tetrahydrocannabinol

Summary

Summary: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound. Dronabinol is a synthetic form of delta-9-THC.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Structural MRI findings in long-term cannabis users: what do we know?
    Valentina Lorenzetti
    Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Victoria, Australia
    Subst Use Misuse 45:1787-808. 2010
  2. ncbi Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing
    Paolo Fusar-Poli
    Neuroimaging Section, Division of Psychological Medicine, PO67, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE58AF, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:95-105. 2009
  3. pmc The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin
    R G Pertwee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:199-215. 2008
  4. ncbi The endocannabinoid system: its general strategy of action, tools for its pharmacological manipulation and potential therapeutic exploitation
    Vincenzo Di Marzo
    Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Comprensorio Olivetti, 80078 Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 60:77-84. 2009
  5. ncbi Induction of psychosis by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing
    Sagnik Bhattacharyya
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, London, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:27-36. 2012
  6. ncbi Cognitive and subjective dose-response effects of acute oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in infrequent cannabis users
    H Valerie Curran
    Psychopharmacology Laboratories, Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1 6BT, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 164:61-70. 2002
  7. ncbi A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice
    Leonora E Long
    Schizophrenia Research Institute, Darlinghurst NSW, Australia
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 13:861-76. 2010
  8. ncbi Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced MAPK/ERK and Elk-1 activation in vivo depends on dopaminergic transmission
    E Valjent
    , , FRE 2371, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Eur J Neurosci 14:342-52. 2001
  9. ncbi High-potency marijuana impairs executive function and inhibitory motor control
    Johannes G Ramaekers
    Experimental Psychopharmacology Unit, Department of Neurocognition, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2296-303. 2006
  10. pmc Genetic dissection of behavioural and autonomic effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice
    Krisztina Monory
    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    PLoS Biol 5:e269. 2007

Detail Information

Publications319 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Structural MRI findings in long-term cannabis users: what do we know?
    Valentina Lorenzetti
    Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Victoria, Australia
    Subst Use Misuse 45:1787-808. 2010
    In animal studies, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been found to affect brain morphology, particularly within areas rich in cannabinoid receptors (e.g., hippocampus, cerebral cortex)...
  2. ncbi Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing
    Paolo Fusar-Poli
    Neuroimaging Section, Division of Psychological Medicine, PO67, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE58AF, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:95-105. 2009
    ..Cannabis use can both increase and reduce anxiety in humans. The neurophysiological substrates of these effects are unknown...
  3. pmc The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin
    R G Pertwee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:199-215. 2008
    ..This review focuses on the manner with which three of these compounds, (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), (-)-cannabidiol (CBD) and (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (delta9-THCV), interact ..
  4. ncbi The endocannabinoid system: its general strategy of action, tools for its pharmacological manipulation and potential therapeutic exploitation
    Vincenzo Di Marzo
    Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Comprensorio Olivetti, 80078 Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 60:77-84. 2009
    ..CB(1) and CB(2) receptors and discovered following studies on the mechanism of action of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa; (2) the endogenous agonists at these ..
  5. ncbi Induction of psychosis by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing
    Sagnik Bhattacharyya
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, De Crespigny Park, London, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:27-36. 2012
    ..Cannabis can induce acute psychotic symptoms, and its chronic use may increase the risk of schizophrenia. We investigated whether its psychotic effects are mediated through an influence on attentional salience processing...
  6. ncbi Cognitive and subjective dose-response effects of acute oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in infrequent cannabis users
    H Valerie Curran
    Psychopharmacology Laboratories, Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1 6BT, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 164:61-70. 2002
    Although some aspects of memory functions are known to be acutely impaired by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC; the main active constituent of marijuana), effects on other aspects of memory are not known and the time course of ..
  7. ncbi A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice
    Leonora E Long
    Schizophrenia Research Institute, Darlinghurst NSW, Australia
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 13:861-76. 2010
    ..The behavioural profiles of the psychotropic cannabis constituent Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and the non-psychotomimetic constituent cannabidiol (CBD) were investigated with a battery of ..
  8. ncbi Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced MAPK/ERK and Elk-1 activation in vivo depends on dopaminergic transmission
    E Valjent
    , , FRE 2371, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Eur J Neurosci 14:342-52. 2001
    It is now well established that central effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, are mediated by CB1 cannabinoid receptors...
  9. ncbi High-potency marijuana impairs executive function and inhibitory motor control
    Johannes G Ramaekers
    Experimental Psychopharmacology Unit, Department of Neurocognition, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2296-303. 2006
    ..Use of higher doses of THC in controlled studies may offer a reliable indication of THC induced impairment as compared to lower doses of THC that have traditionally been used in performance studies...
  10. pmc Genetic dissection of behavioural and autonomic effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice
    Krisztina Monory
    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    PLoS Biol 5:e269. 2007
    Marijuana and its main psychotropic ingredient Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exert a plethora of psychoactive effects through the activation of the neuronal cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), which is expressed by different neuronal ..
  11. pmc The cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates inhibition of macrophage chemotaxis to RANTES/CCL5: linkage to the CB2 receptor
    Erinn S Raborn
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, 1101 E Marshall St, Richmond, VA 23298 0678, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 3:117-29. 2008
    ..peritoneal macrophages to RANTES/CCL5 was inhibited significantly following pretreatment with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component in marijuana...
  12. ncbi Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances breast cancer growth and metastasis by suppression of the antitumor immune response
    Robert J McKallip
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    J Immunol 174:3281-9. 2005
    In the current study, we tested the central hypothesis that exposure to Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), the major psychoactive component in marijuana, can lead to enhanced growth of tumors that express low to undetectable ..
  13. pmc Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival
    Jahan P Marcu
    California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 9:180-9. 2010
    The cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) and cannabinoid 2 (CB(2)) receptor agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been shown to be a broad-range inhibitor of cancer in culture and in vivo, and is currently being used in a clinical trial for ..
  14. ncbi Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures
    Rudolf Moldzio
    Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department for Biomedical Sciences, University for Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
    Phytomedicine 19:819-24. 2012
    ..Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities against 1-methyl-..
  15. pmc Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol and N-arachidonyl glycine are full agonists at GPR18 receptors and induce migration in human endometrial HEC-1B cells
    Douglas McHugh
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 165:2414-24. 2012
    ..The endocannabinoid system regulates cellular migration. Given the growing involvement of the endocannabinoids in reproduction, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system in migration of endometrial cells...
  16. ncbi Methods of the pharmacological imaging of the cannabinoid system (PhICS) study: towards understanding the role of the brain endocannabinoid system in human cognition
    Hendrika H Van Hell
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 20:10-27. 2011
    ..system in cognitive brain function is assessed by comparing acute effects of the cannabinoid agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain function between healthy controls and groups of psychiatric patients showing cognitive ..
  17. pmc Differential transcriptional profiles mediated by exposure to the cannabinoids cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in BV-2 microglial cells
    Ana Juknat
    The Dr Miriam and Sheldon G Adelson Center for the Biology of Addictive Diseases, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Br J Pharmacol 165:2512-28. 2012
    ..We previously showed that the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) differ in their anti-inflammatory signalling pathways.
  18. pmc Modulation of auditory and visual processing by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: an FMRI study
    Toby T Winton-Brown
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King s Health Partners, London, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1340-8. 2011
    ..We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) during visual and auditory processing in healthy volunteers...
  19. ncbi Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction
    DEEPAK CYRIL D'SOUZA
    Schizophrenia Biological Research Center, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:594-608. 2005
    ..Recent advances in the neurobiology of cannabinoids have renewed interest in the association between cannabis and psychotic disorders...
  20. ncbi Involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine neuronal system in Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced impairment of spatial memory
    Nobuaki Egashira
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 445:221-9. 2002
    ..investigated the involvement of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neuronal system in the Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced impairment of spatial memory in the eight-arm radial maze in rats...
  21. ncbi The yin and yang of cannabis-induced psychosis: the actions of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in rodent models of schizophrenia
    J C Arnold
    Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    Curr Pharm Des 18:5113-30. 2012
    ..accounts may at least be partially explained by the two phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their opposing actions on schizophrenia-related symptoms...
  22. ncbi Effects of perinatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the emotional reactivity of the offspring: a longitudinal behavioral study in Wistar rats
    Viviana Trezza
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, P le A Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 198:529-37. 2008
    ..However, the long-term neurobehavioral consequences of in utero exposure to low-moderate doses of cannabinoid compounds have never been investigated...
  23. pmc Receptors and channels targeted by synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists
    R G Pertwee
    Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Scotland, UK
    Curr Med Chem 17:1360-81. 2010
    ..Just a few of these disorders are already treated with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone, both CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonists, and there is now considerable interest in expanding the ..
  24. ncbi SR 141716A prevents delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced spatial learning deficit in a Morris-type water maze in mice
    SilvaGeorgeE Da
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26:321-5. 2002
    ..a series of spatial discrimination procedures in a Morris-type maze to investigate the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) on different phases of learning and memory in mice...
  25. ncbi The schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 modulates tolerance to the effects of cannabinoids
    Aurelie A Boucher
    Department of Pharmacology, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Australia
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14:631-43. 2011
    ..heterozygous (HET) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated daily for 15 d with the synthetic analogue of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CP55,940 (0.4 mg/kg)...
  26. ncbi Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study
    D I Abrams
    Community Consortium, Positive Health Program, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 82:572-8. 2007
    ..One strength (1.7, 3.4, or 6.8% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and delivery system was randomly assigned for each of the 6 study days...
  27. ncbi The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling
    Daniele Piomelli
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine 92697 4625, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:873-84. 2003
  28. pmc Opposing actions of chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoid antagonists on hippocampal long-term potentiation
    Alexander F Hoffman
    United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Cellular Neurobiology Branch, Electrophysiology Research Unit, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Learn Mem 14:63-74. 2007
    Memory deficits produced by marijuana arise partly via interaction of the psychoactive component, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), with cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus...
  29. ncbi Neurocognitive performance during acute THC intoxication in heavy and occasional cannabis users
    J G Ramaekers
    Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 23:266-77. 2009
    Performance impairment during Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxication has been well described in occasional cannabis users. It is less clear whether tolerance develops to the impairing effects of THC in heavy users of cannabis...
  30. ncbi Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes
    Arkaitz Carracedo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, School of Biology, Complutense University, C José Antonio Novais s n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Cancer Res 66:6748-55. 2006
    ..endoplasmic reticulum stress-related targets activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4) and TRB3 in Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis...
  31. ncbi Modulation of mediotemporal and ventrostriatal function in humans by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a neural basis for the effects of Cannabis sativa on learning and psychosis
    Sagnik Bhattacharyya
    Section of Neuroimaging, Division of Psychological Medicine and Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, Box P067, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, England
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:442-51. 2009
    ..Cannabis sativa use can impair verbal learning, provoke acute psychosis, and increase the risk of schizophrenia. It is unclear where C. sativa acts in the human brain to modulate verbal learning and to induce psychotic symptoms...
  32. ncbi Chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol during adolescence provokes sex-dependent changes in the emotional profile in adult rats: behavioral and biochemical correlates
    Tiziana Rubino
    DBSF, Pharmacology Section, and Neuroscience Center, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2760-71. 2008
    ..Adolescent female and male rats were treated with increasing doses of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 11 days (postnatal day (PND) 35-45) and left undisturbed until adulthood (PND 75) when behavioral ..
  33. ncbi Heterozygous neuregulin 1 mice are more sensitive to the behavioural effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol
    A A Boucher
    Neuroscience Institute of Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192:325-36. 2007
    ..Cannabis use may precipitate schizophrenia especially if the individual has a genetic vulnerability to this mental disorder. Human and animal research indicates that neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia...
  34. ncbi Effects of acute smoked marijuana on complex cognitive performance
    C L Hart
    Division on Substance Abuse, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 25:757-65. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate that acute marijuana smoking produced minimal effects on complex cognitive task performance in experienced marijuana users...
  35. ncbi Neural basis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: effects during response inhibition
    Stefan J Borgwardt
    Section of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 64:966-73. 2008
    This study examined the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on brain activation during a motor inhibition task.
  36. pmc Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology
    Sagnik Bhattacharyya
    Section of Neuroimaging, Division of Psychological Medicine and Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, London, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:764-74. 2010
    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), the two main ingredients of the Cannabis sativa plant have distinct symptomatic and behavioral effects...
  37. pmc Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
    Mark A Ware
    Department of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, Que
    CMAJ 182:E694-701. 2010
    ..Chronic neuropathic pain affects 1%-2% of the adult population and is often refractory to standard pharmacologic treatment. Patients with chronic pain have reported using smoked cannabis to relieve pain, improve sleep and improve mood...
  38. ncbi Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge
    Paul R A Stokes
    MRC Clinical Science Centre, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Neuroimage 52:1521-7. 2010
    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans...
  39. ncbi Time course of tetrahydrocannabinol-induced changes in regional cerebral blood flow measured with positron emission tomography
    Roy J Mathew
    Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center, Odessa, TX, USA
    Psychiatry Res 116:173-85. 2002
    While several studies are available on the immediate effects of marijuana and its active ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), we examined the effects of intravenous infusion of THC on rCBF and ..
  40. pmc Cannabis intoxication and fatal road crashes in France: population based case-control study
    Bernard Laumon
    French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research INRETS, Epidemiological Research and Surveillance Unit in Transport, Occupation and Environment UMRESTTE, 25 Avenue François Mitterrand, F 69675 Bron Cedex
    BMJ 331:1371. 2005
    ..To evaluate the relative risk of being responsible for a fatal crash while driving under the influence of cannabis, the prevalence of such drivers within the driving population, and the corresponding share of fatal crashes...
  41. ncbi A single in-vivo exposure to delta 9THC blocks endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity
    Susana Mato
    Equipe INSERM AVENIR, Plasticité synaptique Maturation and Addiction, Institut Magendie des Neurosciences, rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux, France
    Nat Neurosci 7:585-6. 2004
    ..Here we show that in mice, a single in-vivo exposure to Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) abolishes the retrograde signaling that underlies eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity in both nucleus ..
  42. ncbi Association between ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism and increased risk of cannabis dependence
    Amine Benyamina
    INSERM, U669, Paris, France
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:1270-4. 2009
    ..ABCB1 polymorphisms may alter Delta9THC distribution, its psychoactive effects and individual vulnerability to dependence. These results pave the way to a new pharmacogenetic hypothesis in cannabis dependence...
  43. ncbi Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces dopamine release in the human striatum
    Matthijs G Bossong
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:759-66. 2009
    ..Here we show that Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, induces dopamine release in the human striatum...
  44. ncbi Interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and indomethacin
    K Green
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 3400, USA
    Ophthalmic Res 33:217-20. 2001
    The effect of indomethacin on the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC)-induced fall in rabbit intraocular pressure (IOP) was determined...
  45. ncbi Beta-endorphin elevations in the ventral tegmental area regulate the discriminative effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
    M Solinas
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 19:3183-92. 2004
    ..Here we show that, in rats, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, produces large increases in extracellular levels of ..
  46. ncbi Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers
    Mark Wallace
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Anesthesiology 107:785-96. 2007
    ..Using a human experimental pain model, the authors hypothesized that inhaled cannabis would reduce the pain and hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin...
  47. pmc CB1 cannabinoid receptor-mediated modulation of food intake in mice
    Jenny L Wiley
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
    Br J Pharmacol 145:293-300. 2005
    ..SR141716A dose-dependently decreased food consumption at doses that did not affect motor activity, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) increased food consumption at doses that had no effect on motor activity...
  48. ncbi Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana
    Aviv Weinstein
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:119-31. 2008
    ..In both sessions, a virtual reality maze task was performed during the FDG uptake period...
  49. ncbi Very low doses of delta 8-THC increase food consumption and alter neurotransmitter levels following weight loss
    Yosefa Avraham
    Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, POB 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77:675-84. 2004
    We have investigated the effect of 0.001 mg/kg delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on food consumption, cognitive function, and neurotransmitters in mice. Sabra mice were treated with vehicle, THC, or THC+CB1 antagonist (SR141716A)...
  50. ncbi Hu 210: a potent tool for investigations of the cannabinoid system
    A Ottani
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 287, 41100 Modena, Italy
    CNS Drug Rev 7:131-45. 2001
    ....
  51. ncbi Effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological FMRI study
    Matthijs G Bossong
    University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Cogn Neurosci 24:588-99. 2012
    ..a pharmacological MRI study with a placebo-controlled, crossover design, investigating the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhalation on associative memory-related brain function in 13 healthy volunteers...
  52. pmc The psychoactive plant cannabinoid, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is antagonized by Delta8- and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin in mice in vivo
    R G Pertwee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 150:586-94. 2007
    ....
  53. ncbi Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of mouse cerebellum reveals alterations in RasGRF1 expression following in vivo chronic treatment with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
    Graziano Colombo
    Department of Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133, Milan, Italy
    J Mol Neurosci 37:111-22. 2009
    ..changes in the RNA and the protein levels in the mouse cerebellum after chronic treatment with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
  54. ncbi Novel time-dependent vascular actions of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
    Saoirse E O'Sullivan
    School of Biomedical Sciences, E Floor, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337:824-31. 2005
    ..The active ingredient of cannabis, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries...
  55. pmc Disruption of frontal θ coherence by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is associated with positive psychotic symptoms
    Paul D Morrison
    The Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, Denmark Hill, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:827-36. 2011
    The main ingredient in cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can elicit acute psychotic reactions in healthy individuals and precipitate relapse in schizophrenic patients. However, the neural mechanism of this is unknown...
  56. ncbi Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits gastric motility in the rat through cannabinoid CB1 receptors
    Z K Krowicki
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 371:187-96. 1999
    ..involvement of the autonomic nervous system in gastric motor and cardiovascular responses to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in anesthetized rats...
  57. pmc Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis
    Celia J A Morgan
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, Research Department of Clinical, Health and Educational Psychology, University College London, London, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1879-85. 2010
    Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis...
  58. ncbi Effects of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human working memory function
    Matthijs G Bossong
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychiatry 71:693-9. 2012
    ..These findings suggest the possibility that the eCB system is also involved in WM deficits in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined if perturbation of the eCB system can induce abnormal WM activity in healthy subjects...
  59. pmc Gastric antisecretory role and immunohistochemical localization of cannabinoid receptors in the rat stomach
    Maristella Adami
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Br J Pharmacol 135:1598-606. 2002
    ..However, the ineffectiveness of atropine in reducing the effect of HU-210 suggests that the release of non cholinergic excitatory neurotransmitters may be regulated by CB(1) receptors...
  60. pmc Implications of plasma Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentrations in chronic cannabis smokers
    Erin L Karschner
    Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Anal Toxicol 33:469-77. 2009
    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is commonly found in toxicological specimens from driving under the influence and accident investigations...
  61. ncbi Neurophysiological and subjective profile of marijuana with varying concentrations of cannabinoids
    A B Ilan
    The San Francisco Brain Research Institute and SAM Technology, CA 94108, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 16:487-96. 2005
    ..They were randomly assigned to a low or a high delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol group (THC; 1.8% versus 3.6%)...
  62. ncbi Paraventricular hypothalamic CB(1) cannabinoid receptors are involved in the feeding stimulatory effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
    Aaron N A Verty
    School of Psychology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
    Neuropharmacology 49:1101-9. 2005
    ..The present study therefore examined the effects of intra-PVN administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 141716 on feeding.
  63. ncbi Stimulation of cannabinoid receptors reduces levodopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease
    Susan H Fox
    Manchester Movement Disorder Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 17:1180-7. 2002
    ..03 mg/kg) increased the duration of antiparkinsonian action of levodopa by 76%. Thus, cannabinoid receptor agonists may be useful in the treatment of motor complications in Parkinson's disease...
  64. pmc Sexually dimorphic alterations in locomotion and reversal learning after adolescent tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in the rat
    Lauren C Harte
    Department of Physiology Pharmacology, Program in Neural and Behavioral Sciences, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:515-24. 2010
    ..We examined the effects of 2mg/kg (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered daily via intra-peritoneal injections during juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal day ..
  65. ncbi Modelling of the concentration--effect relationship of THC on central nervous system parameters and heart rate -- insight into its mechanisms of action and a tool for clinical research and development of cannabinoids
    A Strougo
    Centre for Human Drug Research, Statistics, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 22:717-26. 2008
    Pharmacokinetics after pulmonary administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolites 11-OH-THC and 11-nor-9-COOH-THC was quantified...
  66. ncbi Cannabidiol reverses the reduction in social interaction produced by low dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats
    Daniel Thomas Malone
    Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Action, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 93:91-6. 2009
    While Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, a non-psychoactive constituent is cannabidiol (CBD)...
  67. ncbi Ligands that target cannabinoid receptors in the brain: from THC to anandamide and beyond
    Roger G Pertwee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Addict Biol 13:147-59. 2008
    A major finding--that (-)-trans-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) is largely responsible for the psychotropic effects of cannabis--prompted research in the 1970s and 1980s that led to the discovery that this plant cannabinoid ..
  68. pmc Perinatal delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure disrupts social and open field behavior in adult male rats
    R J Newsom
    Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 30:213-9. 2008
    ..Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), one of the active chemicals in marijuana, has been shown to cross the placental barrier ..
  69. ncbi Cannabis with high δ9-THC contents affects perception and visual selective attention acutely: an event-related potential study
    K B E Böcker
    Dept Psychopharmacology, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:67-74. 2010
    ..This study addressed the effects of exposure to cannabis with up to 69.4mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) recorded during a visual selective attention task.
  70. ncbi Involvement of subthalamic nucleus in the stimulatory effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on dopaminergic neurons
    T Morera-Herreras
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country, E 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain
    Neuroscience 151:817-23. 2008
    ..The present study sought to determine the mechanisms underlying the effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) on neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) using single-unit extracellular ..
  71. pmc The multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) is inhibited by plant-derived cannabinoids
    M L Holland
    The Discipline of Pharmacology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Br J Pharmacol 152:815-24. 2007
    ..Here we address the interaction of cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the related multidrug transporter, ABCG2.
  72. ncbi Disruptive effects of the prototypical cannabinoid Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol and the fatty acid amide inhibitor URB-597 on go/no-go auditory discrimination performance and olfactory reversal learning in rats
    Ljiljana Sokolic
    School of Psychology, Concord Centre for Mental Health, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Behav Pharmacol 22:191-202. 2011
    The effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg), and the fatty acid amide hydrolysis inhibitor URB-597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg), on auditory and olfactory go/no-go discrimination tasks were examined in rats...
  73. ncbi Sex differences in the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spatial learning in adolescent and adult rats
    Young May Cha
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 18:563-9. 2007
    ..In this study we measured the effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on spatial learning in two groups that are underrepresented in drug research--females and adolescents...
  74. ncbi Perinatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol causes enduring cognitive deficits associated with alteration of cortical gene expression and neurotransmission in rats
    Patrizia Campolongo
    Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza, University of Rome, Italy
    Addict Biol 12:485-95. 2007
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether perinatal exposure to a moderate dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters cortical gene expression and neurotransmission, leading to enduring cognitive dysfunctions in rat ..
  75. ncbi Pharmacokinetic properties of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid of occasional and chronic users
    Stefan W Toennes
    Institute of Forensic Toxicology, University of Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, D 60596 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Anal Toxicol 34:216-21. 2010
    ..The present study aids in the understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pharmacokinetics in oral fluid...
  76. pmc Reintoxication: the release of fat-stored delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) into blood is enhanced by food deprivation or ACTH exposure
    N Gunasekaran
    School of Medical Science Pharmacology and Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Br J Pharmacol 158:1330-7. 2009
    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in adipose tissue where it is stored for long periods of time...
  77. ncbi Immunomodulation by cannabinoids is absent in mice deficient for the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor
    N E Buckley
    Basic Neuroscience Program, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 396:141-9. 2000
    ..Delta(9)Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits helper T cell activation through macrophages derived from wild type, but not from knockout mice, ..
  78. ncbi Complex pharmacology of natural cannabinoids: evidence for partial agonist activity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and antagonist activity of cannabidiol on rat brain cannabinoid receptors
    F Petitet
    Rhone Poulenc Rorer S A, C R V A, Vitry sur Seine, France
    Life Sci 63:PL1-6. 1998
    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), cannabinol and cannabidiol are three important natural cannabinoids from the Marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa)...
  79. ncbi Comparative effects of alcohol and marijuana on mood, memory, and performance
    S J Heishman
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58:93-101. 1997
    ..25, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg), three doses of marijuana [4.8, or 16 puffs of 3.55% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)], and placebo in random order under double blind conditions in seven separate sessions...
  80. ncbi Cannabis coadministration potentiates the effects of "ecstasy" on heart rate and temperature in humans
    G J Dumont
    Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 86:160-6. 2009
    This study assessed the acute physiologic effects over time of (co)administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) (the main psychoactive compound of cannabis) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") in 16 ..
  81. ncbi Identification of a cannabinoid analog as a new type of designer drug in a herbal product
    Nahoko Uchiyama
    National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 57:439-41. 2009
    ..and reported as a potent cannabinoid analog possessing cannabinoid receptor binding activity and analgesic activity in the 1990 s. This is the first report to identify a cannabinoid analog in an illegal drug...
  82. ncbi Characteristics of learning and memory impairment induced by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats
    K Mishima
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Japan
    Jpn J Pharmacol 87:297-308. 2001
    We investigated the characteristics of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced impairment of learning and memory using an 8-arm radial maze task, a water maze, a visual discrimination task with 2 figures and a passive avoidance test in ..
  83. ncbi Inhibition of THC-induced effects on the central nervous system and heart rate by a novel CB1 receptor antagonist AVE1625
    L Zuurman
    Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 24:363-71. 2010
    ..Proof of pharmacological action of AVE1625 in the brain can be given by antagonising the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a CB1/CB2 agonist...
  84. ncbi Intracerebral microinjections of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: search for the impairment of spatial memory in the eight-arm radial maze in rats
    Nobuaki Egashira
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814 0180, Japan
    Brain Res 952:239-45. 2002
    The purpose of this study was to identify brain sites that contribute to the delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC)-induced impairment of spatial memory in rats...
  85. ncbi Two opposite effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on subthalamic nucleus neuron activity: involvement of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission
    Teresa Morera-Herreras
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of the Basque Country, E 48940, Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain
    Synapse 64:20-9. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) on neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in this ..
  86. ncbi Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans
    L Zuurman
    Centre for Human Drug Research, Pharmacology CNS, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 22:707-16. 2008
    ..was designed to identify which pharmacodynamic parameters most accurately quantify the effects of delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the predominantly psychoactive component of cannabis...
  87. ncbi Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
    Claudine C Hunault
    National Poisons Information Center, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:85-94. 2009
    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes)...
  88. ncbi Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment
    J G Ramaekers
    Experimental Psychopharmacology Unit, Department of Neurocognition, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Drug Alcohol Depend 85:114-22. 2006
    ..It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the lower and upper range of a THC limit for impairment...
  89. ncbi Functional imaging studies in cannabis users
    Linda Chang
    Department of Medicine, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813
    Neuroscientist 13:422-32. 2007
    ..The majority of studies examining the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration used PET methods and concluded that administration of THC leads to increased ..
  90. ncbi Involvement of the opioid system in the anxiolytic-like effects induced by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
    Fernando Berrendero
    Laboratori de Neurofarmacologia, Facultat de Ciencies de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, c Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:111-7. 2002
    ..Recent studies have shown that several pharmacological actions induced by cannabinoids, including antinociception and reward, involve the participation of the endogenous opioid system...
  91. ncbi Use of drugs of abuse in less than 30-year-old drivers killed in a road crash in France: a spectacular increase for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines
    P Mura
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et Toxicologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, BP 577, 86021 Poitiers, France
    Forensic Sci Int 160:168-72. 2006
    ..6% of the total number of samples. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most active of the principle constituents in marijuana (cannabis sativa), was detected in the ..
  92. ncbi CB2 cannabinoid receptors promote mouse neural stem cell proliferation
    Francisco Molina-Holgado
    The Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King s College London, Hodking Building, Guy s Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 25:629-34. 2007
    ..Together, our results suggest that cannabinoids stimulate proliferation of neural stem/precursor cells acting on both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors through a phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway...
  93. ncbi Can recreational doses of THC produce significant dopamine release in the human striatum?
    Paul R A Stokes
    Psychiatry Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, UK
    Neuroimage 48:186-90. 2009
    Cannabis use in early adolescence may be a risk factor for development of schizophrenia. In animals, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases the rate of dopamine neuronal firing and release in the striatum...
  94. ncbi An experimental study of catechol-o-methyltransferase Val158Met moderation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced effects on psychosis and cognition
    Cecile Henquet
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, South Limburg Mental Health Research and Teaching Network, EURON, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2748-57. 2006
    ..relatives of patients with a psychotic disorder (n=12), and healthy controls (n=32) were exposed to Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC, the principal component of cannabis) or placebo, followed by cognitive assessment and ..
  95. ncbi Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo
    A Preet
    Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Oncogene 27:339-46. 2008
    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary cannabinoid of marijuana and has been shown to either potentiate or inhibit tumor growth, depending on the type of cancer and its pathogenesis...
  96. ncbi Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected]
    Celia J A Morgan
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 197:285-90. 2010
    The two main constituents of cannabis, cannabidiol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviourally when administered in the laboratory...
  97. pmc Cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol differentially inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-kappaB and interferon-beta/STAT proinflammatory pathways in BV-2 microglial cells
    Ewa Kozela
    Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    J Biol Chem 285:1616-26. 2010
    ..We found that the two major cannabinoids present in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), decrease the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, including ..
  98. pmc Hippocampal CB(1) receptors mediate the memory impairing effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
    Laura E Wise
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:2072-80. 2009
    ..role in the memory disruptive effects of marijuana or its primary psychoactive constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) is unknown...
  99. pmc Role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 desensitization in greater tetrahydrocannabinol impairment of memory in adolescent rats
    Nicole L T Moore
    Duke University Medical Center, Room 100B, Research Park II, Box 3813, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 335:294-301. 2010
    ..We have shown previously that adolescent rats are more impaired than adults by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, in a spatial learning task, but the mechanism ..
  100. pmc Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study
    B Frank
    Pain Management Unit, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP
    BMJ 336:199-201. 2008
    ..To compare the analgesic efficacy and side effects of the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone with those of the weak opioid dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain...
  101. ncbi Cannabinoids reveal importance of spike timing coordination in hippocampal function
    David Robbe
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:1526-33. 2006
    ..Here we show that the cannabinoids Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55940 decreased the power of theta, gamma and ripple oscillations in the hippocampus of head-..

Research Grants66

  1. Effects of Cannabinoids on the Immune Response to Murine Systemic Candidiasis
    NANCY ELIZABETH BUCKLEY-NIEVES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The main psychoactive compound of marijuana, (-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been shown to suppress host resistance to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, presumably through the central or peripheral cannabinoid receptors, CB1R ..
  2. Cannabinoid regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3
    Cecilia J Hillard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that prolonged cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) activation by the cannabis constituent, [unreadable]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), significantly decreases GSK-3 phosphorylation in neurons...
  3. CB1 Receptor Regulation by Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein CRIP1a
    DANA E contact SELLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CB) type-1 receptors (CB1) in the central nervous system (CNS) mediate the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent in marijuana...
  4. Multigenerational Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary data obtained in our lab suggests that adult rats from parents with adolescent exposure to D-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC;primary psychoactive component of cannabis) exhibit reduced motivation and a depression-like phenotype,..
  5. Searching for Novel Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Agents
    Guigen Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on the metabolism of cannabinoids and resulted in the discovery of the oxidative metabolic pathway of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
  6. Transmucosal Intra-Oral Drug Delivery System for THC
    Mahmoud A ElSohly; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in the cannabis plant, has a wide range of pharmacological properties of therapeutic value...
  7. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors for Treating Opioid Use Disorders
    Aron H Lichtman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in Cannabis sativa, has long been known to reduce naloxone- ..
  8. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Cannabis and its Epigenetic Regulation
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similar gene expression patterns were detected in the ventral striatum of rats exposed to ?-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis, prenatally as well as during adolescence...
  9. Synthetic cannabinoids as novel therapeutic strategies against non-small cell lun
    Ramesh K Ganju; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In our preliminary data, we have shown that cannabinoids derived from plants, such as D9-tetrahydrocannabinol, inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling and synthetic cannabinoids, such as JWH-..
  10. The regulation of cannabinoid receptors in microglial cells during HIV infection
    CATALIN FILIPEANU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition to being the most potent psychoactive component of marijuana, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has many other biological actions including modulation of the immune response, neuronal plasticity ..
  11. Brain Cannabinoid Signaling: Selectivity and Adaptation
    Laura J Sim Selley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    69-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, produces a variety of effects by activating cannaibinoid CBl receptors (CB1R) in specific CNS regions...
  12. Synaptic plasticity in adolescent cannabis users: relevance to schizophrenia
    Subroto Ghose; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..unreadable]9 tetrahydrocannabinol ([unreadable]9-THC), the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, mediates its effects via cannabinoid 1 (..
  13. Treatment of SLE with ajulemic acid, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid derivative
    Meggan Mackay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that retain analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties without the psychotropic effects characteristic of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC;marijuana)...
  14. Substance Use and Immunity in HIV+ Adolescents by Systems Biology
    Maureen M Goodenow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The cannabinoid [unreadable]9-tetrahydrocannabinol [TCH], the main psychoactive component in marijuana, targets endogenous cannabinoid receptors expressed by ..
  15. Transdermal Cannabinoid Prodrug Treatment for Cannabis Withdrawal and Dependence
    Lynn Webster; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..AllTranz is seeking funding to create a transdermal delivery system of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an adjunct treatment for marijuana withdrawal and dependence...
  16. Sex Differences in Cannabinoid Dependence and Analgesia
    Jenny L Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Sex differences in the effects of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive substituent of marijuana, have been reported in humans and in rodent models;..
  17. The neuronal basis of cannabis-induced developmental deficits in the CNS
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..brain development is surprising given that cannabinoid receptors are the preferred cellular targets of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component from cannabis, and cannabis smoking during pregnancy causes life-long motor and ..
  18. Neurogenesis and chronic cannabinoid exposure
    Colleen Cosgrove Hegg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypothesis utilizing adolescent, adult and aged mice to ascertain the chronic effects of [unreadable]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids on neurogenesis in two ..
  19. Cannabidiol Modulation of ???-9-THC???s Psychotomimetic Effects in Healthy Humans
    Mohini Ranganathan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cannabis contains a number of compounds including delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD)...
  20. Control of Breast Cancer by the Endocannabinoid System
    Sean McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..endocannabinoid system was discovered through research focusing on the classical cannabinoid agonist, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), and other synthetic cannabinoids...
  21. Developmental Trajectories of Prefrontal Cortical GABA Neurons and Schizophrenia
    Gil D Hoftman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The principal psychoactive component in cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), activates cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1r) that are highly concentrated on the axon terminals of ..
  22. Imaging endocannabinoid degradation in the mouse brain
    Sherrye T Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The active component of marijuana, A9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces therapeutically beneficial effects such as analgesia, appetite stimulation, and nausea ..
  23. Endocannabinoid transmission in schizophrenia
    Andrea Giuffrida; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Experimental evidence indicates that cannabis or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use precipitates psychotic symptoms and is associated with a greater risk to develop schizophrenia and worsen its outcome...
  24. Effect of nicotine self-administration on endocannabinoids &related lipids
    MATTHEW WALLACE BUCZYNSKI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..FAAH), which degrade distinct sets of eCBs, can mimic the classic cannabinoid behaviors caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), whereas inhibiting each pathway alone only causes a unique partial THC-like response...
  25. CB1 Mediation of Cerebellum Versus Forebrain-Dependent Associative Learning
    PATRICK DAVID SKOSNIK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further, the potency of cannabis (concentration of delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol ([unreadable]9-THC)), is now exceeding 10 percent in the U.S...
  26. Adolescent Cannabis Use, Complex Brain Network Connectivity &Schizophrenia Risk
    Beng Choon Ho; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Animal studies provide clear evidence that tetrahydrocannabinol present in MJ is deleterious to the brain, especially during the sensitive period of adolescent brain ..
  27. Endogenous/exogenous cannabinoids: A comparison
    TORBJORN U JARBE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tremendously since the discovery of specific recognition sites (receptors) for chemicals like [unreadable]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient in marijuana...
  28. Effects of Cannabinoids on Pain-Stimulated and Pain-Depressed Behavior in Rats
    Andrew J Kwilasz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The antinociceptive efficacy of [unreadable]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active constituent of marijuana, and other CBs has been demonstrated in many preclinical ..
  29. Cannabinoid Receptor One-B Arrestin Interactions
    Rebecca Stadel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CB1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds the main psychoactive component of marijuana, A9-tetrahydrocannabinol. The CB1 receptor exerts its effects by binding to Gai/o G-proteins, resulting in the activation of ..
  30. MODULATION OF ONCOGENIC AGENTS BY MARIJUANA
    PETER GABOR MEDVECZKY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The major psychoactive compound of marijuana delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been shown to modulate lymphoid cell functions, therefore, we hypothesized that THC is likely to ..
  31. Drug Self Administration and Withdrawal Effects on Cognitive Function
    Brian D Kangas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..potentially adverse effects of two self-administered drugs that have high dependence and abuse liability (tetrahydrocannabinol [9-THC], the active ingredient in marijuana, and oxycodone, and the prescription opioid analgesic) on ..
  32. Candidate Medications for Cannabis Addiction: FAAH Inhibitors
    Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), the principal active ingredient in illicitly smoked marijuana, has been shown to have positive ..
  33. Treatment of Cannabinoid Withdrawal in Rhesus Monkeys
    Lance R McMahon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..among cannabinoids that vary in efficacy will be examined in rhesus monkeys discriminating [unreadable]9-tetrahydrocannabinol ([unreadable]9-THC)...
  34. Adolescent marijuana use and maturation of cortical functions
    SYLVINA MULLINS RAVER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These bandwidths are also affected by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient in marijuana...
  35. Default Mode and Control Brain Networks in Cannabis Dependence, and Abstinence
    PATRICK DAVID SKOSNIK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, the potency of cannabis (concentration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (? 9-THC)), is now exceeding 10% in the U.S...
  36. Genetic variation and marijuana's pharmacologic and cue-elicted effects
    JANE contact METRIK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In a 2 (genotype) X 2 (drug administration: marijuana with 2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) vs. marijuana placebo;cue reactivity: neutral vs...
  37. Behavioral Pharmacology of Synthetic Cannabinoids
    Jenny L Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..extent to which the in vivo pharmacological profile of this class of cannabinoids differs from that of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive substituent of the marijuana plant...
  38. Cannabinoid regulation of cognition
    Michael A Taffe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies in this project seek to determine if CBD can attenuate specific cognitive disruptions caused by D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), using a nonhuman primate model...
  39. Novel Medications for Cannabis Dependence
    Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the principal active ingredient in illicitly smoked marijuana, is legally available in oral ..
  40. CONTROL OF ENDOCANNABINOID RELEASE IN VIVO
    Daniele Piomelli; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Its main active ingredient, delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), acts by binding to specific membrane receptors, called cannabinoid receptors...
  41. MECHANISMS OF CANNABINOIDS ANTIEMETIC ACTIONS
    NISSAR DARMANI; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..However, basic and clinical studies clearly show that delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and its synthetic analog nabilone, demonstrate significant antiemetic efficacy...
  42. DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS EFFECTS OF OPIOID WITHDRAWAL
    Charles P France; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, combinations of opioids and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are used recreationally, might have advantages to treat pain...
  43. Efficacy and Safety of Dronabinol (Oral THC) for Treating Cannabis Dependence
    Ryan G Vandrey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  44. Use of a CB2 Ligand to prevent HIV-1 Infection and Transmission
    Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These non-psychoactive derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have a broad range of anti-inflammatory properties and increase the stratification of vaginal tissue ..
  45. MARIJUANA & DOPAMINE/ENKEPHALIN BRAIN REWARD SYSTEMS
    ELIOT GARDNER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..During the period of previous NIDA grant support for this work, we demonstrated that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), the major psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, does the following: (1) lowers direct brain ..
  46. FAAH-Inhibitor for Cannabis Dependence
    DEEPAK CYRIL D'SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Substitution treatment with delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while showing some promise in reducing cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS), is limited by its ..
  47. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CANNABINOIDS BY MICROORGANISMS
    Larry Robertson; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..examined for their ability to effect hydroxylations and other metabolic transformation reactions on delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol...
  48. The Functional Neurobiology of Cannabinoids in Brain
    EDWARD FRENCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..S. The active ingredients of this drug, which include delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are collectively known as cannabinoids (CBs)...
  49. The Functional Neurobiology of Cannabinoids in Brain
    EDWARD FRENCH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..S. The active ingredients of this drug, which include delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are collectively known as cannabinoids (CBs)...
  50. CANNABIS PHARMACOKINETICS: RELATION TO HUMAN PERFORMANCE
    BARBARA MANNO; Fiscal Year: 1992
    This project will determine the relationships between the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (OHTHC), 11-nor-9- carboxy-Delta9-..
  51. PHENCYCLIDINE, METHAQUALONE AND MARIHUANA INTERACTIONS
    Syed Husain; Fiscal Year: 1980
    The increase in polydrug abuse of agents such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, active ingredient of marihuana), phencyclidine (PCP), methaqualone (MQ), cocaine, alcohol, and others has resulted in a number of drug interactions, the clinical ..
  52. OCULAR CANNABINOID EFFECTS
    Gregory Liou; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Many new drug delivery systems have been developed since delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was tried topically in light mineral oil which, while reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbits, ..
  53. MECHANISMS OF CANNABINOID'S ANTIEMETIC ACTIONS
    NISSAR DARMANI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..9- Tetrahydrocannabinol ((9-THC) and its synthetic analog, nabilone, are effective antiemetics against chemo- and radiotherapy, and ..
  54. ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS AND CONTROL OF DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS
    Robert Roth; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The hypoactive state will be induced by subchronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) and/or delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (ThC)...
  55. CANNABINOID EFFECTS ON MEMBRANES AND THEIR CONSTITUENTS
    Alan Bloom; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal behaviorally active compound in marijuana, a substance that is used by millions of young Americans...
  56. ALCOHOL REWARD AND BRAIN DOPAMINE--PHARMACO-MODULATIONS
    ELIOT GARDNER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..have shown that the Lewis rat is also uniquely sensitive to the brain-reward enhancing effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, and that this unique sensitivity to brain-reward ..
  57. CANNABINOID RECEPTOR STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS
    ALLYN HOWLETT; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Abstract) Central nervous system (CNS) responses to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) in Cannabis sativa and synthetic cannabimimetic drugs include the therapeutically beneficial effects of analgesia, ..
  58. Mechanism of cannabinoid incorporation in hair
    STACY SMEAL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Thus, this proposal will test the hypothesis that delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) ..
  59. Astroglial Cells in Marijuana-Altered Synaptic Plasticity
    Chu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These effects are mainly mediated by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the major psychoactive constituent in marijuana, which activates cannabinoid receptors in the CNS...
  60. Effects of Zolpidem Extended-Release on Withdrawal and Sleep in Cannabis Users
    Ryan Vandrey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  61. EFFECTS OF THC ON REGIONAL BRAIN ACTIVITY : A FMRI STUDY
    Alan Bloom; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The long range goal of this project is to elucidate sites of action A9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana, in human brain and to determine those that are ..
  62. INTERACTIONS OF CANNABIS AND OTHER DRUGS
    ARTHUR CHAN; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..to be directed to a pharmacological and biochemical characterization of interactions between delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other drugs frequently used in our society...
  63. Cannabinoid Inhibition of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 Activity
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) is the major psychoactive component of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, and it produces a number of behavioral and pharmacological effects mediated through ..
  64. CANNABIDIOL--EFFECT ON CYTOCHROME P450 ISOZYMES
    Lester Bornheim; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..CBD pretreatment not only markedly increases concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites and metabolite half-times in the brain, but also increase the duration of THC-..
  65. CANNABINOID INVESTIGATIONS
    Raphael Mechoulam; Fiscal Year: 1992
    I. It is generally considered that the natural (3R,4R) Delta1- tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta1-THC) is only about 13-20 times more active than the synthetic (3S,4S) enantiomer...
  66. EFFECTS OF CANNABINOIDS ON VAGINAL HERPES 2
    Guy Cabral; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Marihuana is the most common street drug of abuse in the United States. Delta- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) is the major psychoactive component of marihuana and accounts for the majority of its immunosuppressive properties...