- The molecular mechanism of stabilization of proteins by TMAO and its ability to counteract the effects of urea
Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
J Am Chem Soc 124:1192-202. 2002
..These findings suggest that TMAO stabilizes proteins via enhancement of water structure, such that interactions with the amide unit are discouraged...
- Metabolic profiling reveals a contribution of gut microbiota to fatty liver phenotype in insulin-resistant mice
Marc Emmanuel Dumas
Department of Biological Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12511-6. 2006
..e., low circulating levels of plasma phosphatidylcholine and high urinary excretion of methylamines (dimethylamine, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide), coprocessed by symbiotic gut microbiota and ..
- Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses
Paul H Yancey
Biology Department, Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA 99362, USA
J Exp Biol 208:2819-30. 2005
..These solutes are amino acids and derivatives, polyols and sugars, methylamines, methylsulfonium compounds and urea...
- Molecular dynamics simulations on the mechanism of transporting methylamine and ammonia by ammonium transporter AmtB
Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China
J Phys Chem B 114:15172-9. 2010
..In conclusion, methylamine molecule is a good mimic for investigating the translocation mechanism of ammonium transporter AmtB...
- Cloning and expression of the MEP1 gene encoding an ammonium transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A M Marini
Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et de Genetique des Levures, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
EMBO J 13:3456-63. 1994
..Its main function appears to be to enable cells grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions to incorporate ammonium present at relatively low concentrations in the growth medium...
- Testing the paradigm that the denaturing effect of urea on protein stability is offset by methylamines at the physiological concentration ratio of 2:1 (urea:methylamines)
Laishram Rajendrakumar Singh
Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110 025, India
Biochim Biophys Acta 1774:1555-62. 2007
..The generally accepted explanation is the counteracting hypothesis, which holds that methylamines stabilize proteins and oppose the deleterious effect of urea...
- Specific roles of methylcobamide:coenzyme M methyltransferase isozymes in metabolism of methanol and methylamines in Methanosarcina barkeri
D J Ferguson
Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA
J Biol Chem 271:5189-94. 1996
..The results establish that MT2-A plays a specific role in metabolism of methylated amine substrates, whereas, MT2-M functions in methane formation from trimethylamine and methanol...
- Osmolyte-induced conformational changes in the Hsp90 molecular chaperone
Timothy O Street
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158 2517, USA
Protein Sci 19:57-65. 2010
- In vivo functional characterization of the Escherichia coli ammonium channel AmtB: evidence for metabolic coupling of AmtB to glutamine synthetase
Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UH, UK
Biochem J 390:215-22. 2005
..Furthermore, studies on competition between ammonium and methylammonium suggest that AmtB has a binding site for NH4+ on the periplasmic face...
- Ammonia-induced formation of an AmtB-GlnK complex is not sufficient for nitrogenase regulation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus
Pier Luc Tremblay
Departement de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
J Bacteriol 190:1588-94. 2008
..These results show that formation of an AmtB-GlnK complex is insufficient in itself for nitrogenase regulation and suggest that partial ammonia transport or occupation of the pore by ammonia is essential for this function...
- Functional and genetic characterization of the (methyl)ammonium uptake carrier of Corynebacterium glutamicum
R M Siewe
Institut für Biotechnologie 1, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, 52425 Julich, Germany
J Biol Chem 271:5398-403. 1996
..According to the hydrophobicity profile, it is an integral membrane protein containing 10 or 11 membrane-spanning segments...
- The W148L substitution in the Escherichia coli ammonium channel AmtB increases flux and indicates that the substrate is an ion
Rebecca N Fong
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3102, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:18706-11. 2007
..We address the role of W148 in decreasing the activity and increasing the selectivity of AmtB and the implications of our findings with respect to the function of Rh proteins, the only known homologues of Amt/Mep proteins...
- Mutations of the flavin-containing monooxygenase gene (FMO3) cause trimethylaminuria, a defect in detoxication
E P Treacy
McGill University, Montreal Children s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec H3H 1P3, Canada
Hum Mol Genet 7:839-45. 1998
..These findings illustrate the critical role played by human FMO3 in the metabolism of xenobiotic substrates and endogenous amines...
- Transcriptional profiling of methyltransferase genes during growth of Methanosarcina mazei on trimethylamine
Institut für Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, University of Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 168, 53115 Bonn, Germany
J Bacteriol 191:5108-15. 2009
..mazei is able to adapt to changing trimethylamine concentrations and the consumption of intermediate compounds. Hence, we assume that the organism possesses a regulatory network for optimal substrate utilization...
- Role of AMT1;1 in NH4+ acquisition in Arabidopsis thaliana
Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen ZMBP, Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Plant Biol (Stuttg) 8:522-8. 2006
- Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activation promotes adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells
, , UMR 7079 CNRS, , 75270 Paris, Cedex 06, France
Biochem J 358:335-42. 2001
..Taken together, our results suggest that SSAO may contribute to the control of adipose tissue development...
- Trimethylaminuria and a human FMO3 mutation database
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, London, UK
Hum Mutat 22:209-13. 2003
..The database currently contains 24 entries and is accessible on the World Wide Web via the URL http://human-fmo3.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/Human_FMO3. Additional entries can be submitted via the curator of the database or via a web-based form...
- Trimethylaminuria is caused by mutations of the FMO3 gene in a North American cohort
B R Akerman
Montreal Children s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Mol Genet Metab 68:24-31. 1999
..On the basis of this study we conclude that one common mutation and an increasing number of private mutations in individuals of different ethnic origins cause TMAuria in this cohort...
- Metabolic phenotyping of nude and normal (Alpk:ApfCD, C57BL10J) mice
Claire L Gavaghan McKee
Biological Chemistry, Biomedical Sciences Division, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
J Proteome Res 5:378-84. 2006
- Counteracting effects of urea and methylamines in function and structure of skeletal muscle myosin
Laboratório de Enzimologia e Controle do Metabolismo LabECoM, Departamento de Fármacos, Faculdade de Farmácia CCS UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Arch Biochem Biophys 408:272-8. 2002
..We have investigated the effects of urea and the methylamines trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) and glycine betaine (betaine) on activity and structure of skeletal muscle myosin...
- Electroneutral ammonium transport by basolateral rhesus B glycoprotein
Pflanzenphysiologie, Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D 72076, Germany
J Physiol 559:751-9. 2004
..Methylammonium uptake is inhibited by ammonium and this inhibition saturates with a Ki approximately 3 mm. Electric current measurements and intracellular pHi determinations suggest that RhBG acts as an electroneutral NH4+ -H+ exchanger...
- Trimethylamine-N-oxide-induced folding of alpha-synuclein
V N Uversky
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
FEBS Lett 509:31-5. 2001
..The latter conformation was significantly helical and probably represents the physiologically folded form of the protein...
- Ammonium/methylammonium transport (Amt) proteins facilitate diffusion of NH3 bidirectionally
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, 111 Koshland Hall, 3102, Berkeley, CA 94720 3102, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:3926-31. 2002
..These proteins are examples of protein facilitators for a gas...
- Hydrogen exchange kinetics of RNase A and the urea:TMAO paradigm
Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, 5 154 MRB, Galveston, Texas 77555 1052, USA
Biochemistry 42:5837-49. 2003
..Under these experimental conditions, the use of DeltaG(HX) as a basis for HX analysis of RNase A urea denaturation is invalid...
- Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation of methylamines by a continuous-wave difference-frequency-generation-based system
ETH Zurich, Institute for Quantum Electronics, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Laboratory, Schafmattstrasse 16, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Appl Opt 47:1956-62. 2008
..Future developments are discussed to further improve these detection limits that are currently still about 2 orders of magnitude higher than required for direct methylamine monitoring in human breath...
- Two novel mutations of the FMO3 gene in a proband with trimethylaminuria
B R Akerman
C R Scriver Biochemical Genetics Unit, Montreal Children s Hospital, Quebec, Canada
Hum Mutat 13:376-9. 1999
..This suggests that other rarer alleles, also causing TMA, will be found in the same populations...
- Determination of methylamines and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter by non-suppressed ion chromatography
Mark E Erupe
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 0300 Old Main Hill, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 0300, USA
J Chromatogr A 1217:2070-3. 2010
..method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of methylamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine) and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter air samples...
- Hydrogen bonding progressively strengthens upon transfer of the protein urea-denatured state to water and protecting osmolytes
Luis Marcelo F Holthauzen
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1052, USA
Biochemistry 49:1310-8. 2010
- G protein-coupled receptor mediated trimethylamine sensing
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoping University, SE 58183 Linkoping, Sweden
Biosens Bioelectron 25:715-20. 2009
..For the detection of TMA vapor, the cells were covered with agarose, which allowed for intact cell viability for at least 6h in air. The developed gas measurement platform was able to detect TMA from 1 to 100 ppm within 35 min...
- An X-ray and neutron scattering study of the equilibrium between trimethylamine N-oxide and urea in aqueous solution
Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:13765-71. 2011
..14 M(-1), which is of the same order as the experimental urea-protein binding constants per site reported in the literature. This confirms that the two osmolytes act independently at least in the physiological range...
- Near infra-red spectra of urea with glycine betaine or trimethylamine N-oxide are additive
Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand
Biochim Biophys Acta 1528:135-40. 2001
..The exceptional properties of glycine betaine do not arise from specific intramolecular interactions between the charged groups...
- Some notes on crystallizing fibrinogen and fibrin fragments
Russell F Doolittle
Center for Molecular Genetics, Room 206, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0634, USA
Biophys Chem 100:307-13. 2003
..The history of my interest in fibrinogen and its crystallization can be traced back in part to some early interactions with John Edsall...
- Extension of yeast chronological lifespan by methylamine
Molecular Cell Biology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute GBB, University of Groningen, Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, Groningen, The Netherlands
PLoS ONE 7:e48982. 2012
..We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha grown at conditions that require primary peroxisome metabolism for growth...
- TMAO and other organic osmolytes in the muscles of amphipods (Crustacea) from shallow and deep water of Lake Baikal
Institut für Biologie der Freien Universität Berlin, Stoffwechsel und Systemphysiologie Grunewaldstr 34, Germany
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 142:58-64. 2005
..The elevated intracellular osmotic pressure is balanced by upregulating the extracellular hemolymph NaCl concentration...
- Raman spectroscopic signatures of noncovalent interactions between trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and water
Katherine L Munroe
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
J Phys Chem B 115:7699-707. 2011
- The role of water coordination in binary mixtures. A study of two model amphiphilic molecules in aqueous solutions by molecular dynamics and NMR
SOFT INFM CNR Research Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza, I 00185 Roma, Italy
J Phys Chem B 110:8885-92. 2006
..This effect does not take place in TMAO solutions, where the hydration shell is more compact and stable, maintaining its structure over a wider range of solute concentrations...
- Factors affecting counteraction by methylamines of urea effects on aldose reductase
M B Burg
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:6517-22. 1999
..The usual explanation is that the methylamines found in the renal medulla, namely glycerophosphocholine and betaine, have actions opposite to those of urea ..
- Involvement of methyltransferase-activating protein and methyltransferase 2 isoenzyme II in methylamine:coenzyme M methyltransferase reactions in Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro
R W Wassenaar
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
J Bacteriol 178:6937-44. 1996
- Purification and characterization of dimethylamine:5-hydroxybenzimidazolyl-cobamide methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro
R W Wassenaar
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Eur J Biochem 253:692-7. 1998
..Activation required the presence of methyltransferase-activating protein, ATP and dimethylamine. Incubation with these compounds resulted in the methylation of the corrinoid prosthetic group...
- Interactions of trimethylamine N-oxide and water with cyclo-alanylglycine
Karen G Hovagimyan
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
J Phys Chem B 109:24142-51. 2005
- The accumulation of methylamine counteracting solutes in elasmobranchs with differing levels of urea: a comparison of marine and freshwater species
Jason R Treberg
Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada A1C 5S7
J Exp Biol 209:860-70. 2006
We compared levels of the major organic osmolytes in the muscle of elasmobranchs, including the methylamines trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), betaine and sarcosine as well as the beta-amino acids taurine and beta-alanine, and the activities ..
- Counteraction of urea by trimethylamine N-oxide is due to direct interaction
Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Biophys J 97:2559-66. 2009
- Destabilization of the hydrogen-bond structure of water by the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide
Y L A Rezus
FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Phys Chem B 113:4038-44. 2009
..We also investigate the influence of the simultaneous presence in a solution of TMAO and urea, and of TMAO and NMA. It turns out that the effects of TMAO and urea are additive, whereas those of TMAO and NMA are nonadditive...
- Structure and interaction in aqueous urea-trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions
Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
J Am Chem Soc 129:4476-82. 2007
..These observations suggest that the mechanism of TMAO counter denaturation is simply that water and urea prefer to solvate TMAO rather than the protein, hence inhibiting its unfolding...
- Modulation of hydrophobic effect by cosolutes
Alessandro Di Michele
Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, CEMIN, Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati per Applicazioni Chimiche, fisiche e biomediche, I 06100 Perugia, Italy
J Phys Chem B 110:21077-85. 2006
..This confers the compatibility to these two osmolytes, which can be accumulated at high concentrations without interfering with biochemical processes in the cell...
- Effects of naturally occurring osmolytes on protein stability and solubility: issues important in protein crystallization
D W Bolen
Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, Sealy Center for Structual Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 5 154 Medical Research Bldg, Galveston, TX 77555 1052, USA
Methods 34:312-22. 2004
- Methylobacterium nodulans sp. nov., for a group of aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic, legume root-nodule-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, UMR 1063, IRD CIRAD INRA Agro M UMII, TA 10 J, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:2269-73. 2004
..The name Methylobacterium nodulans sp. nov. (type strain, ORS 2060(T)=CNCM I 2342(T)=LMG 21967(T)) is proposed for this group of root-nodule-forming bacteria...
- Osmolytes stabilize ribonuclease S by stabilizing its fragments S protein and S peptide to compact folding-competent states
G S Ratnaparkhi
National Center for Biological Sciences, Bangalore 560 065, India
J Biol Chem 276:28789-98. 2001
..The increased stabilization thus results from a decrease in conformational entropy of the unfolded state...
- Modulation of the activity of newly synthesized human phenylalanine hydroxylase mutant proteins by low-molecular-weight compounds
Metabolism and Genetics Group, iMed UL, Faculdade Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa, Av Prof Gama Pinto, 1649 003 Lisbon, Portugal
Protein J 27:392-400. 2008
..Coli molecular chaperones we postulate that glycerol and TMAO rescue results from a direct stabilizing effect of the newly synthesized mutant hPAH enzymes...
- Simulations of macromolecules in protective and denaturing osmolytes: properties of mixed solvent systems and their effects on water and protein structure and dynamics
David A C Beck
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Methods Enzymol 428:373-96. 2007
..In the case of TMAO, we find that it encourages water-water interactions, thereby stabilizing the protein as a result of the increased penalty for the hydration of hydrophobic residues...
- Accumulation of trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis
Marcus A Bain
Centre for Pharmaceutical Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:1300-4. 2006
..The clinical significance of TMA may be related to its potential to contribute to neurological toxicity and 'uraemic breath' in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
- Crowding and hydration effects on protein conformation: a study with sol-gel encapsulated proteins
D K Eggers
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1569, USA
J Mol Biol 314:911-22. 2001
..In the crowded environment of a living cell, excluded volume effects, surface-induced water structure, and compatible solutes are expected to complement the dominant forces in protein folding...
- Methanol-dependent gene expression demonstrates that methyl-coenzyme M reductase is essential in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and allows isolation of mutants with defects in regulation of the methanol utilization pathway
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 601 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
J Bacteriol 187:5552-9. 2005
..This genetic system can therefore be employed for the testing of essential genes and for the identification of genes under a common regulatory mechanism by making regulatory mutations phenotypically selectable...
- Trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide levels in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis reflect a local metabolism in vaginal secretion as compared to urine
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
APMIS 113:513-6. 2005
..The results show that a local production of TMA occurs in the vagina that is not part of the general metabolism of TMA-TMAO...
- Reconstitution of trimethylamine-dependent coenzyme M methylation with the trimethylamine corrinoid protein and the isozymes of methyltransferase II from Methanosarcina barkeri
D J Ferguson
Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
J Bacteriol 179:846-52. 1997
- Correction of the disease phenotype of myocilin-causing glaucoma by a natural osmolyte
Li Yun Jia
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3743-9. 2009
..To characterize a novel Asp384Asn (D384N) mutant myocilin (MYOC) that causes juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and investigate the correction of mutant phenotype by a natural osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)...
- The hydrogen bond network structure within the hydration shell around simple osmolytes: urea, tetramethylurea, and trimethylamine-N-oxide, investigated using both a fixed charge and a polarizable water model
Department of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11 12, 80 952 Gdansk, Poland
J Chem Phys 133:035102. 2010
- Measuring the stability of partly folded proteins using TMAO
Cecilia C Mello
Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Protein Sci 12:1522-9. 2003
..Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of this method to measurement of the free energy of unfolding of a partly folded protein, a fragment of the full-length Notch ankyrin domain...
- Natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide corrects assembly defects of mutant branched-chain alpha-ketoacid decarboxylase in maple syrup urine disease
J L Song
Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9038, USA
J Biol Chem 276:40241-6. 2001
..The above in vitro results offer the use of chemical chaperones such as TMAO as an approach to mitigate assembly defects caused by maple syrup urine disease mutations...
- Prevention of polymerization of M and Z alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) with trimethylamine N-oxide. Implications for the treatment of alpha1-at deficiency
G L Devlin
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 24:727-32. 2001
..These data show that TMAO can be used to control the conformational transitions of folded alpha1-AT but that it is ineffective in promoting folding of the polypeptide chain within the secretory pathway...
- The freeze-avoidance response of smelt Osmerus mordax: initiation and subsequent suppression of glycerol, trimethylamine oxide and urea accumulation
Jason R Treberg
Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s Newfoundland, Canada A1C 5S7
J Exp Biol 205:1419-27. 2002
..In January samples, AFP activity (thermal hysteresis) did not vary significantly between groups but mRNA levels were significantly lower in the smelt held at warm temperatures...
- Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Dept of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linkopings Universitet, Sweden
APMIS 110:819-24. 2002
..It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 microg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV...
- Missense mutation in flavin-containing mono-oxygenase 3 gene, FMO3, underlies fish-odour syndrome
C T Dolphin
Department of Biochemistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, UK
Nat Genet 17:491-4. 1997
..Our results indicate that defects in FMO3 underlie fish-odour syndrome and that the Pro 153-->Leu 153 mutation described here is a cause of this distressing condition...
- Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of ammonium transporter-1 NH4 uniporters
Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
J Biol Chem 278:45603-10. 2003
..Thus, in yeast, oocytes, and plants, ammonium transporters are able to oligomerize, which may be relevant for regulation of ammonium uptake...
- Biochemical and clinical aspects of the human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3 (FMO3) related to trimethylaminuria
John R Cashman
Human BioMolecular Research Institute, San Diego, CA, USA
Curr Drug Metab 4:151-70. 2003
..The remarkable progress in the biochemical, genetic, clinical basis for understanding the trimethylaminuria condition is summarized and points to needs in the treatment of individuals suffering from trimethylaminuria...
- Osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide does not affect the strength of hydrophobic interactions: origin of osmolyte compatibility
Manoj V Athawale
The Howard P Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA
Biophys J 89:858-66. 2005
..The precise balance of the effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments of the molecule appears to explain the virtual noneffect of TMAO on the strength of hydrophobic interactions...
- Characteristics of renal Rhbg as an NH4(+) transporter
Nazih L Nakhoul
Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, SL 45, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288:F170-81. 2005
..8 and an apparent K(m) of 2.3 mM (R(2) = 0.99). These data strongly suggest that Rhbg is a specific electrogenic transporter of NH(4)(+)...
- Different transport mechanisms in plant and human AMT/Rh-type ammonium transporters
Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen, Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
J Gen Physiol 127:133-44. 2006
..Thus, homologous AMT/Rh-type proteins function in a distinct manner; while LeAMT1;2 carries specifically NH4+, or cotransports NH3/H+, RhCG mediates electroneutral NH3 transport...
- Functional and physiological evidence for a rhesus-type ammonia transporter in Nitrosomonas europaea
Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
FEMS Microbiol Lett 273:260-7. 2007
..The results suggest that Rh1 equilibrates the uncharged substrate species. A low pH value in the periplasmic space during ammonia oxidation seems to be responsible for the ammonium accumulation functioning as an acid NH(4) (+) trap...
- Chemical chaperones mediate increased secretion of mutant alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) Z: A potential pharmacological strategy for prevention of liver injury and emphysema in alpha 1-AT deficiency
J A Burrows
Departments of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children s Hospital, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1796-801. 2000
- Human Rhesus B and Rhesus C glycoproteins: properties of facilitated ammonium transport in recombinant kidney cells
INSERM, U665, Paris, F 75015, France
Biochem J 391:33-40. 2005
..Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 17222-17227] constitute a family of NH3 channels in mammalian cells...
- Human Rhesus-associated glycoprotein mediates facilitated transport of NH(3) into red blood cells
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 76, and Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, 6 rue Alexandre Cabanel, 75015 Paris, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17222-7. 2004
..In RBCs, RhAG may transport NH(3) to detoxifying organs, like kidney and liver, and together with nonerythroid tissue orthologs may contribute to the regulation of the systemic acid-base balance...
- Osmolyte effects on helix formation in peptides and the stability of coiled-coils
Scott A Celinski
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Center for Advanced Biomolecular Research, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 1114, USA
Protein Sci 11:2048-51. 2002
..Together these results support the tenets of the osmophobic hypothesis and highlight the importance of the polypeptide backbone in protein folding and stability...
- Stop codon mutations in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene responsible for trimethylaminuria in a Japanese population
Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194 8543, Japan
Mol Genet Metab 90:58-63. 2007
..The results suggest that individuals homozygous for either of the nonsense mutations, Arg500Stop and/or Cys197Stop alleles, in the FMO3 gene can possess abnormal TMA N-oxygenation...
- Genome of Methylobacillus flagellatus, molecular basis for obligate methylotrophy, and polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy
University of Washington, Seattle, USA
J Bacteriol 189:4020-7. 2007
..capsulatus and M. extorquens than to the ones in the more closely related M. petroleiphilum species, providing the first genomic evidence for the polyphyletic origin of methylotrophy in Betaproteobacteria...
- Characterization of ammonia transport by the kidney Rh glycoproteins RhBG and RhCG
Don On Daniel Mak
American Red Cross, 700 Spring Garden St, Philadelphia, PA 19123, USA
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290:F297-305. 2006
- Intracellular mislocalization of mutant podocin and correction by chemical chaperones
Department of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women s Medical University, 8 1 Kawada cho Shinjuku, 162 8666, Tokyo, Japan
Histochem Cell Biol 119:257-64. 2003
..Our results reveal defective cellular processing of the mutant podocin, and provide evidence for pharmacological correction of the processing defect...
- Linked folding and anion binding of the Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P protein
C H Henkels
Department of Biochemistry, Box 3711, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Biochemistry 40:2777-89. 2001
..Evidence that the osmolyte-induced and the ligand-induced folded conformations of the P protein are structurally similar is also presented...
- Mild trimethylaminuria observed in a Japanese cohort with liver damage
Am J Med 118:803-5. 2005
- Methylotrophy in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 from a genomic point of view
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 2125, USA
J Bacteriol 185:2980-7. 2003
- Structure and energetics of the hydrogen-bonded backbone in protein folding
D Wayne Bolen
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and The Sealy Center for Structural Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1052, USA
Annu Rev Biochem 77:339-62. 2008
..This reciprocal relationship establishes the essential link between protein thermodynamics and the protein's hydrogen-bonded backbone structure...
- Mechanism of genetic complementation of ammonium transport in yeast by human erythrocyte Rh-associated glycoprotein
Connie M Westhoff
Department of Pathology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennyslvania 19104, USA
J Biol Chem 279:17443-8. 2004
..This report clarifies and expands previous observations of RhAG-mediated transport in yeast and supports the hypothesis that ammonium transport is coupled to the H(+) gradient and that RhAG functions as a NH(4)(+)/H(+) exchanger...
- Application of the transfer model to understand how naturally occurring osmolytes affect protein stability
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
Methods Enzymol 428:397-418. 2007
..It then demonstrates how to derive a prediction of the m value for the description of protein folding/unfolding cooperativity and that the calculated values using the transfer model agree quite well with experimentally measured values...
- Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients
Laboratory of Drug Metabolism, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12W6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
Life Sci 74:2739-47. 2004
..several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU...
- Osmolyte effects on kinetics of FKBP12 C22A folding coupled with prolyl isomerization
Andrew T Russo
Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, 5 154 MRB, Galveston, TX 77555 1052, USA
J Mol Biol 330:851-66. 2003
..This effect also plays a key role in decreasing the unfolding rate when, as is often the case, the activated complex exposes more backbone than is exposed in the native state...
- Osmolytes induce structure in an early intermediate on the folding pathway of barstar
National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India
J Biol Chem 279:40303-13. 2004
- Counteraction of urea-induced protein denaturation by trimethylamine N-oxide: a chemical chaperone at atomic resolution
Brian J Bennion
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7610, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:6433-8. 2004
..Instead, it prevents unfolding of the protein by structuring the solvent. In particular, TMAO orders the solvent and discourages it from competing with intraprotein H bonds and breaking up the hydrophobic core of the protein...
- Trimethylamine N-oxide influence on the backbone of proteins: an oligoglycine model
Char Y Hu
Graduate Program in Structural and Computational Biology and Molecular Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
Proteins 78:695-704. 2010
..This provides a clear mechanism showing that even a modest concentration of TMAO forces the protein backbone to adopt a more collapsed structure in the absence of side chain effects...
- Hydrophobic interactions in urea-trimethylamine-N-oxide solutions
Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1, Canada
J Phys Chem B 112:11106-11. 2008
..It is likely the surfactant-like influence of TMAO that accounts for the elimination of the hydrophobic attraction. The implications of our results for explanations of the action of TMAO in protein solutions are discussed...
- Involvement of the "A" isozyme of methyltransferase II and the 29-kilodalton corrinoid protein in methanogenesis from monomethylamine
S A Burke
Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
J Bacteriol 177:4410-6. 1995
..A likely mechanism is that the 29-kDa corrinoid is methylated by MMA and the methyl group is then transferred by the "A" isozyme of MT2 to CoM...
- Human flavin-containing monooxygenase form 3: cDNA expression of the enzymes containing amino acid substitutions observed in individuals with trimethylaminuria
J R Cashman
Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Washington 98109, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 10:837-41. 1997
..The data show that the functional activity of human FMO3 can be significantly altered by amino acid changes that have been observed in individuals with clinically diagnosed trimethylaminuria...
- In vivo variability of TMA oxidation is partially mediated by polymorphisms of the FMO3 gene
D M Lambert
Biochemical Genetics, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Mol Genet Metab 73:224-9. 2001
..quot; With the use of substrate loading or with the interaction of other known modulators of FMO3 activity such as hormonal influences, these genotypes may predispose to mild TMAU...
- Apical ammonia transport by the mouse inner medullary collecting duct cell (mIMCD-3)
Mary E Handlogten
Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, 32610 0224, USA
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289:F347-58. 2005
- Glutamate counteracts the denaturing effect of urea through its effect on the denatured state
Amit Kumar Mandal
Department of Biophysics, Bose Institute, P 1 12 C I T Scheme VII M, Calcutta 700 054, India
J Biol Chem 278:36077-84. 2003
..For example, glycine betaine counteracts urea denaturation of tubulin but promotes denaturation of S228N lambda-repressor and carbonic anhydrase. Osmolyte counteraction of urea denaturation depends on osmolyte-protein pair...
- Activation of halophilic nucleoside diphosphate kinase by a non-ionic osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide
Laboratory of Applied and Molecular Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan
J Protein Chem 22:345-51. 2003
..0 NDK could be refolded in the presence of 4 M TMAO only when low concentrations of NaCl are included...
- Protein stability in mixed solvents: a balance of contact interaction and excluded volume
John A Schellman
Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97405, USA
Biophys J 85:108-25. 2003
..It is shown in the Appendix that both the excluded volume and the direct interaction can be extracted in a unified way from the McMillan-Mayer formula for the second virial coefficient...
- Alkaline tide and nitrogen conservation after feeding in an elasmobranch (Squalus acanthias)
Chris M Wood
Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1
J Exp Biol 208:2693-705. 2005
- Effect of environmental factors on the kinetics of insulin fibril formation: elucidation of the molecular mechanism
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
Biochemistry 40:6036-46. 2001
..A kinetic model, involving the association of monomeric partially folded intermediates, whose concentration is stimulated by the air-water interface, leading to formation of the critical nucleus and thence fibrils, is proposed...
- Methylohalomonas lacus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Methylonatrum kenyense gen. nov., sp. nov., methylotrophic gammaproteobacteria from hypersaline lakes
Dimitry Yu Sorokin
Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 60 let Octyabrya 7 2, 117811 Moscow, Russia
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2762-9. 2007
..nov., sp. nov. (type strain AMT 1(T) =DSM 15732(T) =NCCB 100209(T) =UNIQEM U238(T))...
- Electrogenic ammonium transport by renal Rhbg
N L Nakhoul
Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, SL 45, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Transfus Clin Biol 13:147-53. 2006
..These data indicate that: 1) Rhbg transport of NH4+ is electrogenic. 2) Methyl ammonium is transported by Rhbg. 3) NH4+ transport by Rhbg is saturated at high concentrations with Michaelis-Menten kinetics...
- Effects of osmolytes on RNA secondary and tertiary structure stabilities and RNA-Mg2+ interactions
Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
J Mol Biol 370:993-1005. 2007
..Our results also suggest that some osmolytes can be useful tools for studying intrinsically unstable RNA folds and assessing the mechanisms of Mg(2+)-induced RNA stabilization...