    Redox Rep 13:102-8. 2008
    ..The possibility of protein AMKylation may be of interest with regard to an eventual interference with tyrosine nitration or, more importantly, with tyrosine phosphorylation...
  52. ncbi Optimized synthesis of the melatonin metabolite N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK)
    Valdecir F Ximenes
    Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Bauru, SP, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 45:297-301. 2008
    ..Based on these data, we suggest that this could be a new, easily performed and efficient route for AFMK preparation. Additionally, we provide evidence that a radical chain reaction could be responsible for the formation of AFMK...
  53. pmc Metabolism of melatonin by cytochrome P450s in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes
    Igor Semak
    Department of Biochemistry, Belarus State University, Minsk, Belarus
    J Pineal Res 45:515-23. 2008
    ..hydroxylation at two different positions: 2 and 6, as well as generation of N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine (AFMK) and two unknown products...
  54. ncbi Inhibition of type A and B monoamine oxidase by 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines and their N-methylated derivatives
    M Minami
    Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Neural Transm Gen Sect 92:125-35. 1993
    ..of salsolinol, and N-methyl-salsolinols inhibited type A monoamine oxidase competitively to the substrate, kynuramine, and R enantiomers were more potent inhibitors than S enantiomers. The inhibition was reversible...
  55. ncbi Radioimmunoassay of N-acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK): a melatonin oxidative metabolite
    Catherine Harthé
    Service de Radioanalyse, Hôpital Neurocardiologique, Centre de Medecine Nucleaire, 59 Boulevard Pinel, 69394 Lyon, France
    Life Sci 73:1587-97. 2003
    ..In rats, plasma AFMK showed a peak after melatonin injection, which confirmed the in vivo AFMK production as a melatonin metabolite. This AFMK assay is suitable for studies on melatonin metabolism...
  56. ncbi Oxidation of melatonin by singlet molecular oxygen (O2(1deltag)) produces N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynurenine
    Eduardo A de Almeida
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 35:131-7. 2003
    ..The results uncovered by this work confirm the hypothesis that oxidation of melatonin by O2(1deltag) produces AFMK...
  57. ncbi N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine is a product of melatonin oxidation in rats
    Stanislav V Rozov
    Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
    J Pineal Res 35:245-50. 2003
    ..The study shows that AFMK is indeed a product of melatonin oxidation in vivo. The possible physiological significance of melatonin oxidation metabolic pathway is discussed...
  58. ncbi Synthesis of internal labeled standards of melatonin and its metabolite N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine for their quantification using an on-line liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry system
    Eduardo A Almeida
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 36:64-71. 2004
    ....
  59. ncbi Circadian rhythms, oxidative stress, and antioxidative defense mechanisms
    Rudiger Hardeland
    Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Chronobiol Int 20:921-62. 2003
    ....
  60. ncbi Helquinoline, a new tetrahydroquinoline antibiotic from Janibacter limosus Hel 1+
    Ratnakar N Asolkar
    Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Gottingen, Tammannstrasse 2, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Antibiot (Tokyo) 57:17-23. 2004
    ..The relative stereochemistry of the compound 1 was assigned as 2R*,4R* with the aid of coupling constants, NOESY correlation and by comparison with a related compound...
  61. ncbi A high-throughput monoamine oxidase inhibition assay using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry
    Zhengyin Yan
    Division of Drug Discovery, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, Spring House, PA 19477 0779, USA
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:834-40. 2004
    ..The method used kynuramine as a common substrate for both MAO-A and MAO-B in incubations, and the 4-hydroxyquinoline (4-HQ) resulting from ..
  62. ncbi Oxidation of melatonin and its catabolites, N1-acetyl-N2 -formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine, by activated leukocytes
    Sueli O Silva
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 37:171-5. 2004
    ..In conclusion, we defined a simple procedure for the determination of AFMK and AMK in biological samples and demonstrated the capacity of leukocytes to oxidize melatonin and AMK...
  63. ncbi Mechanistic and comparative studies of melatonin and classic antioxidants in terms of their interactions with the ABTS cation radical
    Dun Xian Tan
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    J Pineal Res 34:249-59. 2003
    ..This unique cascade action of melatonin, in terms of scavenging, increases its efficiency to neutralized ABTSb+; this contrasts with the effects of the classic antioxidants...
  64. ncbi Interferon-gamma independent oxidation of melatonin by macrophages
    Maria R Rodrigues
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 34:69-74. 2003
    ..Thus, our findings provide evidence that melatonin oxidation by macrophages may occur through a mechanism dependent of MPO and independent of IFN-gamma and IDO activity...
  65. ncbi The effects of hydergine on the MAO activity of the aged and adult rat brain
    A Buyukozturk
    Department of Biochemistry Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova Izmir, Turkey
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 5:527-9. 1995
    ..Our findings imply that increased brain MAO activity in aging can be modified by hydergine treatment in some brain regions...
  66. ncbi DNA oxidatively damaged by chromium(III) and H(2)O(2) is protected by the antioxidants melatonin, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, resveratrol and uric acid
    S Burkhardt
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Mail Code 7762, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78299-3900, USA
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 33:775-83. 2001
    ..Once formed, 8-OH-dG can mutate eventually leading to cancer; thus the implication is that these antioxidants may reduce the incidence of Cr-related cancers...
  67. ncbi N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, a biogenic amine and melatonin metabolite, functions as a potent antioxidant
    D X Tan
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA
    FASEB J 15:2294-6. 2001
    ..AFMK is a naturally occurring molecule with potent free radical scavenging capacity (donating two electrons/molecule) and thus may be a valuable new antioxidant for preventing and treating free radical-related disorders...
  68. ncbi Oxidation of melatonin and tryptophan by an HRP cycle involving compound III
    V F Ximenes
    , , CEP 05508-900, , Brazil
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:130-4. 2001
    ..Since superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibits the production of AFMK, we proposed that compound III acts as a source of O(-*)(2) or participates directly in the reaction, as in the case of enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase...
  69. ncbi Loss of serotonin oxidation as a component of the altered substrate specificity in the Y444F mutant of recombinant human liver MAO A
    R K Nandigama
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322-3050, USA
    Biochemistry 40:14839-46. 2001
    ..All mutant enzymes were expressed and exhibited lower specific activities as compared to WT MAO A using kynuramine as substrate. The lowest specific activities in this assay are exhibited by the Y407F and Y444F mutant enzymes...
  70. ncbi Oxidation of melatonin by oxoferryl hemoglobin: a mechanistic study
    L Tesoriere
    Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicological and Biological Chemistry, University of Palermo, Italy
    Free Radic Res 35:633-42. 2001
    ..The reduction of the hypervalent iron of the oxoferryl moiety may be consistent with an oxidation of melatonin by two one-electron steps...
  71. ncbi High-level expression of human liver monoamine oxidase A in Pichia pastoris: comparison with the enzyme expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Min Li
    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 3050, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 24:152-62. 2002
    ..MAO-A using the following substrates: phenethylamine, p-CF(3)-benzylamine, dopamine, serotonin, and kynuramine. Reductive titrations demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme is reduced by 1 mol of substrate or dithionite as ..
  72. ncbi Oxidation of melatonin by carbonate radicals and chemiluminescence emitted during pyrrole ring cleavage
    Rudiger Hardeland
    Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 34:17-25. 2003
    ..Melatonin's capability of scavenging CO(3)(-) may contribute to its protective potency...
  73. ncbi Neutrophils as a specific target for melatonin and kynuramines: effects on cytokine release
    S O Silva
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo CEP 05508 900, SP, Brazil
    J Neuroimmunol 156:146-52. 2004
    ..We also consider that the oxidation of melatonin may be an important event in the cross-talking between neutrophils and monocytes...
  74. ncbi AFMK, a melatonin metabolite, attenuates X-ray-induced oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids in mice
    Kailash Manda
    National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, Japan
    J Pineal Res 42:386-93. 2007
    ..IC(50) values resulting from ESR analysis was 338.08 nm. The present study indicate that AFMK is a potent antioxidant in both in vivo and in vitro systems...
  75. ncbi The effect of pH on horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of melatonin: production of N1-acetyl-N2-5-methoxykynuramine versus radical-mediated degradation
    Valdecir F Ximenes
    Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 42:291-6. 2007
    ..4 was explained by the involvement of compound III of peroxidases as evidenced by spectral studies. On the other hand, the fast oxidative degradation at pH 5.5 was explained by the classic peroxidase cycle...
  76. ncbi N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine modulates the cell cycle of malaria parasites
    Alexandre Budu
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 42:261-6. 2007
    ..Our data suggest that AFMK could have an important role in modulating the cell cycle of malaria parasites mainly in the late stages (trophozoite and schizont)...
  77. ncbi Novel rhythms of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its precursor melatonin in water hyacinth: importance for phytoremediation
    Dun Xian Tan
    Department of Cellular Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    FASEB J 21:1724-9. 2007
    ..These novel findings could lead to improvements in the phytoremediative capacity of plants by either stimulating endogenous melatonin synthesis or by adding melatonin to water/soil in which they are grown...
  78. ncbi Melatonin and its kynurenin-like oxidation products affect the microbicidal activity of neutrophils
    Sueli de Oliveira Silva
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 900, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 8:420-5. 2006
    ....
  79. ncbi Absence of tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in carp tissues
    Kazuya Takahashi
    Laboratory of Enzyme Pharmacology, Senshu University at Ishinomaki, Ishinomaki 986 8580, Japan
    Life Sci 80:1094-9. 2007
    ..As definition of SSAO was used, such as insensitivity to inhibition of the kynuramine oxidizing activity by an MAO inhibitor pargyline and high sensitivity to the SSAO inhibitor semicarbazide...
  80. ncbi Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity by N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine, a brain metabolite of melatonin
    Josefa Leon
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    J Neurochem 98:2023-33. 2006
    ..These data reveal that AMK rather than melatonin is the active metabolite against nNOS, which may be inhibited by physiological levels of AMK in the rat striatum...
  81. ncbi Analysis of monoamine oxidase enzymatic activity by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and inhibition by beta-carboline alkaloids occurring in foods and plants
    Tomas Herraiz
    Spanish Council for Scientific Research, CSIC, Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 1120:237-43. 2006
    ..We have used a chromatographic method to measure MAO-enzymatic activity by using kynuramine as a non-selective substrate with its MAO-oxidation product subsequently analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD and HPLC-mass ..
  82. ncbi Kynurenamines as neural nitric oxide synthase inhibitors
    Antonio Entrena
    Departamento de Quimica Farmaceutica y Organica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
    J Med Chem 48:8174-81. 2005
    ..Structural comparisons between these new kinurenamine derivatives, kynurenines, and 1-acyl-3-(2-amino-5-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole derivatives also reported confirm our previous model for the nNOS inhibition...
  83. ncbi Association of interferon-gamma +874(T/A) single nucleotide polymorphism with the rate of tryptophan catabolism in healthy individuals
    A Raitala
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 61:387-90. 2005
    ..These data show that trp catabolism is genetically controlled by the IFN-gamma gene and may thus be operative in those disease conditions associated with the polymorphisms of the IFN-gamma gene...
  84. ncbi Measurement of melatonin and its metabolites: importance for the evaluation of their biological roles
    Glaucia R Martinez
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
    Endocrine 27:111-8. 2005
    ..These characteristics are essential to point out correctly the biological effects of these compounds in physiological and pathological conditions...
  85. ncbi Reactions of the melatonin metabolite AMK (N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine) with reactive nitrogen species: formation of novel compounds, 3-acetamidomethyl-6-methoxycinnolinone and 3-nitro-AMK
    Anna L Guenther
    Institute of Zoology, Anthropology and Developmental Biology, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Pineal Res 39:251-60. 2005
    ..Formation of these compounds may contribute to the disappearance of AMK from tissues and body fluids...
  86. ncbi Superoxide-dependent oxidation of melatonin by myeloperoxidase
    Valdecir F Ximenes
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Biol Chem 280:38160-9. 2005
    ..This novel activity expands the types of oxidative reactions myeloperoxidase can catalyze. It should be relevant to the way neutrophils use superoxide to kill bacteria and how they metabolize xenobiotics...
  87. ncbi Human monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibition by coffee and beta-carbolines norharman and harman isolated from coffee
    Tomas Herraiz
    Spanish Council for Scientific Research CSIC Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Life Sci 78:795-802. 2006
    ..inhibitory properties on recombinant human MAO A and B isozymes catalyzing the oxidative deamination of kynuramine, suggesting that coffee contains compounds acting as MAO inhibitors...
  88. ncbi Interactions between melatonin and nicotinamide nucleotide: NADH preservation in cells and in cell-free systems by melatonin
    Dun Xian Tan
    Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    J Pineal Res 39:185-94. 2005
    ..Recycling of NADH by melatonin might improve the efficiency of NADH as an energy carrier and as an antioxidant. Interactions between melatonin and NADH may be implicated in mitochondrial metabolism...
  89. ncbi Inhibition of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced DNA damage by melatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, quercetin or resveratrol
    Janice Onuki
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 38:107-15. 2005
    ..These results could be the first step toward studies of the possible use of these antioxidants in oxidative stress promoted by ALA or other pro-oxidants...
  90. ncbi Monoamine oxidases A and B gene polymorphisms in migraine patients
    Vedrana Filic
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology, Dept of Molecular Biology, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb HR 10000, Croatia
    J Neurol Sci 228:149-53. 2005
    ..The platelet MAO-B activity was determined fluorimetrically using kynuramine as a substrate...
  91. ncbi Altered tryptophan metabolism in FIV-positive cats
    Martin J Kenny
    School of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, UK
    J Vet Intern Med 21:539-41. 2007
    ..In AIDS patients, a progressive reduction in serum tryptophan concentration occurs because of activation of an inducible tryptophan degradation pathway mediated by elevated lamda-interferon production...
  92. ncbi N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine contrasts with other tryptophan metabolites by a peculiar type of NO scavenging: cyclization to a cinnolinone prevents formation of unstable nitrosamines
    R Hardeland
    J Pineal Res 43:104-5. 2007
  93. ncbi Inhibitory effects of sanguinarine on monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain
    S S Lee
    College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, San 48, Kaeshin-Dong, Heungduk-Ku, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea
    Phytother Res 15:167-9. 2001
    ..The IC(50) value of sanguinarine was 24.5 microM. Sanguinarine inhibited non-competitively MAO activity using kynuramine as a substrate. The K(i) value for sanguinarine was 22.1 microM...
  94. ncbi Photocatalytic actions of the pesticide metabolite 2-hydroxyquinoxaline: destruction of antioxidant vitamins and biogenic amines - implications of organic redox cycling
    Andreas Behrends
    Institut fur Zoologie, Anthropologie und Entwicklungsbiologie, Universitat Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    Redox Rep 9:279-88. 2004
    ..Destruction of melatonin may cause deficiencies in circadian physiology, in immune functions and in antioxidative protection...