Summary: A butyrophenone used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
- A behavioral pharmacological study of mafoprazine, a new phenylpiperazine derivativeM Yamamura
Pharmacology Department, Tanabe Seiyaku Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan
Jpn J Pharmacol 48:203-12. 1988..for the prevention of aggressive behavior, were performed to compare its effects with those of an existing drug, azaperone (Stresnil). The acute toxicity of mafoprazine in mice was slightly stronger than that of azaperone...
- Euthanasia of exotic pigsG A Maxwell
Vet Rec 159:60. 2006
- Immobilization of black bears (Ursus americanus) with a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidineLisa L Wolfe
Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526 2097, USA
J Wildl Dis 44:748-52. 2008..captive and five free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM). The BAM drug combination was premixed using 0.5 ml butorphanol (30 mg/ml), 0...
- [Evaluation of perioperative analgesia by nociceptive flexor reflex in pigs under ketamine-azaperone-general anaesthesia]Ulf Rintisch
Klinik für Klauentiere, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Freie Universitat Berlin
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 125:96-102. 2012The objective of the investigation was to evaluate quantitatively the analgesic efficacy of the Ketamine-Azaperone-general anesthesia during surgical procedures on pigs by nociceptive flexor reflexes (NFR)...
- Comparison of sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects induced by medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam in laboratory pigsR Nishimura
Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Japan
J Vet Med Sci 55:687-90. 1993The sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects of medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam were compared in laboratory pigs...
- Butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine anesthesia in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using radiotransmitter dartsJessica Siegal-Willott
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
J Wildl Dis 45:468-80. 2009..58+/-0.1 mg/kg), azaperone (0.37+/-0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.19+/-0...
- Butorphanol and azaperone as a safe alternative for repeated chemical restraint in captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)R W Radcliffe
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, Department of Animal Health Services, Glen Rose, Texas 76043, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 31:196-200. 2000..In captive rhinoceroses conditioned to routine handling, a combination of butorphanol and azaperone at mean (+/- SD) doses of 69.3 +/- 18.0 mg and 103.1 +/- 20...
- Evaluation of intramuscular butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine and nasal oxygen insufflation for the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianusPatrice M Mich
Colorado State University Department of Clinical Sciences, Department of Anesthesia, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 39:480-7. 2008..A potentially useful alternative sedation protocol includes a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM: 0.43 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.36 mg/kg azaperone, 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine)...
- Provision of anaesthesia for porcine cardiac transplantation at the veterinary school in Trinidad and TobagoL Merritt-Charles
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Champs Fleurs, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
West Indian Med J 52:95-8. 2003..Adequate pre-medication with azaperone and a smooth induction were ensured for both pigs, which were anaesthetized simultaneously with sodium ..
- Prediction of motor responses to surgical stimuli during bilateral orchiectomy of pigs using nociceptive flexion reflexes and the bispectral index derived from the electroencephalogramJan H Baars
Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Department of Anesthesiology, CCM, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Vet J 195:377-81. 2013..The study was undertaken in 30 pigs undergoing bilateral orchiectomy under ketamine/azaperone anaesthesia...
- Multi-residue analysis of tranquillizers in meat: confirmatory assays using mass spectrometryY Govaert
Food Department, Scientific Institute of Public Health Louis Pasteur, Brussels, Belgium
Analyst 123:2507-12. 1998..developed to attempt to confirm the presence of the beta-blocker carazolol and the tranquillizers acepromazine, azaperone, chlorpromazine, propionylpromazine and xylazine in pig muscle tissues...
- Novel combinations of nalbuphine and medetomidine for wildlife immobilizationLisa L Wolfe
1 Colorado Division of Parks and Wildlife, Wildlife Health Program, 4330 Laporte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 2153, USA
J Wildl Dis 50:951-6. 2014We formulated novel drug combinations of nalbuphine HCl and medetomidine HCl (NalMed), with or without azaperone tartrate, for use in immobilizing Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and potentially for other wildlife species...
- Emotionality in growing pigs: is the open field a valid test?Ramona D Donald
Animal Behaviour and Welfare, Sustainable Livestock Systems, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK
Physiol Behav 104:906-13. 2011..In Experiment One (pharmacological manipulation), pigs pre-treated with Azaperone, a drug used to reduce stress in commercial pigs, were more active, spent more time exploring and vocalised less ..
- Development and validation of a confirmatory method for the determination of tranquilisers and a β-blocker in porcine and bovine kidney by LC-MS/MSC Bock
Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL, National Reference Laboratory for Residues and Contaminants, 10832 Berlin, Germany
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 30:1000-11. 2013A method for the confirmation of the tranquilisers azaperone and its metabolite azaperol, of chlorpromazine, propionylpromazine and acepromazine, haloperidol, xylazine and the β-blocker carazolol in porcine and bovine kidney with LC-MS/..
- Efficacy of a low-dosage combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) to immobilize Rocky Mountain elkLisa L Wolfe
1 Colorado Division of Parks and Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526 2097, USA
J Wildl Dis 50:676-80. 2014We compared dosages of a combination of sedatives, which included butorphanol tartrate, azaperone tartrate, and medetomidine HCl (BAM) in captive adult Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)...
- Analyses and decreasing patterns of veterinary antianxiety medications in soilsJeong Heui Choi
Institute of Environmental Research of the Faculty of Chemistry, Dortmund University of Technology, Otto Hahn Strasse 6, 44227 Dortmund, Germany Biotechnology Research Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yongbong ro 77, Buk Gu, 500 757 Gwangju, Republic of Korea
J Hazard Mater 275:154-65. 2014..Acepromazine, azaperone, and xylazine were incubated in control, amended, and sterilized soils...
- Determination of anxiolytic veterinary drugs from biological fertilizer blood meal using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometryJeong Heui Choi
Institute of Environmental Research of the Faculty of Chemistry, Dortmund University of Technology, Otto Hahn Strasse 6, 44227, Dortmund, Germany Biotechnology Research Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong ro, Buk Gu, 500 757, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
Biomed Chromatogr 28:751-9. 2014..2-7.4%. The analytes and the ascertained acepromazine, azaperone and xylazine metabolites were monitored in four actual liquid blood meal samples, and none of the targeted ..
- Intravenous butorphanol improves cardiopulmonary parameters in game-ranched white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) immobilized with etorphine and azaperoneWayne S J Boardman
1 School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, South Australia 5371, Australia
J Wildl Dis 50:849-57. 2014..immobilized 47 white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) for dehorning with 1-4 mg of etorphine HCl, 10-40 mg of azaperone, and 7,500 IU of hyaluronidase, at a game ranch in South Africa in November 2012...
- A preliminary investigation into the immobilising potential of a tiletamine/zolazepam mixture, metomidate, a metomidate and azaperone combination and medetomidine in ostriches (Struthio camelus)J van Heerden
Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Medical University of Southern Africa, Medunsa
J S Afr Vet Assoc 62:114-7. 1991..at dosages of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg-1; with metomidate at dosages of 15 and 20 mg kg-1 and with a metomidate/azaperone combination at respectively 20 and 6.6 mg kg-1, and 10 and 3.3 mg kg-1...
- [Perioperative intensive-medical investigations regarding compatibility of the ketamine-azaperone-general anesthesia in pigs]Karl Heinz Lahrmann
Klinik für Klauentiere, Freie Universitat Berlin
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 127:3-11. 2014..Cortisol increased simultaneously with Ketamine and Azaperone before operation, but it remained at this level until the end of the determinations, parallel to the course of ..
- Impact of general injection anaesthesia and analgesia on post-castration behaviour and teat order of pigletsT Schmidt
Department of Animal Husbandry and Ecology, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Theodor Lieser Street 11, D 06120 Halle, Germany
Animal 6:1998-2002. 2012Injection anaesthesia with a combination of ketamine and azaperone (K/A) is discussed as a painless alternative to commonly used non-anaesthetized castration...
- [Surgical treatment of lung suppuration. Comment on Nissen R (1929). The surgical treatment of lung suppurations. I. Abscess and gangrene of the lungs. Chirurg 1: 1153-1165 and (1930) II. Bronchiectases. Chirurg 2: 361-9]L Sunder-Plassman
Abteilung für Thorax und Gefässchirurgie Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Germany
Chirurg 75:206-8. 2004
- Racemic ketamine in comparison to S-ketamine in combination with azaperone and butorphanol for castration of pigsR Bettschart-Wolfensberger
Equine Department, Section Anaesthesiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 155:669-75. 2013..randomised study, 28 male 9 week old pigs of bodyweight 25 kg, were anaesthetised for castration using 5 mg/kg azaperone, 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol and 0...
- 9 single fixed-time laparoscopic intrauterine insemination in pigs to produce low-diverse embryosK P Brüssow
Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology FBN, Dummerstorf, Germany
Reprod Fertil Dev 25:152. 2012..The LIUI was performed 31h after hCG treatment. To that, ketamine/azaperone-anaesthetized gilts were fixed in a dorsal position, a pneumoperitoneum was produced and 3 trocar cannulas were ..
- [Experiences with piglet castration using injectable anaesthetic in Switzerland]A Enz
Departement für Nutztiere, Abteilung Schweinemedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultät Zürich
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 155:661-8. 2013..The anaesthesia may be improved by using butorphanol in addition to the combination of ketamine and azaperone. The recovery of the piglets should be in a warm place without any risk of injury by obstacles or the sow...
- Use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an American badger (Taxidea taxus)Laurie J Gage
Coyote Point Museum, 1651 Coyote Point Drive, San Mateo, Califoria 94401, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 36:520-2. 2005..failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. The badger was treated with 10 mg buspirone p.o. b.i.d...
- Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)Michele Miller
Palm Beach Zoo, 1301 Summit Boulevard, West Palm Beach, Florida 33405, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 44:55-61. 2013Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009...
- Anaesthetic complications in pigs undergoing MRI guided convection enhanced drug delivery to the brain: a case seriesAlan Jones
School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Vet Anaesth Analg 39:647-52. 2012..Pigs received azaperone and ketamine premedication to allow venous cannulation and propofol induction of anaesthesia...
- Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesiaK de Roest
1Research Centre on Animal Production CRPA, Reggio Emilia, Italy
Animal 3:1522-31. 2009..General anaesthesia administered by inhalation or injection of Ketamin in combination with a sedative (Azaperone, Midazolan) is more expensive...
- Post-farrowing stress management in sows by administration of azaperone: effects on piglets performanceK Ruediger
Institute for the Reproduction of Farm Animals Schoenow e V IFN, 16321 Bernau, Germany
J Anim Sci 90:2331-6. 2012This study examined the impact of a single dose of azaperone administered to sows at the end of farrowing on piglet weight gain and mortality during the lactation period...
- [Determination of azaperone and carazolol residues in animals kidney using LC-MS/MS method]Iwona Zawadzka
Pracownia Badań Chemicznych Srodków Spozywczych, Zakład Higieny Weterynaryjnej, Wojewódzki Inspektorat Weterynarii, Białystok
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 60:19-23. 2009The method is presented to analyze azaperone and carazolol in pigs kidney. Samples were extracted with acetonitryle. The determination was performed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The LC was equipped with column Luna C18 Phenomenex...
- The cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine, azaperone, detomidine, and butorphanol in field-anesthetized white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum)Sandra Wenger
Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 9LT, United Kingdom
J Zoo Wildl Med 38:380-7. 2007..In the control group (n=15), the rhinoceroses were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, detomidine, and hyaluronidase administered intramuscularly...
- Anaesthesia for castration of piglets: comparison between intranasal and intramuscular application of ketamine, climazolam and azaperoneS M Axiak
Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:395-402. 2007..5 mg kg-1 and azaperone 1.0 mg kg-1, IN or IM, 10 minutes prior to castration. Physiological parameters were measured...
- Acid-base balance and ventilation during sternal and lateral recumbency in field immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) receiving oxygen insufflation: a preliminary reportP Vdb Morkel
Frankfurt Zoological Society, 42 Kinnersley Street, Newton Park 6045, South Africa
J Wildl Dis 46:236-45. 2010..in Namibia in March and April of 2008, from a helicopter, by remote intramuscular injection with etorphine HCl, azaperone, and hyaluronidase. Time from darting to recumbency was 6.0 (3, 15.5) min...
- The litterbox bluesSharon L Crowell-Davis
Department of Anatomy and Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, USA
Compend Contin Educ Vet 29:34-7. 2007
- The use of in vitro technologies coupled with high resolution accurate mass LC-MS for studying drug metabolism in equine drug surveillanceJames P Scarth
HFL Sport Science A Quotient Bioresearch Ltd Company, Newmarket Road, Fordham, Cambridgeshire, CB7 5WW, UK
Drug Test Anal 2:1-10. 2010..were used to study the phase I metabolism of eight drugs of relevance to equine drug surveillance (acepromazine, azaperone, celecoxib, fentanyl, fluphenazine, mepivacaine, methylphenidate and tripelennamine)...
- Determination of residues of azaperone in the kidneys by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detectionVesna Cerkvenik-Flajs
Veterinary Faculty of University of Ljubljana, Institute of Food Hygiene and Bromatology, Gerbiceva 60, SI 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Anal Chim Acta 586:374-82. 2007An analytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of residues of the tranquillizer azaperone (AZN) in the kidneys of slaughtered animals...
- Enhanced blood pressure and appetite responses to chronic central melanocortin-3/4 receptor blockade in dietary-induced obesityJohn H Dubinion
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216 4505, USA
J Hypertens 28:1466-70. 2010....
- Evaluation of the effects of the sedation with azaperone/acepromazine and immobilization with guaiphenesin/thiopentone in mulesJ U Carmona
School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad de Caldas, Air mail 275, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia
Vet Res Commun 31:125-32. 2007
- Successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simumGidona Goodman
Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
Vet Dermatol 18:460-3. 2007..Under azaperone and butorphanol anaesthesia, the skin tumour was surgically removed...
- A novel method for transuterine identification of pigletsM M Birck
Division of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Lab Anim 42:331-7. 2008..The sows were sedated with azaperone and induced with propofol intravenously. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and oxygen...
- Low plasma potassium in deep hypothermic cardiac arrest indicates that cardiac arrest is secondary to hypothermia: a porcine studyBenedict Kjaergaard
Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
Eur J Emerg Med 17:131-5. 2010..The aim of this animal study was to assess biochemical changes after anoxic circulatory arrest at hypothermia and at normothermia followed by external cooling...
- Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine for immobilization of captive white-tailed deerBrad F Miller
Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
J Wildl Dis 45:457-67. 2009..We hypothesized that a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) would provide safe and effective immobilization of captive white-tailed deer while ..
- Rapid method for the determination of tranquilizers and a beta-blocker in porcine and bovine kidney by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometryKamila Mitrowska
National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, al Partyzantow 57, 24 100 Pulawy, Poland
Anal Chim Acta 637:185-92. 2009..and confirmation of tranquilizers (chlorpromazine, propionylpromazine, acepromazine, triflupromazine, promazine, azaperone and its metabolite, azaperol) and beta-blocker (carazolol) in porcine and bovine kidney has been presented...
- Thermal, cardiorespiratory and cortisol responses of impala (Aepyceros melampus) to chemical immobilisation with 4 different drug combinationsL C R Meyer
Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
J S Afr Vet Assoc 79:121-9. 2008..were darted and chemically immobilised for 30 min with each of the following drug combinations: etorphine and azaperone; etorphine and medetomidine; thiafentanil and azaperone, and a thiafentanil medetomidine combination...
- Comparison of azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine and azaperone-tiletamine-zolazepam for anaesthesia in pigletsMari L Heinonen
Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
Vet Anaesth Analg 36:151-7. 2009To investigate a combination of azaperone, detomidine, butorphanol and ketamine (DBK) in pigs and to compare it with the combination of azaperone, tiletamine and zolazepam (TZ).
- Simultaneous determination of azaperone and azaperol in animal tissues by HPLC with confirmation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometryYoichi Aoki
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229 1132, Japan
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:166-72. 2009A simple method is described for the determination of azaperone and its metabolite, azaperol, in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV)...
- Mutagenicity evaluation of azaperone in the Salmonella/microsome testM Duverger-van Bogaert
Laboratory of Toxicology, UCL 7237, School of Pharmacy, Brussels, Belgium
Drug Chem Toxicol 10:329-38. 1987b>Azaperone was evaluated for its mutagenic potential by the Salmonella/microsome test. No mutagenic activity towards six S...
- Use of haloperidol and azaperone for stress control in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) captured by means of drive-netsGregorio Mentaberre
Servei d Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Res Vet Sci 88:531-5. 2010..We studied the effect of haloperidol and azaperone on the stress response of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) through the study of physiological, haematological and ..
- Haloperidol and azaperone in drive-net captured Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica)G Mentaberre
Servei d Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
J Wildl Dis 46:923-8. 2010We investigated the effect of haloperidol and azaperone in drive-net captured Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). Both tranquilizers have been successfully used in a wide range of wild species for reducing postcapture stress response...
- Analysis and identification of azaperone and its metabolites in humansM van Boven
Catholic University of Louvain, Laboratory of Toxicology and Bromatology, Belgium
J Anal Toxicol 16:33-5. 1992b>Azaperone, dihydroazaperone, and 4'[fluoro-4-(4-(2-pyridyl)-1-piperazinyl]butyrophenone are identified in the urine of an intoxicated patient...
- Azaperone and azaperone-ketamine as a neuroleptic sedative and anesthetic in rats and miceM E Olson
Department of Animal Care Services, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Lab Anim Sci 38:299-304. 1988b>Azaperone alone and combined with ketamine were evaluated as sedative and anesthetic agents in outbred rats and mice. Using azaperone alone the duration of immobility was 1.9 to 10.8 hours for mice and 0.9 to 2.4 hours for rats...
- [Analysis of some neuroleptics and carazolol in pork kidneys]W Arneth
Institut für Chemie und Physik der Bundesanstalt für Fleischforschung, Kulmbach, Germany
Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 201:261-5. 1995A method is described for the analytical determination of the neuroleptics azaperone (plus its metabolite azaperol), acetylpromazine, propionylpromazine, chlorpromazine and the beta-blocking agent carazolol in pork kidneys...
- Excitement in an elephant after intravenous administration of atropineM E Gross
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211
J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1437-8. 1994..The elephant was sedated with azaperone, and atropine was administered IV 90 minutes later in preparation for induction of anesthesia with etorphine HCl...
- Cardiopulmonary effects of three prolonged periods of isoflurane anesthesia in an adult elephantC I Dunlop
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523
J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:1439-44. 1994..Lateral recumbency and anesthesia were achieved with etorphine (anesthesia 1 and 2) or etorphine and azaperone (anesthesia 3)...
- Pulmonary hydraulic impedance responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in newborn pigsP W Domkowski
Department of Surgery, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007
J Appl Physiol (1985) 77:386-96. 1994..of 48-h-old compared with 2-wk-old open-chest Yorkshire pigs while using two different anesthetic regimens: 1) azaperone and ketamine (4 and 12 mg/kg im, respectively) and 2) thiopental sodium (25 mg/kg i.v.)...
- Investigation of the metabolism of azaperone in the horseY C Chui
Can Test Ltd, Vancouver, B C, Canada
J Chromatogr 652:23-33. 1994Urine samples collected from a horse after intramuscular administration of 40 mg of azaperone were extracted at pH 10 before and after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were concentrated and analysed by LC-MS-MS...
- Effect of preslaughter anesthesia on muscle metabolism and meat quality of pigs of different halothane genotypesR E Klont
Research Institute for Animal Production IVO DLO Schoonoord, Zeist, The Netherlands
J Anim Sci 71:1477-85. 1993..There were differences in color and drip loss between the halothane genotypes that cannot be explained by differences in pH and carcass temperature at 45 min postmortem...
- Anaesthetics for general anaesthesia in growing pigsH Henrikson
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Acta Vet Scand 36:401-11. 1995..The anaesthetics combinations compared were 1) azaperone plus metomidate (AM), 2) Zoletil (zolazepam + tiletamine) plus xylazine (ZX), and 3) Zoletil plus xylazine plus ..
- The suppression of electro-ejaculation in the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) by azaperoneD G Meltzer
Roodeplaat Research Laboratories, Sinoville, Republic of South Africa
J S Afr Vet Assoc 59:53. 1988..The animals were subsequently successfully electro-ejaculated. No semen was obtained from animals when azaperone was used instead of xylazine, despite the use of a successful standardised method of electrical stimulation.
- Effects of amperozide and azaperone on aggression and productivity of growing-finishing pigsH W Gonyou
University of Illinois, Urbana 61801
J Anim Sci 66:2856-64. 1988..8 kg) injected with amperozide (1.0 mg/kg i.m.), azaperone (2.2 mg/kg i.m.) or saline (.1 ml/kg i.m.) immediately prior to mixing...
- Time-dependent effects of anesthetic agents on 31P NMR high-energy phosphates in KHT and RIF-1 fibrosarcomasB M Fenton
Experimental Therapeutics Division, University of Rochester Cancer Center, NY 14642
NMR Biomed 4:137-41. 1991..The present work contrasts the effects of PB with azaperone-ketamine (AZ) in RIF-1 and KHT tumors while animal body core temperature is maintained at 37 degrees C...
- Redistribution of cardiac output caused by opening of arteriovenous anastomoses by a combination of azaperone and metomidateL J van Woerkens
Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Br J Anaesth 65:393-9. 1990The effects of the butyrophenone, azaperone 5 mg kg-1 i.m. alone and after addition of the imidazole derivative metomidate 6 mg kg-1 i.v. were studied in eight conscious pigs...
- Blood gas tensions, acid-base status and cardiovascular function in miniature swine anaesthetized with halothane and methoxyflurane or intravenous metomidate hydrochlorideP Svendsen
Biomedical Laboratory, University of Odense, Denmark
Pharmacol Toxicol 64:88-93. 1989Göttingen mini-pigs were given atropine and anaesthetized with one of the following drug combinations: 1) azaperone + metomidate, 2) acepromazine + thiopentone for endotracheal intubation, followed by halothane + methoxyflurane in ..
- Influence of infused beta-adrenergic agonists on porcine blood metabolites and catecholaminesH J Mersmann
U S Department of Agriculture, Clay Center, NE 68933
J Anim Sci 67:2633-45. 1989..b>Azaperone, a drug used to calm the pigs before anesthesia, caused hypotension and bradycardia but did not affect plasma ..
- Altered adrenocortical response to acute stressors or ACTH(1-24) in intensively housed pigsE von Borell
Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Behavior, Federal Research Center of Agriculture, Westerau, FRG
Domest Anim Endocrinol 6:299-309. 1989..anesthesia; for the second experiment, 36 pigs were selected according to their adrenocortical response to azaperone-metomidate anesthesia...
- [Anesthesia in swine]K Heinritzi
II Medizinischen Tierklinik der Universität München
Tierarztl Prax 16:45-52. 1988..Together with barbiturate anaesthesia neurolept-analgesia with Azaperone--Metomidate has become more and more important, because with this form of anaesthesia the technically easy intra-..
- Thin-layer chromatographic screening method for the tranquillizers azaperone, propiopromazine and carazolol in pig tissuesN Haagsma
Department of the Science of Food of Animal Origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands
J Chromatogr 436:73-9. 1988A procedure is described for the detection of azaperone, propiopromazine and carazolol in pig muscle, liver and kidney tissue...
- Identification of metabolites of azaperone in horse urineR A Sams
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
J Pharm Sci 85:79-84. 1996Two metabolites of the tranquilizer azaperone were extracted from alkalinized horse urine after treatment with beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase from limpets (Patella vulgata)...
- Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MSM Uhl
Bayerisches Landeskriminalamt, Munchen, Germany
Forensic Sci Int 84:281-94. 1997..Careful evaluation of the findings can provide an approximate measure of the intensity of drug use in the majority of cases...
- Experience with drugs for capture and restraint of wildebeest, impala, eland and hartebeest in KenyaJ G Grootenhuis
Veterinary Research Laboratory, P O Kabete, Kenya
J Wildl Dis 12:435-43. 1976..combinations of xylazine, etorphine and acepromazine, or xylazine and fentanyl, with or without the addition of azaperone. For restraint in captivity, xylazine alone proved to be satisfactory in most instances...
- Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygenM Bush
Conservation and Research Center, Smithsonian National Zoological Park, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, Virginia 22630, USA
J S Afr Vet Assoc 75:79-84. 2004White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension...
- Induction of anaesthesia in pigs using a new alphaxalone formulationH Keates
School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Vet Rec 153:627-8. 2003
- Chemical anesthesia of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris): results of past field studiesD H Monson
U S Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 32:181-9. 2001..22 mg/kg and diazepam at 0.07 mg/kg. We advise the use of the opioid antagonist naltrexone at a ratio of 2:1 to the total fentanyl administered during processing...
- Use of azaperone and zuclopenthixol acetate to facilitate translocation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)Matt R Read
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
J Zoo Wildl Med 33:163-5. 2002..Group 1 (<1 yr old; n = 6) animals were immobilized with a combination of xylazine 1 mg/kg i.m. and azaperone 0.3 mg/kg i.m. At the end of the procedure the deer received zuclopenthixol acetate 1 mg/kg i.m...
- Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Part 1: anaesthesiaG F Stegmann
Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
J S Afr Vet Assoc 72:239-41. 2001..The animal was immobilised with 4.5 mg etorphine and 60 mg azaperone. For continued observation, the immobilised animal was transported to a boma...
- Optimization of intraperitoneal injection anesthesia in mice: drugs, dosages, adverse effects, and anesthesia depthM Arras
Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Central Biological Laboratory, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Comp Med 51:443-56. 2001..g., embryo transfer/vasectomy) coupled with a simple method to assess anesthesia depth under routine laboratory conditions...
- Determination of a method for detecting and quantifying azaperone, azaperol and carazolol in pig tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometryD Fluchard
CER, Laboratoire d Hormonologie, Marloie, Belgium
J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 744:139-47. 2000A quick, simple method for quantifying carazolol, azaperol and azaperone is described. Liquid extraction was followed by a clean-up on an Oasis SPE cartridge...
- Standing laparoscopic-guided uterine biopsy in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)R M Radcliffe
University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine, Saint Paul 55108, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 31:201-7. 2000..Standing anesthesia, incorporating butorphanol and azaperone together with local anesthetic infiltration, facilitated the laparoscopy...
- A new porcine model of reperfusion injury after lung transplantationS C Clark
The Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Lab Anim 33:135-42. 1999..6 h. The mortality rate is 4% in our series. We have found the model to be reliable, reproducible and flexible. We propose this model as an adaptable investigation for evaluating lung reperfusion injury and preservation...
- Adverse effects of nicotine and interleukin-1beta on autoresuscitation after apnea in piglets: implications for sudden infant death syndromeJ F Frøen
Department of Pediatric Research, Institute of Surgical Research, The National Hospital, University of Oslo
Pediatrics 105:E52. 2000..This is performed by investigating the acute effects of nicotine and IL-1beta on apnea by laryngeal reflex stimulation and on the subsequent autoresuscitation...
- Comparison of three injectable anaesthetic techniques in pigsR E Clutton
Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Roslin, Midlothian
Vet Rec 141:140-6. 1997..After intramuscular azaperone (1.0 mg/kg) and ketamine (2...
- Investigation of the relationship between farrowing environment, sex steroid concentrations and maternal aggression in giltsK A McLean
Genetics and Behavioural Sciences Department, SAC Edinburgh, UK
Anim Reprod Sci 50:95-109. 1998..The reaction of each gilt to her piglets was monitored. Gilts savaging piglets were sedated with azaperone (n = 8). There was no overall effect of farrowing environment on oestradiol and progesterone concentrations...
- Effect of muscle injection site and drug temperature on pre-anaesthetic sedation in pigsR E Clutton
Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Veterinary Field Station, Roslin, Midlothian
Vet Rec 142:718-21. 1998The responses of 83 Meishan gilts given azaperone (1...
- 4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swineF Wappler
Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Anesthesiology 90:1733-40. 1999..g., insulin, heparin, succinylcholine), and it has been suggested that 4-CmC might trigger malignant hyperthermia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 4-CmC in vivo and in vitro in the same animals...
- Confirmation of azaperone and its metabolically reduced form, azaperol, in swine liver by gas chromatography/mass spectrometryL A Adam
U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, MD 20855, USA
J AOAC Int 82:815-24. 1999The method described confirms the use of the tranquilizer azaperone by detecting the parent compound and the metabolically reduced form, azaperol...
- Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of veterinary tranquillizers in urine: evaluation of method performanceM L Olmos-Carmona
Laboratorio de Salud Pública, Consejería de Sanidad y Servicios Sociales, Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 734:113-20. 1999..Detection limits are 5 microg/l for ketamine, azaperone and the phenothiazines (chlor-, aceto- and propionylpromazine), 10 microg/l for haloperidol, 20 microg/l for ..
- Comparison of two combinations of sedatives before anaesthetising pigs with halothane and nitrous oxideD C Brodbelt
Highfield Veterinary Surgery, Broxbourne, Hertfordshire
Vet Rec 145:283-7. 1999Two groups of 21 three-month-old Landrace x Large White pigs were sedated with either azaperone (2 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg) (group A), or detomidine (100 microg/kg), butorphanol (0...
- A review of drugs and techniques used for sedation and anaesthesia in captive rhinoceros speciesT J Portas
Western Plains Zoo, PO Box 831, Dubbo, New South Wales 2830
Aust Vet J 82:542-9. 2004..opioid, etorphine hydrochloride in combination with an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist or the butyrophenone, azaperone. Carfentanil citrate based combinations have also been used to a lesser extent...
- Respiratory and circulatory parameters of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperoneJ Still
Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Medical University of Southern Africa, Medunsa, South Africa
J S Afr Vet Assoc 67:123-7. 1996..of oxygen were measured in 22 juvenile African elephants (Loxodonta africana) anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone during a period of 35-65 minutes after they had assumed lateral recumbency...