benzene

Summary

Summary: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Changes in DNA methylation patterns in subjects exposed to low-dose benzene
    Valentina Bollati
    Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via San Barnaba 8, 20122 Milan, Italy
    Cancer Res 67:876-80. 2007
  2. pmc Global gene expression profiling of a population exposed to a range of benzene levels
    Cliona M McHale
    School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 64720, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:628-34. 2011
  3. pmc Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene
    Qing Lan
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute NCI, National Institutes of Health NIH, Department of Health and Human Services DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 306:1774-6. 2004
  4. pmc Increased mitochondrial DNA copy number in occupations associated with low-dose benzene exposure
    Michele Carugno
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
    Environ Health Perspect 120:210-5. 2012
  5. ncbi Hematological changes among Chinese workers with a broad range of benzene exposures
    Qingshan Qu
    Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
    Am J Ind Med 42:275-85. 2002
  6. pmc Current understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia in humans: implications for risk assessment
    Cliona M McHale
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Genes and Environment Laboratory, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7356, USA
    Carcinogenesis 33:240-52. 2012
  7. ncbi Benzene poisoning, a risk factor for hematological malignancy, is associated with the NQO1 609C-->T mutation and rapid fractional excretion of chlorzoxazone
    N Rothman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Res 57:2839-42. 1997
  8. pmc Maternal personal exposure to airborne benzene and intrauterine growth
    Remy Slama
    INSERM, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, University J Fourier Grenoble, Avenir Team Environmental Epidemiology Applied to Fecundity and Reproduction, U823, Institut Albert Bonniot, Grenoble, France
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1313-21. 2009
  9. pmc Maternal exposure to ambient levels of benzene and neural tube defects among offspring: Texas, 1999-2004
    Philip J Lupo
    Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston 77030, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:397-402. 2011
  10. ncbi Assessment of the impact of the vehicular traffic on BTEX concentration in ring roads in urban areas of Bari (Italy)
    Maurizio Caselli
    Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy
    Chemosphere 81:306-11. 2010

Detail Information

Publications362 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Changes in DNA methylation patterns in subjects exposed to low-dose benzene
    Valentina Bollati
    Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via San Barnaba 8, 20122 Milan, Italy
    Cancer Res 67:876-80. 2007
    ..for the first time whether such epigenetic changes are induced in healthy subjects by low-level exposure to benzene, a widespread pollutant associated with AML risk...
  2. pmc Global gene expression profiling of a population exposed to a range of benzene levels
    Cliona M McHale
    School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 64720, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:628-34. 2011
    b>Benzene, an established cause of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), may also cause one or more lymphoid malignancies in humans...
  3. pmc Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene
    Qing Lan
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute NCI, National Institutes of Health NIH, Department of Health and Human Services DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 306:1774-6. 2004
    b>Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain...
  4. pmc Increased mitochondrial DNA copy number in occupations associated with low-dose benzene exposure
    Michele Carugno
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
    Environ Health Perspect 120:210-5. 2012
    b>Benzene is an established leukemogen at high exposure levels. Although low-level benzene exposure is widespread and may induce oxidative damage, no mechanistic biomarkers are available to detect biological dysfunction at low doses.
  5. ncbi Hematological changes among Chinese workers with a broad range of benzene exposures
    Qingshan Qu
    Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
    Am J Ind Med 42:275-85. 2002
    Depression of peripheral blood cells is a well-known indicator of benzene hematotoxicity. Previous studies of its effects on specific types of blood cells have yielded inconsistent results...
  6. pmc Current understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia in humans: implications for risk assessment
    Cliona M McHale
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Genes and Environment Laboratory, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7356, USA
    Carcinogenesis 33:240-52. 2012
    b>Benzene causes acute myeloid leukemia and probably other hematological malignancies...
  7. ncbi Benzene poisoning, a risk factor for hematological malignancy, is associated with the NQO1 609C-->T mutation and rapid fractional excretion of chlorzoxazone
    N Rothman
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cancer Res 57:2839-42. 1997
    b>Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational hematotoxin and leukemogen, but people vary in their response to this toxic agent. To evaluate the impact of interindividual variation in enzymes that activate (i.e., CYP2E1) and detoxify (i.e...
  8. pmc Maternal personal exposure to airborne benzene and intrauterine growth
    Remy Slama
    INSERM, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, University J Fourier Grenoble, Avenir Team Environmental Epidemiology Applied to Fecundity and Reproduction, U823, Institut Albert Bonniot, Grenoble, France
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1313-21. 2009
    ..Studies relying on outdoor pollutants measures have reported associations between air pollutants and birth weight...
  9. pmc Maternal exposure to ambient levels of benzene and neural tube defects among offspring: Texas, 1999-2004
    Philip J Lupo
    Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston 77030, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:397-402. 2011
    ..However, there have been no studies assessing the association between environmental levels of hazardous air pollutants, such as benzene, and neural tube defects (NTDs), a common and serious group of congenital malformations.
  10. ncbi Assessment of the impact of the vehicular traffic on BTEX concentration in ring roads in urban areas of Bari (Italy)
    Maurizio Caselli
    Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy
    Chemosphere 81:306-11. 2010
    ..The same concentration pattern and the correlation among BTEX levels in all sites confirmed the presence of a single source, the vehicular traffic, having a strong impact on air quality...
  11. ncbi Genetic polymorphisms influence variability in benzene metabolism in humans
    A M Rossi
    Pisa University, Department of Human and Environmental Sciences, Genetics and Environmental Mutagenesis, Italy
    Pharmacogenetics 9:445-51. 1999
    The role of genetic polymorphism in modulating urinary excretion of two benzene metabolites, i.e...
  12. ncbi Methylation of PARP-1 promoter involved in the regulation of benzene-induced decrease of PARP-1 mRNA expression
    Ai Gao
    School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
    Toxicol Lett 195:114-8. 2010
    b>Benzene is an established hematotoxic carcinogen which can cause leukemia. DNA damage and disorder of repair capacity are the crucial mechanisms in leukemogenesis of benzene...
  13. ncbi Benzene metabolism in human lung cell lines BEAS-2B and A549 and cells overexpressing CYP2F1
    Patrick L Sheets
    School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2051, USA
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 18:92-9. 2004
    b>Benzene is an occupational and environmental toxicant. The main human health concern associated with benzene exposure is leukemia. The toxic effects of benzene are dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome p450 enzyme system...
  14. ncbi Strong N-H...pi hydrogen bonding in amide-benzene interactions
    Philipp Ottiger
    Departement für Chemie and Biochemie, Universitat Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    J Phys Chem B 113:2937-43. 2009
    ..the isolated supersonic-jet-cooled dimer of the cis-amide and nucleobase analogue 2-pyridone (2PY) with benzene and benzene-d6. Both MP2 and SCS-MP2 geometry optimizations yield a T-shaped structure with a N--H.....
  15. ncbi ATSDR evaluation of potential for human exposure to benzene
    S Wilbur
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Toxicol Ind Health 24:399-442. 2008
    ..This article constitutes the release of portions of the toxicological profile for benzene. The primary purpose of this article is to provide interested individuals with environmental information on ..
  16. ncbi Genotoxicity and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene: attenuation by quercetin and curcumin
    Mahendra P Singh
    Embryotoxicology Section, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research CSIR, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 253:14-30. 2011
    Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) such as benzene, toluene and xylene are being extensively used for various industrial and household purposes...
  17. pmc Anaerobic oxidation of benzene by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus
    Dawn E Holmes
    Department of Microbiology, 203N Morrill Science Center IVN, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:5926-33. 2011
    Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F...
  18. ncbi Biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in liquid culture and in soil by Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and a formulated bacterial consortium
    Ashis K Mukherjee
    Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur, 784 028 Assam, India
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 19:3380-8. 2012
    The major aromatic constituents of petroleum products viz. benzene, toluene, and mixture of xylenes (BTX) are responsible for environmental pollution and inflict serious public concern...
  19. ncbi Benzene-free synthesis of adipic acid
    Wei Niu
    Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 1322, USA
    Biotechnol Prog 18:201-11. 2002
    ..eliminates two environmental concerns characteristic of industrial adipic acid manufacture: use of carcinogenic benzene and benzene-derived chemicals as feedstocks and generation of nitrous oxide as a byproduct of a nitric acid ..
  20. pmc Benzene, the exposome and future investigations of leukemia etiology
    Martyn T Smith
    Genes and Environment Laboratory, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7356, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 192:155-9. 2011
    b>Benzene exposure is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and probably lymphoma and childhood leukemia...
  21. ncbi Monitoring low benzene exposure: comparative evaluation of urinary biomarkers, influence of cigarette smoking, and genetic polymorphisms
    Silvia Fustinoni
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Milan, Italy
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:2237-44. 2005
    b>Benzene is a human carcinogen and an ubiquitous environmental pollutant...
  22. ncbi Proposed mode of action of benzene-induced leukemia: Interpreting available data and identifying critical data gaps for risk assessment
    M E Bette Meek
    McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, One Stewart Street, Suite 309, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Chem Biol Interact 184:279-85. 2010
    ..focusing research on critical data gaps in a risk assessment context, five key events in the mode of action for benzene-induced leukemia are proposed: (1) benzene metabolism via Cytochrome P450, (2) the interaction of benzene ..
  23. pmc A potential mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility of individuals with a polymorphism in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) to benzene toxicity
    J L Moran
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Campus Box C238, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8150-5. 1999
    ..NQO1) is a two-electron reductase that detoxifies quinones derived from the oxidation of phenolic metabolites of benzene. A polymorphism in NQO1, a C609T substitution, has been identified, and individuals homozygous for this change (T/..
  24. pmc Toxicogenomic profiling of chemically exposed humans in risk assessment
    Cliona M McHale
    School of Public Health, Divisions of Environmental Health Sciences, and Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mutat Res 705:172-83. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi The role of catechols and free radicals in benzene toxicity: an oxidative DNA damage pathway
    George Barreto
    Instituto Cajal, CSIC E 28002 Madrid, Spain
    Environ Mol Mutagen 50:771-80. 2009
    b>Benzene is a widespread volatile compound and an environmental contaminant. Since it causes important toxic effects in workers exposed to low levels, long-term exposure to this compound has been extensively studied...
  26. ncbi Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain
    M A Parra
    Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental LICA, Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
    Sci Total Environ 407:999-1009. 2009
    ..Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO(2) were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0...
  27. ncbi Induction of hsp70, hsp60, hsp83 and hsp26 and oxidative stress markers in benzene, toluene and xylene exposed Drosophila melanogaster: role of ROS generation
    Mahendra Pratap Singh
    Embryotoxicology Section, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, P O Box No 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 235:226-43. 2009
    Exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene in the human population may pose a health risk. We tested a working hypothesis that these test chemicals cause cellular toxicity to a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster...
  28. pmc Exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Abdul Khalade
    Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Birmingham, UK
    Environ Health 9:31. 2010
    A substantial number of epidemiologic studies have provided estimates of the relation between exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia, but the results have been heterogeneous...
  29. ncbi An air pollution model for use in epidemiological studies: evaluation with measured levels of nitrogen dioxide and benzene
    O Raaschou-Nielsen
    Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen O
    J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 10:4-14. 2000
    ..The model calculations were thus compared with passive sampler measurements of nitrogen dioxide and benzene at 103 street locations in Copenhagen, Denmark, and at 101 locations in rural areas...
  30. ncbi Leukemia risk associated with low-level benzene exposure
    Deborah C Glass
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Central and Eastern Clinical School, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Epidemiology 14:569-77. 2003
    Men who were part of an Australian petroleum industry cohort had previously been found to have an excess of lympho-hematopoietic cancer. Occupational benzene exposure is a possible cause of this excess.
  31. pmc Association between GIS-based exposure to urban air pollution during pregnancy and birth weight in the INMA Sabadell Cohort
    Inmaculada Aguilera
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1322-7. 2009
    ..There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution reduces birth weight. Improving exposure assessment is a key issue to advance in this research area...
  32. pmc Akt Cys-310-targeted inhibition by hydroxylated benzene derivatives is tightly linked to their immunosuppressive effects
    Ji Yeon Lee
    School of Bioscience and Biotechnology and Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200 701, Korea
    J Biol Chem 285:9932-48. 2010
    The hydroxylated benzene metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) is mainly generated from benzene, an important industrial chemical, and is also a common dietary component...
  33. pmc Oxidation of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene by toluene 4-monooxygenase of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and toluene 3-monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1
    Ying Tao
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 3222, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3814-20. 2004
    ..perform using traditional chemical synthesis, so to use a biological catalyst to convert the priority pollutant benzene into industrially relevant intermediates, benzene oxidation was investigated...
  34. ncbi Occupational exposure to solvents and risk of lymphoma subtypes: results from the Epilymph case-control study
    P Cocco
    Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Section, University of Cagliari, Asse Didattico Policlinico Universitario, SS 554, Km 4, 500, 09042 Monserrato Cagliari, Italy
    Occup Environ Med 67:341-7. 2010
    ..Objective To investigate the role of occupational exposure to organic solvents in the aetiology of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) and its major subtypes, as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma...
  35. ncbi Meta-analysis of benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: biases could mask an important association
    C Steinmaus
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
    Occup Environ Med 65:371-8. 2008
    b>Benzene is a widely recognised cause of leukaemia but its association with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is less well established. The goal of this project is to review the current published literature on this association.
  36. ncbi Effects of environmental benzene: micronucleus frequencies and haematological values in traffic police working in an urban area
    Francesca Maffei
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna, Italy
    Mutat Res 583:1-11. 2005
    Among the toxic chemicals present in the ambient air of urban centres, benzene raises particular concern due to its haematoxicity and leukaemogenic hazards, probably related to clastogenic factors...
  37. ncbi Atmospheric BTX and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Milena B Fernandes
    Laboratorio de Toxicologia, CESTEH ENSP, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Chemosphere 47:417-25. 2002
    Polycyclic aromatic and monoaromatic (benzene, toluene and xylene, or BTX) hydrocarbons were monitored in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the summer of 1998/1999...
  38. ncbi Isolation and characterization of benzene-tolerant Rhodococcus opacus strains
    Kyung Su Na
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, 1 3 1 Kagamiyama, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739 8530, Japan
    J Biosci Bioeng 99:378-82. 2005
    Twenty-two benzene-utilizing bacteria were isolated from soil samples. Among them, three isolates were highly tolerant to benzene. They grew on benzene when liquid benzene was added to the basal salt medium at 10--90% (v/v)...
  39. ncbi Effect of follow-up time on risk estimates: a longitudinal examination of the relative risks of leukemia and multiple myeloma in a rubber hydrochloride cohort
    S R Silver
    Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS R 44, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Am J Ind Med 42:481-9. 2002
    ..Choice of follow-up time for an occupational cohort can influence risk estimates. We examined the effects of follow-up time on relative risk estimates for leukemia and multiple myeloma in a cohort of 1,845 rubber hydrochloride workers...
  40. pmc The aryl hydrocarbon receptor has an important role in the regulation of hematopoiesis: implications for benzene-induced hematopoietic toxicity
    Thomas A Gasiewicz
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 184:246-51. 2010
    ..Furthermore, these functions may affect the sensitivity of HSCs to certain xenobiotics, including benzene. Defining the molecular mechanisms by which these events occur may lead to the identification of previously ..
  41. ncbi Xenobiotic metabolism and the mechanism(s) of benzene toxicity
    Robert Snyder
    Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 36:531-47. 2004
    The investigation of the mechanism(s) of benzene toxicity/leukemogenesis over the past 50 years has been contemporaneous with developments in the study of xenobiotic metabolism...
  42. ncbi Sorption hysteresis of benzene in charcoal particles
    Washington J Braida
    Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P O Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504 1106, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 37:409-17. 2003
    ..was to determine the source of pronounced hysteresis that we found in the sorption of a hydrophobic compound (benzene) in water to a maple-wood charcoal prepared by oxygen-limited pyrolysis at 673 K...
  43. pmc Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms
    Cliona M McHale
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Genomics 93:343-9. 2009
    b>Benzene is an established cause of leukemia, and possibly lymphoma, in humans, but the underlying molecular pathways remain largely undetermined...
  44. pmc Leukemia and benzene
    Robert Snyder
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 9:2875-93. 2012
    Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia...
  45. ncbi Amide-pi interactions between formamide and benzene
    Yumi N Imai
    Department of Theoretical Drug Design, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Comput Chem 30:2267-76. 2009
    High-level ab initio calculations have been carried out using a formamide-benzene model system to evaluate amide-pi interactions...
  46. ncbi Differences in exposure assignment between conception and delivery: the impact of maternal mobility
    Philip J Lupo
    Division of Epidemiology and Disease Control, University of Texas School of Public Health, 1200 Herman Pressler Drive, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 24:200-8. 2010
    ..System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN)], modelled at the census tract level, were used to estimate benzene exposure based on address at conception and address at delivery...
  47. pmc Comparison of toxicity of benzene metabolite hydroquinone in hematopoietic stem cells derived from murine embryonic yolk sac and adult bone marrow
    Jie Zhu
    School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, P R China
    PLoS ONE 8:e71153. 2013
    b>Benzene is an occupational toxicant and an environmental pollutant that potentially causes hematotoxicity and leukemia in exposed populations...
  48. pmc Occupational exposure to benzene and chromosomal structural aberrations in the sperm of Chinese men
    Francesco Marchetti
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 120:229-34. 2012
    b>Benzene is an industrial chemical that causes blood disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia. We previously reported that occupational exposures near the U.S...
  49. pmc Urinary benzene biomarkers and DNA methylation in Bulgarian petrochemical workers: study findings and comparison of linear and beta regression models
    Wei Jie Seow
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e50471. 2012
    Chronic occupational exposure to benzene is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear...
  50. ncbi Heterogeneous aerobic benzene-degrading communities in oxygen-depleted groundwaters
    Anne Fahy
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 58:260-70. 2006
    A sandstone aquifer beneath a petrochemicals plant (SIReN site, UK) is heterogeneously contaminated with benzene and oxygen-depleted...
  51. pmc Leukemia risk in children exposed to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic: a case-control study in an Italian population
    Marco Vinceti
    CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
    Eur J Epidemiol 27:781-90. 2012
    b>Benzene, a recognized occupational leukemogen in adults, has been hypothesized to also increase the risk of childhood leukemia...
  52. ncbi Frequent p53 and H-ras mutations in benzene- and ethylene oxide-induced mammary gland carcinomas from B6C3F1 mice
    Christopher D Houle
    Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 34:752-62. 2006
    b>Benzene and ethylene oxide are multisite carcinogens in rodents and classified as human carcinogens by the National Toxicology Program. In 2-year mouse studies, both chemicals induced mammary carcinomas...
  53. ncbi Influence of toluene co-exposure on the metabolism and genotoxicity of benzene in mice using continuous and intermittent exposures
    M G Bird
    ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc, Annandale, NJ 08801 0971, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 184:233-9. 2010
    b>Benzene exposure in occupational settings often occurs with concurrent exposure to toluene, the methyl-substituted derivative of benzene...
  54. ncbi Hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, induces Hog1-dependent stress response signaling and causes aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Takeki Shiga
    Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    J Radiat Res 51:405-15. 2010
    ..In this experiment, we examined the aneuploidy forming effects of hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, since both phenyl hydroquinone and hydroquinone are Ames-test negative carcinogens and share similar ..
  55. ncbi A proton-shuttle mechanism mediated by the porphyrin in benzene hydroxylation by cytochrome p450 enzymes
    Sam P de Visser
    Department of Organic Chemistry and the Lise Meitner Minerva Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem, Israel
    J Am Chem Soc 125:7413-24. 2003
    b>Benzene hydroxylation is a fundamental process in chemical catalysis. In nature, this reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme cytochrome P450 via oxygen transfer in a still debated mechanism of considerable complexity...
  56. ncbi Benzene and human health: A historical review and appraisal of associations with various diseases
    David Galbraith
    ChemRisk, Inc, San Francisco, California, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 40:1-46. 2010
    Over the last century, benzene has been a well-studied chemical, with some acute and chronic exposures being directly associated with observed hematologic effects in humans and animals...
  57. pmc Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene
    Luoping Zhang
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Carcinogenesis 32:605-12. 2011
    Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes...
  58. ncbi Development and validation of a competitive immunoassay for urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid and its application in benzene biological monitoring
    J P Aston
    AB Biomonitoring Ltd, Cardiff Medicentre, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4UJ, UK
    Biomarkers 7:103-12. 2002
    ..has been developed and its potential usefulness as a screening tool for monitoring occupational exposure to benzene has been demonstrated...
  59. ncbi Comparative assessments of benzene, toluene, and xylene natural attenuation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of a catabolic gene, signature metabolites, and compound-specific isotope analysis
    Harry R Beller
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:6065-72. 2008
    ..study conducted at Vandenberg Air Force Base involved the injection of anaerobic groundwater amended with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BToX; 1-3 mg/L each) in two parallel lanes: lane A injectate contained no ethanol, ..
  60. pmc Benzene exposure near the U.S. permissible limit is associated with sperm aneuploidy
    Caihong Xing
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:833-9. 2010
    b>Benzene is a common industrial chemical known to induce leukemia and other blood disorders, as well as aneuploidy, in both human blood cells and sperm at exposures > 10 ppm...
  61. ncbi Biomonitoring Equivalents for benzene
    Sean M Hays
    Summit Toxicology, L L P, Allenspark, CO, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 62:62-73. 2012
    ..This study reviews available health based risk assessments and exposure guidance values for benzene from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ),..
  62. pmc Benzene-induced cancers: abridged history and occupational health impact
    James Huff
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27514, USA
    Int J Occup Environ Health 13:213-21. 2007
    b>Benzene-induced cancer in humans was first reported in the late 1920s. Carcinogenesis findings in animals were not reported conclusively until 1979...
  63. ncbi Effects of inorganic nutrient levels on the biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) by Pseudomonas spp. in a laboratory porous media sand aquifer model
    Jiin Shuh Jean
    Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
    Bioresour Technol 99:7807-15. 2008
    The effect of inorganic nutrients (sulfate, phosphate, and ammonium chloride) on the aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) by Pseudomonas spp. was studied in the laboratory using a glass sand tank...
  64. ncbi Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners
    Y Verma
    Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, India
    Ind Health 39:330-3. 2001
    Exposure to benzene has been monitored in petrol-pump workers and dry cleaners of Meerut City (India) by measuring phenol content of their urine samples...
  65. pmc Exposure to benzene in urban workers: environmental and biological monitoring of traffic police in Rome
    R Crebelli
    National Health Institute, Rome, Italy
    Occup Environ Med 58:165-71. 2001
    To evaluate the contribution of traffic fumes to exposure to benzene in urban workers, an investigation on personal exposure to benzene in traffic police from the city of Rome was carried out.
  66. pmc Species differences in the metabolism of benzene
    R F Henderson
    Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185
    Environ Health Perspect 104:1173-5. 1996
    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways...
  67. pmc An overview of benzene metabolism
    R Snyder
    Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway 08855, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 104:1165-71. 1996
    b>Benzene toxicity involves both bone marrow depression and leukemogenesis caused by damage to multiple classes of hematopoietic cells and a variety of hematopoietic cell functions...
  68. ncbi Integrating WHO 2001-2008 criteria for the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): a case-case analysis of benzene exposure
    Richard D Irons
    Fudan Cinpathogen Clinical and Molecular Research Center, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Chem Biol Interact 184:30-8. 2010
    ..and information on previous disease, work histories and exposures to potential etiologic agents such as benzene (BZ) was obtained. A total of 80/649 (13.2%) were determined to have some BZ exposure...
  69. pmc Genome-wide functional profiling reveals genes required for tolerance to benzene metabolites in yeast
    Matthew North
    Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24205. 2011
    b>Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is widely used in industry. Exposure to benzene causes a number of serious health problems, including blood disorders and leukemia...
  70. ncbi A review of the role of benzene metabolites and mechanisms in malignant transformation: summative evidence for a lack of research in nonmyelogenous cancer types
    Timothy J Atkinson
    45 Craignair Road, London SW2 2DQ, UK
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 212:1-10. 2009
    The aromatic hydrocarbon benzene is a well-recognised haematotoxin and carcinogen associated with malignancy in occupational environments...
  71. ncbi Estimating mean exposures from censored data: exposure to benzene in the Australian petroleum industry
    D C Glass
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    Ann Occup Hyg 45:275-82. 2001
    A retrospective assessment of exposure to benzene was carried out for a nested case control study of lympho-haematopoietic cancers, including leukaemia, in the Australian petroleum industry...
  72. ncbi Development of a versatile, easy and rapid atmospheric monitor for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes determination in air
    Francesc A Esteve-Turrillas
    Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Muñoz, 50 Dr Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
    J Chromatogr A 1216:8549-56. 2009
    A new procedure for the passive sampling in air of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) is proposed...
  73. pmc Werner syndrome protein, WRN, protects cells from DNA damage induced by the benzene metabolite hydroquinone
    Xuefeng Ren
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Toxicol Sci 107:367-75. 2009
    ..Genetic association studies have previously suggested a link between WRN and susceptibility to benzene-induced hematotoxicity...
  74. pmc Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between DNA repair and genomic maintenance and development of benzene hematotoxicity
    Qing Lan
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Carcinogenesis 30:50-8. 2009
    b>Benzene is an established human hematotoxicant and leukemogen but its mechanism of action is unclear...
  75. pmc Guidelines to evaluate human observational studies for quantitative risk assessment
    Jelle Vlaanderen
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Jenalaan 18d, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Environ Health Perspect 116:1700-5. 2008
    ..In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA...
  76. pmc Flexible meta-regression to assess the shape of the benzene-leukemia exposure-response curve
    Jelle Vlaanderen
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Environ Health Perspect 118:526-32. 2010
    Previous evaluations of the shape of the benzene-leukemia exposure-response curve (ERC) were based on a single set or on small sets of human occupational studies...
  77. ncbi Risk of leukemia and multiple myeloma associated with exposure to benzene and other organic solvents: evidence from the Italian Multicenter Case-control study
    Adele Seniori Costantini
    Unit of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology, Center for Study and Prevention of Cancer, Florence, Italy
    Am J Ind Med 51:803-11. 2008
    While there is a general consensus about the ability of benzene to induce acute myeloid leukemia (AML), its effects on chronic lymphoid leukemia and multiple myeloma (MM) are still under debate...
  78. pmc Occupational benzene exposure and the risk of lymphoma subtypes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies incorporating three study quality dimensions
    Jelle Vlaanderen
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Environ Health Perspect 119:159-67. 2011
    The use of occupational cohort studies to assess the association of benzene and lymphoma is complicated by problems with exposure misclassification, outcome classification, and low statistical power.
  79. pmc Acute childhood leukaemia and environmental exposure to potential sources of benzene and other hydrocarbons; a case-control study
    C Steffen
    French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM U170, Villejuif, France
    Occup Environ Med 61:773-8. 2004
    ..To analyse the association between potential environmental exposure to hydrocarbons and the risk of acute childhood leukaemia...
  80. ncbi The nature of chromosomal aberrations detected in humans exposed to benzene
    Luoping Zhang
    School of Public Health, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley 94720 7360, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 32:1-42. 2002
    b>Benzene is an established cause of human leukemia that is thought to act by producing chromosomal aberrations and altered in cell differentiation...
  81. ncbi The use of stable isotope probing to identify key iron-reducing microorganisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation
    Umakanth Kunapuli
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Neuherberg, Germany
    ISME J 1:643-53. 2007
    ..functional and phylogenetic characterization of an iron-reducing enrichment culture maintained in our lab with benzene as sole carbon and energy source...
  82. pmc Association between mitochondrial DNA copy number, blood cell counts, and occupational benzene exposure
    Min Shen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 7240, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 49:453-7. 2008
    b>Benzene is a recognized hematotoxicant and carcinogen that produces genotoxic damage. Benzene metabolites can produce reactive oxidative species...
  83. ncbi Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban atmosphere of Hong Kong
    S C Lee
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Center for Urban Environmental Technology and Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon
    Chemosphere 48:375-82. 2002
    ..Among all of the VOC species, toluene has the highest concentration. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) were the major constituents (more than 60% in composition of total VOC ..
  84. pmc Temporal variation in the association between benzene and leukemia mortality
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 116:370-4. 2008
    b>Benzene is a human carcinogen. Exposure to benzene occurs in occupational and environmental settings.
  85. ncbi Exposure assessment of benzene in Thai workers, DNA-repair capacity and influence of genetic polymorphisms
    Sirirat Chanvaivit
    Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Vipavadee Rangsit Highway, Lak Si, Donmung, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
    Mutat Res 626:79-87. 2007
    Exposure to benzene can cause DNA damage and the subsequent development of cancer. In this study, study subjects were 31 laboratory workers at a petrochemical factory and 31 gasoline service attendants...
  86. ncbi NQO1, MPO, CYP2E1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and biological effects of benzene exposure--a literature review
    Diana Dougherty
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
    Toxicol Lett 182:7-17. 2008
    b>Benzene is a ubiquitous toxic environmental pollutant. Biological effects have been detected as a result of low-level environmental exposures, suggesting that a large proportion of the population may potentially suffer ill health effects...
  87. pmc Systems biology of human benzene exposure
    Luoping Zhang
    Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7356, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 184:86-93. 2010
    ..protein expression (proteomics), and epigenetic modifications (epigenomics), of human populations exposed to benzene are crucial to understanding gene-environment interactions, providing the ability to develop biomarkers of ..
  88. pmc Biomarkers of leukemia risk: benzene as a model
    M T Smith
    School of Public Health, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley 94720 7360, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 106:937-46. 1998
    ..We have studied benzene as a model chemical leukemogen, and we have identified risk factors for susceptibility to benzene toxicity...
  89. ncbi Benzene and lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans
    R B Hayes
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, U S National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Am J Ind Med 40:117-26. 2001
    Quantitative evaluations of benzene-associated risk for cancer have relied primarily on findings from a cohort study of highly exposed U.S. rubber workers...
  90. pmc The mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia: a hypothesis and speculations on the causes of leukemia
    M T Smith
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley 94720 7360, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 104:1219-25. 1996
    An overall hypothesis for benzene-induced leukemia is proposed...
  91. ncbi Identification of putative benzene-degrading bacteria in methanogenic enrichment cultures
    Nahoko Sakai
    Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8656, Japan
    J Biosci Bioeng 108:501-7. 2009
    Anaerobic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures performing methanogenesis were obtained from non-contaminated lotus field soil...
  92. ncbi QM/MM modeling of benzene hydroxylation in human cytochrome P450 2C9
    Christine M Bathelt
    Centre for Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK
    J Phys Chem A 112:13149-56. 2008
    The mechanism of benzene hydroxylation was investigated in the realistic enzyme environment of the human CYP 2C9 by using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations of the whole reaction profile using the B3LYP method ..
  93. pmc Association of genetic polymorphisms in CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with benzene poisoning
    Junxiang Wan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Environ Health Perspect 110:1213-8. 2002
    Metabolic enzymes involved in benzene activation or detoxification, including NAD(P)H, quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1), and glutathione-S-..
  94. ncbi Peripheral blood effects in benzene-exposed workers
    A Robert Schnatter
    ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc, 1545 Route 22 East, Annandale, NJ 08801, United States
    Chem Biol Interact 184:174-81. 2010
    The hematotoxic effects of benzene exposure may be important in the occurrence of subsequent health effects...
  95. ncbi Benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies
    Dominik D Alexander
    Center for Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Computational Biology, Exponent Inc, Health Sciences, Wood Dale, IL 60191, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 52:169-89. 2010
    To conduct a meta-analysis of studies of benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  96. ncbi Homologous recombination initiated by benzene metabolites: a potential role of oxidative stress
    Louise M Winn
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen s University, Kingston K7L 3N6, Ontario, Canada
    Toxicol Sci 72:143-9. 2003
    b>Benzene is a ubiquitous pollutant and known human leukemogen. Benzene can be enzymatically bioactivated to reactive intermediates that can lead to increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  97. ncbi Functional characterization of an anaerobic benzene-degrading enrichment culture by DNA stable isotope probing
    Steffi Herrmann
    Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, Germany
    Environ Microbiol 12:401-11. 2010
    The flow of carbon under sulfate-reducing conditions within a benzene-mineralizing enrichment culture was analysed using fully labelled [13C6]-benzene...
  98. ncbi Genotoxicity of benzene and its metabolites
    John Whysner
    Division of Pathology and Toxicology, American Heath Foundation, 1 Dana Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Mutat Res 566:99-130. 2004
    The potential role of genotoxicity in human leukemias associated with benzene (BZ) exposures was investigated by a systematic review of over 1400 genotoxicity test results for BZ and its metabolites...
  99. ncbi A critique of benzene exposure in the general population
    Eric S Johnson
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX 76107, United States
    Sci Total Environ 374:183-98. 2007
    b>Benzene risk assessment indicates that exposure to a time-weighted average (TWA) of 1-5 parts per million (ppm) benzene in ambient air for 40 years is associated with an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia...
  100. ncbi Benzene and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a review and meta-analysis of the literature
    Eleanor V Kane
    Epidemiology and Genetics Unit, Department of Health Sciences, Seebohm Rowntree Building, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK
    Cancer Epidemiol 34:7-12. 2010
    b>Benzene, an accepted leukemogen, has been suggested to cause other hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers. Here we review the published literature for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to benzene...
  101. pmc Improving protein extraction and separation methods for investigating the metaproteome of anaerobic benzene communities within sediments
    Dirk Benndorf
    Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Permoserstr 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
    Biodegradation 20:737-50. 2009
    BTEX compounds such as benzene are frequent soil and groundwater contaminants that are easily biodegraded under oxic conditions by bacteria. In contrast, benzene is rather recalcitrant under anaerobic conditions...

Research Grants64

  1. Prospective studies of cancer etiology and prevention in Shanghai and Singapore
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aims are: (1) to assess the independent role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, benzene, and ethylene oxide in the development of lung cancer among smokers;(2) to assess independent role of PAH, 1,3-..
  2. Air Toxics, Neighborhood Environment and Risk of Oral Clefts
    Philip J Lupo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are hazardous air pollutants, or HAPs (e.g., benzene, diesel particulate matter)...
  3. Case-Cohort Study of Cancers in Excess in Poultry Workers
    Eric S Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to other occupational carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, nitrosamines, benzene, etc...
  4. Study DNA repair in preventing MDS and AML after radiation and benzene exposure
    EDWARD PAUL HASTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, some DNA damaging agents appear to predispose people to MDS/AML including ?-radiation and benzene. Both of these agents cause chromosomal abnormalities and HR repairs ?-radiation-induced DSBs...
  5. Targeting of alpha7 nAChR for therapeutic effects
    Roger L Papke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..achieved through modification of the core agonist with the addition of a large hydrophobic side group such as a benzene ring...
  6. Diagnostic Utility of mtDNA Content and Exercise Challenge in Veterans with GWI
    MICHAEL JOSEPH FALVO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is positively associated with exposure to particulate matter, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in humans...
  7. Research on inhalation toxicology of environmental chemicals
    ROBERT O'CONNER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..13 different chemical agents (ovalbumin, , ozone, hyperoxia, 2,3-butanedione, acetoin, 2,3-pentanedione, benzene, indium phosphide, indium-tin-oxide, bafilomycin A1, hypercapnic gases, methacholine, cigarette smoke), and ..
  8. Childhood Leukemia and Home Environmental Exposures
    Patricia A Buffler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nicotine, benzene and other volatile organic compounds)...
  9. GENETIC TOXICITY IN BACTERIA AND RODENTS
    LES RECIO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..An NTP research study designed to examine the effects of low dose benzene exposure in genetically diverse mice has been initiated that may ultimately help to establish lower exposure ..
  10. Research on inhalation toxicology of environmental chemicals
    ROBERT O'CONNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..pentoxide;bleomycin, pulmonary function;ovalbumin, cigarette smoke, diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, benzene. The Respiratory Toxicology Group (RTOX) conducts studies of chemicals for which inhalation is the primary route ..
  11. Research on inhalation toxicology of environmental chemicals
    ROBERT O apos CONNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pentoxide;bleomycin, pulmonary function;ovalbumin, cigarette smoke, diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, benzene. The Respiratory Toxicology Group (RTOX) conducts studies of chemicals for which inhalation is the primary route ..
  12. Computational Modeling of Post-translational Modifications in Proteins
    CHAYA K RAPP; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..methylation states;3) quantum mechanical calculations on mono, di, tri, or tetramethylammonium interacting with benzene, to study cation- @ interactions between methyl-lysine residues and aromatic residues;and 4) molecular dynamics ..
  13. Early Life Exposures to Air Toxics and the Risk of Early Childhood Leukemia
    Elaine Symanski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Benzene is a known leukemogen in adults and ambient air exposures to this carcinogen have been hypothesized to play a ..
  14. TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT
    Martyn T Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of hazardous substances on human health and improve methods to assess the risks to human health presented by benzene, arsenic, trichloroethylene and other hazardous substances...
  15. PLASMA PROTEINS: MARKERS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURE
    GHULAM ANSARI; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..formaldehyde, and glutaraldehyde), epoxide (ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and styrene oxide), and hydrocarbon (benzene, styrene, and butadiene) will be used as model compounds for this study...
  16. Environmental and Molecular Epidemiology of Childhood Leukemia
    Catherine Metayer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..related to pre- and post-natal residential exposures to pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, and sources of benzene exposure and increased risks of ALL and AML, and how these risks may vary by leukemia subtype and be modified by ..
  17. Multiple Myeloma Consortium Study of Occupational Exposures and Family History
    Anneclaire J De Roos; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for data quantifying cancer risks for suspected and known carcinogens, including trichcloroethylene (TCE) and benzene, particularly for cancer sites that are less well-described or for which the association is controversial...
  18. Unattended Vapor Intrusion Monitor
    Sanjay V Patel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and benzene);(2) Demonstrate the detection of these chemicals below EPA reference exposure levels (REL);and (3) Demonstrate ..
  19. Continued Development of Photoelectrocatalytic Oxidation for Treating Gasoline Co
    TERENCE PATRICK BARRY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Two chemical classes are of particular concern: (1) aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly the BTEX chemicals benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, and three isomers of xylene, and (2) fuel oxygenates, particularly methyl tert-butyl ..
  20. Unnatural Base Pairs as DNA Bioprobes
    KATHERINE RADTKE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Drawing inspiration from Nelson Leonard's benzene-expanded adenosine analogues, we will vary the width of the nucleobases, and subsequently the DNA helix, by ..
  21. A Wearable Wireless System for Real-Time Monitoring of Chemical Toxicants
    Nongjian Tao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by exploring two particularly exciting new opportunities: 1 )development of a new hybrid detection method for Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX) that can provide unparalleled performance for determining personal ..
  22. Mid-IR LIDAR for Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds
    IGOR E TROFIMOV; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this particular case, benzene, formaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene...
  23. Development of Infection-Resistant Suture Materials
    Matthew Phaneuf; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..materials in vitro with optimum antimicrobial properties by employing textile-dyeing techniques to apply the benzene ring-structured antibiotics Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), Doxycycline and Linezolid...
  24. FLORIDA FIREFIGHTER CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY
    Lora Fleming; Fiscal Year: 2001
    In the course of their work, firefighters are routinely exposed to a variety of carcinogenic substances, such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, and asbestos...
  25. Development of Integrated Environmental Carcinogen Exposure Monitor and Metabolic
    STEPHEN G SO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this project we will focus on two molecules: 1) Benzene (C6H6) for real time exposure monitoring and post-exposure studies through breath analysis of Benzene exhalation ..
  26. Health Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster:the Coast Guard Responder Cohort
    JENNIFER ANN RUSIECKI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, benzene, a major component of crude oil, is a known hematotoxin and carcinogen, even at low exposure levels...
  27. Gentoxic Estrogen Ratio: A Novel Estrogen Biomarker and Breast Cancer Risk
    Kerryn W Reding; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..estrogen metabolites are capable of forming DNA adducts which may lead to DNA mutations in a manner similar to benzene, a known carcinogen...
  28. Dense Medium Plasma Remediation of VOCs in Groundwater
    Yonghui Ma; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tests demonstrated that the DMP reactor, prior to any optimization, was able to reduce VOC concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (all) below the detectable range (from ppm to ppb) and bacteria contamination ..
  29. Simulation and Prediction of Protein Folding
    Michael Levitt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will also examine the time- averaged arrangement of water molecules around a benzene molecule. 2...
  30. PYRIDINE--ENZYME INDUCTION, METABOLISM, AND TOXICITY
    Melissa Runge Morris; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Solvents such as benzene, trichloroethylene, and ethanol are widely employed in a variety of industrial and research laboratory settings. Volatile nitrogenous bases, for which pyridine is prototypic, are also utilized in these settings...
  31. Intervention against anthrax edema factor (EF)
    Wei Jen Tang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..a 10,000 compound library as well as lead optimization to identify a lead (4-[4-(4-nitrophenyl)-thiazolylamino]-benzene-sulfonamide) that can block the interaction of EF with its cellular activator, calmodulin with 5 microM affinity ..
  32. Ambient Air Toxics and Adverse Birth Outcomes
    MICHELLE WILHELM TURNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..data sources, we will examine associations between the exhaust toxins polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, and metals and adverse birth outcomes in an epidemiologic cohort study...
  33. ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS AND RISK OF BREAST CANCER
    Tongzhang Zheng; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..and its most stable and persistent metabolite DDE increases the risk of female breast cancer; and c) exposure to benzene hexachloride (BHC) isomers, particularly alpha-, beta- and gamma-BHC, increases the risk of female breast cancer...
  34. HEMATOLYMPHOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES IN ITALY
    Paolo Vineis; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Exposures to organic solvents (including benzene), ionizing radiation and low-frequency electromagnetic fields have been suggested as risk factors for leukemias in adults...
  35. Enantioselective Catalysis with Cyclopropenimines
    Tristan H Lambert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of this grant are: enantioselective glycine Mannich and ?-thio Mannich reactions;?-arylations with quinones and benzene oxides;Michael additions with low acidity nucleophiles, including diazoesters;allylic alkylations;and ..
  36. MIBG ANALOGUE RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS
    Ganesan Vaidyanathan; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..include introduction of chlorine, bromine, iodine, nitro and sulfonic acid moieties at the 4-position in the benzene ring of MIBG and replacement of the benzene ring itself with a pyridine ring...
  37. BREAST CANCER RISK--RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT AND GENETICS
    Jo Freudenheim; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..if any, otherwise menopause) and (2) residence (s) 10 and 20 years ago; 2) To examine estimated exposure to benzene and to PAHs based on residential exposure during these time periods as risk factors...
  38. TOBACCO CARCINOGENESIS AND CHEMOPREVENTION
    Karam El Bayoumy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..g., benzo[a]pyrene, (BaP))] and benzene, cigarette smoke is also a rich source of free radical species that are capable of inducing oxidative stress...
  39. APPLICATION OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
    JENNY GLUSKER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Some ab initio molecular orbital studies of reaction pathways in the metabolism of benzene and phenol will also be carried out...
  40. Development of BN Heterocycles for Biomedical Research
    Shih Yuan Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., benzene and indole) upon the replacement of a C=C bond with the isostructural inorganic B-N unit...
  41. A Photoelectrocatalytic Device for Removing MTBE from Water
    Terence Barry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Two contaminate classes are of particular concern: (1) BTEX fuel additives consisting of benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, and three isomers of xylene, and (2) fuel oxygenates, particularly methyl tert-butyl ..
  42. TOXICOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ALKYLBENZENE METABOLISM
    Wayne Backes; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..compounds are widely used as solvents particularly toluene and xylene which are used as "safe" substitutes for benzene. These compounds are released into the environment primarily through automobile exhausts and losses from ..
  43. Molecular Characterization of Aquifer Microbial Communi*
    Kate Scow; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Superfund chemicals, toluene, benzene and xylene, along with fuel oxygenates, comprise mixed contaminants associated with petroleum pollution...
  44. NEW SYNTHETIC APPLICATION OF BENZENE PHOTOCHEMISTRY
    Richard Johnson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The proposed research will explore the limitations and synthetic potential of several photochemical reactions of benzene derivatives, with the goal of providing new or improved approaches to polycyclic molecules such as natural products, ..
  45. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES AND RATES OF DNA DAMAGE
    Lawrence Fine; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..rates of chromosome aberrations (ChAbs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in these groups (exposures include benzene, coke oven fume, acrylonitrile, and lead; 2) compare the sensitivity of SCEs to ChAb's by examining the rates of ..
  46. BENZENE METABOLITES AND HEMATOTOXICITY
    TERRENCE MONKS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from applicant's abstract): Benzene, a major industrial chemical and environmental pollutant, causes a variety of hematological disorders in man, including aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute ..
  47. A PF-GC for Environmental Health Breath Assessment
    Pavel Smejtek; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..8 pmol/liter) for benzene in ambient air in Portland OR. PFGC has a FID for universal hydrocarbon detection...
  48. HEPATIC FORMATION AND TOXICITY OF CATECHOLS
    RUTH BILLINGS; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The chemicals to be studied are benzene, bromobenzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, 4-chlorobiphenyl, and phenytoin, a widely used anticonvulsant drug which is ..
  49. Predictors of Adult Leukemia
    Julie Ross; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition to evaluating risk factors such as cigarette smoking, occupational exposures to benzene and ionizing radiation, and prior chemotherapy treatments, we will investigate a) the role of non-steroidal anti-..
  50. Kinetotoxic Mechanisms of Environmental Carcinogens
    James Sherley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In preliminary studies, the IARC Group 1 human carcinogen benzene exhibits evidence for kinetotoxicity...
  51. MUTAGENICITY OF BENZENE METABOLITES
    William Bodell; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the investigator's abstract) Benzene is one of the few environmental agents which is unequivocally established as initiating huma cancer...
  52. Benzene 2009: Health Effects and Mechanisms of Bone Marrow Toxicity. Implications
    Robert Snyder; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) for an international symposium entitled BENZENE 2009: Health effects, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Implications for t-AML and Application of the Mode of Action ..
  53. BIOMARKERS OF BENZENE EXPOSURE IN INTER CITY RESIDENTS
    Virginia Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract) Environmental exposure to the human carcinogen, benzene, is an important public health concern because of its prevalence, particularly in cities...
  54. The Protein Kinase C Pathway In Acute Leukemia
    AMANDA REDIG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Benzene (BZ) is an aromatic hydrocarbon in widespread use as an industrial chemical, and is known to play a causative ..
  55. MODULATION OF BENZENE METABOLISM BY EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONM
    Clifford Weisel; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..b>Benzene is a widespread contaminant that occurs as part of environmental mixtures...
  56. BENZENE--MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY AND CHEMOPROTECTION
    Michael Trush; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract) There is concern about human exposure to benzene arising from a variety of sources, including certain occupational settings, hazardous waste sites, automobiles and cigarette smoking...
  57. HEMATOTOXIC EFFECTS OF BENZENE AND DOXORUBICIN
    Anne Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract) The benzene metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) and the antitumor agent doxorubicin (DX) are chemically-related compounds that cause hematotoxicity through a mechanism that is likely to ..
  58. NEUROTOXIC SUPERFUND CHEMICALS AND BIOMAKERS
    Peter Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Research will be focused on mixtures of organochlorine and benzene- related solvents, their biodegradation products and associated metabolites...
  59. MECHANISM OF ANTIGEN-INDUCED ANTIBODY FORMATION
    FELIX HAUROWITZ; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..contain determinant hapten groups of the general structure -N double bond N double bond C6H4-X where C6H4 is the benzene ring of an azo-benzene residue and X is one of the following residues; p-SO3H, p-AsO3H2, m-SO3H, or p-COOH...
  60. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF EXOCYCLIC ADDUCTS IN CANCER
    B Singer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The chemicals in this category to be studied include two metabolites of benzene, 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone and Z,Z-muconaldehyde, and glycidaldehyde, a carcinogenic metabolite from the widely ..
  61. Enzyme Repair of Excoyclic Adducts
    Bo Hang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..by diverse environmental mutagens/carcinogens including vinyl compounds, glycidyl ethers, chlorohydroxyfuranones, benzene and therapeutic nitrosoureas such as BCNU or formed by endogenous processes...
  62. PERSONAL BENZENE VAPOR DETECTION DEVICE
    MARK DRUY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    This proposal describes the development of a personal wear badge for the accumulated exposure detection of benzene vapor...
  63. SPECT Imaging of Abeta Plaques in Brain
    Mei Ping Kung; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed agents are derivatives of stilbenes containing a p-MezN-, -SH, -SMe, -0Me or -OH group on one of the benzene rings, while radioactive iodine can be attached to the other benzene ring without affecting the binding affinity...
  64. Organocatalysis: A Strategy for Asymmetric Synthesis
    DAVID MACMILLAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Diels-Alder reactions, (2) intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions, (3) 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, (4) Benzene alkylations, (5) Pyrrole alkylations, (6) Indole alkylations, (7) Furan alkylations, (8) Michael Additions, (9) ..