esters

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans?
    Matthias Wormuth
    Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Risk Anal 26:803-24. 2006
  2. ncbi Distribution of phthalate esters in urban soils of subtropical city, Guangzhou, China
    Feng Zeng
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou, China
    J Hazard Mater 164:1171-8. 2009
  3. ncbi Phthalate esters (PAEs): emerging organic contaminants in agricultural soils in peri-urban areas around Guangzhou, China
    Feng Zeng
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou 51027, China
    Environ Pollut 156:425-34. 2008
  4. ncbi A novel bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase mediates wax ester and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1
    Rainer Kalscheuer
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstr 3, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:8075-82. 2003
  5. pmc Lipid particles/droplets of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revisited: lipidome meets proteome
    Karlheinz Grillitsch
    Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1811:1165-76. 2011
  6. pmc Detection of omega-3 oxylipins in human plasma and response to treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters
    Gregory C Shearer
    Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Sanford Research USD, Sioux Falls, SD, USA
    J Lipid Res 51:2074-81. 2010
  7. ncbi Riding the sulfur cycle--metabolism of sulfonates and sulfate esters in gram-negative bacteria
    M A Kertesz
    Institute of Microbiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zentrum, CH 8092, Zurich, Switzerland
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 24:135-75. 2000
  8. ncbi Fatty acid ethyl esters: toxic non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol and markers of ethanol intake
    Catherine A Best
    Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Front Biosci 8:e202-17. 2003
  9. ncbi Synthesis and turnover of non-polar lipids in yeast
    Sona Rajakumari
    Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12 2, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Prog Lipid Res 47:157-71. 2008
  10. pmc Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 degrades exogenous glycerolipid and sphingolipid phosphate esters
    R Jasinska
    Department of Biochemistry Signal Transduction Laboratories, Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Group, University of Alberta, 357 Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2S2, Canada
    Biochem J 340:677-86. 1999

Detail Information

Publications357 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans?
    Matthias Wormuth
    Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Risk Anal 26:803-24. 2006
    Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials...
  2. ncbi Distribution of phthalate esters in urban soils of subtropical city, Guangzhou, China
    Feng Zeng
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou, China
    J Hazard Mater 164:1171-8. 2009
    ..areas (RE) of the Subtropical City, Guangzhou, were collected in December of 2005 and analyzed for 16 phthalate esters (PAEs)...
  3. ncbi Phthalate esters (PAEs): emerging organic contaminants in agricultural soils in peri-urban areas around Guangzhou, China
    Feng Zeng
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou 51027, China
    Environ Pollut 156:425-34. 2008
    This study reports the first data on the concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils from the peri-urban areas of Guangzhou city. Sigma(16)PAEs concentrations ranged from 0.195 to 33...
  4. ncbi A novel bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase mediates wax ester and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1
    Rainer Kalscheuer
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Corrensstr 3, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:8075-82. 2003
    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters are neutral lipids with considerable importance for dietetic, technical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications...
  5. pmc Lipid particles/droplets of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revisited: lipidome meets proteome
    Karlheinz Grillitsch
    Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology, Graz University of Technology, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1811:1165-76. 2011
    ..The yeast non-polar lipids, triacylglycerols (TG) and steryl esters (SE) are stored in so-called lipid particles/droplets (LP) as biologically inert form of fatty acids and sterols...
  6. pmc Detection of omega-3 oxylipins in human plasma and response to treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters
    Gregory C Shearer
    Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Sanford Research USD, Sioux Falls, SD, USA
    J Lipid Res 51:2074-81. 2010
    ..n-6 FA classes in healthy volunteers (n = 10) before and after 4 weeks of treatment with prescription n-3 FA ethyl esters (4 g/day)...
  7. ncbi Riding the sulfur cycle--metabolism of sulfonates and sulfate esters in gram-negative bacteria
    M A Kertesz
    Institute of Microbiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zentrum, CH 8092, Zurich, Switzerland
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 24:135-75. 2000
    Sulfonates and sulfate esters are widespread in nature, and make up over 95% of the sulfur content of most aerobic soils...
  8. ncbi Fatty acid ethyl esters: toxic non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol and markers of ethanol intake
    Catherine A Best
    Division of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Front Biosci 8:e202-17. 2003
    This report describes the biochemistry of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, and their clinical significance...
  9. ncbi Synthesis and turnover of non-polar lipids in yeast
    Sona Rajakumari
    Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12 2, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Prog Lipid Res 47:157-71. 2008
    ..Moreover, we will discuss non-polar lipid homeostasis and its newly discovered links to various cell biological processes in the yeast...
  10. pmc Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 degrades exogenous glycerolipid and sphingolipid phosphate esters
    R Jasinska
    Department of Biochemistry Signal Transduction Laboratories, Lipid and Lipoprotein Research Group, University of Alberta, 357 Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2S2, Canada
    Biochem J 340:677-86. 1999
    ..The product of LPP-1 cDNA is concluded to act partly to degrade exogenous lysophosphatidate and thereby regulate its effects on cell signalling...
  11. pmc The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YLL012/YEH1, YLR020/YEH2, and TGL1 genes encode a novel family of membrane-anchored lipases that are required for steryl ester hydrolysis
    René Köffel
    University of Fribourg, Department of Medicine, Division of Biochemistry, Chemin du Musee 5, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 25:1655-68. 2005
    Sterol homeostasis in eukaryotic cells relies on the reciprocal interconversion of free sterols and steryl esters. The formation of steryl esters is well characterized, but the mechanisms that control steryl ester mobilization upon ..
  12. ncbi Contribution of Are1p and Are2p to steryl ester synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    D Zweytick
    Institut fur Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universität Graz and SFB Biomembrane Research Center, Graz, Austria
    Eur J Biochem 267:1075-82. 2000
    ..yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases (ASATs) that catalyze the synthesis of steryl esters have been identified, namely Are2p (Sat1p) and Are1p (Sat2p)...
  13. ncbi Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS
    B Stephen Inbaraj
    Department of Food Science, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 47:812-8. 2008
    ..81:14:5, v/v/v) was used to separate carotenoids, with a total of 11 free carotenoids and 7 carotenoid esters being resolved from unsaponified and saponified L. barbarum extracts within 51 and 41 min, respectively...
  14. ncbi Technical Advance: a novel technique for the sensitive quantification of acyl CoA esters from plant tissues
    T R Larson
    Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
    Plant J 25:115-25. 2001
    We report a novel, highly sensitive and selective method for the extraction and quantification of acyl CoA esters from plant tissues...
  15. ncbi Increased plasma levels of phthalate esters in women with advanced-stage endometriosis: a prospective case-control study
    Sung Hoon Kim
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
    Fertil Steril 95:357-9. 2011
    We performed the present prospective case-control study to evaluate whether the plasma concentrations of phthalate esters are elevated in women with advanced-stage endometriosis in a Korean population...
  16. ncbi Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of monensin A esters
    Adam Huczyński
    Faculty of Chemistry, A Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 780 Poznan, Poland
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:2585-9. 2008
    The esters (2-10) of the ionophore antibiotic Monensin (1) were synthesized by four different methods, which are discussed in detail...
  17. ncbi Ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells: role of fatty acid ethyl esters
    Hai Wu
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    Alcohol Alcohol 43:1-8. 2008
    To understand the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis and role of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol) in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury.
  18. pmc Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase is essential for accumulation of all-trans-retinyl esters in the eye and in the liver
    Matthew L Batten
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:10422-32. 2004
    ..mainly in the retinal pigmented epithelial cells and liver, converts all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl esters. In the retinal pigmented epithelium, LRAT plays a key role in the retinoid cycle, a two-cell recycling system ..
  19. ncbi Occurrence of phthalate esters in water and sediment of urban lakes in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China
    Feng Zeng
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangdong, Guangzhou 51027, China
    Environ Int 34:372-80. 2008
    Extensive use of phthalate esters (PAEs) in both industrial processes and consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of these chemicals in the environment...
  20. ncbi Comparative assessment of human exposure to phthalate esters from house dust in China and the United States
    Ying Guo
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P O Box 509, Albany, New York 12201 0509, United States
    Environ Sci Technol 45:3788-94. 2011
    Because of volatilization and leaching from their application in consumer and personal care products, phthalate esters are ubiquitous contaminants in the indoor environment...
  21. ncbi Phenol esters and other constituents from the stem barks of Stereospermum acuminatissimum
    Sylvain Valère Tanemossu Sob
    Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, P O BOX 67, Dschang, Cameroon
    J Asian Nat Prod Res 13:1128-34. 2011
    ..known compounds including 4 triterpenoids, 11 anthraquinones, 2 lignans, 3 phenylpropanoids, 2 4-hydroxyphenethyl esters, 1 methoxyphenol, and 1 iridoid...
  22. pmc Rh(III)-catalyzed regioselective synthesis of pyridines from alkenes and α,β-unsaturated oxime esters
    Jamie M Neely
    Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, United States
    J Am Chem Soc 135:66-9. 2013
    ..Mechanistic studies suggest that heterocycle formation proceeds via reversible C-H activation, alkene insertion, and a C-N bond formation/N-O bond cleavage process...
  23. pmc A human skin multifunctional O-acyltransferase that catalyzes the synthesis of acylglycerols, waxes, and retinyl esters
    Chi Liang Eric Yen
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    J Lipid Res 46:2388-97. 2005
    ..acyltransferase (ARAT) activities, which catalyze the synthesis of diacylglycerols, wax monoesters, and retinyl esters, respectively...
  24. ncbi Development of Canadian screening tools for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
    Y Ingrid Goh
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 15:e344-66. 2008
    ..Screening for FASD may facilitate diagnosis and hence management of these children. We present a variety of screening tools for the identification of children at risk for FASD...
  25. ncbi Investigations of the esterase, phosphatase, and sulfatase activities of the cytosolic mammalian carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, and XIII with 4-nitrophenyl esters as substrates
    Alessio Innocenti
    Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Laboratorio di Chimica Bioinorganica, Rm 188, Via della Lastruccia 3, I 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:2267-71. 2008
    ..2.1.1) isozymes, CA I, II, and XIII with 4-nitrophenyl esters as substrates was investigated...
  26. pmc Isolation of mutants of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus deficient in wax ester synthesis and complementation of one mutation with a gene encoding a fatty acyl coenzyme A reductase
    S Reiser
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Plant Biology, Stanford, California 94305 4150, USA
    J Bacteriol 179:2969-75. 1997
    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413 accumulates wax esters and triacylglycerol under conditions of mineral nutrient limitation...
  27. ncbi Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters, a new class of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors
    Giorgio Tarzia
    Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica, Universita degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo, Piazza del Rinascimento 6, Italy
    J Med Chem 46:2352-60. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the carbamic group is essential for activity. A 3D-QSAR analysis on the alkylcarbamic acid aryl esters showed that the size and shape of the O-aryl moiety are correlated with FAAH inhibitory potency...
  28. ncbi Targeted disruption of stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 gene in mice causes atrophy of sebaceous and meibomian glands and depletion of wax esters in the eyelid
    M Miyazaki
    Departments of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706, USA
    J Nutr 131:2260-8. 2001
    ..mainly oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1), which are the major MUFA of membrane phospholipids, cholesterol esters and triglycerides. Three well-characterized isoforms of SCD, SCD1, SCD2 and SCD3, exist in mice...
  29. ncbi New methodology for the determination of phthalate esters, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and nonylphenol in commercial whole milk samples
    Neus Casajuana
    Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Agric Food Chem 52:3702-7. 2004
    ..3 microg/kg, and the total concentration ranged between 79.3 and 187.4 microg/kg, the levels being higher in sterilized milks. Nonylphenol, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were the major contributors...
  30. ncbi Foetal exposure to phthalate esters and anogenital distance in male newborns
    Y Suzuki
    Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan
    Int J Androl 35:236-44. 2012
    Phthalate esters, commonly used as plasticizers, show anti-androgenic activity and cause male reproductive malformation in experimental animals...
  31. ncbi Metabolism of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonylglycerol and anandamide, into prostaglandin, thromboxane, and prostacyclin glycerol esters and ethanolamides
    Kevin R Kozak
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:44877-85. 2002
    ..on the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), generates prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-G) and ethanolamides (PG-EA), respectively...
  32. ncbi Microdiesel: Escherichia coli engineered for fuel production
    Rainer Kalscheuer
    Institut fur Molekulare Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Corrensstrasse 3, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Microbiology 152:2529-36. 2006
    ..is produced from renewable biomass by transesterification of triacylglycerols from plant oils, yielding monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids with short-chain alcohols such as fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters (..
  33. pmc Synthesis of novel lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by heterologous expression of an unspecific bacterial acyltransferase
    Rainer Kalscheuer
    Institut fur Molekulare Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7119-25. 2004
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids...
  34. ncbi Novel methods for the detection of drug and alcohol exposure during pregnancy: implications for maternal and child health
    G Koren
    The Motherisk Program, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:631-4. 2008
    ..Despite extensive evidence of fetal and neonatal risk, a large number of pregnant women are involved in excessive alcohol and drug abuse, such as with cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and cannabinoids...
  35. ncbi Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study
    Abdulsallam Bakdash
    Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Charite, Hittorfstr 18, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 396:2469-77. 2010
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption...
  36. pmc Mild and rapid hydroxylation of aryl/heteroaryl boronic acids and boronate esters with N-oxides
    Chen Zhu
    Division of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Org Lett 14:3494-7. 2012
    Aryl and heteroaryl boronic acids and boronate esters are rapidly, often within minutes, transformed into the corresponding phenols by N-oxides in an open flask at ambient temperature...
  37. pmc Novel isolation procedure for short-, medium-, and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A esters from tissue
    Paul E Minkler
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Anal Biochem 376:275-6. 2008
    A novel procedure for the quantitative isolation and purification of acyl-coenzyme A esters is presented. The procedure involves two steps: (1) tissue extraction using acetonitrile/2-propanol (3+1, v+v) followed by 0...
  38. pmc Metal-free catalytic enantioselective C-B bond formation: (pinacolato)boron conjugate additions to α,β-unsaturated ketones, esters, Weinreb amides, and aldehydes promoted by chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes
    Hao Wu
    Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, United States
    J Am Chem Soc 134:8277-85. 2012
    ..Acyclic and cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones, as well as acyclic esters, Weinreb amides, and aldehydes, can serve as suitable substrates; the desired β-boryl carbonyls are isolated in ..
  39. ncbi The induction of senescence-like growth arrest by protein kinase C-activating diterpene esters in solid tumor cells
    Sharon A Mason
    Drug Discovery Group, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Post Office Royal Brisbane and Women s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
    Invest New Drugs 28:575-86. 2010
    We previously identified the induction of senescence in melanoma cell lines sensitive to diterpene esters, indicating a therapeutic potential...
  40. pmc Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes
    Mareike Heilmann
    Department of Plant Biochemistry, Albrecht von Haller Institute for Plant Sciences, Georg August University, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Lipid Res 53:2153-61. 2012
    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil...
  41. ncbi Synthesis and herbicidal activity of 5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one esters
    Jintao Han
    Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    Molecules 16:2833-45. 2011
    A series of novel 5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one esters were synthesized under mild conditions by the reaction of 5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one and carboxylic acids with DCC and DMAP as the promoters...
  42. pmc Long-chain acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylinositol phosphates modulate ATP inhibition of KATP channels by the same mechanism
    Dirk Schulze
    Institute of Physiology II, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Teichgraben 8, 07740 Jena, Germany
    J Physiol 552:357-67. 2003
    Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs, e.g. PIP2) and long-chain acyl-CoA esters (e.g. oleoyl-CoA) are potent activators of KATP channels that are thought to link KATP channel activity to the cellular metabolism of PIPs and fatty acids...
  43. pmc Modification of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions with hydrocolloid gum for enhanced topical delivery of ibuprofen
    Norazlinaliza Salim
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
    Int J Nanomedicine 7:4739-47. 2012
    ..The present study investigated the modification of nanoemulsions with different hydrocolloid gums, to enhanced drug delivery of ibuprofen. The in vitro characterization of the initial and modified nanoemulsions was also studied...
  44. ncbi Antitumor activity of 3-ingenyl angelate: plasma membrane and mitochondrial disruption and necrotic cell death
    Steven M Ogbourne
    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Melanoma Genomics Group, Brisbane, Australia
    Cancer Res 64:2833-9. 2004
    ..PEP005 thus emerges as a new topical anti-skin cancer agent that has a novel mode of action involving plasma membrane and mitochondrial disruption and primary necrosis, ultimately resulting in an excellent cosmetic outcome...
  45. ncbi Sorption behavior of 17 phthalic acid esters on three soils: effects of pH and dissolved organic matter, sorption coefficient measurement and QSPR study
    Fen Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, PR China
    Chemosphere 93:82-9. 2013
    This work studies the sorption behaviors of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on three soils by batch equilibration experiments and quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) methodology...
  46. ncbi Comparison between HPLC and a commercial immunoassay kit for detection of okadaic acid and esters in Portuguese bivalves
    P Vale
    Instituto de Investigação das Pescas e do Mar, Lisbon, Portugal
    Toxicon 37:1565-77. 1999
    ..poisoning (DSP) toxins in Portuguese shellfish, has detected okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and esters of both of these...
  47. pmc Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography
    Ken ichi Ichihara
    Biological Chemistry Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, Shimogamo, Kyoto 606 8522, Japan
    J Lipid Res 51:635-40. 2010
    ..HCl; 35%, w/w) as an acid catalyst was developed for preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from sterol esters, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and FFAs for gas-liquid chromatography (GC)...
  48. ncbi Alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids with improved antioxidant activity and lipophilicity protect PC12 cells against oxidative stress
    Jorge Garrido
    CIQ Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169 007 Porto, Portugal
    Biochimie 94:961-7. 2012
    ..their cellular absorption and expansion of their use in lipophilic media, methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of caffeic acid and ferulic acid have been synthesized. All caffeate esters had a slightly lower DPPH IC(50) (13...
  49. pmc Hyaluronan esters drive Smad gene expression and signaling enhancing cardiogenesis in mouse embryonic and human mesenchymal stem cells
    Margherita Maioli
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e15151. 2010
    ..We have recently developed hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acids (HBR), turning cardiovascular stem cell fate into a high-yield process...
  50. ncbi Fumaric acid esters
    Martin Rostami Yazdi
    Psoriasis Center at the Department of Dermatology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    Clin Dermatol 26:522-6. 2008
    Several clinical studies have shown that systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters (FAEs) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is effective and has a good long-term safety profile...
  51. pdf Production and biological function of volatile esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Sofie M G Saerens
    Centre for Food and Microbial Technology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, B 3001 Leuven Heverlee, Belgium
    Microb Biotechnol 3:165-77. 2010
    The need to understand and control ester synthesis is driven by the fact that esters play a key role in the sensorial quality of fermented alcoholic beverages like beer, wine and sake...
  52. ncbi Rhodium-catalyzed selective olefination of arene esters via C-H bond activation
    Sae Hume Park
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Level Interface Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305 701, Korea
    Org Lett 13:2372-5. 2011
    ..The reaction is highly regioselective with a range of benzoates and benzaldehydes enabling the efficient olefination with acrylates, acrylic acid, and styrenes...
  53. ncbi Stereocomplementary bioreduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated dicarboxylic acids and dimethyl esters using enoate reductases: enzyme- and substrate-based stereocontrol
    Clemens Stueckler
    Department of Chemistry, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, 8010 Graz, Austria
    Org Lett 9:5409-11. 2007
    ..acids, such as 2-methylmaleic/fumaric and 2-methylenesuccinic acid, as well as the corresponding dimethyl esters, using three cloned enoate reductases furnished 2-methylsuccinic acid or dimethyl 2-methylsuccinate, respectively...
  54. ncbi Activation of the plant mitochondrial potassium channel by free fatty acids and acyl-CoA esters: a possible defence mechanism in the response to hyperosmotic stress
    Maura N Laus
    Dipartimento di Scienze Agro ambientali, Chimica e Difesa Vegetale, Facolta di Agraria, Universita degli Studi di Foggia, Via Napoli, 25 71122 Foggia, Italy
    J Exp Bot 62:141-54. 2011
    The effect of free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoA esters on K(+) uptake was studied in mitochondria isolated from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf...
  55. ncbi In heavy drinkers, fatty acid ethyl esters remain elevated for up to 99 hours
    K Borucki
    Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Magdeburg University Hospital, Germany
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:423-7. 2007
    ..The esters of ethanol with free fatty acids (FAEEs) are candidate markers of this kind...
  56. ncbi Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film
    Jun Wang
    Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
    Environ Pollut 180:265-73. 2013
    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
  57. ncbi Synthesis, storage and degradation of neutral lipids in yeast
    Tibor Czabany
    Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12 2, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1771:299-309. 2007
    ..report about pathways and enzymes contributing to formation and degradation of triacylglycerols and steryl esters, and describe storage of these components in lipid particles...
  58. ncbi Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in vegetables from nine farms of the Pearl River Delta, South China
    Ce Hui Mo
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:181-9. 2009
    This study investigated the occurrence of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 11 vegetable species collected from nine farms of the Pearl River Delta, South China...
  59. ncbi GC/MS determination of fatty acid picolinyl esters by direct curie-point pyrolysis of whole bacterial cells
    Slawomir Kurkiewicz
    Department of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biopharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
    J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 14:58-62. 2003
    A single-step method suitable for cellular fatty acid derivatization to picolinyl esters with the use of a pyrolyzer as a thermochemical micro-reactor was developed for whole bacterial cells...
  60. ncbi A substrate-driven approach to determine reactivities of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic esters towards asymmetric bioreduction
    Gábor Tasnádi
    ACIB GmbH c o, Biocatalytic Synthesis, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, 8010 Graz, Austria
    Chemistry 18:10362-7. 2012
    The degree of C=C bond activation in the asymmetric bioreduction of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic esters by ene-reductases was studied, and general recommendations to render these "borderline-substrates" more reactive towards enzymatic ..
  61. ncbi Process optimization for biodiesel production from mahua (Madhuca indica) oil using response surface methodology
    Shashikant Vilas Ghadge
    Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India
    Bioresour Technol 97:379-84. 2006
    ..7% w/v KOH as an alkaline catalyst to produce biodiesel. The fuel properties of mahua biodiesel so obtained complied the requirements of both the American and European standards for biodiesel...
  62. ncbi Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters
    J Neubronner
    Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz Universitat Hannover, Am Kleinen Felde 30, Hannover, Germany
    Eur J Clin Nutr 65:247-54. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the response of the omega-3 index, the percentage of EPA+DHA in red blood cell membranes, to supplementation with two different omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) formulations in humans...
  63. ncbi Fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase from Euglena gracilis in the biosynthesis of medium-chain wax esters
    Prapapan Teerawanichpan
    Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8, Canada
    Lipids 45:263-73. 2010
    Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate, can accumulate a large amount of medium-chain wax esters under anaerobic growth conditions...
  64. pmc Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters
    Shuangxia Jin
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 2364, USA
    Plant Physiol 155:222-35. 2011
    ..more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants...
  65. ncbi Correlation for the estimation of the density of fatty acid esters fuels and its implications. A proposed Biodiesel Cetane Index
    Magín Lapuerta
    Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla La Mancha, Edificio Politecnico, Avda Camilo Jose Cela, s n 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
    Chem Phys Lipids 163:720-7. 2010
    Biodiesel fuels (methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetables oils and animal fats) are currently being used as a means to diminish the crude oil dependency and to limit the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector...
  66. ncbi Novel patch-based systems for the localised delivery of ALA-esters
    Desmond I J Morrow
    School of Pharmacy, Queen s University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
    J Photochem Photobiol B 101:59-69. 2010
    ..In addition, owing to the relatively low loadings of h-ALA required in PSA patches, the costs of clinical PDT may potentially be reduced...
  67. ncbi Cuticular wax biosynthesis in petunia petals: cloning and characterization of an alcohol-acyltransferase that synthesizes wax-esters
    Andrew King
    Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 N Warson Road, St Louis, MO 63132, USA
    Planta 226:381-94. 2007
    ..One component of the cuticular wax is the alkyl esters, which typically contain a VLCFA esterified to an alcohol of a similar length...
  68. ncbi Characterization of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol esters in the Chinese surf clam, Mactra chinensis
    Takashi Maoka
    Research Institute for Production Development, 15 Shimogamo Morimoto Cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 0805, Japan
    J Agric Food Chem 55:1563-7. 2007
    Fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol fatty acid esters in the clam, Mactra chinensis, were characterized on the basis of 1H NMR and FAB-MS spectra. 1H NMR revealed that the hydroxy group at C-3 in fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol was acylated...
  69. pmc Exploring indirect sources of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs): evaluating uptake, elimination, and biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in the rat
    Jessica C D'eon
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Environ Health Perspect 119:344-50. 2011
    ..Biotransformation of the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) is a possible source of PFCA exposure, because PAPs are used in food-contact paper packaging and have been ..
  70. ncbi Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification of methyl esters of C(16)-C(28) polyunsaturated fatty acids in microalgae, including octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)]
    Maged P Mansour
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Castray Esplanade Battery Point, G P O Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
    J Chromatogr A 1097:54-8. 2005
    ..was used to purify milligram quantities of microalgal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), separated as methyl esters (ME)...
  71. pmc ABCA12 maintains the epidermal lipid permeability barrier by facilitating formation of ceramide linoleic esters
    Ying Zuo
    Lipid Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:36624-35. 2008
    ..This was associated with a profound reduction in skin linoleic esters of long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides and a corresponding increase in their glucosyl ceramide precursors...
  72. pmc Antimicrobial activity of n-6, n-7 and n-9 fatty acids and their esters for oral microorganisms
    Chifu B Huang
    Center for Oral Health Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 40503, United States
    Arch Oral Biol 55:555-60. 2010
    ..This study is to assess the antibacterial activity of omega-6, -7, -9 (n-6, n-7, n-9) fatty acids against various oral microorganisms...
  73. ncbi A novel Aspergillus oryzae esterase that hydrolyzes 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters
    Takuya Koseki
    Department of Bioresource Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, Tsuruoka, Japan
    FEBS Lett 584:4032-6. 2010
    ..The purified recombinant protein showed a hydrolytic activity toward the ethyl, propyl, or butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, but did not show feruloyl esterase or tannase activity...
  74. ncbi Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and in-source fragmentation of lutein esters
    Qingguo Tian
    Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, 110 Parker Food Science and Technology Building, 2015 Fyffe Road, Columbus, OH 43210 1007, USA
    J Mass Spectrom 38:990-5. 2003
    ..and in-source collisionally induced dissociation (CID) were employed to obtain structural information of lutein esters from marigold extract...
  75. ncbi Rpe65 is necessary for production of 11-cis-vitamin A in the retinal visual cycle
    T M Redmond
    Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Genet 20:344-51. 1998
    ..Rpe65-/- mice lack rhodopsin, but not opsin apoprotein. Furthermore, all-trans-retinyl esters over-accumulate in the RPE of Rpe65-/- mice, whereas 11-cis-retinyl esters are absent...
  76. ncbi Mechanism of toxicity of esters of caffeic and dihydrocaffeic acids
    B Etzenhouser
    Chemistry Department, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 9:199-209. 2001
    Ten esters each of caffeic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid have recently been synthesized...
  77. ncbi An improved method for rapidly quantifying fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium suitable for prenatal alcohol screening
    Janine R Hutson
    Motherisk Laboratory, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Alcohol 45:193-9. 2011
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, and elevated levels of FAEE in meconium are a useful biomarker for heavy prenatal alcohol exposure...
  78. ncbi The lipid droplet enzyme Tgl1p hydrolyzes both steryl esters and triglycerides in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Anita Jandrositz
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, SFB Biomembrane Research Center, University of Graz, Schubertstr 1, A8010 Graz, Austria
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1735:50-8. 2005
    ..Tgl1p localized exclusively to lipid droplets which are the intracellular storage compartment of steryl esters and triacylglycerols in the yeast S. cerevisiae...
  79. ncbi Phenolic acid derivatives with potential anticancer properties--a structure-activity relationship study. Part 1: methyl, propyl and octyl esters of caffeic and gallic acids
    S M Fiuza
    Research Unit Molecular Physical Chemistry, Coimbra University, Portugal
    Bioorg Med Chem 12:3581-9. 2004
    ..This study was conducted for the following esters: methyl caffeate (MC, 1), propyl caffeate (PC, 2), octyl caffeate (OC, 3), methyl gallate (MG, 4), propyl gallate (..
  80. ncbi First confirmation of human diarrhoeic poisonings by okadaic acid esters after ingestion of razor clams (Solen marginatus) and green crabs (Carcinus maenas) in Aveiro lagoon, Portugal and detection of okadaic acid esters in phytoplankton
    Paulo Vale
    Instituto de Investigação das Pescas e do Mar, Av Brasilia, 1449 006 Lisboa, Portugal
    Toxicon 40:989-96. 2002
    A new outbreak of human diarrhoeic poisonings (DSP) with esters of okadaic acid (OA) was confirmed after ingestion of razor clams (Solen marginatus) harvested at Aveiro lagoon (NW Portugal) in the summer of 2001...
  81. pmc HPLC/UV quantitation of retinal, retinol, and retinyl esters in serum and tissues
    MAUREEN A KANE
    Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Anal Biochem 378:71-9. 2008
    We report robust HPLC/UV methods for quantifying retinyl esters (RE), retinol (ROL), and retinal (RAL) applicable to diverse biological samples with lower limits of detection of 0.7, 0.2, and 0...
  82. ncbi YEH2/YLR020c encodes a novel steryl ester hydrolase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Heidemarie Müllner
    Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
    J Biol Chem 280:13321-8. 2005
    ..However, in strains bearing hybrid proteins with strongly enhanced Yeh2p activity decreased levels of all steryl esters were observed...
  83. ncbi Role of carnitine esters in brain neuropathology
    Ashraf Virmani
    Scientific Affairs, Sigma tau HealthScience, Pomezia 00040, Italy
    Mol Aspects Med 25:533-49. 2004
    ..This mitochondrial dysfunction may be ameliorated by L-C and its esters. In addition to its metabolic role, L-C and its esters such as acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) poses unique ..
  84. pmc Assessing human exposure to phthalates using monoesters and their oxidized metabolites as biomarkers
    Dana B Barr
    Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 111:1148-51. 2003
    ....
  85. ncbi Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks
    Philippa D Darbre
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Appl Toxicol 28:561-78. 2008
    ..update reviews research over the past four years since publication in 2004 of the first measurement of intact esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast cancer tissues, and the suggestion that their presence in the ..
  86. ncbi Cytotoxicity of phenylpropanoid esters from the stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis
    Pei Lin Wu
    Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC
    Bioorg Med Chem 12:2193-7. 2004
    ..the stems of the previously uninvestigated Hibiscus taiwanensis led to the isolation of three new phenylpropanoid esters, (7S,8S)-demethylcarolignan E (1), hibiscuwanin A (2), hibiscuwanin B (3), in addition to eight known ones...
  87. ncbi New water-soluble phosphines as reductants of peptide and protein disulfide bonds: reactivity and membrane permeability
    Daniel J Cline
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA
    Biochemistry 43:15195-203. 2004
    ..Mono-, di-, and trimethyl esters exhibit phosphorus pK values of 6.8, 5.8, and 4...
  88. ncbi Reactivity of dimethyl fumarate and methylhydrogen fumarate towards glutathione and N-acetyl-L-cysteine--preparation of S-substituted thiosuccinic acid esters
    Thomas J Schmidt
    Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie und Phytochemie IPBP, Hittorfstrasse 56, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Bioorg Med Chem 15:333-42. 2007
    ..addition proceeds rapidly to yield a 1:1 mixture of both diastereomeric 2-(S-glutathionyl)-succinic acid dimethyl esters. MHF under identical conditions was shown to react with GSH as well leading to a mixture of four products (2 ..
  89. ncbi Safety of long-term consumption of plant sterol esters-enriched spread
    H F J Hendriks
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Department of Nutritional Physiology, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Nutr 57:681-92. 2003
    To evaluate both efficacy and safety in humans of long-term consumption of spreads containing plant sterol esters.
  90. ncbi Fumaric acid dialkyl esters deprive cultured rat oligodendroglial cells of glutathione and upregulate the expression of heme oxygenase 1
    Anette Thiessen
    Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 475:56-60. 2010
    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are currently tested in clinical studies for their potential to treat multiple sclerosis...
  91. ncbi Retinyl esters are the substrate for isomerohydrolase
    Gennadiy Moiseyev
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Biochemistry 42:2229-38. 2003
    ..involved in this isomerization process has not been identified and both all-trans retinol and all-trans retinyl esters have been proposed as the substrate...
  92. ncbi Papain-catalyzed peptide bond formation: enzyme-specific activation with guanidinophenyl esters
    Roseri J A C de Beer
    Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Chembiochem 12:2201-7. 2011
    ..To provide insight in the binding mode of various Z-X(AA)-OGp esters, computational docking studies were performed...
  93. ncbi TRPA1 is activated by direct addition of cysteine residues to the N-hydroxysuccinyl esters of acrylic and cinnamic acids
    Laura R Sadofsky
    Cardiovascular and Respiratory Studies, The University of Hull, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, Hull HU16 5JQ, UK
    Pharmacol Res 63:30-6. 2011
    ....
  94. ncbi Synthesis of alkyl esters by cutinase in miniemulsion and organic solvent media
    Dragana P C de Barros
    Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centre for Biological and Chemical Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal
    Biotechnol J 4:674-83. 2009
    ..miniemulsion system) on the synthesis of alkyl esters catalyzed by Fusarium solani pisi cutinase...
  95. pmc Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria
    Soichi Furukawa
    Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kameino, Fujisawa shi, Japan
    Int J Food Microbiol 138:176-80. 2010
    ..effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity...
  96. ncbi Enzymatic removal of carboxyl protecting groups. III. Fast removal of allyl and chloroethyl esters by Bacillus subtilis esterase (BS2)
    Irene Fotakopoulou
    Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15771, Greece
    J Org Chem 72:782-6. 2007
    ..from Bacillus subtilis (BS2) allows the fast and selective removal of allyl, 2-chloroethyl, and 2,2,2-chloroethyl esters under mild conditions in high yields...
  97. ncbi Determination of astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis by LC-(APCI)MS and characterization of predominant carotenoid isomers by NMR spectroscopy
    Karsten Holtin
    Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076, Tubingen, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 395:1613-22. 2009
    ..The all-trans as well as the 9- and 13-cis isomers of astaxanthin were characterized in detail by UV/Vis, (1)H, and (1)H,(1)H COSY NMR spectroscopy...
  98. ncbi Gene cloning and molecular characterization of the Talaromyces thermophilus lipase catalyzed efficient hydrolysis and synthesis of esters
    Ines Belhaj Ben Romdhane
    Laboratoire de Valorisation de la Biomasse et Production des Protéines chez les Eucaryotes Centre de Biotechnologies de Sfax, University of Sfax, Tunisia
    Gene 494:112-8. 2012
    ..Compared to the Lipolase®, this enzyme was found to be more efficient for the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters; and its synthetic efficiency even reached 91.6% from Waste Cooking Oil triglycerides.
  99. ncbi Chemoselective chemical and electrochemical deprotections of aromatic esters
    Kevin Lam
    Departement de Chimie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place Louis Pasteur, 1 B 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium
    Org Lett 11:2752-5. 2009
    Alcohols can be easily and chemoselectively deprotected from the corresponding aromatic esters by using either SmI(2)/HMPA or by electrolysis in the presence of a proton source.
  100. ncbi Biomimetic aminoacylation of ribonucleotides and RNA with aminoacyl phosphate esters and lanthanum salts
    Svetlana Tzvetkova
    Davenport Chemical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON Canada M5S 3H6
    J Am Chem Soc 129:15848-54. 2007
    ..We have now established that aminoacyl phosphate esters in the presence of lanthanide ions in water will acylate hydroxyls at the 3'-terminus of RNA or a simple ..
  101. ncbi Propolis specimens from different locations of central Italy: chemical profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) quantitative analysis of the allergenic esters benzyl cinnamate and benzyl salicylate
    Andrea Aliboni
    Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome, Italy
    J Agric Food Chem 59:282-8. 2011
    ..chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of two allergenic esters in propolis specimens, benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate, and test it on specimens from different locations ..

Research Grants72

  1. Retinoid Metabolism and Alcohol Induced Disease
    William S Blaner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..LpL catalyzes the hydrolysis of retinyl esters and its expression is elevated over 30-fold in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the cellular site of ..
  2. Lipid Droplet Metabolism
    Fredric B Kraemer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, LDs that are primarily composed of cholesteryl esters (CEs) are prominently found in adrenals and ovaries under physiological conditions and in macrophage foam cells in ..
  3. Role of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 in TLR5 KO mice colitis and metabolic syndrome
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These MUFA serve as precursors for the synthesis of hepatic lipids (triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol esters (CE) and thus play a role in the development of hepatic steatosis...
  4. Mechanism(s) of Alcoholic Pancreatitis
    Bhupendra S Kaphalia; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Role of ethanol metabolites, acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative lipid metabolites) in the initiation and progression of pancreatitis" is one of the focus ..
  5. MECHANISMS OF MILK LIPID SECRETION
    JAMES LEWIS MCMANAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..depots for triglycerides in liver, adipose and muscle cells;and the source of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in serum lipoprotein particles secreted by the liver, and milk fat globules secreted by mammary epithelial cells...
  6. Lipid glyceryl ester homeostasis in macrophages and perturbation by environmental
    Matthew K Ross; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition to this complexity, 2AG can be oxygenated by cyclooxygenases to yield prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs), which can elicit pro-inflammatory activities...
  7. Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Multidrug Resistance by MAP Kinases
    Scott T Eblen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in human ascites and in cell lines in response to chemotherapeutic drugs, oxidative stress, phorbol esters and UV irradiation...
  8. PKC/PKA Regulation in Prostate Cancer by SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12
    Irwin H Gelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of protein kinase (PK) C has been considered cancer-promoting based on early data showing that phorbol esters could induce oncogenes is through the activation of so called classic and novel PKC isozymes...
  9. Longitudinal Study of Lipids and APOE in the Development of AD and AD Pathology
    Michelle M Mielke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..data, suggest that early alterations in peripheral lipids (sphingolipids, fatty acids, cholesterol and cholesterol esters) reflect brain functioning and pathology, and may interact with ApoE genotype in the development of AD ..
  10. Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndromes with Recombinant LCAT Infusion
    BRIAN ROBERT KRAUSE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..injection of rhLCAT in three relevant mouse models increased HDL cholesterol (principally LCAT-derived cholesteryl esters) and size...
  11. Role of ABCG1 in lipid homeostasis, inflammation and innate immunity
    ELIZABETH JOANNA TARLING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..subsequent progression to atherosclerotic lesions is associated with accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol esters within the intima of the artery wall...
  12. Regulation of Adrenal Vascular Tone by Steroidogenic Cells
    WILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ABF delivers oxygen, nutrients, cholesterol esters and AII to ZG cells and carries aldosterone to its target tissues...
  13. C/EBP beta SIGNALS HEPATOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND SURVIVAL
    Mario Chojkier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have found that transforming growth factor (TGF)-c_ and phorbol esters/protein kinaseC (PKC)-o_ mediate their effects on hepatocyte proliferation, through the activation of ribosomal S6-..
  14. Targeting Nanoparticle DNA Delivery to Prostate Tumors
    Janet A Sawicki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3. Determine how effectively selected modifications poly([unreadable]-amino esters) (scFvs, tumor-targeting peptides, pegylation) or complexation of DNA/poly([unreadable]-amino ester)-nanoparticles ..
  15. Phthalate Exposure and Pregnancy Outcome
    T Peter Stein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Human exposure to phthalates is ubiquitous. Esters of phthalic acid are widely used as plasticizers for many types of plastic ranging from polyvinyl chloride to food wraps, toys and building products...
  16. ROLE AND REGULATION OF PROTEIN KINASE C ISOENZYMES
    Yusuf Awni Hannun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sustained activation of PKC (30-60 min) in response to ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors (and phorbol esters), and it requires continuous activation of PKC as well as PLD (unlike the acute translocation of PKC to the PM)...
  17. Chimaerins-receptors for diacylgly and phorbal esters
    MARCELO GABRIEL KAZANIETZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..kinase C (PKC) family, considered until not so long ago the only intracellular receptors for DAG and phorbol esters. 2-chimaerin possesses 3 well-defined regions: a N-terminal SH2 domain of unknown function (present only in a2- ..
  18. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are condensation reactions between electron-rich nucleophilic acceptors and electrophilic allylic diphosphate esters. The prenyltransferases that catalyze these reactions belong to a large structurally diverse family of enzymes ..
  19. Regulation of the Poly Sialic Virulence Factor
    ERIC ROSS VIMR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This aim focuses on the enzymes involved in the reciprocal addition (NeuD) or subtraction (NeuA*) of O- acetyl esters to or from monomeric sialic acids prior to their incorporation into polysialic acid...
  20. A Simple Cellular Model for Lipodystrophy
    Joel M Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Storage of triacylglycerol (TAG) and steryl esters, the main components of stored fat, not only provides energy in times of caloric deprivation;it also protects the ..
  21. The Effects of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters on the Developing Lung
    SOWMYA S MOHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Ongoing studies now show that Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), non-oxidative by- products of alcohol metabolism, detected in meconium and hair samples are useful ..
  22. Utility of Phosphatidylethanol for Identification of Fetal Alcohol Exposure
    LUDMILA NICOLE BAKHIREVA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..e., urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate) and the fetus (i.e., meconium fatty acid ethyl esters). To our knowledge this is the first study to examine validity of PEth in pregnant women and their offspring...
  23. RNA Dynamics of Transient Macromolecular Complexes in Cancer Cells
    Jack D Keene; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..treatment of embryonic carcinoma cells with retinoic acid or leukemia-derived immune T cells with phorbol esters plus mitogens...
  24. Very Late Antigen Integrin Activity on T Cells
    Yoji Shimizu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..TCR-mediated integrin activation can be mimicked by phorbol esters such as PMA, implicating effectors downstream of protein kinase C (PKC) in this process...
  25. Inhibition in the progression of preinvasive lung cancer by pomegranate.
    Naghma Khan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and several hydrolysable tannins (such as punicalin, pedunculagin, punicalagin, gallagic and ellagic acid esters of glucose)...
  26. Multiplex Fluorescent Zdyes for Differential Glycomic Detection
    EDWARD DRATZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aims: (1) We will use ortho hydroxymethyl-substituted arylboronic acids to form covalent boronate esters with 1,2-cis diols or 1,3-diols, which are present on all carbohydrates...
  27. Functional Analysis of ACAT
    Ta Yuan Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cholesterol metabolism, ACAT utilizes cholesterol and long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A to produce cholesteryl esters, and is allosterically activated by its own substrate, cholesterol, to guard against excess buildup of cholesterol ..
  28. Lipid storage and mobilization in M. tuberculosis as antilatency drugs targets
    PAPPACHAN KOLATTUKUDY KOLATTUKUDY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We postulate that Mtb stores energy as triacylglycerol (TG) and wax esters (WE) to successfully go through latency...
  29. Retinoids and Hyperoxic Lung Injury
    Masheika L James; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..also shown that [unreadable]VARA[unreadable], a combination of VA and retinoic acid (RA), increases lung retinyl esters more than equimolar amounts of VA or RA alone...
  30. Lipidomic profile of endocannabinoids from neuronal cells
    VINCENT JO DAVISSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The endogenous cannabinoids are a family of lipid signaling molecules that are typically amides or esters derived from long-chain fatty acids...
  31. Molecular Regulation of LRAT and CYP26 in Lung and Liver
    A Catharine Ross; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diet-derived vitamin A (retinol) is first stored in tissues as retinyl esters (RE), which, through hydrolysis and controlled oxidative metabolism generate bioactive retinoids, including retinoic acid (..
  32. Targeting the Foam Cell to Prevent Atherosclerosis
    ANTONIO PAUL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uptake of modified low- density lipoproteins (mLDL) and accumulation of their lipids, mostly cholesterol (CHOL) esters (CE), in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs)...
  33. ADENOSINE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..A23187 (a Ca2+ ionophore) and phorbol esters (activators of protein kinase C) both mimicked activation of these enzymes via the A3AR...
  34. TERPENE CONDENSATION REACTIONS
    CHARLES DALE POULTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..double bonds, aromatic rings, amino groups, hydroxyl groups, and thiol groups by allylic isoprenoid diphosphate esters. These are major building and modification reactions required for the synthesis of over 55,000 naturally occurring ..
  35. Hepatic Cholesteryl Ester Metabolism and Cholesterol Elimination
    Shobha Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transported in the blood stream associated with the lipoproteins, cholesterol is mainly present as cholesteryl esters (CE)...
  36. Cholesterol Ester Hydrolysis and Cholesterol Efflux
    Shobha Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, in order for efflux to occur, FC must first be released from stored cholesteryl esters (CE) by hydrolysis mediated by neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) and this step is increasingly being ..
  37. DIFFERENTIATING AGENTS IN HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES
    Donald W Kufe; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our initial studies with phorbol esters and other activators of protein kinase C (PKC) demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ..
  38. Regulation of tumor promotion by RasGRP1
    JOE WILLIAM RAMOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..carcinogenesis model, Ras is activated by mutations induced by a carcinogen, and subsequent treatment with phorbol esters induces tumor promotion...
  39. Methods to enable cholesterol catabolism in human monocyte derived macrophages
    Richard E Honkanen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If macrophages had the ability to degrade cholesterol, they would not become engorged with cholesterol/cholesterol esters and elicit the maladaptive immune response that leads to the onset and progression of atherosclerosis...
  40. Lipid Effector Molecules of Innate Immunity: Antimicrobial Cholesteryl Esters
    Edith Porter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have further identified, for the first time, cholesteryl esters (CE's) as antimicrobial effector molecules...
  41. Interaction of Vitamin D &Vitamin A with Lung Cancer Risk in Non-Smoking Females
    Marian L Neuhouser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The excess circulating vitamin A is defined as serum retinyl esters e7 [unreadable]g/mL and the ratio of retinyl esters to retinol e0.08...
  42. The role of hepatic insulin resistance on SR-BI dependant HDL cholesterol uptake
    DENEYS REM VAN DER WESTHUYZEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SR-BI is the major hepatic HDL receptor and mediates the selective uptake of HDL cholesterol esters (HDL-CE)...
  43. The Role of Ubiquitin in Sodium Chloride Co-Transporter Regulation
    BENJAMIN S KO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of WNK4 (a kinase associated with a form of genetic hypertension called Gordon's Syndrome) and phorbol esters (chemical analogs of diacylglycerol, a common pathway for hormonal stimulation) but the mechanism by which NCC ..
  44. Role of SR-BI in LPS detoxification
    Xiang An Li; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..BI (SR-BI) is an HDL receptor that regulates HDL cholesterol levels by mediating the delivery of HDL cholesterol esters to the liver...
  45. Regulation of the Poly Sialic Virulence Factor
    Eric Vimr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This aim focuses on the enzymes involved in the reciprocal addition (NeuD) or subtraction (NeuA*) of O- acetyl esters to or from monomeric sialic acids prior to their incorporation into polysialic acid...
  46. Modeling Neurodegeneration and Adrenoleukodystrophy in Drosophila
    Anthea Letsou; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..family, it functions to transport very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, 22 or more carbons) via their acyl-CoA esters into peroxisomes where they are degraded by ss-oxidation...
  47. Effects of Acitretin on the activation of latent HIV
    Peilin Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with HIV (Aim1) and to define thein vitro activity of acitretin alone and in combination with HDACi or phorbol esters for inducing vira transcription and clearance of CD4 T cells carrying HIV from HIV patients on suppressive HAART (..
  48. Genetic Variants of Human Carboxylesterase 1 Influence the Activation and Antivir
    John S Markowitz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..hCES1 plays a prominent role in the hydrolysis of numerous structurally diverse carboxylic acid esters, carbamates, thioesters, and amide compounds...
  49. Zebrafish models of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis
    Yury Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..common classes of oxidation-specific epitopes: malondialdehide, oxidized phospholipids and oxidized cholesteryl esters. In one approach, we will inject i.v...
  50. OXYSTEROL BIOMARKERS FOR NIEMANN-PICK C DISEASE
    Jean E Schaffer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..24(S)-HC, which is synthesized almost exclusively in large neurons in the CNS, and CSF cholesteryl esters (CE) offer potential quantitative, non-invasive metrics to guide dosing and to monitor drug response...
  51. CTGF in Pancreatic Stellate Cell-Mediated Fibrogenesis
    David R Brigstock; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..on the production of CTGF in PSC;these studies will assess the effect of ethanol, acetaldehyde or fatty acid ethyl esters on CTGF production, the involvement of oxidant stress and TGF-beta, and the role of CTGF in autocrine regulation ..
  52. Cholesterol Metabolism Related Protein Structure and Function by Electron Microsc
    Gang Ren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs), between high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very ..
  53. Enzymatic formation of the hydrocarbon skeletons underlying diterpenoid diversity
    REUBEN JOHN PETERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., the protein kinase C activating and tumor promoting phorbol esters, and adenylate cyclase activator forskolin)...
  54. Sulfatase Activated Fluorescent Probes for In Vivo Diagnostic Imaging of Cancer
    KIMBERLY ELIZABETH BEATTY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Sulfatase enzymes, which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate esters, alter many substrates which have key functions in development, signaling, degradation, pathogenesis, and disease...
  55. AMELIORATION OF SEPSIS BY MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION
    David L Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SRA) is best known for its role in the uptake of modified low density lipoprotein, accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages and its role in atherogenesis...
  56. Targeting the cholesterol metabolism to treat glioblastoma
    Deliang Guo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data shows that cholesteryl esters and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) are both highly elevated in GBM cell lines and ..
  57. The role of PKD3 in prostate carcinogenesis
    Qiming Jane Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a novel target of the key second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) and its pharmacological analogs, phorbol esters. DAG and phorbol esters directly bind PKD at its C1 domain and activate PKD through phosphorylation via protein ..
  58. Nanospheres as Delivery Vehicles for Psoriasis Therapeutics
    LARISA contact SHEIHET; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A-blocks are poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, and hydrophobic B-blocks are oligomers of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine alkyl esters (DTR) and non- toxic diacids...
  59. Asymmetric Lewis Base Catalysis in Main Group Chemistry
    Scott Eric Denmark; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of enantiomerically enriched ?-aryl, ?-alkenyl, ?-alkynyl, and also potentially ?-aryl substituted ketones and esters. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research proposal aims to develop a fundamentally new class of catalytic reactions ..
  60. Meropenem Prodrugs for XDR-TB
    Rory P Remmel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Three prodrug strategies have been designed 1) Make a non-toxic acyloxycarbonyloxy esters (proxetil, suberolyl prodrugs) 2) Synthesize valeryl or dipeptidyl esters that are taken up by PepT1, an ..
  61. Early Events in Lipoprotein Assembly
    CHRISTOPHER JAMES MCKNIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Soth LDL and VLDL are composed of fats, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids and a single molecule of apolipoprotein S (ApoS)...
  62. The Role of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 in Humans
    Annabelle Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..levels, macrophage SR-BI protein and RNA expression and SR-BI function (as measured by the uptake of cholesteryl esters from radiolabeled HDL)...
  63. SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHATE ESTERS WITH IODINE--III REAGENTS
    GERALD KOSER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..of iodine (III)-phosphate reagents, PhI(OR)OP(O)(OR')2, and their efficacy for the synthesis of phosphate esters via the direct phosphoryloxylation of carbon (as opposed to the phosphorylation of oxygen) will be explored...
  64. Effect of chronic low-dose phthalate exposure on the immature primate testis
    Ina Dobrinski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The objective of this exploratory research project is to study the effects of chronic exposure to phthalate esters on the infant primate testis in a novel xenograft model system...
  65. Stereochemistry of Elimination and Proton Transfer
    JERRY MOHRIG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..It focuses on the stereochemistry of addition and elimination reactions involving n-substituted esters and thioesters of butyric acid and the related aldehydes and ketones...
  66. Islet Protection from Hypoxia Posttransplant
    Klearchos K Papas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Preliminary research in our labs demonstrated that alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and their succinate esters offer remarkable protection to porcine and human islets from HID at 24 hrs...
  67. XENOBIOTICS, INFLAMMATION AND CARCINOGENESIS
    James Lewis; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The association between chemicals, carcinogenesis and inflammation has long been noted. Phorbol esters have been shown to be both the inflammatory agents and the tumor promoting agents in the vesicant croton oil...
  68. ANALOGS OF HPMPA FOR TREATMENT OF SMALLPOX
    Karl Hostetler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Consequently, lipid esters of an adenine analog, (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-(2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-adenine ((S)-HPMPA), were produced...
  69. MULTIFUNCTIONAL PHOSPHONOFORMATE PRODRUGS AGAINST HIV 1
    Andre Rosowsky; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..dideoxynucleosides (ddN's) in which the heterocycle or the sugar is modified; and (2) -novel lipophilic esters of the antiretroviral drug phosphonoformic acid (PFA) in which the carboxylic or phosphonic acid group is linked ..
  70. VITAMIN A TRANSPORT DURING LACTATION
    A Ross; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..rats will receive an intravenous test dose of chylomicrons that have been labeled in vivo with 3H-retinyl esters. Remnant metabolism and uptake into mammary tissue will be measured as a function of time after administration, ..
  71. GENETICS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SKIN TUMOR PROMOTION
    John DiGiovanni; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..designed to further investigate the genetic factors controlling susceptibility to skin tumor promotion by phorbol esters and other classes of tumor promoters in inbred mouse strains...
  72. Retinyl Ester Binding Proteins and the Visual Cycle
    Robert Rando; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..mediated esterification of vitamin A using lecithin as the acyl donor to generate hydrophobic all-trans-retinyl esters followed by the processing of these esters to form 11-cis-retinol by isomerohydrolase...