amphetamine

Summary

Summary: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate
    L Bizarro
    Section of Behavioural Pharmacology, Institute of Psychiatry P049, King s College London, UK
    Behav Pharmacol 15:195-206. 2004
  2. ncbi Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter
    B Giros
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 379:606-12. 1996
  3. pmc Schizophrenia is associated with elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations: evidence from a novel positron emission tomography method
    A Breier
    Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2569-74. 1997
  4. ncbi Imaging human mesolimbic dopamine transmission with positron emission tomography. Part II: amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the functional subdivisions of the striatum
    Diana Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23:285-300. 2003
  5. pmc Post-treatment with amphetamine enhances reinnervation of the ipsilateral side cortex in stroke rats
    Hua Shan Liu
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuroimage 56:280-9. 2011
  6. ncbi Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin
    R B Rothman
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Synapse 39:32-41. 2001
  7. ncbi Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine
    Diana Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:622-9. 2007
  8. pmc Ghrelin receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine- and amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference
    Elisabet Jerlhag
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:415-22. 2010
  9. ncbi Amphetamine exposure enhances habit formation
    Andrew Nelson
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:3805-12. 2006
  10. ncbi Conditioned dopamine release in humans: a positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride study with amphetamine
    Isabelle Boileau
    McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    J Neurosci 27:3998-4003. 2007

Detail Information

Publications343 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate
    L Bizarro
    Section of Behavioural Pharmacology, Institute of Psychiatry P049, King s College London, UK
    Behav Pharmacol 15:195-206. 2004
    ..This study compared the effects of nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate on performance in the 5-CSRTT and determined whether presenting stimuli at ..
  2. ncbi Hyperlocomotion and indifference to cocaine and amphetamine in mice lacking the dopamine transporter
    B Giros
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 379:606-12. 1996
    ..The dopamine transporter is an obligatory target of cocaine and amphetamine, as these psychostimulants have no effect on locomotor activity or dopamine release and uptake in mice lacking ..
  3. pmc Schizophrenia is associated with elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations: evidence from a novel positron emission tomography method
    A Breier
    Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2569-74. 1997
    ..the hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is the psychomimetic potential of agents such as amphetamine that stimulate dopamine outflow...
  4. ncbi Imaging human mesolimbic dopamine transmission with positron emission tomography. Part II: amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the functional subdivisions of the striatum
    Diana Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23:285-300. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to compare activation of dopamine D2 receptors after amphetamine administration in the functional subdivisions of the human striatum...
  5. pmc Post-treatment with amphetamine enhances reinnervation of the ipsilateral side cortex in stroke rats
    Hua Shan Liu
    National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuroimage 56:280-9. 2011
    b>Amphetamine (AM) treatment has been shown to alter behavioral recovery after ischemia caused by embolism, permanent unilateral occlusion of the common carotid and middle cerebral arteries, or unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation in ..
  6. ncbi Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin
    R B Rothman
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Synapse 39:32-41. 2001
    ..mediates, in animal models, the reinforcing effects of central nervous system stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. The role DA plays in mediating amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans remains to be ..
  7. ncbi Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine
    Diana Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 164:622-9. 2007
    ..Specifically, dopamine response to an acute amphetamine challenge was assessed in striatal subregions in cocaine-dependent and healthy comparison participants using ..
  8. pmc Ghrelin receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine- and amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference
    Elisabet Jerlhag
    Section for Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:415-22. 2010
    ..reward pathway that is intimately associated with reward-seeking behaviour, we sought to determine whether the central ghrelin signaling system is required for reward from drugs of abuse other than alcohol, namely cocaine or amphetamine.
  9. ncbi Amphetamine exposure enhances habit formation
    Andrew Nelson
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:3805-12. 2006
    ..leads to a more rapid transition from action-outcome processes to S-R habits, we examined performance of amphetamine-sensitized rats in an instrumental devaluation task...
  10. ncbi Conditioned dopamine release in humans: a positron emission tomography [11C]raclopride study with amphetamine
    Isabelle Boileau
    McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    J Neurosci 27:3998-4003. 2007
    ..In the present study, we used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride to investigate whether amphetamine-predictive stimuli can elicit striatal dopamine release in humans...
  11. ncbi Amphetamine-induced displacement of [18F] fallypride in striatum and extrastriatal regions in humans
    Patrizia Riccardi
    Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 2675, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1016-26. 2006
    This study examined D-amphetamine (D-AMPH)-induced displacements of [18F] fallypride in striatal and extrastriatal regions and the correlations of these displacements with cognition, affect, and sensation-seeking behavior...
  12. pmc The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer localizes in dynorphin/enkephalin neurons: increased high affinity state following amphetamine and in schizophrenia
    Melissa L Perreault
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 285:36625-34. 2010
    ..D1-D2 heteromer sensitivity and functional activity was up-regulated in rat striatum by chronic amphetamine treatment and in globus pallidus from schizophrenia patients, indicating that the dopamine D1-D2 heteromer may ..
  13. ncbi A circuitry model of the expression of behavioral sensitization to amphetamine-like psychostimulants
    R C Pierce
    Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program, Washington State University, Pullman 99164 6520, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 25:192-216. 1997
    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine produces behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an augmented locomotor response to a subsequent psychostimulant challenge injection...
  14. ncbi Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and mixed amphetamine salts extended-release in children with ADHD: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover analog classroom study
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:970-6. 2007
    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a therapeutically inactive prodrug in which d-amphetamine is covalently bound to l-lysine, a naturally occurring amino acid...
  15. pmc Exendin-4 decreases amphetamine-induced locomotor activity
    Kevin Erreger
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Physiol Behav 106:574-8. 2012
    ..The abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) promotes behavioral locomotor activity primarily by inducing the release of the neurotransmitter ..
  16. ncbi Increased striatal dopamine transmission in schizophrenia: confirmation in a second cohort
    A Abi-Dargham
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 155:761-7. 1998
    The authors previously observed an increase in striatal dopamine transmission following amphetamine challenge in 15 untreated patients with schizophrenia compared to 15 matched healthy subjects...
  17. ncbi Impulsivity and chronic stress are associated with amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release
    Lynn M Oswald
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, MD 21205, USA
    Neuroimage 36:153-66. 2007
    ..of this study was to examine associations among impulsivity, stress, and striatal dopamine (DA) responses to amphetamine (AMPH) in humans...
  18. pmc Activation of afferents to the ventral tegmental area in response to acute amphetamine: a double-labelling study
    Joyce Colussi-Mas
    FRE CNRS 3006, Laboratoire de Neuropharmacologie, Universite Lyon 1, 69373 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Eur J Neurosci 26:1011-25. 2007
    ..Rats were sensitized by a single exposure to amphetamine (5 mg/kg, s.c.)...
  19. pmc A closer look at amphetamine-induced reverse transport and trafficking of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters
    S D Robertson
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 39:73-80. 2009
    b>Amphetamine (AMPH) and its derivatives are regularly used in the treatment of a wide array of disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, traumatic brain injury, and narcolepsy (Prog Neurobiol 75:406-433, ..
  20. pmc Amphetamine or cocaine limits the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity in the neocortex and nucleus accumbens
    Bryan Kolb
    Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1K 3M4
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10523-8. 2003
    ..We tested this hypothesis by treating rats repeatedly with amphetamine or cocaine and then housing them in either a complex environment or standard laboratory cages for 3-3.5 mo...
  21. ncbi The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry
    T W Robbins
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:362-80. 2002
    ..The developmental history and application of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) for measuring effects of drugs and other manipulations on attentional performance (and stimulus control) in rats is reviewed...
  22. ncbi Alterations in the morphology of dendrites and dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex following repeated treatment with amphetamine or cocaine
    T E Robinson
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 11:1598-604. 1999
    ..g. amphetamine psychosis...
  23. ncbi The amphetamine-induced sensitized state as a model of schizophrenia
    R E Featherstone
    Section of Biopsychology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 1R8
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:1556-71. 2007
    ..In animals, exposure to an intermittent, escalating dose regimen of amphetamine induces a sensitized state that appears to share a number of behavioural and neurochemical similarities with ..
  24. ncbi Mechanisms of amphetamine action revealed in mice lacking the dopamine transporter
    S R Jones
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 18:1979-86. 1998
    b>Amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits uptake and causes release of dopamine (DA) from presynaptic terminals. AMPH can act on both vesicular storage of DA and directly on the dopamine transporter (DAT)...
  25. pmc Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel
    Kristopher M Kahlig
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 465 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232 8548, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3495-500. 2005
    Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamine (AMPH), and heroin, elevate extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the brain, thereby altering the activity/plasticity of reward circuits and precipitating addiction...
  26. ncbi Amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine, drug wanting, and novelty seeking: a PET/[11C]raclopride study in healthy men
    Marco Leyton
    Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:1027-35. 2002
    ..two positron emission tomography (PET) [11C]raclopride scans, one following placebo, the second following d-amphetamine (0.30 mg/kg, p.o.)...
  27. ncbi Amphetamines take two to tango: an oligomer-based counter-transport model of neurotransmitter transport explores the amphetamine action
    Stefan Seidel
    Institute of Pharmacology, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Strasse 13a, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Mol Pharmacol 67:140-51. 2005
    b>Amphetamine congeners [e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA), or "ecstasy"] are substrates for monoamine transporters (i.e...
  28. ncbi The effect of amphetamine on Kamin blocking and overshadowing
    C M P O'Tuathaigh
    School of Psychology, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Behav Pharmacol 14:315-22. 2003
    ..b>Amphetamine-treated animals show similar deficits in analogous tasks, thereby providing a model of the stimulus-selection ..
  29. ncbi μ-Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell region mediate the effects of amphetamine on inhibitory control but not impulsive choice
    Joost Wiskerke
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 31:262-72. 2011
    Acute challenges with psychostimulants such as amphetamine affect impulsive behavior in both animals and humans...
  30. ncbi Involvement of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in inhibitory response control
    Tommy Pattij
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, VU Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:587-98. 2007
    ..Impaired inhibitory control over behavior is a key feature in various psychiatric disorders, and recent studies indicated an important role for dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) in this respect...
  31. pmc Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions
    Neil D Woodward
    Psychiatric Neuroimaging Program, Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 168:418-26. 2011
    ..The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions...
  32. ncbi Amphetamine sensitization alters dendritic morphology in prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons in the non-human primate
    Lynn D Selemon
    1Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8001, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:919-31. 2007
    b>Amphetamine (AMPH) sensitization in the nonhuman primate induces persistent aberrant behaviors reminiscent of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia, including hallucinatory-like behaviors, psychomotor depression, and profound cognitive ..
  33. ncbi Reverse or inverted left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) in a young woman in the setting of amphetamine use
    Mohammad Reza Movahed
    Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA
    Echocardiography 25:429-32. 2008
    ..In this article, we report an interesting case of a young woman who presented with this rare type of reverse apical ballooning syndrome occurring after amphetamine use. This report is followed by review of the literature.
  34. ncbi Dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex controls genotype-dependent effects of amphetamine on mesoaccumbens dopamine release and locomotion
    Rossella Ventura
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:72-80. 2004
    Mice of background DBA/2J are hyporesponsive to the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine in comparison with the widely exploited murine background C57BL/6J...
  35. pmc Inhibition of GSK3 attenuates amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and sensitization in the mouse
    Nicole M Enman
    Department of Pharmacology and Center for Substance Abuse Research, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Behav Brain Res 231:217-25. 2012
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of amphetamine, which increases extracellular dopamine levels and influences behavior, to regulate the activity of GSK3...
  36. ncbi Amphetamine activates connexin43 gene expression in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through JNK and AP-1 pathway
    Kou Gi Shyu
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Cardiovasc Res 63:98-108. 2004
    b>Amphetamine has been known to induce cardiac dysrhythmia and sudden death. However, the molecular mechanism for the induction of dysrhythmia is not known. Connexin43 (Cx43) plays an important role for arrhythmogenesis...
  37. ncbi Inhibitory control and response latency differences between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice in a Go/No-Go and 5-choice serial reaction time task and strain-specific responsivity to amphetamine
    Maarten Loos
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 214:216-24. 2010
    ..commonly used inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, and investigated whether treatment with the stimulant amphetamine affected these phenotypes...
  38. ncbi Catecholamine mapping within nucleus accumbens: differences in basal and amphetamine-stimulated efflux of norepinephrine and dopamine in shell and core
    Christina R McKittrick
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    J Neurochem 100:1247-56. 2007
    ..Both catecholamines increased following a single injection of amphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The norepinephrine response was greater and long-lasting in shell compared with core...
  39. pmc Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux
    Francesca Binda
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Kennedy Centerfor Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, 7124 MRBIII, 465 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 74:1101-8. 2008
    ..b>Amphetamine (AMPH) increases the association of SYN1A with human DAT (hDAT) in a heterologous expression system (hDAT cells)..
  40. pmc A comparison of amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity in rats: evidence for qualitative differences in behavior
    Darien A Hall
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 731 Psychology Bldg MC 716, 603 E Daniel St, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195:469-78. 2008
    Methamphetamine (METH) is typically characterized as a more potent psychostimulant than amphetamine (AMPH), but few studies have directly compared the effects of these drugs at low, behaviorally activating doses that tend not to produce ..
  41. pmc Social bonding decreases the rewarding properties of amphetamine through a dopamine D1 receptor-mediated mechanism
    Yan Liu
    Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7960-6. 2011
    ..ochrogaster)--a socially monogamous rodent that forms long-term pair bonds after mating--we demonstrate that amphetamine (AMPH) conditioning induced a conditioned place preference (CPP) in sexually naive (SN), but not pair-bonded (..
  42. pmc More aroused, less fatigued: fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphisms influence acute response to amphetamine
    Andrea M Dlugos
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:613-22. 2010
    b>Amphetamine is a stimulant drug that enhances attention and feelings of alertness. Amphetamine's effects are known to be modulated by endogenous cannabinoids, which are degraded by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)...
  43. ncbi Impulsive action induced by amphetamine, cocaine and MK801 is reduced by 5-HT(2C) receptor stimulation and 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade
    Paul J Fletcher
    Section of Biopsychology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 1R8
    Neuropharmacology 61:468-77. 2011
    ..receptor agonist Ro60-0175, and the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 on impulsive action induced by amphetamine, cocaine and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine)...
  44. ncbi Pharmacological treatment patterns among patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: retrospective claims-based analysis of a managed care population
    Laura Christensen
    i3 Innovus, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 26:977-89. 2010
    ....
  45. ncbi Long-term stimulant treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    C Gillberg
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Goteborg, Sweden
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 54:857-64. 1997
    We wanted to study the effects of amphetamine on symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over a longer period than has been reported in previous studies of central stimulants in this condition.
  46. ncbi Acute amphetamine down-regulates RGS4 mRNA and protein expression in rat forebrain: distinct roles of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors
    Marek Schwendt
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurochem 96:1606-15. 2006
    ..In the present study, the regulation of amphetamine-induced decrease of RGS4 expression in the rat forebrain was evaluated...
  47. ncbi Behavioral responses to cocaine and amphetamine administration in mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor
    M Xu
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH 45267 0521, USA
    Brain Res 852:198-207. 2000
    Cocaine and amphetamine can induce both short-term and long-term behavioral changes in rodents. The major target for these psychostimulants is thought to be the brain dopamine system...
  48. ncbi The amphetamine sensitization model of schizophrenia: relevance beyond psychotic symptoms?
    Daria Peleg-Raibstein
    Laboratory of Behavioural Neurobiology, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 206:603-21. 2009
    ..Following withdrawal from amphetamine exposures, psychotic-like traits have been robustly demonstrated, but the presence of cognitive/mnemonic ..
  49. ncbi Amphetamine increases phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and transcription factors in the rat striatum via group I metabotropic glutamate receptors
    Eun Sang Choe
    Division of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2411 Holmes St, M3 C15, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:565-75. 2002
    b>Amphetamine is an indirect dopamine receptor agonist and increases glutamate release in the striatum...
  50. pmc Embryonic stem cells develop into functional dopaminergic neurons after transplantation in a Parkinson rat model
    Lars M Bjorklund
    Udall Parkinson s Disease Research Center of Excellence, Neuroregeneration Laboratories, and Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2344-9. 2002
    ..These results demonstrate that transplanted ES cells can develop spontaneously into DA neurons. Such DA neurons can restore cerebral function and behavior in an animal model of Parkinson's disease...
  51. ncbi Comparative and interactive human psychopharmacologic effects of ketamine and amphetamine: implications for glutamatergic and dopaminergic model psychoses and cognitive function
    John H Krystal
    Department of Psychiatry and Division of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06516, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:985-94. 2005
    In healthy individuals, ketamine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulfate produce cognitive, behavioral, and subjective effects resembling endogenous psychoses...
  52. ncbi Intra-accumbens amphetamine increases the conditioned incentive salience of sucrose reward: enhancement of reward "wanting" without enhanced "liking" or response reinforcement
    C L Wyvell
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 20:8122-30. 2000
    b>Amphetamine microinjection into the nucleus accumbens shell enhanced the ability of a Pavlovian reward cue to trigger increased instrumental performance for sucrose reward in a pure conditioned incentive paradigm...
  53. ncbi The neuropharmacology of ADHD drugs in vivo: insights on efficacy and safety
    D J Heal
    RenaSci Consultancy Ltd, BioCity, Nottingham NG1 1GF, UK
    Neuropharmacology 57:608-18. 2009
    ..The drugs reviewed come from distinct pharmacological classes: psychostimulant releasing agents, eg d-amphetamine; psychostimulant reuptake inhibitors, eg dl-threo-methylphenidate (dl-MPH), and non-stimulant reuptake ..
  54. ncbi Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: an update
    Julie A Dopheide
    Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 29:656-79. 2009
    ..Stimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, are the most effective therapy and have a good safety profile; although recent concerns of sudden unexplained ..
  55. ncbi Segregation of amphetamine reward and locomotor stimulation between nucleus accumbens medial shell and core
    Laurie H L Sellings
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6
    J Neurosci 23:6295-303. 2003
    Convergent evidence suggests that amphetamine (AMPH) exerts its rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects via release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens...
  56. ncbi Methamphetamine and amphetamine pharmacokinetics in oral fluid and plasma after controlled oral methamphetamine administration to human volunteers
    Raf J F Schepers
    Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 5500 Nathan Shock Dr, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Clin Chem 49:121-32. 2003
    Methamphetamine (METH) and amphetamine (AMP) concentrations in 200 plasma and 590 oral fluid specimens were used to evaluate METH pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after oral administration of sustained-release METH.
  57. ncbi Stimulation of endorphin neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens by ethanol, cocaine, and amphetamine
    M F Olive
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    J Neurosci 21:RC184. 2001
    ..e., ethanol, cocaine, d-amphetamine, and nicotine) would increase neurotransmission of endogenous opioid peptides (i.e...
  58. ncbi New perspectives from microdialysis studies in freely-moving, spontaneously hypertensive rats on the pharmacology of drugs for the treatment of ADHD
    D J Heal
    RenaSci Consultancy Limited, BioCity, Nottingham NG1 1GF, UK
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:184-97. 2008
    ..Furthermore, experiments performed with the enantiomers of amphetamine and threo-methylphenidate demonstrate that pharmacodynamic effects of drugs reported from experiments in ..
  59. ncbi Interactions between serotonin and dopamine in the control of impulsive choice in rats: therapeutic implications for impulse control disorders
    Catharine A Winstanley
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:669-82. 2005
    Forebrain serotonergic lesions attenuate the ability of d-amphetamine to decrease impulsivity in a delay-discounting paradigm, potentially through interactions between the serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) systems...
  60. pmc Progress and promise of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacogenetics
    Tanya E Froehlich
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    CNS Drugs 24:99-117. 2010
    ....
  61. ncbi Behavioral disinhibition requires dopamine receptor activation
    Marcel M van Gaalen
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Research Institute Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research CNCR, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 187:73-85. 2006
    ..Behavioral disinhibition can be investigated by measuring premature responding in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in which attentional parameters can be measured as well...
  62. ncbi Incentive sensitization by previous amphetamine exposure: increased cue-triggered "wanting" for sucrose reward
    C L Wyvell
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7831-40. 2001
    We reported previously that an amphetamine microinjection into the nucleus accumbens enables Pavlovian reward cues in a conditioned incentive paradigm to trigger excessive instrumental pursuit...
  63. ncbi Dopamine depletion abolishes apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular serotonin levels in the striatum of conscious rats: a microdialysis study
    A Balcioglu
    Neuroregeneration Laboratories, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Neuroscience 119:1045-53. 2003
    ..and high-pressure liquid chromatography under basal conditions and after systemic injections of apomorphine or amphetamine. DA nerve-terminal destruction and 5-HT innervation were determined with quantitative autoradiography...
  64. ncbi Wake-promoting agents with different mechanisms of action: comparison of effects of modafinil and amphetamine on food intake and cardiovascular activity
    Angela P Makris
    Weight and Eating Disorders Program, Suite 3121, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Appetite 42:185-95. 2004
    ..This study compared the effects of amphetamine and modafinil on food intake and cardiovascular activity in healthy men and women...
  65. ncbi Environmental enrichment decreases intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats: dose-response functions for fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules
    T A Green
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162:373-8. 2002
    Although environmental enrichment renders rats more sensitive to the neurobehavioral effects of acute amphetamine, a previous study found that enriched rats self-administer less amphetamine than isolated rats at a low unit dose (0...
  66. pmc A neurobehavioral systems analysis of adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate on E17: implications for the neuropathology of schizophrenia
    Holly Moore
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:253-64. 2006
    ..Specifically, we tested whether this manipulation leads to disruptions of frontal and limbic corticostriatal circuit function, while producing schizophrenia-like, region-dependent reductions in gray matter in cortex and thalamus...
  67. pmc Post-training, but not post-reactivation, administration of amphetamine and anisomycin modulates Pavlovian conditioned approach
    Cory A Blaiss
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:644-58. 2007
    The psychostimulant, amphetamine (AMPH), and the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI), have been shown to modulate the consolidation and reconsolidation of several types of learning...
  68. pmc Behavioral sensitization to amphetamine results from an uncoupling between noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons
    Lucas Salomon
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 114, College de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7476-81. 2006
    ..and 5-HT(2A) receptors and that this mutual inhibition vanishes with repeated injections of d-amphetamine; this uncoupling may be responsible for behavioral sensitization and for an increased reactivity of ..
  69. ncbi In vivo evidence for dopamine-mediated internalization of D2-receptors after amphetamine: differential findings with [3H]raclopride versus [3H]spiperone
    W Sun
    PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Mol Pharmacol 63:456-62. 2003
    ..with endogenous dopamine (DA) is usually invoked to explain changes in [(11)C]raclopride binding observed after amphetamine administration in animals and humans...
  70. ncbi Blockade of D2 dopamine receptors in the VTA induces a long-lasting enhancement of the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine
    L M Tanabe
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 15:387-95. 2004
    ..receptor antagonist, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the subsequent locomotor activating effects of amphetamine (AMPH). Rats were pre-exposed to one of three doses of eticlopride (0.75, 3.0 or 12.0 microg/0...
  71. ncbi Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: duration of action as assessed with the D2/3 receptor agonist radiotracer (-)-N-[(11)C]propyl-norapomorphine ([11C]NPA) in an anesthetized nonhuman primate
    Rajesh Narendran
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Synapse 61:106-9. 2007
  72. ncbi Khat habit and its health effect. A natural amphetamine
    Ishraq Dhaifalah
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetric, Al Thawra University Hospital, Sana a, Yemen Republic
    Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 148:11-5. 2004
    ..psycho-stimulant substance known as cathinone that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine in affecting the CNS...
  73. ncbi Amphetamine pretreatment accelerates the subsequent escalation of cocaine self-administration behavior
    Carrie R Ferrario
    Department of Psychology Biopsychology, The University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1304, USA
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 17:352-7. 2007
    ..We examined, therefore, the effect of pretreatment with a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine on the escalation of subsequent drug intake in rats given the opportunity to self-administer cocaine...
  74. ncbi Norepinephrine in the prefrontal cortex is critical for amphetamine-induced reward and mesoaccumbens dopamine release
    Rossella Ventura
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita La Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy
    J Neurosci 23:1879-85. 2003
    ..Noradrenergic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) has been shown to affect the motor effects of amphetamine, although there is no evidence of its involvement in the rewarding effects of this psychostimulant...
  75. ncbi Amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. A voltage-sensitive and intracellular Na+-dependent mechanism
    Habibeh Khoshbouei
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics and the Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:12070-7. 2003
    b>Amphetamine (AMPH) elicits its behavioral effects by acting on the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) to induce DA overflow into the synaptic cleft...
  76. ncbi Previous exposure to VTA amphetamine enhances cocaine self-administration under a progressive ratio schedule in a D1 dopamine receptor dependent manner
    N Suto
    Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:970-9. 2002
    The effect of previous exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the subsequent self-administration of cocaine was assessed...
  77. pmc The membrane raft protein Flotillin-1 is essential in dopamine neurons for amphetamine-induced behavior in Drosophila
    A B Pizzo
    Center for Molecular Recognition, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 18:824-33. 2013
    ..DAT) is the primary molecular target responsible for the rewarding properties of the psychostimulants amphetamine (AMPH) and cocaine...
  78. pmc Dopaminergic activity in depressed smokers: a positron emission tomography study
    Usoa E Busto
    Clinical Neuroscience Section, Neuroscience Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Synapse 63:681-9. 2009
    ..binding potential (BP) using positron emission tomography (PET) before and after the oral administration of d-amphetamine in healthy controls and unmedicated patients with current depression with and without current tobacco ..
  79. pmc A substrate trapping mutant form of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase prevents amphetamine-induced stereotypies and long-term potentiation in the striatum
    Roman Tashev
    Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:637-45. 2009
    ..This study tests the hypothesis that a substrate-trapping form of STEP will prevent the development of amphetamine-induced stereotypies.
  80. ncbi Reversal of neuronal and cognitive consequences of amphetamine sensitization following chronic treatment with a D1 antagonist
    Lynn D Selemon
    Behavioral Pharmacology Group, Laboratory of Animal Morphology and Pathology, State University of North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, 28013 600, RJ, Brazil
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:325-32. 2010
    ..D1 receptor antagonist SCH39166 to reverse the profound and enduring cognitive impairment associated with amphetamine (AMPH) sensitization in the nonhuman primate and to stimulate re-growth of atrophied pyramidal dendrites in the ..
  81. ncbi Adult vitamin D deficiency leads to behavioural and brain neurochemical alterations in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice
    Natalie J Groves
    Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, Nathan, Queensland, Australia
    Behav Brain Res 241:120-31. 2013
    ..and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain tissue, and, in separate groups of mice, locomotor response to d-amphetamine and MK-801...
  82. ncbi Acute coronary syndrome and khat herbal amphetamine use: an observational report
    Waleed M Ali
    Department of Cardiology, Hamad Medical Corp, Qatar
    Circulation 124:2681-9. 2011
    The khat plant is a stimulant similar to amphetamine and is thought to induce coronary artery spasm. Khat is widely chewed by individuals originating from the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula...
  83. ncbi Quantitative trait loci contributing to phencyclidine-induced and amphetamine-induced locomotor behavior in inbred mice
    R C Alexander
    Center for Studies of Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 15:484-90. 1996
    Phencyclidine (PCP) and amphetamine (AMP) can induce psychotic syndromes in humans, whereas administration of these drugs to mice results in behavioral activation that is influenced by genetic factors...
  84. pmc Mephedrone, compared with MDMA (ecstasy) and amphetamine, rapidly increases both dopamine and 5-HT levels in nucleus accumbens of awake rats
    J Kehr
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet Science Park, Fogdevreten 2A, Stockholm, Sweden
    Br J Pharmacol 164:1949-58. 2011
    ..administration of mephedrone on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens of awake rats and compare these effects with those induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and amphetamine.
  85. pmc Increased anxiety-like behavior of rats during amphetamine withdrawal is reversed by CRF2 receptor antagonism
    Shawn M Vuong
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069 2390, USA
    Behav Brain Res 208:278-81. 2010
    Withdrawal from psychostimulants increases anxiety states, and amphetamine-treated rats show increased CRF(2) receptors in the serotonergic cell body region, the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN). In the current study, amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i...
  86. pmc Adolescent social defeat increases adult amphetamine conditioned place preference and alters D2 dopamine receptor expression
    A R Burke
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 East Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    Neuroscience 197:269-79. 2011
    ..to repeated social defeat in adolescence (P35-P39) exhibited increased conditioned place preference (CPP) for amphetamine (1 mg/kg) in adulthood (P70)...
  87. pmc Within-subject comparison of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO and [(11)C]raclopride sensitivity to acute amphetamine challenge in healthy humans
    Paul Shotbolt
    GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Imaging Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32:127-36. 2012
    ..In this study, the authors compared the effects of an oral dose of the dopamine releaser amphetamine (0...
  88. ncbi Chronic intermittent amphetamine pretreatment enhances future appetitive behavior for drug- and natural-reward: interaction with environmental variables
    Christine Nocjar
    Department of Psychiatry, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, 10000 Brecksville Road, Brecksville, OH 44141, USA
    Behav Brain Res 128:189-203. 2002
    Appetitive behavior for drug and sexual reward is enhanced in animals with a history of amphetamine-experience...
  89. ncbi Medication adherence and symptom reduction in adults treated with mixed amphetamine salts in a randomized crossover study
    Lenard A Adler
    Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Postgrad Med 123:71-9. 2011
    ..for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with 3 times daily (TID) mixed amphetamine salts immediate release (MAS IR) versus once-daily (qAM) MAS extended release (MAS XR) in a randomized, ..
  90. ncbi Rapid synaptic plasticity of glutamatergic synapses on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area in response to acute amphetamine injection
    Lavina J Faleiro
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:2115-25. 2004
    ..Here, we show that just a 2 h in vivo exposure to amphetamine is sufficient to potentiate these synapses, measured as an increase in the synaptic AMPAR/NMDAR ratio...
  91. ncbi REM sleep deprivation induces changes in coping responses that are not reversed by amphetamine
    Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison 53719, USA
    Sleep 27:609-17. 2004
    ..the present study was to measure the effects of selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) on responses elicited by threatening situations and to assess the extent to which RSD-induced changes are reversed by amphetamine.
  92. pmc Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype modulates sustained attention in both the drug-free state and in response to amphetamine
    Ajna Hamidovic
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Psychiatr Genet 20:85-92. 2010
    ..Here, we extend these observations by examining two measures of cognitive function, lapses in attention and visuo-spatial-motor speed of processing, in both the drug-free state and after administration of d-amphetamine.
  93. ncbi Validation of an ELISA-based screening assay for the detection of amphetamine, MDMA and MDA in blood and oral fluid
    Marleen Laloup
    Federal Public Service Justice, National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology NICC, Section Toxicology, Vilvoordsesteenweg 98, 1120 Brussels, Belgium
    Forensic Sci Int 153:29-37. 2005
    The use of amphetamine and 'ecstasy' (MDMA) has increased exponentially in many European countries since the late nineties, leading to a rapid growth in the number of clinical and forensic analyses...
  94. pmc Withdrawal from chronic amphetamine produces persistent anxiety-like behavior but temporally-limited reductions in monoamines and neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus
    Jeffrey L Barr
    Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences and Neuroscience Group, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, 414 E Clark St, Vermillion, SD, USA
    Neuropharmacology 59:395-405. 2010
    Acute amphetamine administration activates monoaminergic pathways and increases systemic corticosterone, both of which influence anxiety states and adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis...
  95. ncbi Environmental enrichment decreases intravenous self-administration of amphetamine in female and male rats
    M T Bardo
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 155:278-84. 2001
    Previous work has shown that environmental enrichment alters amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and conditioned place preference.
  96. ncbi Augmented reinforcer value and accelerated habit formation after repeated amphetamine treatment
    R E Nordquist
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Research Institute of Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 17:532-40. 2007
    ..the hypothesis that both processes, which are often regarded as mutually exclusive alternatives, are present in amphetamine-sensitized rats...
  97. ncbi Amphetamine reduces vesicular dopamine content in dexamethasone-differentiated PC12 cells only following L-DOPA exposure
    Laura Hondebrink
    Neurotoxicology Research Group, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Neurochem 111:624-33. 2009
    b>Amphetamine (AMPH) increases brain dopamine (DA) levels via reversal of the membrane DA transporter...
  98. ncbi Effect of dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist sulpiride on amphetamine-induced changes in striatal extracellular dopamine
    J N Jaworski
    Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 418:201-6. 2001
    b>Amphetamine increases extracellular dopamine and induces locomotor and stereotypical behaviors in rats. This study examined the effect of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (50 mg/kg s.c...
  99. ncbi The orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 reduces amphetamine-evoked dopamine outflow in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and decreases the expression of amphetamine sensitization
    Davide Quarta
    Department of Biology, Neurosciences CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Verona, Italy
    Neurochem Int 56:11-5. 2010
    ..receptor antagonist SB-334867 [1-(2-methylbenzoxazol-6-yl)-3-[1,5]naphthyridin-4-yl-urea hydrochloride] on amphetamine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the shell subregion of the NAc by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely ..
  100. ncbi Environmental novelty differentially affects c-fos mRNA expression induced by amphetamine or cocaine in subregions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala
    H E Day
    Mental Health Research Institute and Psychology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Neurosci 21:732-40. 2001
    The environmental context in which amphetamine or cocaine are administered modulates both their acute psychomotor activating effects and their ability to induce sensitization...
  101. ncbi Novel treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 63:16-22. 2002
    ....

Research Grants81

  1. Cell stress, development, and stimulant-induced behavior: Regulation by GSK3
    Marjelo A Mines; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Dopamine-mediated hyperactivity induced by amphetamine treatment is completely blocked by GSK3 inhibitors, signifying that activation of GSK3 following amphetamine is ..
  2. Validation of a functional MRI-based reward processing task as a non-invasive too
    MARY LOUISE PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Increasing evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging studies involving pharmacological challenge with amphetamine and methylphenidate support the role of dopamine (DA) release in reward-related ventral striatal (VS) ..
  3. Testing the efficacy of PGC-1alpha as a therapeutic target for Parkinson's diseas
    HANS BUELER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..striatum of MPTP- treated mice;(2) whether ipsilateral nigral expression of PGC-1a results in contralateral, amphetamine-induced turning behavior in MPTP-treated mice, indicative of increased dopaminergic function of the rAAV- PGC-..
  4. Pathophysiology and Animal Model of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): Btbd9 Null Mic
    Yuqing Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the hypothesis that BTBD9 mutation disrupts dopaminergic function, we will measure animal's response to amphetamine administration in open field apparatus and examine the morphology and number of A11 neurons in hypothalamus ..
  5. EFFECT OF DRUGS OF ABUSE ON NEURONAL REDOX AND METHYLATION STATUS
    Richard C Deth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will measure the dose and time-dependent effects of morphine, amphetamine and alcohol on the cellular uptake of [35S]-cysteine, which primarily reflects EAAT3 activity...
  6. Presynaptic Mechanisms Regulating the Dopamine Transporter
    JAMES A HARDAWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..response to exogenous DA on solid surface, response to DAT inhibitors/substrates such as imipramine and amphetamine, and the presence of wild-type levels of DA uptake as assessed in primary cultures and in heterologous systems...
  7. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial homologs of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters
    Jonathan A Javitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NSS include the transporters for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine-targets for amphetamine, cocaine, and antidepressant drugs-as well as the transporters for GABA and glycine, which are targeted for ..
  8. Orexin Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Ca
    PAUL STUART HUMPHRIES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EDS associated with narcolepsy has historically been treated with stimulant medications including amphetamine and nonamphetamine formulations...
  9. Amphetamine-Induced Transcriptional Plasticity in Striatal GABAergic Interneurons
    ANNE ELIZABETH WEST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This circuit is the major site of action for addictive drugs such as psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH)...
  10. Effects on Caffeine on Adolescent Behavior and Physiology
    Jennifer L Temple; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, caffeine usage increases sensitivity and potentiates addiction to cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine...
  11. Cytokine Effects on Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release using PET Neuroimaging
    Jennifer C Felger; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..findings from in vivo microdialysis indicate decreased basal ganglia DA under resting conditions and following amphetamine (AMPH) administration via reverse microdialysis...
  12. Regulation of Cocaine Reward and Reinforcement by MeCP2
    ANNE ELIZABETH WEST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in specific regions of the adult striatum modulates the ability of cocaine and the related psychostimulant amphetamine to induce addictive-like behaviors in rodents...
  13. The role of vagal afferent neurons in regulating feeding behavior
    GUILLAUME FH DE LARTIGUE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To achieve this goal we propose to 1) determine the role of the neuropeptide transmitters cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) released from VAN into the brain stem in ..
  14. Extinction is mediated by the infralimbic cortex and protein kinase C epsilon
    Philip M Newton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SPECIFIC AIM TWO PKC5 null mice show delayed extinction of a conditioned place preference for cocaine and amphetamine. Our current data demonstrate that PKC5 mull mice exhibit delayed extinction to a conditioned place preference ..
  15. smFRET Investigation of Gating in a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog
    RACHEL ANN KOLSTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are targeted by antidepressants, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and the widely abused psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. In addition, NSS for GABA and glycine are promising targets for the treatment of epilepsy and anxiety ..
  16. OVARIAN STEROID REGULATION OF SEROTONIN IN PRIMATES
    CYNTHIA LOUISE BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..kynurenin mono- oxygenase) and JNK-1 (c-jun N-terminal kinase), and of a novel transcript, CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript), that are markedly suppressed by E, with or without P...
  17. PCBs, PBDEs, Hearing Loss & Attention/Impulsivity: Mechanistic Studies in Animals
    Susan L Schantz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Drug challenges with methylphenidate and amphetamine will determine if commonly prescribed ADHD pharmacotherapies improve the performance of PCB- or PBDE-exposed ..
  18. CNS circuitry and receptors mediating the effects of MDMA
    Daniel E Rusyniak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Use of the amphetamine MDMA (ecstasy, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) can result in life- threatening medical complications including fatal hyperthermia and cardiac arrhythmias...
  19. Conformational Changes Underlying Intracellular Gating of the Leucine Transporter
    Kelli Kazmier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder as well as abuse and addiction to illicit drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. Investigations in this proposal will focus on the leucine transporter (LeuT), a bacterial member of the NSS ..
  20. Gender Effects on Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release and Subjective Responses
    Mary E McCaul; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..emission technology (PET), we recently have reported robust sex differences in dopamine release (DAR) to amphetamine administration in healthy, age-matched men and women;this is the first demonstration of gender-based DAR ..
  21. Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Dynamics
    Haley E Melikian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the SLC6 carrier gene family and is the primary target for addictive and therapeutic psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin) as well as for antidepressants, such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)...
  22. Biogenic Amine Transporters: Mechanisms of Ligand Interaction
    MAARTEN E REITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The DAT is a target for psychostimulant drugs which, as DA, are substrates taken up by DAT (amphetamine), or are blockers inhibiting substrate translocation (cocaine)...
  23. Study of Dopamine Transporter, a Direct Downstream Effector of Goalpha Signaling
    Anjali Rao; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Psychostimulant drugs like amphetamine are known to modulate DA neurotransmission by regulating DAT trafficking but the molecular mechanisms are ..
  24. Drug Discovery for Cognitive Impairment Associated with Drugs of Abuse
    Alvin V Terry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..models for impairments in working memory in monkeys utilizing ketamine (hallucinogen);nomifensine (cocaine/amphetamine-like activity);and amitriptyline (biogenic amine uptake inhibitor/anticholinergic)...
  25. Edinger-Westphal Urocortin-1 Involvement in Binge Ethanol Intake and Reward
    William J Giardino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a brain region involved in EtOH intake is based on the observation that in addition to Ucn1, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide, and the ghrelin receptor (Ghsr) are both highly expressed within EWcp...
  26. Methamphetamine, Stress and SIV: Effects at Blood-Brain Barrier and Lymph Nodes
    John P Capitanio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..as methamphetamine rank second only to cannabis in number of users, and in North America, the prevalence of amphetamine abuse is double the global rate...
  27. Targeted Library Synthesis and Screening: Allosteric Modulators of Transporters
    Subramaniam Ananthan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies with these ligands have shown that they partially inhibit DAT binding, [3H]DA uptake, and D- amphetamine induced DA release...
  28. Dopamine Transporter Regulation by Endocytosis
    Alexander D Sorkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..how these dynamics are regulated by psychostimulant drugs of abuse such as cocaine, methylphenidate (MPH) and amphetamine (AMPH)...
  29. Uncertainty and stimulant self-administration
    PAUL R VEZINA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this model, repeated intermittent exposure to drugs, such as amphetamine, initiates neuroadaptations in the VTA that lead to sensitized locomotion and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopamine ..
  30. Molecular and circuit-level synergies in decision-making after early-life cocaine
    SHANNON LEIGH GOURLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, identifying mechanisms of cocaine vulnerability is a critical research imperative. Cocaine and other amphetamine-like psychostimulants potently regulate dendritic spine morphology in the prefrontal cortex...
  31. Presynaptic Regulation of C.elegans Dopamine Transporter
    Randy D Blakely; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a presynaptic, DA transporter (DAT) that is a major target for addictive psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine (AMPH), as well as agents used in the treatment of ADHD...
  32. Forward Genetics and the Presynaptic Dopamine Transporter
    Randy D Blakely; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Paralysis (SWIP), to identify proteins involved in the localization and regulation of cocaine and amphetamine-sensitive DAT proteins at presynaptic nerve terminals...
  33. Effects of Acute and Chronic Alcohol on Brain Reward in Mice
    C J Malanga; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a behavioral method used in animal studies that has made major contributions to our understanding of cocaine, amphetamine, opiate and nicotine reward...
  34. The rodent continuous performance task: Filling the vigilance translational gap
    JARED WILLIAM YOUNG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the pharmacological predictive validity of the rCPT by determining whether psychostimulants such as nicotine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate will improve performance and whether ketamine will impair vigilance performance, ..
  35. Transdermal Naltrexone for Opiate Addiction and Alcoholism
    Audra L Stinchcomb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Very intriguing clinical trial data has also been observed in amphetamine-dependent individuals, which is especially important as methamphetamine dependence has no FDA-approved ..
  36. Aptamer Imaging: A Theranostic Approach to Treat Substance Abuse
    Philip K Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Demonstrate dsAP-1 at high dose blocks AP-1 protein-induced activity in mice after amphetamine Step 6...
  37. Serotonin 5HT2C Agonist Drugs with 5HT2A/2B Antagonist Activity
    Raymond G Booth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mouse brain after peripheral (IP) administration to inhibit food consumption, produce weight loss, and inhibit amphetamine-induced locomotion, neurobehavioral effects consistent with 5HT2C agonism and 5HT2A antagonism...
  38. Locus Coeruleus Function and Methylphenidate Action
    BARRY DALE WATERHOUSE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This amphetamine-like psychostimulant has been the drug of choice for treating the core symptoms (inattention, distractibility, ..
  39. RECEPTORS MEDIATING DRUG DEPENDENCE
    Susan R George; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..internalization and resensitization in response to dopamine, a selective agonist and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and cocaine will be evaluated...
  40. CNS Mechanisms that Modulate Reward
    Kenneth D Carr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors in NAc subregions mediate the enhanced behavioral responsiveness of FR rats to d-amphetamine, cocaine, and environments that have been paired with them...
  41. Prevalence and Correlates of Khat Use Among HIV-Positive Patients in Ethiopia
    Alan R Lifson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Up to five million people per day may use khat, a plant native to East Africa abused for its amphetamine- like effects...
  42. Novel Functionally-Selective Serotonin 5HT2 Drugs for Amphetamines Abuse/Disorder
    Drake Morgan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PAT) analogs as functionally-selective serotonin 5HT2 receptor-based drug development candidates to treat amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction and drug-induced psychotic disorders...
  43. Drug Abuse-related Neurobiology and Genetic Variance Modeled in Rhesus Monkeys
    GREGORY MICHAEL MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TAAR1 is a primary target of monoamines and amphetamine like drugs. Under this award, I will study the role of TAAR1 in brain, the immune system, and the periphery...
  44. A D1 Agonist for Working Memory Enhancement in the Schizophrenia Spectrum
    Larry J Siever; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..can be reversibly ameliorated with dopaminergic agents, such as pergolide (a mixed D1/D2 receptor agonist) and amphetamine. An abundance of basic and preclinical neuroscientific data indicate the D1R is a highly promising ..
  45. Cardiovascular Risks of Prescription Amphetamine Use in a National Veterans Study
    ARTHUR WESTOVER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system (n=8,000,000;from 2000 to 2008) proposes to: 1) describe the pharmacoepidemiology of prescription amphetamine use, 2) determine which patients are most at risk to progress from medical use to abuse of prescription ..
  46. Molecular mechanisms of thermogenesis
    Edward M Mills; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lacking the skeletal muscle-enriched UCP1 homolog UCP3 have sharply blunted (60- 100%) thermogenic responses to amphetamine-type stimulants, and the physiological fever inducers norepinephrine and lipopolysaccharide...
  47. Drug Abuse, Schizophrenia, NMDA Receptor
    Joseph T Coyle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They also present abnormalities in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned hyperactivity to amphetamine, consistent with an increased vulnerability to SA...
  48. PSYCHOSTIMULANT RECOGNITION BY SEROTONIN TRANSPORTERS
    Eric L Barker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of this proposal are to identify the molecular determinants of psychostimulant recognition (cocaine and amphetamine) by serotonin transporters (SERTs), thereby revealing fundamental mechanisms involved SERT function and ..
  49. Chimeric anti-Methamphetamine Monoclonal Antibody for Treating Stimulant Toxicity
    R BARRY contact HOLTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Overdose and abuse of methamphetamine ((+)-METH), (+)-amphetamine ((+)-AMP), or (1)- methylenedioxymethamphetamine ((1)-MDMA) exact significant medical and social costs in the USA and abroad...
  50. Methamphetamine and neurodevelopment in adolescent and adult mice
    Bertha K Madras; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Accumulating evidence directly and inferentially links psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine) to modulation of AGM expression...
  51. Mechanisms underlying Netrin-1-mediated functional recovery after stroke
    Jialing Liu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Aim 3 will test the hypothesis that netrin-1 gene transfer augments the neuroplasticity inducing effect of amphetamine and rehabilitation...
  52. Phosphorylation and Regulation of Dopamine Transporters
    Roxanne A Vaughan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..DATs are targets for numerous psychoactive drugs including abused compounds such as cocaine, and amphetamine (AMPH), and therapeutic agents such as Ritalin and Wellbutrin...
  53. Time lapse imaging of serotonin axon regeneration in the neocortex of adult mouse
    David J Linden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Systemic treatment of adult rats with p-chloro-amphetamine (PCA) causes rapid regression of dorsal raphe serotonin axons, followed by a slow return of serotonergic ..
  54. Molecular Determinants for the Action of Psychostimulants
    Jonathan A Javitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanism for terminating dopaminergic transmission, and this protein is the primary molecular target of amphetamine, cocaine, and other psychostimulants...
  55. Mechanisms of amphetamine-induced plasticity in adolescents compared to adults
    Joshua M Gulley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our long-term goal in these studies is to understand the neuroadaptations induced by amphetamine in corticolimbic regions of the adolescent brain and determine how these changes can be prevented or reversed...
  56. Amphetamine Regulation of Dopamine Transport
    Aurelio Galli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH), by acting as a DAT substrate, promotes reversal of DA transport (DA efflux) and increases extracellular ..
  57. Presynaptic Mechanisms for Variability in Human Dopamine Function and Impulsivity
    JOSHUA WILLIAM BUCKHOLTZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Second, the magnitude of DA released within the striatum following administration of the stimulant drug d-Amphetamine (AMPH) was dramatically increased in individuals with high levels of impulsivity...
  58. Amphetamine Acts as a Molecular Stent in the Dopamine Transporter
    Louis J De Felice; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Amphetamine acts as a Molecular Stent in the Dopamine Transporter By introducing the term 'molecular stent'in ..
  59. Non-Tropane Irreversible Dopamine Transporter Ligands
    DAVID JOHN LAPINSKY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., benztropine, methylphenidate, bupropion) and abused (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine) compounds...
  60. Live Brain Gene Detection in Drug Exposure Subjects after Acupuncture Treatment
    Jiaqian Ren; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..technique that uses targeting MR contrast probes to detect altered endogenous gene expression resulting from amphetamine exposure in living animals. We will use an animal model of addiction in C57Black6 mice...
  61. DOPAMINERGIC SUBSTRATES OF STARTLE GATING ACROSS SPECIES
    Neal R Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and human phenotypes associated with distinct PPI-altering effects of several drugs, including the DA releaser, amphetamine (AMPH)...
  62. TAAR1 polymorphisms in rhesus monkeys
    Gregory M Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and tyramine, and the common biogenic amines dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin), as well as amphetamine-like psychostimulants, including methamphetamine...
  63. DRUGS OF ABUSE, DOPAMINE & CONTROL BY BRAIN PEPTIDES
    BARTLEY HOEBEL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Experiments were completed for publication showing increased extracellular DA with amphetamine, cocaine, phencyclidine, and nicotine...
  64. Force Plate Actometer for Measuring Behavior in Rodents
    Candice Kissinger; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..quantitative measurements of rodent behavior, including locomotor activity, tremor, rotational activity and amphetamine-induced focused stereotypies...
  65. Reducing Cocaine/Heroin Abuse with SR-Amphetamine and Buprenorphine
    Mark Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..patients, a dual agonist-replacement approach for cocaine abuse using sustained release d-amphetamine (SR-AMP) with methadone has been shown safe and effective...
  66. K OPIOIDS AND DOPAMINE--MECHANISMS OF STIMULANT ABUSE
    Sari Izenwasser; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Abstract) Psychostimulant abuse is a considerable problem in society. Both cocaine and amphetamine are widely used, and the use of methamphetamine on the rise...
  67. Amphetamine sensitization in a model of schizophrenia
    Russell W Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This proposal is designed to analyze the effects of amphetamine sensitization on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in a rodent model of schizophrenia...
  68. Mesolimbic Dopamine Modulation of Cue-Enhanced Ventral Pallidal Activity
    Jennifer Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Psychostimulants such as amphetamine are thought to cause excessive dopamine release from mesolimbic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental ..
  69. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF DRUGS OF ABUSE--AMPHETAMINE
    Ronald Kuczenski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Its general aim is to study the effects of amphetamine on striatal glutamate and dopamine neurotransmission and the sites of termination of glutamate and dopamine ..
  70. Imaging Individual Differences in Amphetamine Effects
    TARA WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    This project investigates the neural mechanisms of individual differences in amphetamine effects. Amphetamine has acute euphoric mood and alerting effects...
  71. Stress-induced alterations in amygdala-LC interactions
    Anthony A Grace; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..suggest that vSub-induced activation of DA neuron population activity may underlie behavioral sensitization to amphetamine. Thus, sensitization to amphetamine by stress or by repeated treatment leads to an increase in DA neuron ..
  72. BIOPHYSICAL STUDY OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS
    Stephen Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Dysfunctions in brain dopamine systems are implicated in the symptoms, and amphetamine, a drug that stimulates brain dopamine activity, can produce a schizophrenia-like psychosis in humans...
  73. ACUTE AND CHRONIC COCAINE-INDUCED CCK RELEASE
    Margery Beinfeld; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine reinforce their self-administration by acting on the same mesolimbic dopamine system...
  74. Agonist Replacement Therapy for Cocaine Dependence: Identifying Novel Medications
    CRAIG RUSH; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results of clinical trials suggest that agonist replacement therapies (e.g., d-amphetamine) may be effective for cocaine dependence...
  75. Imaging Individual Differences in Amphetamine Effects
    Tara L White; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): This project investigates the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in how amphetamine affects mood and behavior...
  76. RNAi knockdown of Cav1.3 and addiction
    Anjali Rajadhyaksha; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The psychostimulants, amphetamine and cocaine are among the most reinforcing drugs that are abused by humans and a major health issue in the clinical and scientific communities...
  77. Phase I Safety Interaction Trial of Ibudilast with Methamphetamine
    Steven Shoptaw; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As noted in PA-07-333, Medications Development for the Treatment of Amphetamine and Amphetamine-Like Related Disorders, this application seeks funding to conduct an initial safety interaction ..
  78. SUBSTITUTED AMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY
    George Ricaurte; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Research in the appplicant's laboratory focuses on substituted amphetamine derivatives (MDMA, methamphetamine, fenfluramine) and their propensity to selectively damage brain serotonin ..
  79. THE IMPACT OF AMPHETAMINE ABUSE ON HEALTH AND CRIME
    NANCY NICOSIA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The focus of this research project is to investigate the health and social costs attributable to amphetamine abuse and to determine if policy interventions that increase amphetamine prices are effective at reducing these ..
  80. CHOLINERGIC MECHANISMS IN COCAINE & AMPHETAMINE ACTIONS
    Akira Horita; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..cholinergic system in (1) the analeptic action and (2) the sensitization phenomenon associated with cocaine and amphetamine. Both of these stimulants, when administered to pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, shorten the duration of ..
  81. NOVEL MODES OF ACTION OF ABUSED DRUGS
    PHILIP GROVES; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Several amphetamine-induced motor responses are enhanced by repeated administration, a phenomenon termed behavioral sensitization...