ethambutol

Summary

Summary: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Evolution of high-level ethambutol-resistant tuberculosis through interacting mutations in decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-arabinose biosynthetic and utilization pathway genes
    Hassan Safi
    1 Division of Infectious Disease, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA 2 Center for Emerging and Re emerging Pathogens, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA 3 Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    Nat Genet 45:1190-7. 2013
  2. ncbi The emb operon, a gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis involved in resistance to ethambutol
    A Telenti
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Bern, Switzerland
    Nat Med 3:567-70. 1997
  3. pmc Moxifloxacin versus ethambutol in the initial treatment of tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial
    Marcus B Conde
    Instituto de Doencas do Torax Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Lancet 373:1183-9. 2009
  4. pmc Detection by GenoType MTBDRsl test of complex mechanisms of resistance to second-line drugs and ethambutol in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates
    Florence Brossier
    National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, AP HP, and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, université Paris 06, Faculté de Médecine Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1683-9. 2010
  5. ncbi Combinatorial lead optimization of [1,2]-diamines based on ethambutol as potential antituberculosis preclinical candidates
    Richard E Lee
    Tuberculosis Research Section, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Comb Chem 5:172-87. 2003
  6. pmc Decreased retinal nerve fibre layer thickness detected by optical coherence tomography in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy
    Samantha J Chai
    Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin NC 205, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:895-7. 2007
  7. pmc The embAB genes of Mycobacterium avium encode an arabinosyl transferase involved in cell wall arabinan biosynthesis that is the target for the antimycobacterial drug ethambutol
    A E Belanger
    Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:11919-24. 1996
  8. pmc Transfer of embB codon 306 mutations into clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains alters susceptibility to ethambutol, isoniazid, and rifampin
    Hassan Safi
    Division of Infectious Disease and Center for Emerging Pathogens, Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2027-34. 2008
  9. ncbi Efficacy of a 6-month versus 9-month intermittent treatment regimen in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis: a randomized clinical trial
    Soumya Swaminathan
    Tuberculosis Research Center, Indian Council of Medical Research, Chetput, Chennai, India
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181:743-51. 2010
  10. pmc Significance of mutations in embB codon 306 for prediction of ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates
    Claudia Plinke
    Forschungszentrum Borstel, National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Parkallee 18, D 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1900-2. 2006

Detail Information

Publications241 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Evolution of high-level ethambutol-resistant tuberculosis through interacting mutations in decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-arabinose biosynthetic and utilization pathway genes
    Hassan Safi
    1 Division of Infectious Disease, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA 2 Center for Emerging and Re emerging Pathogens, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA 3 Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    Nat Genet 45:1190-7. 2013
    ..we genetically and biochemically characterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains selected in vitro for ethambutol resistance...
  2. ncbi The emb operon, a gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis involved in resistance to ethambutol
    A Telenti
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Bern, Switzerland
    Nat Med 3:567-70. 1997
    b>Ethambutol (EMB), a frontline antituberculous drug, targets the mycobacterial cell wall, a unique structure among prokaryotes which consists of an outer layer of mycolic acids covalently bound to peptidoglycan via the arabinogalactan...
  3. pmc Moxifloxacin versus ethambutol in the initial treatment of tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial
    Marcus B Conde
    Instituto de Doencas do Torax Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Lancet 373:1183-9. 2009
    ..The fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin is a promising new agent that might have additive activity to existing antituberculosis agents. We assessed the activity and safety of moxifloxacin in the initial stage of tuberculosis treatment...
  4. pmc Detection by GenoType MTBDRsl test of complex mechanisms of resistance to second-line drugs and ethambutol in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates
    Florence Brossier
    National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, AP HP, and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, université Paris 06, Faculté de Médecine Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1683-9. 2010
    The GenoType MTBDRsl test rapidly detects resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, and second-line aminoglycosides (amikacin and kanamycin) and cyclic peptide (capreomycin) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  5. ncbi Combinatorial lead optimization of [1,2]-diamines based on ethambutol as potential antituberculosis preclinical candidates
    Richard E Lee
    Tuberculosis Research Section, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Comb Chem 5:172-87. 2003
    Despite relatively modest potency, ethambutol (EMB, (S,S)-[N,N-di-2-amino-1-butanol]ethylenediamine) is a mainstay of contemporary chemotherapy for the treatment of tuberculosis...
  6. pmc Decreased retinal nerve fibre layer thickness detected by optical coherence tomography in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy
    Samantha J Chai
    Department of Ophthalmology, Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin NC 205, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:895-7. 2007
    It is difficult to assess the degree of optic nerve damage in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy, especially just after the onset of visual loss, when the optic disc typically looks normal.
  7. pmc The embAB genes of Mycobacterium avium encode an arabinosyl transferase involved in cell wall arabinan biosynthesis that is the target for the antimycobacterial drug ethambutol
    A E Belanger
    Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:11919-24. 1996
    The antimycobacterial compound ethambutol [Emb; dextro-2,2'-(ethylenediimino)-di-1-butanol] is used to treat tuberculosis as well as disseminated infections caused by Mycobacterium avium...
  8. pmc Transfer of embB codon 306 mutations into clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains alters susceptibility to ethambutol, isoniazid, and rifampin
    Hassan Safi
    Division of Infectious Disease and Center for Emerging Pathogens, Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2027-34. 2008
    Implicated as a major mechanism of ethambutol (EMB) resistance in clinical studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mutations in codon 306 of the embB gene (embB306) have also been detected in EMB-susceptible clinical isolates...
  9. ncbi Efficacy of a 6-month versus 9-month intermittent treatment regimen in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis: a randomized clinical trial
    Soumya Swaminathan
    Tuberculosis Research Center, Indian Council of Medical Research, Chetput, Chennai, India
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181:743-51. 2010
    ..The outcome of fully intermittent thrice-weekly antituberculosis treatment of various durations in HIV-associated tuberculosis is unclear...
  10. pmc Significance of mutations in embB codon 306 for prediction of ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates
    Claudia Plinke
    Forschungszentrum Borstel, National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Parkallee 18, D 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1900-2. 2006
    We analyzed 159 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (101 ethambutol [EMB]-resistant strains, 33 multidrug-resistant but not EMB-resistant strains, and 25 fully susceptible strains) for the presence of mutations in embB codon 306 (embB306)...
  11. ncbi Moxifloxacin versus ethambutol in the first 2 months of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis
    William J Burman
    Denver Public Health and the Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:331-8. 2006
    ..Moxifloxacin has promising preclinical activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but has not been evaluated in multidrug treatment of tuberculosis in humans...
  12. pmc Molecular genetic analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ethambutol resistance in human isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    S V Ramaswamy
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:326-36. 2000
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a central component of drug regimens used worldwide for the treatment of tuberculosis...
  13. ncbi Frequency of embB codon 306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible and -resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kuwait
    S Ahmad
    Department of Microbiology, Kuwait University, P O Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 87:123-9. 2007
    Recent reports of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-resistant and ethambutol-susceptible drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have questioned the significance of these mutations in conferring resistance to ethambutol (EMB).
  14. pmc Transcriptional control of the mycobacterial embCAB operon by PknH through a regulatory protein, EmbR, in vivo
    Kirti Sharma
    Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110 007, India
    J Bacteriol 188:2936-44. 2006
    ..The PknH-mediated increase in the transcription of embAB genes significantly alters resistance to ethambutol, a frontline antituberculosis drug known to target embAB genes...
  15. pmc Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China
    Guang Xue He
    National Center for TB control and prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Beijing, PR China
    BMC Infect Dis 8:166. 2008
    ..The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance...
  16. ncbi Comparison of a four-drug fixed-dose combination regimen with a single tablet regimen in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis
    A Bartacek
    Sandoz GmbH, Kundl, Austria
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:760-6. 2009
    ..the efficacy, safety and acceptability of two short-course regimens of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (HRZE) given either as fixed-dose combination (4-FDC) tablets or as single tablets (ST) in patients with newly ..
  17. ncbi Impact of iron loading on the activity of isoniazid or ethambutol in the treatment of murine tuberculosis
    N Lounis
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 7:575-9. 2003
    To assess the impact of iron loading on the activity of isoniazid and ethambutol in the treatment of murine tuberculosis.
  18. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis embB codon 306 mutations confer moderately increased resistance to ethambutol in vitro and in vivo
    Claudia Plinke
    Molecular Mycobacteriology Group, National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Parkallee 1 40, 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2891-6. 2011
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a major component of the first-line therapy of tuberculosis. Mutations in codon 306 of embB (embB306) were suggested as a major resistance mechanism in clinical isolates...
  19. ncbi Ethambutol, a cell wall inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, elicits L-glutamate efflux of Corynebacterium glutamicum
    Eva Radmacher
    Institute for Biotechnology, Research Centre Julich, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    Microbiology 151:1359-68. 2005
    ..This study shows that addition of ethambutol (EMB) to growing cultures of C...
  20. ncbi GenoType MTBDRsl performance on clinical samples with diverse genetic background
    Paolo Miotto
    Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy
    Eur Respir J 40:690-8. 2012
    ..of the MTBDRsl in detecting resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQ), second-line injectable drugs (SLID), and ethambutol (EMB) on clinical isolates were similar (specificity ∼ 99%, sensitivity ∼ 70%, and positive predictive value ..
  21. ncbi The Mycobacterium tuberculosis iniA gene is essential for activity of an efflux pump that confers drug tolerance to both isoniazid and ethambutol
    Roberto Colangeli
    Division of Infectious Disease and the Center for Emerging Pathogens, Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Mol Microbiol 55:1829-40. 2005
    ..initial inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the first-line antituberculosis drugs isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol (EMB). Understanding these pathways should provide significant insights into the adaptive strategies M...
  22. pmc Analysis of gene mutations associated with isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Ethiopia
    Belay Tessema
    Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
    BMC Infect Dis 12:37. 2012
    ..to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and ethambutol (EMB) among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Northwest Ethiopia, and to assess the performance of the ..
  23. pmc Spread of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa
    Prashini Moodley
    KwaZulu Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV K RITH, Durban, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e17513. 2011
    ..KZN is divided into 11 healthcare districts. We sought to determine the distribution of XDR TB cases in the province in relation to population density...
  24. pmc Rapid diagnosis of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol using genotype MTBDRsl assay: a meta-analysis
    Yan Feng
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 8:e55292. 2013
    ..to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test.
  25. pmc Population pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in South African tuberculosis patients
    Siv Jönsson
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, P O Box 591, SE 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:4230-7. 2011
    b>Ethambutol, one of four drugs in the first-line antitubercular regimen, is used to protect against rifampin resistance in the event of preexisting resistance to isoniazid...
  26. ncbi embB306 mutations as molecular indicators to predict ethambutol susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Frederick A Sirgel
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Science, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Chemotherapy 58:358-63. 2012
    Discordant results in conventional susceptibility testing of ethambutol against Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to underreporting of drug resistance.
  27. ncbi In vitro activity of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones against mycobacteria when combined with anti-tuberculosis agents
    Tao Lu
    Public Health Research Institute, 225 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:1025-8. 2003
    ..To examine the effect of first-line and second-line anti-tuberculosis agents on the ability of fluoroquinolones to kill mycobacteria...
  28. pmc Comparison of intermittent ethambutol with rifampicin-based regimens in HIV-infected adults with PTB, Kampala
    A Okwera
    National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme, Kampala, Uganda Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:39-44. 2006
    ..We conducted a study to compare the efficacy and safety of intermittent ethambutol (E, EMB) with two RMP-containing regimens to treat pulmonary TB in HIV-infected patients.
  29. pmc Novel mutations within the embB gene in ethambutol-susceptible clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Ann S G Lee
    Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre, Singapore 169610, Republic of Singapore
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4447-9. 2004
    Genetic analysis of the embB gene revealed mutations in 17 (68%) of 25 ethambutol (EMB) resistant isolates (M306I, M306V, M306L, Q497R) but also in 4 (20%) of 20 EMB-susceptible isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, namely, an ATG-->..
  30. pmc Efflux-pump-derived multiple drug resistance to ethambutol monotherapy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethambutol
    Shashikant Srivastava
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9113, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1225-31. 2010
    b>Ethambutol is used for the treatment of tuberculosis in cases where there is isoniazid resistance. We examined the emergence of drug resistance to ethambutol monotherapy in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies of a hollow-fiber system.
  31. pmc Allelic exchange and mutant selection demonstrate that common clinical embCAB gene mutations only modestly increase resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Hassan Safi
    Division of Infectious Disease and the Center for Emerging Pathogens, Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:103-8. 2010
    Mutations within codon 306 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis embB gene modestly increase ethambutol (EMB) MICs. To identify other causes of EMB resistance and to identify causes of high-level resistance, we generated EMB-resistant M...
  32. ncbi Genetic characterisation of the ethambutol resistance-determining region in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: prevalence and significance of embB306 mutations
    João Perdigão
    Centro de Patogenese Molecular, URIA, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:334-8. 2009
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line antitubercular drug that inhibits arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan biosynthesis. Resistance to EMB has traditionally been associated with embB mutations, especially in the Met306 codon...
  33. ncbi Incidence and clinical features of ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy in Korea
    Eun Ji Lee
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Neuroophthalmol 28:269-77. 2008
    The incidence, clinical manifestations, and contributory factors in ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON) have not been widely studied.
  34. ncbi Diagnosis and treatment of infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex
    Shannon H Kasperbauer
    Division of Mycobacterial and Respiratory Infections, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    Semin Respir Crit Care Med 29:569-76. 2008
    ..Treatment consists of a macrolide, rifamycin, and ethambutol given three times weekly for noncavitary disease and daily with or without an aminoglycoside for cavitary disease...
  35. pmc Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of SQ109, a new diamine-based antitubercular drug
    Lee Jia
    Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute NIH, 6130 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, U S A
    Br J Pharmacol 144:80-7. 2005
    SQ109 is a novel [1,2]-diamine-based ethambutol (EMB) analog developed from high-throughput combinatorial screening. The present study aimed at characterizing its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
  36. ncbi Efficacy and safety of a 4-drug fixed-dose combination regimen compared with separate drugs for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: the Study C randomized controlled trial
    Christian Lienhardt
    Clinical Trial Division, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France
    JAMA 305:1415-23. 2011
    ..Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of drugs for treatment of tuberculosis have been advocated to prevent the emergence of drug resistance...
  37. pmc Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to both isoniazid and ethambutol
    Linda M Parsons
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2218-25. 2005
    ..5 microg/ml ethambutol (EMB) occurred only in isolates that are also resistant to 0.4 microg/ml isoniazid (INH)...
  38. ncbi Detection of embB codon 306 mutations in ethambutol resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from sputum samples: a low-cost, rapid approach
    H Rinder
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University of Munich, Leopoldstr 5, 80202 Munich, Germany
    Mol Cell Probes 15:37-42. 2001
    Substitutions of codon 306 in the gene embB are the most common mutations found in ethambutol resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  39. ncbi Risk factors for ethambutol optic toxicity
    Katherine Anne Talbert Estlin
    Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Int Ophthalmol 30:63-72. 2010
    Optic neuropathy is a well-known complication of ethambutol therapy and usually manifests as a decrease in visual acuity, cecocentral scotomas, and deficits in color vision.
  40. ncbi A simple and economical in-house phage technique for the rapid detection of rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, directly on decontaminated sputum samples
    Nanda Hemvani
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Biology, Intermediate Referral Laboratory for Mycobacteriology, Choithram Hospital and Research Centre, Manik Bagh Road, Indore, MP 452014, India
    Int J Infect Dis 16:e332-6. 2012
    ..of the present study was to set up a rapid phage assay for the testing of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin, directly on decontaminated sputum samples.
  41. ncbi Truncated structural variants of lipoarabinomannan in ethambutol drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Inhibition of arabinan biosynthesis by ethambutol
    K H Khoo
    Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:28682-90. 1996
    The anti-tuberculosis drug, ethambutol (Emb), was previously shown to inhibit the synthesis of arabinans of both the cell wall arabinogalactan (AG) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria...
  42. ncbi Ethambutol toxicity manifesting as acute onset psychosis
    S J Martin
    Canberra Sexual Health Centre, The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia
    Int J STD AIDS 18:287-8. 2007
    b>Ethambutol is commonly used for the treatment of tuberculous and atypical mycobacterial infection. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity other than optic neuropathy is not widely reported...
  43. ncbi In vitro synergistic interactions of oleanolic acid in combination with isoniazid, rifampicin or ethambutol against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Fa Ge
    Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, PR China
    J Med Microbiol 59:567-72. 2010
    ..The combination of OA with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) or ethambutol (EMB) showed favourable synergistic antimycobacterial effects against six drug-resistant strains, with ..
  44. ncbi Determination of ethambutol MICs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium isolates by resazurin microtitre assay
    G P S Jadaun
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research, PO Box 1101, Dr M Miyazaki Marg, Tajganj, Agra 282001, India
    J Antimicrob Chemother 60:152-5. 2007
    To test susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates to ethambutol by the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) proportion method and resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) and to evaluate REMA for the determination of ethambutol MICs for ..
  45. pmc Ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: critical role of embB mutations
    S Sreevatsan
    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:1677-81. 1997
    b>Ethambutol [(S,S')-2,2'-(ethylenediimino)di-1-butanol; EMB], is a first-line drug used to treat tuberculosis...
  46. ncbi A Pyrosequencing assay for rapid recognition of SNPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis embB306 region
    Daniela Isola
    Dipartimento di Chirurgia e Scienze Odontostomatologiche, Universita di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
    J Microbiol Methods 62:113-20. 2005
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is in use worldwide as a first-line anti-tuberculosis drug and substitutions in codon 306 of the embB gene are the most common mutations found in EMB resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains...
  47. ncbi Gene expression analysis using a modified HiCEP method applicable to prokaryotes: a study of the response of Rhodococcus to isoniazid and ethambutol
    Yasuo Mitani
    Proteolysis and Protein Turnover Research Group, Research Institute of Genome Based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Tsukisamu Higashi, Sapporo 062 8517, Japan
    J Biotechnol 123:259-72. 2006
    ..This method could prove to be a useful technique for gene expression analysis of prokaryotes, particularly nonmodel strains with unknown genome sequences...
  48. pmc Effects of AIDS and gender on steady-state plasma and intrapulmonary ethambutol concentrations
    J E Conte
    Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:2891-6. 2001
    Our objective was to study the steady-state plasma and intrapulmonary orally administered ethambutol concentrations in healthy volunteers and subjects with AIDS...
  49. pmc Characteristics of embB mutations in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Henan, China
    Dawei Shi
    State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100176, China
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:2240-7. 2011
    To determine the association between embB mutations and drug resistance, and to further investigate the mechanism of embB mutations involved in the development of ethambutol and multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  50. ncbi Association between embB mutations and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Cuba and the Dominican Republic: reproducible patterns and problems
    Elba Guerrero
    Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela
    Rev Argent Microbiol 45:21-6. 2013
    The relation of ethambutol resistance to embB mutations remains unclear, and there are no reports on ethambutol resistance from the caribbean...
  51. pmc GenoType MTBDRsl for molecular detection of second-line-drug and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and clinical samples
    A Lacoma
    Servei de Microbiologiaa and Servei de Pneumologia, b Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Institut d Investigacio Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma deBarcelona, Badalona, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 50:30-6. 2012
    ..to fluoroquinolones (FLQ), injectable second-line antibiotics [kanamycin (KM) and capreomycin (CM)], and ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains and directly in clinical samples...
  52. ncbi Mutations in the embB locus among Korean clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to ethambutol
    Hye Young Lee
    Institute of Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, C P O Box 8044, Seoul 120 752, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 43:59-64. 2002
    Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to ethambutol (EMB) has been assigned to an operon, embCAB, which has been proposed to be a structural gene for mycobacterial arabinosyl transferases...
  53. ncbi Tuberculosis ethambutol resistance: concordance between phenotypic and genotypic test results
    Claudia Plinke
    Molecular Mycobacteriology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:448-52. 2009
    embB306 mutations are potential markers for detecting ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
  54. ncbi Correlation of the phenotypic ethambutol susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with embB gene mutations in Korea
    Young Kil Park
    Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, 482 Mansuri, Kangwoimyun, Cheongwongun, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
    J Med Microbiol 61:529-34. 2012
    The phenotypic resistance to ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with embB gene mutations is still unclear. This study was designed to better understand EMB resistance due to embB gene mutation...
  55. ncbi Evaluation of the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay for susceptibility testing of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs
    H M Said
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16:104-9. 2012
    ..The GenoType® MTBDRsl assay is a new rapid assay for the detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs...
  56. pmc Performance assessment of the GenoType MTBDRsl test and DNA sequencing for detection of second-line and ethambutol drug resistance among patients infected with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Wei Lun Huang
    Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology, Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2502-8. 2011
    The GenoType MTBDRsl test and DNA sequencing were used to rapidly detect second-line drug- and ethambutol (EMB)-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  57. ncbi Blood agar for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against first-line drugs
    A Y Coban
    Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:450-3. 2006
    To evaluate the performance of blood agar for the susceptibility testing of 50 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates against isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), streptomycin (SM) and ethambutol (EMB).
  58. ncbi Varying prevalence of embB codon 306 mutations in ethambutol-resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Beirut and Dubai
    S Ahmad
    Department of Microbiology, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
    J Chemother 20:285-7. 2008
  59. pmc Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel ethambutol analogues
    Raghunandan Yendapally
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 847 Monroe Ave Rm327, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:1607-11. 2008
    b>Ethambutol is one of the front-line agents recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of tuberculosis...
  60. ncbi Pharmacoproteomic effects of isoniazid, ethambutol, and N-geranyl-N'-(2-adamantyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (SQ109) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
    Lee Jia
    Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 315:905-11. 2005
    ..alterations of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced by antitubercular drugs isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), and SQ109 [N-geranyl-N'-(2-adamantyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, a novel 1,2-diamine-based EMB analog], providing ..
  61. ncbi [Susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to primary antituberculous drugs on chocolate agar: a preliminary study]
    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban
    Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Mikrobiyoloji ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dali, Samsun
    Mikrobiyol Bul 42:477-81. 2008
    ..testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (ETM)...
  62. ncbi Efficacy of macrolides used in combination with ethambutol, with or without other drugs, against Mycobacterium avium within human macrophages
    G F Schiavano
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Urbino, 61029, Urbino, Italy
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 18:525-30. 2001
    ..Overall, clarithromycin-ethambutol-rifampicin was the most active combination tested...
  63. ncbi Role of embCAB gene mutations in ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from India
    G P S Jadaun
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, Dr M Miyazaki Marg, Tajganj, Agra 282001, India
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 33:483-6. 2009
    In the present study, ethambutol (EMB) resistance-associated mutations were characterised in the embCAB genes of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) collected in India...
  64. pmc Detection of ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by multiplex allele-specific PCR assay targeting embB306 mutations
    Igor Mokrousov
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, 14, Mira Street, St Petersburg 197101, Russia
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1617-20. 2002
    ..These mutations are known to confer ethambutol (EMB) resistance in the majority of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates worldwide...
  65. ncbi Ethambutol-mediated cell wall modification in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum increases the biotransformation rates of cyclohexanone derivatives
    Ji Yeong Yun
    Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120 750, Republic of Korea
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35:211-6. 2012
    ..30% via altering the cell envelop structure of C. glutamicum with ethambutol, which inhibits arabinosyl transferases involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall arabinogalactan and mycolate ..
  66. ncbi Characterisation of rpsL, rrs and embB mutations associated with streptomycin and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Tatjana Tracevska
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Biomedical Research and Study Centre, University of Latvia, Ratsupites 1, Riga LV 1067, Latvia
    Res Microbiol 155:830-4. 2004
    ..They were all resistant to rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and streptomycin (SM), and 33 were resistant to ethambutol (EMB)...
  67. ncbi jefA (Rv2459), a drug efflux gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers resistance to isoniazid & ethambutol
    Anuj Kumar Gupta
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases ICMR, Agra, India
    Indian J Med Res 132:176-88. 2010
    ..The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of this ORF as a drug efflux pump, which might add new information in our understanding about the alternative mechanisms of drug resistance in mycobacteria...
  68. ncbi The novel responses of ethambutol against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc²155 Revealed by proteomics analysis
    Tao Jiang
    Department of Biotechnology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China
    Curr Microbiol 62:341-5. 2011
    b>Ethambutol (EMB), one of the effective anti-mycobacterial drugs, inhibits the biosynthesis of mycobacterium cell wall...
  69. ncbi Activity of a new class of isonicotinoylhydrazones used alone and in combination with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, para-aminosalicylic acid and clofazimine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Alessandro De Logu
    Sezione di Microbiologia e Virologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Trapianti d Organo, Universita di Cagliari, Viale Frà Ignazio 38, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:275-82. 2002
    ..tuberculosis. Combinations of five isonicotinoylhydrazone derivatives and rifampicin, ethambutol, para-aminosalicylic acid, isoniazid and clofazimine were also investigated against M...
  70. pmc Minor contribution of mutations at iniA codon 501 and embC-embA intergenic region in ethambutol-resistant clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kuwait
    Al Anoud Jaber
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 8:2. 2009
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB)...
  71. pmc Multifocal electroretinogram demonstrated macular toxicity associated with ethambutol related optic neuropathy
    T Y Y Lai
    Br J Ophthalmol 89:774-5. 2005
  72. ncbi Multifocal electroretinographic abnormalities in ethambutol-induced visual loss
    Yao Liu
    Neuro Ophthalmology Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Neuroophthalmol 28:278-82. 2008
    Two patients who developed decreased visual acuity after several months of ethambutol treatment for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection had bitemporal visual field defects that suggested optic chiasm damage...
  73. ncbi Accumulation of KRM-1648 by Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    L J Piddock
    Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 45:681-4. 2000
    ..5 mg/L. At pH 4 higher concentrations were accumulated than at pH 7. A sub-inhibitory concentration of ethambutol increased the concentration of KRM-1648 accumulated, but Tween 80 and reserpine had little or no effect.
  74. ncbi Ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy linked to OPA1 mutation and mitochondrial toxicity
    Virginie Guillet
    INSERM, U694, Angers, F 49000, France
    Mitochondrion 10:115-24. 2010
    b>Ethambutol (EMB), widely used in the treatment of tuberculosis, has been reported to cause Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in patients carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations...
  75. pmc The arabinosyltransferase EmbC is inhibited by ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    R Goude
    Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, E1 2AT, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:4138-46. 2009
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is an antimycobacterial drug used extensively for the treatment of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  76. pmc Multicenter evaluation of ethambutol susceptibility testing of mycobacterium tuberculosis by agar proportion and radiometric methods
    B Madison
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30347, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3976-9. 2002
    Reproducibility of ethambutol (EMB) susceptibility test results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has always been difficult for a variety of reasons, including the narrow range between the critical breakpoint for EMB resistance and the MIC ..
  77. ncbi Early stage ethambutol optic neuropathy: retinal nerve fiber layer and optical coherence tomography
    Ungsoo Kim
    Department of Ophthalmology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Eur J Ophthalmol 19:466-9. 2009
    To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in early stage ethambutol optic neuropathy.
  78. ncbi Nucleotide polymorphism associated with ethambutol resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    S Srivastava
    Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
    Curr Microbiol 53:401-5. 2006
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) is a first-line drug used for antitubercular therapy in combination with other drugs as recommended by World Health Organization DOTS/DOTS-Plus regimens...
  79. ncbi Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy precipitated by ethambutol
    Asako Ikeda
    Department of Ophthalmology, Takarazuka City Hospital, Takarazuka, Japan
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 50:280-3. 2006
    ..However, two cases of LHON during ethambutol administration have been reported in older men and one case in an older woman...
  80. ncbi The effect of initial drug resistance on treatment response and acquired drug resistance during standardized short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis
    Kwonjune J Seung
    Partners In Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1321-8. 2004
    ..A retrospective analysis was done to determine the effect of initial drug resistance on treatment outcome and acquired drug resistance in new patients receiving standardized short-course chemotherapy...
  81. ncbi How drug resistance emerges as a result of poor compliance during short course chemotherapy for tuberculosis
    D A Mitchison
    Department of Medical Microbiology, St George s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2:10-5. 1998
    ..To explore mechanisms by which drug resistance might arise as a result of poor compliance during short course chemotherapy...
  82. ncbi Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries
    M A Espinal
    World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Programme, Ave Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    JAMA 283:2537-45. 2000
    ....
  83. ncbi High hepatotoxicity of pyrazinamide and ethambutol for treatment of latent tuberculosis
    A B Younossian
    Centre antituberculeux, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Eur Respir J 26:462-4. 2005
    Pyrazinamide (PZA) combined with either ethambutol (EMB) or a fluoroquinolone for 6-12 months is one of the treatments recommended for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in contacts exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)...
  84. pmc Determinants of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol pharmacokinetics in a cohort of tuberculosis patients
    Helen McIlleron
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, and Brewelskloof Hospital, Worcester, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1170-7. 2006
    ..Our objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in a cohort of tuberculosis patients established on first-line treatment regimens and to evaluate the ..
  85. ncbi Ethambutol resistance testing by mutation detection
    R Johnson
    Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology Medical Biochemistry and Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:68-73. 2006
    To identify chromosomal mutations that confer resistance to ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  86. ncbi Comparative evaluation of the nitrate reduction assay, the MTT test, and the resazurin microtitre assay for drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Ernesto Montoro
    Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia e Investigaciones en Tuberculosis y Mycobacteria, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri, Havana, Cuba
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:500-5. 2005
    ..To evaluate the performance of three rapid low-cost methods for the detection of resistance to first-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  87. ncbi Ethambutol-associated optic neuropathy
    Su Ann Lim
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Ann Acad Med Singapore 35:274-8. 2006
    b>Ethambutol is used in the treatment of tuberculosis, which is still prevalent in Southeast Asia, and can be associated with permanent visual loss. We report 3 cases which presented with bitemporal hemianopia.
  88. ncbi Optical coherence tomography can measure axonal loss in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy
    Christopher I Zoumalan
    Doheny Eye Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo St, DVRC 311, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 243:410-6. 2005
    To map and identify the pattern, in vivo, of axonal degeneration in ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ethambutol is an antimycobacterial agent often used to treat tuberculosis...
  89. pmc Detection of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Northwestern Russia: implications for genotypic resistance testing
    Igor Mokrousov
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, St Petersburg Pasteur Institute, 197101 St Petersburg, Russia
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3810-3. 2002
    ..for alterations in codon 306 of the embB gene; mutations in this codon are reported to confer resistance to ethambutol (EMB). The embB306 mutations were detected in 14 (48...
  90. pmc Role of embB codon 306 mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revisited: a novel association with broad drug resistance and IS6110 clustering rather than ethambutol resistance
    Manzour Hernando Hazbón
    Division of Infectious Disease, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 185 South Orange Avenue, MSB A920C, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3794-802. 2005
    Mutations at position 306 of embB (embB306) have been proposed as a marker for ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, recent reports of embB306 mutations in ethambutol-susceptible isolates caused us to question the ..
  91. pmc Mutations at embB codon 306 are an important molecular indicator of ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Angela M Starks
    Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1061-6. 2009
    b>Ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is associated primarily with missense mutations in the embB gene...
  92. ncbi embCAB sequence variation among ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates without embB306 mutation
    Claudia Plinke
    Molecular Mycobacteriology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1359-67. 2010
    Mechanisms of resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain inadequately described...
  93. ncbi Ethambutol neuroretinopathy
    Setareh Vistamehr
    Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, New Haven, CT 06520 8061, USA
    Semin Ophthalmol 22:141-6. 2007
    To describe the clinical features of ethambutol neuroretinopathy.
  94. ncbi Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mutations in ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy
    Jeong Min Hwang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 395, Sindaebang 2 dong, Dongjak Ku, Seoul 156 707, Korea
    J Neurol 250:87-9. 2003
    ..the nt 11778 site in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been reported to be present in patients with ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy...
  95. pmc Association between embB codon 306 mutations and drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Xin Shen
    Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, China
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2618-20. 2007
    embB306 mutants were detected in both ethambutol (EMB)-resistant and EMB-susceptible strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains had a higher proportion of embB306 mutants than non-MDR strains (odds ratio, 6...
  96. ncbi Prospective evaluation of visual function for early detection of ethambutol toxicity
    V Menon
    Dr R P Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
    Br J Ophthalmol 93:1251-4. 2009
    The aim of the study was to evaluate various visual parameters for early detection of ethambutol toxicity.
  97. ncbi Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells
    Hyewon Chung
    Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388 1 Pungnab dong, Songpa Gu, Seoul, 138 736, Republic of Korea
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 235:163-70. 2009
    b>Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established...
  98. ncbi Simultaneous detection of isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a single multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
    Zhenhua Yang
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109 2029, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53:201-8. 2005
    ..polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) that detects the most commonly observed isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), and ethambutol resistance-associated mutations in a single assay...
  99. ncbi Ethambutol-induced vacuolar changes and neuronal loss in rat retinal cell culture: mediation by endogenous zinc
    Y H Yoon
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 162:107-14. 2000
    b>Ethambutol is an efficacious antituberculosis agent. However, its use has been limited by the occurrence of ocular toxicity...
  100. ncbi Ocular ethambutol toxicity
    Alex Melamud
    Cole Eye Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 78:1409-11. 2003
    b>Ethambutol is an antimicrobial agent used frequently to treat tuberculosis. The most commonly recognized toxic effect of ethambutol is optic neuropathy, which generally is considered uncommon and reversible in medical literature...
  101. ncbi Best catch from NANOSNET
    Wayne T Cornblath
    J Neuroophthalmol 22:123-8. 2002

Research Grants62

  1. Novel Spectinamide Antibiotics for the Treatment of MDR/XDR Tuberculosis
    Michelle M Butler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Treatment options for MDR/XDR TB include the two remaining first- line agents, ethambutol and pyrazinamide, second-line agents to which the strain is not resistant, such as streptomycin, as well as ..
  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of liposomal ciprofloxacin formulations against Myc
    Igor Gonda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..concentrations of CFI and DRCFI in the macrophage test system: a) alone and in combination with clarithromycin, ethambutol, and amikacin against 3 clinical isolates of M...
  3. Investigation of synergy between Rifampin and SQ109, a new anti-TB drug candidate
    VENKATA REDDY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..reduce the time by at least 25% to achieve the same level of CFU as the standard drug regimen, RIF + INH + PZA + ethambutol (EMB) in a mouse model of TB...
  4. Novel mycobacterial translocase I inhibitors - a new class of anti-TB drugs
    Venkata M Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of drug resistant mutants in vitro and has marked synergistic activity in vitro with several antituberculars: Ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin, and the new Sequella drug, SQ109...
  5. Folate Metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Revisited: A Potential Drug Targe
    Liem Duy Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..not only to antifolate drugs but also other antibiotics, including frontline TB drugs such as rifampicin and ethambutol. This is due to a direct effect on de novo folate biosynthesis and an indirect effect by altering cell wall ..
  6. The Role of Lipoarabinomannan in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Tanya Parish; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will determine what effect changes in LAM production have on resistance to a wide range of compounds including ethambutol, DNA damaging agents and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. A lack of EmbC is lethal in M...
  7. TB Diagnostics at the Point of Care
    CHRISTOPHER GERARD COONEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and rapid point-of-care (POC) test that detects TB and its resistance to first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol,and pyrazinamide) would improve TB diagnostics for these minority communities...
  8. Pharmacokinetics of Anti-tuberculosis and Antiretroviral Drugs in Children
    AWEWURA JACOB KWARA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 1 will determine whether the WHO recommended increased dosages of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol administered to African children with active TB infection (with or without HIV co- infection) achieve adult-..
  9. A rapid molecular approach to determine PZA susceptibility
    BARRY NEAL KREISWIRTH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current TB treatment regimen for TB is 2 months of rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide (PZA), followed by 4 months of rifampin and isoniazid...
  10. Optimal dosing of 1st line antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs in children
    Helen McIlleron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies suggest that first line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) are often under-dosed in adults, especially with HIV, and children...
  11. Evaluation of a highly-informative LATE-PCR single-tube assay for M(X)DR-TB
    Robin Mark Warren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..allows for the simultaneous, closed-tube detection of mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, fluorquinolones and aminoglucosides, and mycobacterial species causing disease...
  12. Discovery of novel agents against M. tuberculosis.
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and relies on two months of intensive, directly observed therapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol followed by a minimum of four months of isoniazid and rifampicin...
  13. Nanoparticle delivery system for antiturberculosis drug
    Leonid Heifets; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..5-7 fold. Dr. Geuelperina at RDCMDT has already begun encapsulation of ethambutol, pyrazinamide, capreomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, levofloxacin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, ..
  14. M. AVIUM DISEASE--INHALED LIPOSOME ANTI-TB DRUG THERAPY
    Hans Schreier; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..macrophages (AM) and is relatively resistant in vitro to anti-tuberculous drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol in concentrations currently employed...
  15. PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANTITUBERCULOSIS REGIMEN
    Leonid Heifets; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Regimens targeted against MDR-TB will include substitutes for isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin,ethambutol, developed under this program or already available (for example, some quinolones and aminosidine)...
  16. Target for Mefloquine in Mycobacteria
    Luiz Bermudez; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Furthermore, mefloquine is active against M. avium strain resistant to macrolides, quinolones, isoniazid, ethambutol and rifampin, suggesting a novel mechanism of action...
  17. Cell Wall Biogenesis-Target for new Anti-TB drugs
    Michael McNeil; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will test M. tuberculosis for increased arabinase activity after exposure to novel highly active ethambutol like compounds (the presence of endogenous arabinase was first recognized during ethambutol treatment)...
  18. Phase II Study of Daily Rifapentine for Pulmonary Tuberculosis (IND 62,611;1/2/0
    Susan E Dorman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and safety of rifapentine doses of 450 mg and 600 mg administered once daily with isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol during intensive phase (first eight weeks) treatment of smear-positive pulmonary TB in Cape Town, South Africa.
  19. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
    Richard Chaisson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will randomize 526 patients with pulmonary TB to receive Moxi/rifampin/PZA/ethambutol for 4 months vs. a control regimen of INH/RIF/PZA/EMB for 6 months...
  20. Rapid Susceptibility Testing of MDR M. tuberculosis- Phase II
    MYRON SASSER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..loss of mycolic acids, in susceptible strains, with as little as 20 minutes exposure to the inhibitor, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide may require up to 72 h for optimal determination...
  21. Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Susan Dorman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..overall objectives of this K23 proposal are 1) to optimize the MODS assay for drug susceptibility testing for ethambutol, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide; 2) to determine the performance characteristics of MODS for detection of MTB ..
  22. CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIAL AUTOLYSINS
    LINGYI DENG; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..have (i) prepared a mycobacterial cell lysate that hydrolyzed the cell wall polysaccharide; (ii) observed that ethambutol treated mycobacteria have increased cell wall hydrolysis; and (iii) identified an open reading frame (ORF) in ..
  23. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL PHARMACOPHORE WITH ANTI-TB ACTIVITY
    Ze Qi Xu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..it was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, and ethambutol, respectively...
  24. MALABSORPTION OF ANTITUBERCULOUS DRUGS IN BOTSWANA
    Philip Hopewell; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..microbiologic, and laboratory data, including HIV serologies and serum for isoniazid (H), rifampin (R), ethambutol (E), and pyrazinamide (P) concentrations will be obtained...
  25. SECOND GENERATION ANTIBIOTICS FROM ETHAMBUTOL
    Marina Protopopova; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) was developed at Lederle Laboratories in the late 1 950s from a collection of about 2000 mostly symmetrical diamines...
  26. MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
    William Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..systems have allowed them to identify the, previously unknown, targets of the drugs isoniazid, ethionamide, and ethambutol. They have also established a molecular basis for the attenuation of an M...
  27. SECOND GENERATION ANTIBIOTICS FROM ETHAMBUTOL
    Marina Protopopova; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Ethambutol (EMB) was developed at Lederle Laboratories in the late 1950s from a collection of about 2000 mostly symmetrical diamines...
  28. High throughput TB drug screens
    Carol Nacy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..screening assay succeeded in synthesizing and screening approximately 100,000 analogues of the TB drug ethambutol in a very short period of time...
  29. GENE-BASED AND BACTERIA HIGH THROUGHOUT TB DRUG SCREEN
    Carol Nacy; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..screening assay succeeded in synthesizing and screening approximately 100,000 analogues of the TB drug ethambutol in a very short period of time...
  30. STRUCTURE OF LAM IN RELATION TO BIOLOGY AND BIOSYNTHESIS
    Delphi Chatterjee; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..tuberculosis, is known to be a target of some of the most effective antimycobacterial drugs including ethambutol which has been known to inhibit the biosynthesis of arabinan of the cell wall proper and associated ..
  31. DRUG TARGETING M. TUBERCULOSIS ARABINOSYL TRANSFERASES
    Richard Lee; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..tuberculosis and the effects of the front line drug ethambutol on the important mycoloylarabinogalactan (MAG) biosynthetic cascade...
  32. M AVIUM WALL STRUCTURES FROM AIDS PATIENTS
    Delphi Chatterjee; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Identification of truncated structural variants of LAM in ethambutol drug-resistant strains of mycobacteria has provided the PI with model compounds for both structural and ..
  33. Towards drugs that prevent resistance to the HIV OI, TB
    David Alland; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We hypothesize that the drug ethambutol (EMB) normally acts synergistically with other antibiotics to prevent the emergence of drug resistance, and that ..
  34. BCG + hsp, a New Tuberculosis Vaccine
    Boris Nikonenko; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will also examine the antibiotic sensitivity of this rBCGdeltahspR to 10 commonly used TB drugs to ensure that the genetic manipulations performed have not made it less sensitive to drug treatment. ..
  35. DENVER COMMUNITY PROGRAM FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH ON AIDS (
    David Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Post Translation Regulation in Mycobacteria
    Luiz Bermudez; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In case we confirm our hypothesis, future work will address the role of Ion in M. tuberculosis [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Investigation of the role of bacteria in the sarcoidosis trimolecular complex
    Wonder Drake; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Mouse Strain dependent innate resistance to intestinal amebiasis
    Eric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  39. IRON REGULATION & VIRULENCE--MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
    YUKARI MANABE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Elucidation of this iron-dependent IdeR regulon may lead to the identification of virulence determinants, and novel antigens for vaccines and therapeutics. ..
  40. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES AS DRUG TARGETS IN MYCOBACTERIA
    Robert Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These compounds will be screened in vitro using a broth dilution assay and cell-free assay transferase. Selected active compounds will be screened in vitro and in vivo in a macrophage assay and a murine TB model, respectively. ..
  41. Role of mycobacteria in sarcoidosis immunopathogenesis
    Wonder Drake; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These findings, which will assess in an independent and complementary fashion the role of mycobacteria in sarcoidosis immunopathogenesis, may have an impact on future therapeutic modalities for sarcoidosis. ..
  42. Diagnosis of Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Patients
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The impact of this is the improved ability to control the disease and fewer untreated patients returning to the general population to infect others and spread the disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Targeted DNA extraction for Tuberculosis PCR from sputum
    Eric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The most sensitive procedure will be taken in Phase II and adapted to high-throughput DNA extraction platforms and compared against the standard E- MTD assay. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Virulence Related Genetic Variation of M. TB Strains
    Zhenhua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..By combining epidemiological information with molecular genetics, we are conducting a focused search for genes associated with transmission and pathogenesis. ..
  45. HETEROSEXUAL TRANSMISSION OF HHV 8 IN KENYA
    King Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..A better understanding of heterosexual transmission of HHV-8 is essential for the development of interventions strategies to prevent HHV-8 infection and associated malignancy. ..
  46. Rapid Detection of Bacterial Contamination in Platelets
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Feasibility of the diagnostic tool will be demonstrated with several of the clinically significant bacterial strains which are often implicated in transfusion-related sepsis. ..
  47. Novel Single Cell Reporter Gene Assay
    Yevgenya Akselband; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This assay will facilitate drug discovery by permitting rapid screening of combinatorial chemistry or natural product libraries. ..
  48. Virulence genes identification in Francisella tularensis
    Vincent Escuyer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..tularensis and a better understanding of the pathogenicity of this microorganism. Some of the virulence genes will be used as potential targets for new approaches in drug design and vaccine development. ..
  49. Dipiperidines as a new class of anti-TB drug
    Marina Protopopova; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..ago, Sequella received a Challenge grant to synthesize and characterize combinatorial libraries of analogues to ethambutol, an existing front-line tuberculosis drug...
  50. Inhibitor of FtsZ Polymerization in M. tuberculosis
    Robert Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Data from the biological screening and the EM structural studies will feed back into compound design in an interactive, iterative drug design cycle that critically focuses on antibacterial potency and selectivity. ..
  51. Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A Phase II effort will be focused on the development of a prototype instrumentation and clinical testing of multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. ..
  52. Genotypes of Helicobacter Pylori in West Africa
    Richard Adegbola; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..pylori colonization in West Africa differ from those seen in industrialized nations, and enable the development of appropriate treatment strategies for communities such as The Gambia. ..
  53. Alternative endpoints for plague challenge models
    Richard Frothingham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will use the data generated to refine our hypotheses and to pursue further funding to complete Aim 3. ..
  54. Multiplex bead-PCR diagnosis for AIDS diarrhea
    Eric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, syndrome-based multiplex diagnosis is the platform of the future for clinical microbiology, and if this assay works on stool it should work on sputum, blood, or spinal fluid. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Structure Function Analysis of TB Pyrazinamidase
    Ying Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will provide important information about mechanisms of PZA action and resistance and may help design new antituberculosis drugs. ..
  56. Moving a new anti-tubercular drug candidate SQ109 into clinical trials
    Marina Protopopova; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..tuberculosis, and is suitable to replace the first-line drug ethambutol during the intensive phase of the WHO-recommended Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) drug regimen...
  57. Real-time PCR diagnostic kit for Giardia and Cryptosporidium
    Eric Houpt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A Phase II application is anticipated to validate the final diagnostic test product against immunoassay for an FDA 501 (k) medical device application. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Rapid Diagnostic Testing of Urinary Tract Infections
    Ronald Rieder; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A follow-on effort will focus on the development of prototype instrumentation and testing of other clinically relevant multi-drug resistant organisms. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Duke University Center for Translational Research
    Richard Frothingham; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  60. LATENCY AND REACTIVATION TUBERCULOSIS
    YUKARI MANABE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Appropriate animal models are critical to the successful development of tuberculosis vaccines, new drugs and better diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. ..
  61. Crystallization of the Galactosyltransferase from Mtb
    Robert Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This effort, however, is innovative in the choice of target and the impact that structural biology can have on our funded program. ..
  62. MYCOBACTERIAL ENVIRONMENT WITHIN MACROPHAGES
    Luiz Bermudez; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We believe that the proposed studies will generate important information about the phagosome environment and the mycobacterial response to it. ..