Genomes and Genes
Summary: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. Anesthetic used for both induction and maintenance. It may cause bradycardia and dyskinesias.
Publications216 found, 100 shown here
- [Is GHB use in Switzerland on the rise?]H R Pfeifer
Forschungsgruppe Substanzstörungen, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich
Praxis (Bern 1994) 93:1247-9. 2004
- High mortality rates among GHB abusers in Western SwedenKai Knudsen
Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
Clin Toxicol (Phila) 46:187-92. 2008..GHB is a drug of abuse and acute poisonings have been an increasing medical problem over the last decade in Sweden...
- GHB depresses fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission via GABA(B) receptors in mouse neocortical neuronsK Jensen
Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Cereb Cortex 11:424-9. 2001..We propose that GABA(B)-receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of acute GHB intoxication...
- Off-label treatment of severe childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy with sodium oxybateHema Murali
Division of Child Neurology, Sleep Disorders Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA
Sleep 29:1025-9. 2006To evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of off-label sodium oxybate (gamma hydroxy butyrate) therapy in severe childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy.
- Effects of gamma hydroxybutyric acid on inhibition and excitation in rat neocortexQ Li
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
Neuroscience 150:82-92. 2007..The suppression of NMDA more than AMPA responses by GHB at intoxicating doses may make it attractive as a recreational drug and may explain why GHB is abused and baclofen is not...
- Concentration-effect relationships for the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acidMelanie A Felmlee
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Amherst, New York, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 333:764-71. 2010..These results support the use of a clinical GHB detoxification strategy aimed at decreasing plasma and brain GHB concentrations after GHB overdoses...
- Novel cyclic gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) analogs with high affinity and stereoselectivity of binding to GHB sites in rat brainPetrine Wellendorph
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 315:346-51. 2005..Neither of the cycloalkenes showed any affinity (IC50 > 1 mM) for GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. These compounds show excellent potential as lead structures and novel tools for studying specific GHB receptor-mediated pharmacology...
- gamma-hydroxybutyrate increases a potassium current and decreases the H-current in hippocampal neurons via GABAB receptorsPaul Schweitzer
The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Neuropharmacology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311:172-9. 2004....
- Presynaptic modulation of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in the substantia nigra pars compactaAlfredo Brancucci
Dipartimento di Fisiologia e Biochimica G Moruzzi, Universita di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Neuropsychopharmacology 29:537-43. 2004..The present results indicate that GHB inhibits spontaneous inhibitory synaptic transmission recorded from dopaminergic neurons in the SNc likely by reducing voltage-dependent calcium influx involved in presynaptic GABA release...
- Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memoryJulie Vienne
Center for Integrative Genomics CIG, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Sleep 35:1071-83. 2012b>Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAβ agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4...
- Tolerance and efficacy of sodium oxybate in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy: a retrospective studyMichel Lecendreux
Pediatric Sleep Center, National Reference Network for Orphan Diseases Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia, CHU Robert Debrée, Paris VII University, Paris, France
Sleep 35:709-11. 2012..ranging from 6 to 16 years old, suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy, who had been treated with off-label sodium oxybate and had been followed in a clinical setting...
- Sodium oxybate for the treatment of fibromyalgiaRoland Staud
University of Florida Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Rd, Gainesville, FL 32610 0221, USA
Expert Opin Pharmacother 12:1789-98. 2011..Its sodium salt (sodium oxybate: SXB) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of narcolepsy...
- Effects of GABA agonists on body temperature regulation in GABA(B(1))-/- miceChristophe Queva
Transgenic Research Laboratory, AstraZeneca R and D Molndal, S 431 83 Molndal, Sweden
Br J Pharmacol 140:315-22. 2003..Using this model, GHB was shown to be a selective GABAB receptor agonist. In addition, GABAB(1)-/- mice are hypersensitive to GABAA receptor stimulation, indicating that GABAB tone normally balances GABAA-mediated effects...
- Sodium oxybate-induced sleep driving and sleep-related eating disorderDouglas McKay Wallace
Department of Neurology, Sleep Medicine Division, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
J Clin Sleep Med 7:310-1. 2011..b>Sodium oxybate (SO), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with dose-..
- Sodium oxybate reduces pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance and improves functionality in fibromyalgia: results from a 14-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyI Jon Russell
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX, USA
Pain 152:1007-17. 2011This 14-week, phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated sodium oxybate (SXB) 4.5 and 6g per night versus placebo in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). SXB is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)...
- GABAB1 receptor subunit isoforms exert a differential influence on baseline but not GABAB receptor agonist-induced changes in miceLaura H Jacobson
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:1317-26. 2006..Therefore, GABA(B(1a)) and GABA(B(1b)) isoforms are functionally relevant molecular variants of the GABA(B(1)) receptor subunit, which are differentially involved in specific neurophysiological processes and behaviors...
- Gamma hydroxy butyric acid and sodium oxybate used to treat posttraumatic stress disorderThomas L Schwartz
Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA
CNS Spectr 12:884-6. 2007
- A single-blind, open-label trial of sodium oxybate for myoclonus and essential tremorS J Frucht
Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA
Neurology 65:1967-9. 2005The authors performed an open-label, rater-blinded, add-on study of sodium oxybate in 20 patients with ethanol-responsive myoclonus or essential tremor...
- Effects of sodium oxybate on sleep physiology and sleep/wake-related symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studyHarvey Moldofsky
Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology and Toronto Psychiatric Research Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Rheumatol 37:2156-66. 2010To determine the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) on sleep physiology and sleep/wake-related symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM).
- Specific gamma-hydroxybutyrate-binding sites but loss of pharmacological effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in GABA(B)(1)-deficient miceKlemens Kaupmann
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, WKL 125 7 42, Novartis Pharma AG, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Eur J Neurosci 18:2722-30. 2003..It, therefore, appears that all studied GHB effects are GABAB receptor dependent. The molecular nature and the signalling properties of the specific [3H]GHB-binding sites remain elusive...
- Cloning and characterization of a rat brain receptor that binds the endogenous neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)Christian Andriamampandry
Institut de Chimie Biologique and INSERM U 575, Faculte de Medecine, 11 rue Humann, 67085 Strasbourg Cedex, France
FASEB J 17:1691-3. 2003..CGP-55845, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, did not inhibit the GHB-induced response nor did the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382, suggesting that the GHB receptor system includes several subtypes...
- Synthesis and catabolism of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells: role of the aldo-keto reductase AKR7A2Robert C Lyon
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Univesity of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 282:25986-92. 2007..Together these findings delineate pathways for GHB metabolism in the brain and will enable a better understanding of the relationship between GHB biosynthesis and catabolism in disease states and in drug overdose...
- Elevation of AKR7A2 (succinic semialdehyde reductase) in neurodegenerative diseaseM J Picklo
Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, C3321 A Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Brain Res 916:229-38. 2001..Our data suggest that reactive gliosis, as a response to injury, may affect GHB neuromodulatory pathways in neurodegenerative disease and elevate aldehyde detoxification pathways...
- gamma-Hydroxybutyrate/sodium oxybate: neurobiology, and impact on sleep and wakefulnessDaniel Pardi
Jazz Pharmaceuticals Inc, Palo Alto, CA, USA
CNS Drugs 20:993-1018. 2006..Endogenously, GHB is synthesised locally within the CNS, mostly from its parent compound GABA. Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of GHB and is used for the exogenous oral administration of GHB...
- Intrathalamic injections of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid increase genetic absence seizures in ratsZ Liu
, Centre de Neurochimie du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
Neurosci Lett 125:19-21. 1991..These data suggest that GHB receptors in the mediolateral thalamus may be involved in the control of spontaneous SWD in this rat model of petit mal epilepsy...
- Sodium oxybate relieves pain and improves function in fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trialI Jon Russell
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
Arthritis Rheum 60:299-309. 2009To evaluate the safety and efficacy of sodium oxybate for management of the symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS).
- The effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on the sleep of narcolepsy patients: a double-blind studyL Scrima
Sleep Disorders and Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock
Sleep 13:479-90. 1990....
- Cloning and functional characterization of a gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor identified in the human brainChristian Andriamampandry
Institut de Chimie Biologique and INSERM U 575, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg, France
FASEB J 21:885-95. 2007..9 microM for NCS-382. The present data led to the conclusion that both C12K32 and GHBh1 are two closely related isoforms of a human GHB receptor, GHBh1, that is described in the databank as the GPCR 172A...
- Sodium oxybate in narcolepsy with cataplexy: Zurich sleep center experienceR Poryazova
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Eur Neurol 65:175-82. 2011b>Sodium oxybate (SO; Xyrem®) has been approved in most countries for treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy...
- Neuropsychiatric morbidity in adolescent and adult succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency patientsIna Knerr
Department of Neurology, Children s National Medical Center, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
CNS Spectr 13:598-605. 2008..While neurological manifestations, such as developmental delay, are typical during infancy, limited data are available on adolescent and adult symptomatology...
- A pilot study on the effects of sodium oxybate on sleep architecture and daytime alertness in narcolepsyMortimer Mamelak
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Sleep 27:1327-34. 2004To measure the effect of nocturnal sodium oxybate administration on sleep architecture in patients with narcolepsy.
- Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces both withdrawal syndrome and hypercortisolism in severe abstinent alcoholics: an open study vs. diazepamFelice Nava
Italian Society of Addiction Medicine FederSerD, Milan, Italy
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 33:379-92. 2007..Taken together, our data suggest that GHB may act as potent anti-withdrawal agent in severe abstinent alcoholics...
- The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsyJed Black
Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, 450 Broadway Street, pavilion B, 2nd Floor, Redwood City, CA 94063 5730, USA
J Clin Sleep Med 6:596-602. 2010To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in ..
- The effects of sodium oxybate on clinical symptoms and sleep patterns in patients with fibromyalgiaMartin B Scharf
Tri State Sleep Disorders Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45246, USA
J Rheumatol 30:1070-4. 2003..b>Sodium oxybate has been shown to increase both slow-wave sleep and growth hormone levels...
- GABA shunt deficiencies and accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates: insight from Arabidopsis mutantsAaron Fait
Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
FEBS Lett 579:415-20. 2005..These results provide novel evidence for the relationship between the GABA shunt and ROI, which may, in part, explain the phenotype of SSADH-deficient plants and animals...
- Enzymatic and metabolic evidence for a region specific mitochondrial dysfunction in brains of murine succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (Aldh5a1-/- mice)S W Sauer
Department of General Pediatrics, Division of Inborn Metabolic Diseases, University Children s Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
Neurochem Int 50:653-9. 2007..Although our results suggest hippocampal and cortical dysfunction in Aldh5a1(-/-) brain, we found no evidence that accumulating key metabolites of SSADH deficiency directly induce impairment of energy metabolism...
- Treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central originMerrill S Wise
Methodist Healthcare Sleep Disorders Center Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Sleep 30:1712-27. 2007..The purpose of this paper is to summarize current knowledge about treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin...
- Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxicationPhillip E Mason
Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA
Acad Emerg Med 9:730-9. 2002..Emergency physicians should be familiar with the presentation and management of GHB-related emergencies...
- Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in the management of narcolepsyDean M Robinson
Wolters Kluwer Health Adis, Auckland, New Zealand
CNS Drugs 21:337-54. 2007b>Sodium oxybate (Xyrem) is the sodium salt of the CNS depressant gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and is therefore subject to prescription restrictions...
- Sodium oxybate for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy-cataplexyIsabelle Arnulf
Sleep 27:1242-3. 2004
- Weight loss in narcolepsy patients treated with sodium oxybateAatif M Husain
Department of Medicine Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
Sleep Med 10:661-3. 2009Narcolepsy is often associated with increased body weight. Sodium oxybate has efficacy in many narcolepsy symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium oxybate on weight in patients with narcolepsy.
- Sodium oxybate for excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson disease: an open-label polysomnographic studyWilliam G Ondo
Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6550 Fannin, Ste 1801, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Arch Neurol 65:1337-40. 2008..Many patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have excessive daytime sleepiness and numerous nocturnal sleep abnormalities...
- Enhancing slow wave sleep with sodium oxybate reduces the behavioral and physiological impact of sleep lossJames K Walsh
Sleep Medicine and Research Center, St Luke s Hospital, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA
Sleep 33:1217-25. 2010To investigate whether enhancement of slow wave sleep (SWS) with sodium oxybate reduces the impact of sleep deprivation.
- Sodium oxybate in maintaining alcohol abstinence in alcoholic patients with and without psychiatric comorbidityFabio Caputo
G Fontana Centre for the Study and Multidisciplinary Treatment of Alcohol Addiction, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardioangiology and Hepatology, University of Bologna, Italy
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21:450-6. 2011b>Sodium oxybate (SMO) is a GABA-ergic drug currently used for the treatment of alcohol-dependence in some European countries...
- Narcolepsy: action of two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B agonists, baclofen and sodium oxybateYu Shu Huang
Sleep Disorders Clinic, Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung University Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Pediatr Neurol 41:9-16. 2009This study was performed to evaluate the actions of baclofen and sodium oxybate, two medications with gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist properties, on symptoms of narcolepsy in drug-naïve teenagers...
- Three deaths associated with use of XyremDeborah L Zvosec
Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USA
Sleep Med 10:490-3. 2009..We report three deaths associated with use of Xyrem (sodium oxybate), a pharmaceutical preparation of GHB initially approved for treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy...
- Sodium oxybate in the treatment of binge eating disorder: an open-label, prospective studySusan L McElroy
Research Institute, Lindner Center of HOPE, Mason, Ohio, USA
Int J Eat Disord 44:262-8. 2011To assess preliminarily the effectiveness of sodium oxybate in binge eating disorder.
- Effect of sodium oxybate on growth hormone secretion in narcolepsy patients and healthy controlsClaire E H M Donjacour
Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300:E1069-75. 2011..Symptoms can be treated effectively with sodium oxybate (SXB; γ-hydroxybutyrate) in many patients...
- A safety trial of sodium oxybate in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Acute effects on sleep-disordered breathingCharles F P George
University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, 375 South Street, London, Ont, Canada N6A 4G5
Sleep Med 11:38-42. 2010b>Sodium oxybate (SXB) is an approved drug for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy in narcolepsy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a condition that frequently co-occurs with narcolepsy...
- A multi-drug intoxication fatality involving Xyrem (GHB)Brianne E Akins
Washington State Patrol, Forensic Laboratory Services Bureau, 2203 Airport Way S, Suite 360, Seattle, WA 98134, USA
J Forensic Sci 54:495-6. 2009..The manner of death was determined to be accidental...
- Significant behavioral disturbances in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria)K Michael Gibson
Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
Biol Psychiatry 54:763-8. 2003....
- A 2-week, polysomnographic, safety study of sodium oxybate in obstructive sleep apnea syndromeCharles F P George
University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, 375 South Street, London, ON, N6A 4G5, Canada
Sleep Breath 15:13-20. 2011b>Sodium oxybate (SXB) is approved for cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) affects ∼9-50% of narcoleptics...
- gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces GABA(B) receptor independent intracellular Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, but has no effect on GHB or GABA(B) receptors of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbensT Molnar
Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pusztaszeri út 59 67 1025, Budapest, Hungary
Neuroscience 162:268-81. 2009....
- Metabolism of gamma-hydroxybutyrate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate in mammals: further evidence for d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenaseEduard A Struys
Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Metabolism 55:353-8. 2006..Our results indicate that d-2-HG is a prominent GHB metabolite and provide further evidence for the existence of d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase in different mammalian species...
- Sodium oxybate improves excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsyJed Black
Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic, CA 94305, USA
Sleep 29:939-46. 2006To assess the effectiveness of sodium oxybate therapy, modafinil therapy and the combination of the two for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients previously taking modafinil.
- Treatment of the narcoleptiform sleep disorder in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia with sodium oxybateA Robert Spitzer
Neurology Department, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Pain Pract 10:54-9. 2010..When considered appropriate based on the clinical picture and test results, treatment with sodium oxybate was offered to these patients...
- Comment on "The abrupt cessation of therapeutically administered sodium oxybate (GHB) may cause withdrawal symptoms"Deborah L Zvosec
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42:121-3; author reply 125-7. 2004
- Chronic intragastric administration of gamma-butyrolactone produces physical dependence in baboonsAmy K Goodwin
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:71-82. 2006..Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors is a public health concern. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is found in commercially available products and, when ingested, is metabolized to GHB...
- The epidemiology of GHB and ketamine use in an Australian household surveyLouisa Degenhardt
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Int J Drug Policy 19:311-6. 2008..This paper provides the first such Australian data on the patterns and correlates of GHB and ketamine use...
- Cataleptic effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and GABAB receptor agonists in mice: differential antagonism by the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348Wouter Koek
Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192:407-14. 2007..Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used to treat narcolepsy but is also abused. GHB has many actions in common with the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen...
- The role of the new "date rape drugs" in attributions about date rapeApril L Girard
University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada
J Interpers Violence 23:3-20. 2008..These findings extend the limited research on date rape drugs and previous work on the influence of alcohol on date rape attributions...
- GHB use among gay and bisexual menPerry N Halkitis
Center for Health, Identity, Behavior and Prevention Studies, New York University, United States
Addict Behav 31:2135-9. 2006..Use of GHB is common among a certain subset of gay men despite warnings within the community about the potentially fatal effects of the substance, suggesting that more effort be given to educate drug using gay men about GHB...
- Club drug use among youths in treatment for substance abuseChristian Hopfer
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
Am J Addict 15:94-9. 2006..01). Youths reported using club drugs frequently outside of rave settings. Club drug use is common among youths in treatment for substance abuse and has spread beyond the rave culture...
- Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its metabolic precursors on delayed-matching-to-position performance in ratsDaniel Kueh
Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 5439, USA
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 89:179-87. 2008..Moreover, the acute effects of GHB under the DMTP procedure resemble those of its metabolic precursors, GBL and 1,4-BD, and of the prototypical CNS depressant drug, ethanol...
- Club drugs: methylenedioxymethamphetamine, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrateKelly M Smith
Drug Information Center, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center UKCMC, Lexington, USA
Am J Health Syst Pharm 59:1067-76. 2002..The increasing abuse of MDMA, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and GHB, particularly by young people in social settings such as clubs, should put health care professionals on guard to recognize and manage serious reactions...
- An interactive lesson in acid/base and pro-drug chemistry using sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate and commercial test coastersNathaniel A Page
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
Am J Pharm Educ 71:54. 2007....
- Medical and legal confusion surrounding gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD)D M Wood
Guy s and St Thomas Poisons Unit, Guy s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, Avonley Road, London, UK
QJM 101:23-9. 2008..However, its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD) remain legally available despite having similar clinical effects...
- Unusually high concentrations in a fatal GHB casePascal Kintz
X pertise Consulting, Laboratoire ChemTox, 3 rue Gruninger, F 67400 Illkirch, France
J Anal Toxicol 29:582-5. 2005..4 to 25.0 ng/mg (in comparison with physiological concentrations < 2 ng/mg). Methylenedioxymethamphetamine was present in femoral blood at 144 ng/mL. These results are consistent with an acute fatal overdose of GHB...
- Distribution of GHB in tissues and fluids following a fatal overdoseSusan Mazarr-Proo
New Mexico Department of Health, Scientific Laboratory Division, Toxicology Bureau, Albuquerque, 87196 4700, USA
J Anal Toxicol 29:398-400. 2005..The cause of death was attributed to GHB intoxication, and the manner of death was accidental...
- Detection of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in striatal microdialysates following peripheral 1,4-butanediol administration in ratsRoopa Kapadia
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Life Sci 80:1046-50. 2007..Sleep times in animals were similarly correlated with GHB concentrations in the microdialysates...
- Experiences of gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) ingestion: a focus group studyJudith C Barker
Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0850, USA
J Psychoactive Drugs 39:115-29. 2007..It concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB...
- Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approachAino Kankaanpää
Drug Research Unit, Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, Helsinki, Finland
Forensic Sci Int 170:133-8. 2007..As revealed by the validation data this procedure is suitable for quantitative determination of GHB and its precursors in blood and/or urine samples...
- Effects of the putative antagonist NCS382 on the behavioral pharmacological actions of gammahydroxybutyrate in miceCharles D Cook
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 410 North 12th Street, P O Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 160:99-106. 2002..In addition to its uncertain physiological role, the recent interest in GHB has been engendered by its illicit use and abuse...
- A randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of sodium oxybate therapy on quality of life in narcolepsyTerri E Weaver
Biobehavioral and Health Sciences Division, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, 420 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6096, USA
Sleep 29:1189-94. 2006To evaluate the efficacy of sodium oxybate versus placebo to improve quality of life in patients with narcolepsy.
- The motor-impairing effects of GABA(A) and GABA(B) agonists in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-treated rats: cross-tolerance to baclofen but not flunitrazepamMark A Smith
Department of Psychology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 7037, USA
Eur J Pharmacol 552:83-9. 2006..These findings are consistent with the in vivo behavioral profile of GHB, which reveals a greater role for GABA(B) receptors than for GABA(A) receptors in its behavioral effects...
- Physostigmine for gamma-hydroxybutyrate coma: inefficacy, adverse events, and reviewDeborah L Zvosec
Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center Minneapolis, Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415, USA
Clin Toxicol (Phila) 45:261-5. 2007....
- [New Drugs: Ectasy and Gamma-Hydroxy-Butyrate (GHB)]Nelson Feldman
Division d abus de substances, D and eacutepartament de Psychiatrie, HUG, Geneve, Suisse
Vertex 13:5-8. 2002..In this article, their authors describe the secondary and toxic effects of those drugs. These data should alert about the risk of considering this new way of substance abuse as a banal fact...
- GHB use among Australians: characteristics, use patterns and associated harmLouisa Degenhardt
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Drug Alcohol Depend 67:89-94. 2002..The high rate of problems reported by a group with limited use of this drug suggests that in a context of polydrug use, GHB use is associated with significant risks to users...
- Lack of effects of GHB precursors GBL and 1,4-BD following i.c.v. administration in ratsLawrence P Carter
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive MC7764, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Eur J Neurosci 24:2595-600. 2006....
- The Discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and related compounds in rats discriminating baclofen or diazepam: The role of GABA(B) and GABA(A) receptorsL P Carter
Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78229 3900, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:540-7. 2004..The inability of CGP 35348 to completely attenuate the effects of baclofen and GHB suggests that multiple receptors could be involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of GHB...
- High-risk behaviors and hospitalizations among gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) usersSusan Y Kim
California Poison Control System, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1369, USA
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 33:429-38. 2007..Little is known about behaviors linked to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) morbidity...
- A validated SPME-GC-MS method for simultaneous quantification of club drugs in human urineStacy D Brown
The Citadel, Chemistry Department, 171 Moultrie Street, Charleston, SC 29409 6220, United States
Forensic Sci Int 171:142-50. 2007..This method has the advantage of an easy sample preparation with acceptable accuracy and precision for the simultaneous quantification of these four drugs of abuse and shows no interference from the urine matrix...
- Use of alcohol during the treatment of alcohol dependence with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: risk of severe events are avoided by the dose fractioning of the drugFabio Caputo
J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:418. 2007
- Recent trends in the use of "club drugs": an Australian reviewLouisa Degenhardt
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Subst Use Misuse 40:1241-56. 2005..This could be most easily achieved by the inclusion of MDMA, ketamine, and GHB in household surveys that are currently collected routinely in a number of countries...
- A brief overview of the clinical pharmacology of "club drugs"Gena Covell Britt
Division of Addiction Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA
Subst Use Misuse 40:1189-201. 2005..The neurobiology, clinical pharmacology, and treatment issues for each are discussed...
- Club drugs: reasons for and consequences of useKathleen A Parks
Research Institute on Addictions, 1021 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA
J Psychoactive Drugs 36:295-302. 2004..Further exploration of the reasons and positive consequences that are associated with use of each of the club drugs may provide important information on the growing trend in use of these drugs...
- Rave drugs: pharmacological considerationsCarl S Hornfeldt
AANA J 72:334-5; author reply 335. 2004
- Addicted to driving under the influence--a GHB/GBL case reportFiona J Couper
Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1910 Massachusetts Avenue SE, Washington, D C 20003, USA
J Anal Toxicol 28:512-5. 2004..During the same period as his DUI arrests, the subject had been admitted at least six times to different hospitals for GHB/GBL intoxications...
- Protection by the GABAB receptor antagonist, SCH 50911, of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced mortality in miceMauro A M Carai
Bernard B Brodie Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Viale Diaz 182, I 09126 Cagliari CA, Italy
Eur J Pharmacol 503:77-80. 2004....
- Extractionless GC/MS analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone with trifluoroacetic anhydride and heptafluoro-1-butanol from aqueous samplesAlberto J Sabucedo
Florida International University, University Park, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Advanced Mass Spectrometry Facility, Miami, Florida 33199, USA
J Sep Sci 27:703-9. 2004..The concentration of GBL can also be indirectly determined by the method developed. Therefore, this extractionless technique is rapid, sensitive, and selective for the confirmation of the presence of GHB and GBL in commercial beverages...
- A study of urinary endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) levelsDustin Tate Yeatman
Toxicology Section, Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Orlando, Florida, USA
J Anal Toxicol 27:40-2. 2003..3 mg/mL (mean = 1.65 microg/mL, range 0.9 microg/mL to 3.5 microg/mL, standard deviation 0.68 microg/mL). The results of this study confirm the previously suggested cutoff of 10 microg/mL for routine forensic analyses...
- Gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol: abused analogues of gamma-hydroxybutyrateRobert B Palmer
Toxicology Associates, Prof LLC, Denver, Colorado, USA
Toxicol Rev 23:21-31. 2004..This review examines the history of GHB analogue abuse as well as the clinical presentation and management of acute intoxication and withdrawal associated with abuse of these compounds...
- GHB and date rapeM Z Abramowitz
Br J Psychiatry 185:176-7. 2004
- Systematic assessment of gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) effects during and after acute intoxicationSusan Y Kim
California Poison Control System, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 1369, USA
Am J Addict 17:312-8. 2008..001). This modified substance-specific symptom battery, which is easily administered, demonstrated excellent performance characteristics. It can be used to study GHB and, potentially, related drugs of abuse...
- Common drugs of abuse--Part IIMary Linda Stotter Cuddy
J Pract Nurs 54:5-8, 25-31; quiz 17-9. 2004..Drug abuse affects a significant number of individuals of all ages. Health care practitioners must be knowledgeable about both the physiological effects of such drugs and the impact of drug-seeking behavior on their patients...
- NarcolepsyNeil T Feldman
St Petersburg Sleep Disorders Center, St Petersburg, FL 33707, USA
South Med J 96:277-82. 2003..Primary-care physicians who develop the proper diagnostic skills can play a pivotal role in the accurate diagnosis and long-term management of patients suffering from narcolepsy...
- Medical problems related to recreational drug use at nocturnal dance partiesDiederik K Van Sassenbroeck
Heymans Institute for Pharmacology, University of Ghent, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent, Belgium
Eur J Emerg Med 10:302-8. 2003....
- Characterization of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol in the ratDiederik K Van Sassenbroeck
Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Toxicol Sci 73:270-8. 2003..Pharmacodynamic interactions between GHB and ethanol in the rat occur, and the nature varies with the reflex studied and the concentration of ethanol used...
- Liquid ecstasy: a new kid on the dance floorJ Rodgers
Br J Psychiatry 184:104-6. 2004
- Acute toxic effects of club drugsRobert S Gable
School of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California, USA
J Psychoactive Drugs 36:303-13. 2004..Hazardous drug-use sequelae such as accidents, aggressive behavior, and addiction were not factored into the safety ratio estimates...
- Orexin Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and CaPAUL STUART HUMPHRIES; Fiscal Year: 2013..g. modafinil). Currently, only one medication, sodium oxybate, is approved by the FDA for the treatment of cataplexy in narcoleptic patients...
- Voice tremor in spasmodic dysphonia: central mechanisms and treatment responseKristina Simonyan; Fiscal Year: 2013..as the basis for characterization of central mechanisms underlying symptom improvement following the use of sodium oxybate, a novel pharmacological agent for treatment of ethanol-responsive dystonia...
- Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Alcohol in MiceWouter Koek; Fiscal Year: 2007..This future research will increase our understanding of risk factors for alcoholism and drug abuse and will help the development of effective approaches to prevention and treatment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Neuropharmacology of GHB discriminationWouter Koek; Fiscal Year: 2010..Increased knowledge about the activation and modulation of GABAB systems will help to develop effective approaches to treating sleep-, drug abuse-, and other CNS disorders. ..
- Self-administration of GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD in baboonsAMY GOODWIN; Fiscal Year: 2005..The results of the proposed study will characterize the abuse liability of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD by use of a well-established method of abuse liability testing in non-human primates. ..
- Motivation and Skills for THC/ETOH+ Teens in JailLYN STEIN; Fiscal Year: 2008..The development of effective interventions for substance using juvenile offenders has the potential to reduce substance abuse and crime in this population. ..
- MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWS FOR INCARCERATED TEENSLynda Stein; Fiscal Year: 2003..The development of effective interventions for substance using juvenile offenders has the potential to reduce substance abuse and crime in this population. ..
- GHB: Discrimination and effects on learningLisa Baker; Fiscal Year: 2003..Behavior under these assays is sensitive to other abused drugs. Therefore, these assays may be of value in characterizing the effects of GHB. ..
- Role of Histamine in Narcolepsy/EDS DisordersSeiji Nishino; Fiscal Year: 2008..As almost nothing is known on the pathophysiology of non- hypocretin deficient hypersomnias, we believe this work to be ideally suited for a small grant application. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Role of hypocretin/histamine in Narcolepsy/EDS disordersSeiji Nishino; Fiscal Year: 2009..We believe that results from these studies will bring new insights regarding the roles of the hypocretin/histamine interaction in narcolepsy and other EDS disorders and better treatment modalities in humans. ..
- CLUB DRUG USE AND MEN'S HEALTH--A COMMUNITY STUDYPerry Halkitis; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of GHB and PrecursorsHo Leung Fung; Fiscal Year: 2004..A pharmacogenetic mapping of the pharmacological effects of GHB will be obtained. The effects of tolerance development, withdrawal, gender, receptor blockade on these effects will be examined. ..
- Organic Nitrate Metabolism, Tolerance and ActionHo Leung Fung; Fiscal Year: 2010..believe that our studies can provide new and meaningful data that will contribute to the establishment of a unifying mechanism for organic nitrate action and deleterious effects, and lead to their better therapeutic use ..
- PROTEASE INHIBITOR ADHERENCE AMONG DRUG USERSPerry Halkitis; Fiscal Year: 2002..Generalized linear, Markov regression, and structural equation modeling will be used to achieve the study's goals. ..
- Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of Nitrite InhalantsHo Leung Fung; Fiscal Year: 2005..We believe that our proposal represents novel approaches toward the understanding of nitrite inhalant toxicity in vivo. ..
- PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF HUMAN AND CANINE NARCOLEPSYSeiji Nishino; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Serotonin Receptor Subtypes: Regulation and InteractionJULIE HENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2008..Studies of the regulation of 5-HT1A receptor function may have important implications for our understanding the role of this receptor in the therapeutic action of drugs used to treat mental illness [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Development and Evaluation of a Group HIV Intervention for Gender Stigmatized PerJeffrey Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- 5HT transporter & 1A receptor function in BDNF miceJULIE HENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2007..Region-specific and age-dependent changes in BDNF protein levels will be determined in selected brain regions of wild-type and BDNF () mice (Aim #3). [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MECHANISM OF PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROMERoland Staud; Fiscal Year: 2008..In addition, our findings may contribute to the understanding of pain mechanisms related to other chronic pain disorders. ..
- GHB: Effects, Withdrawal and TreatmentKaren Miotto; Fiscal Year: 2006..There has been little systematic study of the signs and symptoms of withdrawal, and controlled studies on the effectiveness of treatment of these symptoms are lacking. ..
- College Women: The Alcohol and Victimization LinkKATHLEEN PARKS MARSH; Fiscal Year: 2008..This research is innovative in the use of long- and short-term measures, within a longitudinal design, to assess alcohol-related victimization of college women. ..
- Contingency Management: Duration EffectsJohn Roll; Fiscal Year: 2007..This is timely, given the burgeoning rates of methamphetamine abuse being reported. ..
- Role of Hypocretin in Metabolic Effects of Sleep LossEmmanuel Mignot; Fiscal Year: 2008..These studies will be critical to extend our understanding of the association between chronic sleep loss, metabolism and body weight regulation. ..
- Opioid Antagonist Discrimination: A Model of WithdrawalAlison Oliveto; Fiscal Year: 2011..This paradigm provides a sensitive, standard, objective, systematic method to identify potential agents for enhancing OW treatment which can be examined further in a detox protocol. ..
- Behavioral Economic Analysis of Polydrug AbuseGAIL D WINGER; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Disulfiram for Cocaine Abuse in Metadone - PatientsAlison Oliveto; Fiscal Year: 2010..The prognostic relevance of other factors (e.g., sex, discounting behavior) will also be examined. ..
- Human Behavorial Pharmacology of GHBJohn Roll; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Peripheral and Central Mechanism of Pain in Patients with FibromyalgiaROLAND M STAUD; Fiscal Year: 2010..Either way, we will provide evidence that will characterize the role of local anesthesia, placebo analgesia, or both. Thus patients with FM and other similar pain syndromes may strongly benefit from the results of our study. ..
- Control of Muscle Tone in nonREM SleepJerome Siegel; Fiscal Year: 2009..Our work will also suggest improved pharmacological treatments for PLMS, sleepwalking and bruxism. ..
- Behavioral and Pharmacological Analysis of Drugs of AbuseJERROLD WINTER; Fiscal Year: 2008..This likelihood coupled with continued interest in the therapeutic use of agents such as psilocybin makes a detailed pharmacological assessment of these drugs of utmost importance. ..
- Risk Reduction Intervention for Highly Vulnerable Emerging Adults MalesJeffrey T Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2010..If effective, the intervention will help minimize the negative physical and psychological effects associated with club drug use, and reduce HIV infections among emerging adult males. ..
- Behavior Change: Reinforcemnt Schedule EffectsJohn Roll; Fiscal Year: 2006..Based on the widespread success of contingency management across many different applications, we believe that the results of the proposed study will have 9enerality beyond the field of substance abuse treatment. ..
- SECONDARY PREVENTION AMONG HIV POSITIVE ALCOHOL ABUSERSJeffrey Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2001..Participants will complete assessment batteries at intake, and at 1-week, 3, 6, 9, and 12 month follow-ups in order to assess short-term and long-term effects. ..
- BEHAVIORAL & PHARMACOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DRUGS OF ABUSEJERROLD WINTER; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- LIPID PEROXIDATION, TOXICANTS, AND MITOCHONDRIAMATTHEW PICKLO; Fiscal Year: 2003..With this knowledge, novel therapeutic interventions or preventative strategies may be designed for these diseases. ..
- Cue-Reactivity and Alcohol Self-DosingElise Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2003..This research will additionally provide important information on the behavioral processes underlying conditioned responses to drug-related cues in animals which may be relevant to cue-reactivity and drug-taking in humans. ..
- DAYTIME SLEEPINESS--PREVALENCE, CONSEQUENCES, AND RISKSThomas Roth; Fiscal Year: 2003..The important contribution of the present proposal is that it will be the first population-based study to use laboratory assessments, its consequences and risks to measure sleepiness. ..
- Submissive Behavior as a Model of DepressionGodfrey Tunnicliff; Fiscal Year: 2002..The identification of genetic elements in mice associated with depression-like behavior can be tested for homology in human patients that could ultimately lead to an understanding of genetic defects underlying depression in humans. ..
- Human Methamphetamine Use: A ModelJohn Roll; Fiscal Year: 2002..Studies using laboratory models of human drug use can inform subsequent clinical trials and help to focus them on those variables which are likely to be important. ..
- ADOLESCENT SMOKING CESSATIONJohn Roll; Fiscal Year: 2002..Secondarily, the proposed study will provide valuable information on the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in adolescents, a topic about which relatively little is known. ..
- SLEEP HOMEOSTASIS AND STIMULANT DRUGS OF ABUSEEmmanuel Mignot; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- ABUSE LIABILITY OF BENZODIAZEPINES AND CAFFEINEROLAND GRIFFITHS; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Ethanol, HNE, and the CNSMATTHEW PICKLO; Fiscal Year: 2005..These data may lead to the formation of new preventative and therapeutic strategies for ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity. ..
- GHB Abuse: Motivations, Medical consequences, & RisksJo Dyer; Fiscal Year: 2006..SIGNIFICANCE: This study, by elucidating predictors of adverse outcomes from GHB use will provide data important for clinical and public health interventions to reduce morbidity associated with this drug of abuse. ..
- Measuring and Modifying Ethanol's Reinforcing EffectsGail Winger; Fiscal Year: 2006..Data relevant to the behavioral and pharmacological mechanisms underlying polydrug abuse involving ethanol, and underlying pharmacological treatment of alcoholism will also be obtained. ..
- Adherence Intervention for HIV + Alcohol UsersJeffrey Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2005..Multivariate repeated measures analyses and growth curve modeling, using both continuous and dichotomous outcome variables, will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on both adherence and alcohol use. ..
- Sleep Disordered Breathing, APOE and Lipid MetabolismEmmanuel Mignot; Fiscal Year: 2005..With lipid metabolism being critical to cardiovascular risk, this application will also trigger further studies focusing on cardiovascular impact with adequate control of SDB. ..
- Cannabinoids and Central Neuronal ActivityPaul Schweitzer; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Behavioral Effects of GHB in Healthy VolunteersALISON OLIVETO BEAUDOIN; Fiscal Year: 2003..This study will also potentially establish a standard methodology to characterize systematically the behavioral effects of GHB in humans. ..
- Sleep in CetaceansJerome Siegel; Fiscal Year: 2006..The proposed studies take advantage of a rapidly vanishing opportunity to study cetacean sleep. They will improve our understanding of the physiological and neurochemical substrates of mammalian sleep. ..
- Women Bar Drinkers: Exploring Risks for HIVKATHLEEN PARKS MARSH; Fiscal Year: 2006..It also has the potential to provide information that can be used to develop effective prevention programs to reduce women's risk for HIV. ..
- Alcohol Sensitivity and PET Derived Measures of Opioid ActivityElise M Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results of the proposed research will increase our understanding of to the relationship between individual variability in the opioid system and subjective sensitivity to alcohol. ..
- Behavioral Pharmacology and GHB Physical DependenceElise M Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2010..Physical dependence in the context of self-injection of GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD will also be evaluated. These studies will provide critical information on the behavioral pharmacology and dependence-producing effects of GHB. ..
- Patterns and Contexts of Club Drug AbuseJeffrey Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2007..Mixed-methods strategies will be used to examine the qualitative and quantitative data together in order to further understand the data and potential implications for intervention development. ..
- Studies on the role of GABA in Cocaine AddictionElise Weerts; Fiscal Year: 2005..The results of these studies will increase our understanding of the role of GABA in the behavioral effects of cocaine and may lead to the development of better medications for the treatment of cocaine addiction. ..
- Impact of CPAP on Functional Outcomes in Milder OSATerri Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2006..Secondary aims of the study are: 1) to examine whether CPAP also improves daytime sleepiness; 2) to determine whether CPAP can reduce nocturnal blood pressure to lower the risk for stroke and hypertension linked to OSA. ..
- Mechanisms of Signal Transduction of GHB ActionGodfrey Tunnicliff; Fiscal Year: 2002..In turn, this will help to develop therapeutic and preventive strategies resulting in a lessened abuse potential of GHB. ..
- STIMULANTS, DEPRESSANTS & HALLUCINOGENS AS REINFORCERSGail Winger; Fiscal Year: 2003..These drugs can be those that the WHO or the FDA is considering for scheduling decisions, drugs made by industrial or academic medicinal chemists, or industrial drugs that are being considered for clinical testing. ..
- TRAINING IN FUNCTIONAL IMAGING AND ALCOHOL WITHDRAWALDONALD MYRICK; Fiscal Year: 2004....