Summary: A neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
    L V Borovikova
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 405:458-62. 2000
  2. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
    Hong Wang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore Long Island Jewish Research Institute, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 421:384-8. 2003
  3. ncbi Acetylcholine-synthesizing T cells relay neural signals in a vagus nerve circuit
    Mauricio Rosas-Ballina
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Science 334:98-101. 2011
  4. ncbi Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection
    Martin Sarter
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 E University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:98-111. 2005
  5. pmc Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist
    Kazuko Haga
    Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, Mejiro 1 5 1, Tokyo 171 8588, Japan
    Nature 482:547-51. 2012
  6. pmc Gating movement of acetylcholine receptor caught by plunge-freezing
    Nigel Unwin
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    J Mol Biol 422:617-34. 2012
  7. pmc The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory
    Michael E Hasselmo
    Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, 2 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:710-5. 2006
  8. pmc Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
    Andrew C Kruse
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 482:552-6. 2012
  9. pmc Acetylcholine beyond neurons: the non-neuronal cholinergic system in humans
    I Wessler
    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    Br J Pharmacol 154:1558-71. 2008
  10. ncbi Prognostic impact of coronary vasodilator dysfunction on adverse long-term outcome of coronary heart disease
    V Schachinger
    Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Cardiology, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Circulation 101:1899-906. 2000

Detail Information

Publications377 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
    L V Borovikova
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 405:458-62. 2000
    ..b>Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis ..
  2. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation
    Hong Wang
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, North Shore Long Island Jewish Research Institute, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 421:384-8. 2003
    ..has major implications in immunology and in therapeutics; however, the identity of the essential macrophage acetylcholine-mediated (cholinergic) receptor that responds to vagus nerve signals was previously unknown...
  3. ncbi Acetylcholine-synthesizing T cells relay neural signals in a vagus nerve circuit
    Mauricio Rosas-Ballina
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Science 334:98-101. 2011
    ..the inflammatory reflex, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α production in spleen by a mechanism requiring acetylcholine signaling through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed on cytokine-producing macrophages...
  4. ncbi Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection
    Martin Sarter
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 E University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:98-111. 2005
    ..deafferentation on attention performance, and it generates specific predictions concerning cortical acetylcholine (ACh) release in attention task-performing animals...
  5. pmc Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist
    Kazuko Haga
    Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, Mejiro 1 5 1, Tokyo 171 8588, Japan
    Nature 482:547-51. 2012
    ..Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves...
  6. pmc Gating movement of acetylcholine receptor caught by plunge-freezing
    Nigel Unwin
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    J Mol Biol 422:617-34. 2012
    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor converts transiently to an open-channel form when activated by ACh released into the synaptic cleft...
  7. pmc The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory
    Michael E Hasselmo
    Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, 2 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:710-5. 2006
    Pharmacological data clearly indicate that both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have a role in the encoding of new memories...
  8. pmc Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
    Andrew C Kruse
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 482:552-6. 2012
    b>Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs)...
  9. pmc Acetylcholine beyond neurons: the non-neuronal cholinergic system in humans
    I Wessler
    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    Br J Pharmacol 154:1558-71. 2008
    ..Alterations have been detected in inflammatory processes and a pathobiologic role of non-neuronal ACh in different diseases is discussed. The present article reviews recent findings about the non-neuronal cholinergic system in humans...
  10. ncbi Prognostic impact of coronary vasodilator dysfunction on adverse long-term outcome of coronary heart disease
    V Schachinger
    Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Cardiology, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Circulation 101:1899-906. 2000
    ..Therefore, we prospectively investigated whether coronary endothelial dysfunction predicts disease progression and cardiovascular event rates...
  11. pmc Gain modulation by nicotine in macaque v1
    Anita A Disney
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuron 56:701-13. 2007
    b>Acetylcholine is a ubiquitous cortical neuromodulator implicated in cognition...
  12. ncbi Nicotinic receptors: allosteric transitions and therapeutic targets in the nervous system
    Antoine Taly
    Laboratoire de Chimie Biophysique, Institut de Science et d Ingenierie Supramoleculaires, UMR 7006 CNRS Université de Strasbourg, 8 allee Gaspard Monge, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 8:733-50. 2009
    Nicotinic receptors - a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine - are among the most well understood allosteric membrane proteins from a structural and functional perspective...
  13. ncbi Stimulation of the vagus nerve attenuates macrophage activation by activating the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway
    Wouter J de Jonge
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Immunol 6:844-51. 2005
    b>Acetylcholine released by efferent vagus nerves inhibits macrophage activation...
  14. pmc Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning
    Ilana B Witten
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 330:1677-81. 2010
    Cholinergic neurons are widespread, and pharmacological modulation of acetylcholine receptors affects numerous brain processes, but such modulation entails side effects due to limitations in specificity for receptor type and target cell...
  15. ncbi Prognostic significance of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients
    F Perticone
    Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Department of Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica G Salvatore, University of Catanzaro Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy
    Circulation 104:191-6. 2001
    Forearm endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an impaired vasodilating response to acetylcholine (ACh), may be associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, including essential hypertension...
  16. ncbi Cholinergic modulation of response gain in the primary visual cortex of the macaque
    Shogo Soma
    Graduate Schools of Frontier Biosciences and Medicine, Osaka Univ, 1 17 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 107:283-91. 2012
    ..These results demonstrate that ACh plays an important role in visual information processing in V1 by controlling the response gain via mAChRs across all cortical layers and via nAChRs, mainly in layer 4C...
  17. ncbi The cholinergic system, circadian rhythmicity, and time memory
    R A Hut
    Chronobiology Unit, Centre for Behaviour and Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborg 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 221:466-80. 2011
    ..Several studies made clear that circadian (daily) fluctuations in acetylcholine (ACh) release, cholinergic enzyme activity and cholinergic receptor expression varies remarkably between ..
  18. ncbi Insulin and insulin-like growth factor expression and function deteriorate with progression of Alzheimer's disease: link to brain reductions in acetylcholine
    Enrique J Rivera
    Department of Pathology, Rhode Island Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    J Alzheimers Dis 8:247-68. 2005
    ..Together, these data provide further evidence that AD represents a neuro-endocrine disorder that resembles a unique form of diabetes mellitus (? Type 3) and progresses with severity of neurodegeneration...
  19. pmc Cholinergic stimulation blocks endothelial cell activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation
    Rubina W Saeed
    Laboratory of Medicinal Biochemistry, Institute for Medical Research at North Shore LIJ, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    J Exp Med 201:1113-23. 2005
    ..Based on recent studies showing that acetylcholine and other cholinergic mediators suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines via the alpha7 nicotinic ..
  20. pmc Splenectomy inactivates the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway during lethal endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis
    Jared M Huston
    Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1623-8. 2006
    ..Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by signaling through the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit...
  21. ncbi Effects of novelty and habituation on acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate release from the frontal cortex and hippocampus of freely moving rats
    M G Giovannini
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
    Neuroscience 106:43-53. 2001
    ..The motor activity was monitored. Samples were collected throughout the experiment and the release of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and glutamate was measured...
  22. pmc Acetylcholine dynamically controls spatial integration in marmoset primary visual cortex
    M J Roberts
    Psychology Brain and Behavior, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    J Neurophysiol 93:2062-72. 2005
    Recent in vitro studies have shown that acetylcholine (ACh) selectively reduces the efficacy of lateral cortical connections via a muscarinic mechanism, while boosting the efficacy of thalamocortical/feed-forward connections via a ..
  23. ncbi Diffuse transmission by acetylcholine in the CNS
    L Descarries
    Departement de Physiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, QC, Canada
    Prog Neurobiol 53:603-25. 1997
    ..The notions of diffuse transmission and of an ambient level of ACh in the CNS could also be of clinical relevance, in accounting for the production and nature of certain cholinergic deficits and the efficacy of substitution therapies...
  24. pmc Acetylcholine contributes through muscarinic receptors to attentional modulation in V1
    J L Herrero
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
    Nature 454:1110-4. 2008
    ..Here we show that this attentional modulation was enhanced by low doses of acetylcholine. Furthermore, applying the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine reduced attentional modulation, whereas the ..
  25. pmc Modes and models of forebrain cholinergic neuromodulation of cognition
    Michael E Hasselmo
    Center for Memory and Brain, Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:52-73. 2011
    ..These models postulate specific locations and roles of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and that cholinergic neurotransmission is controlled in part by (cortical) target circuits...
  26. pmc The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 subunit plays a key role in attention circuitry and accuracy
    Craig D C Bailey
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurosci 30:9241-52. 2010
    Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex by acetylcholine is critical for attention; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying its influence on attention pathways within the brain are not well understood...
  27. pmc Cholinergic suppression of visual responses in primate V1 is mediated by GABAergic inhibition
    Anita A Disney
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, USA
    J Neurophysiol 108:1907-23. 2012
    b>Acetylcholine (ACh) has been implicated in selective attention. To understand the local circuit action of ACh, we iontophoresed cholinergic agonists into the primate primary visual cortex (V1) while presenting optimal visual stimuli...
  28. ncbi Acetylcholine prevents angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in H9c2 cells
    Jin Jun Liu
    Department of Pharmacology, Xi an Jiaotong University, College of Medicine, Xi an, People s Republic of China
    Apoptosis 16:94-103. 2011
    ..Recent studies also suggested that acetylcholine (ACh) prevented the hypoxia-induced apoptosis of mouse ES cells by inhibiting the ROS production...
  29. ncbi Medial septal cholinergic neurons are necessary for context-place memory but not episodic-like memory
    Alexander Easton
    Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
    Hippocampus 21:1021-7. 2011
    ..memory, which may be more dependent on the plasticity of hippocampal spatial representations, require acetylcholine. These results suggest that cholinergic projections to hippocampus are not necessary for episodic memory and, ..
  30. pmc Spatiotemporal coupling between hippocampal acetylcholine release and theta oscillations in vivo
    Hao Zhang
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 30:13431-40. 2010
    Both acetylcholine (ACh) and theta oscillations are important for learning and memory, but the dynamic interaction between these two processes remains unclear...
  31. pmc Acetylcholine-induced activation of M3 muscarinic receptors stimulates robust matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in human colon cancer cells
    Guofeng Xie
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Veterans Administration Maryland Health Care System and Program in Oncology, Greenbaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S Greene St, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296:G755-63. 2009
    ..ACh-induced activation of EGFR and downstream ERK signaling also regulates transcriptional activation of MMP7, thereby identifying a novel feed-forward mechanism for neoplastic cell proliferation...
  32. pmc Loss of muscarinic autoreceptor function impairs long-term depression but not long-term potentiation in the striatum
    Paola Bonsi
    Fondazione Santa Lucia Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Rome 00146, Italy
    J Neurosci 28:6258-63. 2008
    ..neurons (MSNs) or cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in slices from single M(4) or double M(2)/M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) knock-out (-/-) mice...
  33. ncbi Modulation of synaptic plasticity by physiological activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the mouse hippocampus
    Toru Shinoe
    Division of Neuronal Network, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 108 8639, Japan
    J Neurosci 25:11194-200. 2005
    The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) has been considered one of the neurotransmitter receptors regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which likely plays a critical role in learning and memory...
  34. ncbi Differential regulation of fronto-executive function by the monoamines and acetylcholine
    T W Robbins
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, UK
    Cereb Cortex 17:i151-60. 2007
    ..cortex (PFC) is innervated by the monoamines, dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin, as well as acetylcholine, and the marked influence of these neurochemical systems on prefrontal working memory processes has been ..
  35. ncbi Neuromodulation by glutamate and acetylcholine can change circuit dynamics by regulating the relative influence of afferent input and excitatory feedback
    Lisa M Giocomo
    Program in Neuroscience, Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, 2 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 36:184-200. 2007
    Substances such as acetylcholine and glutamate act as both neurotransmitters and neuromodulators...
  36. ncbi Acetylcholine in cortical inference
    Angela J Yu
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London, UK
    Neural Netw 15:719-30. 2002
    b>Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in a wide variety of cognitive tasks, such as perception, selective attention, associative learning, and memory...
  37. ncbi Re-emergence of striatal cholinergic interneurons in movement disorders
    Antonio Pisani
    Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS, and Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00135, Rome, Italy
    Trends Neurosci 30:545-53. 2007
    ..In Parkinson's disease and dystonia, diminished striatal dopaminergic signalling leads to increased release of acetylcholine by interneurons, distorting network function and inducing structural changes that undoubtedly contribute to ..
  38. pmc The C. elegans ric-3 gene is required for maturation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Sarah Halevi
    Department of Physiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    EMBO J 21:1012-20. 2002
    ..suppress the neuronal degenerations caused by a gain of function mutation in the Caenorhabditis elegans DEG-3 acetylcholine receptor. RIC-3 is a novel protein with two transmembrane domains and extensive coiled-coil domains...
  39. pmc Prefrontal acetylcholine release controls cue detection on multiple timescales
    Vinay Parikh
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109, USA
    Neuron 56:141-54. 2007
    ..Choline-sensitive microelectrodes were used to measure the synaptic release of cortical acetylcholine (ACh) at a subsecond resolution in rats performing a task involving the detection of cues...
  40. ncbi Heterogeneity of phasic cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons
    Allan T Gulledge
    Division of Cerebral Circuity, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 5 1 Higashiyama, Myoudaiji, Okazaki, Aichi, 444 8787, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 97:2215-29. 2007
    b>Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter critical for normal cognition. Here we demonstrate heterogeneity of cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons in the rat prefrontal, somatosensory, and visual cortex...
  41. pmc eNOS uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction in aged vessels
    Yang Ming Yang
    Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H1829-36. 2009
    ..second-order mesenteric arteries (approximately 150 microm) from aged mice were treated with sepiapterin, acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent vasodilation improved significantly, which was accompanied by stabilization of ..
  42. ncbi Habenula "cholinergic" neurons co-release glutamate and acetylcholine and activate postsynaptic neurons via distinct transmission modes
    Jing Ren
    College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    Neuron 69:445-52. 2011
    b>Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain...
  43. ncbi Differential cortical acetylcholine release in rats performing a sustained attention task versus behavioral control tasks that do not explicitly tax attention
    H M Arnold
    Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience, The Ohio State University, 1885 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Neuroscience 114:451-60. 2002
    The present study used microdialysis techniques to compare acetylcholine release in the frontoparietal cortex of rats performing in a task requiring sustained attention with that of rats performing in two control procedures...
  44. ncbi From waking to sleeping: neuronal and chemical substrates
    Barbara E Jones
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 26:578-86. 2005
    ..By contrast, acetylcholine (ACh)-containing neurons discharge during waking, decrease firing during SWS and fire at high rates during PS ..
  45. ncbi Crystal structure of an ACh-binding protein reveals the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors
    K Brejc
    Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nature 411:269-76. 2001
    ..This superfamily of allosteric transmembrane proteins includes the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), serotonin 5-HT3, gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABAA and GABAC) and glycine receptors...
  46. ncbi Emerging structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Arthur Karlin
    Center for Molecular Recognition, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:102-14. 2002
    The conversion of acetylcholine binding into ion conduction across the membrane is becoming more clearly understood in terms of the structure of the receptor and its transitions...
  47. ncbi Opiate and acetylcholine-independent analgesic actions of crotoxin isolated from crotalus durissus terrificus venom
    Hui Ling Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, Soochow University School of Medicine, 48 Ren Ming Road, Suzhou 215007, PR China
    Toxicon 48:175-82. 2006
    ..These results suggest that Cro has analgesic effects mediated by an action on the central nervous system. The muscarinic and opioid receptors are not involved in the antinociceptive effects of Cro...
  48. pmc Coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors antagonistically modulate acetylcholine release in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Andrew T Allen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Genetics 188:579-90. 2011
    ..We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells...
  49. ncbi Unraveling the high- and low-sensitivity agonist responses of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Kasper Harpsøe
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neurosci 31:10759-66. 2011
    The neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors exist as two distinct subtypes, (α4)(2)(β2)(3) and (α4)(3)(β2)(2), and biphasic responses to acetylcholine and other agonists have been ascribed previously to coexistence of these ..
  50. pmc Identification of orthosteric and allosteric site mutations in M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors that contribute to ligand-selective signaling bias
    Karen J Gregory
    Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    J Biol Chem 285:7459-74. 2010
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors contain at least one allosteric site that is topographically distinct from the acetylcholine, orthosteric binding site...
  51. pmc Acetylcholine as a neuromodulator: cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior
    Marina R Picciotto
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Neuron 76:116-29. 2012
    b>Acetylcholine in the brain alters neuronal excitability, influences synaptic transmission, induces synaptic plasticity, and coordinates firing of groups of neurons...
  52. pmc Phasic acetylcholine release and the volume transmission hypothesis: time to move on
    Martin Sarter
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1043, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:383-90. 2009
    ..organization of cholinergic projections and the hypothesis that slowly changing levels of extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) mediate different arousal states...
  53. pmc Cholinergic microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium and effect of acetylcholine on olfactory sensory neurons and supporting cells
    Tatsuya Ogura
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
    J Neurophysiol 106:1274-87. 2011
    ..cells are cholinergic, expressing the signature markers of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter...
  54. pmc Evidence for encoding versus retrieval scheduling in the hippocampus by theta phase and acetylcholine
    Vincent Douchamps
    Psychology Department, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 33:8689-704. 2013
    ..Two solutions have been proposed for hippocampal region CA1: (1) acetylcholine, released in novelty, selectively suppresses excitatory projections to CA1 from CA3 (mediating the products of ..
  55. ncbi An RNAi screen identifies genes that regulate GABA synapses
    Amy B Vashlishan
    Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Neuron 58:346-61. 2008
    ..Our data suggest these conserved genes are components of signaling pathways that regulate GABA transmission and consequently may play a role in epilepsy and other cognitive or psychiatric disorders...
  56. ncbi High prevalence of a pathological response to acetylcholine testing in patients with stable angina pectoris and unobstructed coronary arteries. The ACOVA Study (Abnormal COronary VAsomotion in patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries
    Peter Ong
    Robert Bosch Krankenhaus, Department of Cardiology, Stuttgart, Germany
    J Am Coll Cardiol 59:655-62. 2012
    ..This study aimed at determining the prevalence of epicardial and microvascular coronary spasm in patients with anginal symptoms, despite angiographically normal coronary arteries...
  57. pmc End-plate acetylcholine receptor: structure, mechanism, pharmacology, and disease
    Steven M Sine
    Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Physiol Rev 92:1189-234. 2012
    ..about a hundred years ago with the demonstration that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve released acetylcholine and slowed the heart beat...
  58. pmc Muscarinic receptor signaling in the pathophysiology of asthma and COPD
    Reinoud Gosens
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Respir Res 7:73. 2006
    ..Primarily used as bronchodilators, they reverse the action of vagally derived acetylcholine on airway smooth muscle contraction...
  59. ncbi Reconciling neuronally and nonneuronally derived acetylcholine in the regulation of immune function
    Koichiro Kawashima
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1261:7-17. 2012
    Immune cells, including lymphocytes, express muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively), and agonist stimulation of these AChRs causes functional and biochemical changes in the cells...
  60. ncbi High acetylcholine levels set circuit dynamics for attention and encoding and low acetylcholine levels set dynamics for consolidation
    Michael E Hasselmo
    Department of Psychology, Center for Memory and Brain, Program in Neuroscience, Boston University, 2 Cummington St, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Prog Brain Res 145:207-31. 2004
  61. pmc Temperature dependence of acetylcholine receptor channels activated by different agonists
    Shaweta Gupta
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Biophys J 100:895-903. 2011
    ..The temperature dependence of agonist binding and channel gating were measured for wild-type adult neuromuscular acetylcholine receptors activated by acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, or choline...
  62. pmc Crystal structures of a cysteine-modified mutant in loop D of acetylcholine-binding protein
    Marijke Brams
    Laboratory of Structural Neurobiology, KULeuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 286:4420-8. 2011
    Covalent modification of α7 W55C nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) with the cysteine-modifying reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate (MTSET(+)) produces receptors that are unresponsive to acetylcholine, ..
  63. pmc Accumbens dopamine-acetylcholine balance in approach and avoidance
    Bartley G Hoebel
    Department of Psychology, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:617-27. 2007
    ..We propose opposing roles for dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc in the control of GABA output systems for approach and avoidance...
  64. pmc A novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with high sensitivity to amyloid peptides
    Qiang Liu
    Divisions of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona 85013 4496, USA
    J Neurosci 29:918-29. 2009
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing alpha7 subunits are thought to assemble as homomers...
  65. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals
    E D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 138:217-30. 1998
    ..In addition, more work needs to be done to develop and determine the efficacy and safety of novel nicotinic ligands for use in the long-term treatment of human cognitive disorders...
  66. pmc Potentials of mean force for acetylcholine unbinding from the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand-binding domain
    Deqiang Zhang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0365, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 128:3019-26. 2006
    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a prototype ligand-gated ion channel that mediates signal transduction in the neuromuscular junctions and other cholinergic synapses...
  67. ncbi Mice deficient for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter are myasthenic and have deficits in object and social recognition
    Vania F Prado
    Departamento de Bioquímica Imunologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270 901, Brazil
    Neuron 51:601-12. 2006
    An important step for cholinergic transmission involves the vesicular storage of acetylcholine (ACh), a process mediated by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
  68. pmc Impairment of bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the striatum of a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia: role of endogenous acetylcholine
    Giuseppina Martella
    Department of Neuroscience, University Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Brain 132:2336-49. 2009
    ..medical therapeutic option for the treatment of human dystonia, we reasoned that an excess in endogenous acetylcholine could underlie the synaptic plasticity impairment...
  69. pmc Structural determinants for interaction of partial agonists with acetylcholine binding protein and neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
    Ryan E Hibbs
    Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    EMBO J 28:3040-51. 2009
    The pentameric acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) is a soluble surrogate of the ligand binding domain of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  70. ncbi The lymphocytic cholinergic system and its contribution to the regulation of immune activity
    Koichiro Kawashima
    Department of Pharmacology, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, 1 5 30 Shibakoen, Minato, Tokyo 105 8512, Japan
    Life Sci 74:675-96. 2003
    Lymphocytes express most of the cholinergic components found in the nervous system, including acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), high affinity choline transporter, muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and ..
  71. ncbi Cholinergic modulation of the cortical neuronal network
    E Lucas-Meunier
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, INAF CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    Pflugers Arch 446:17-29. 2003
    b>Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurotransmitter of the CNS that binds both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors to exert its action...
  72. ncbi The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine
    R F Furchgott
    Nature 288:373-6. 1980
    Despite its very potent vasodilating action in vivo, acetylcholine (ACh) does not always produce relaxation of isolated preparations of blood vessels in vitro...
  73. ncbi Regular aerobic exercise prevents and restores age-related declines in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in healthy men
    C A DeSouza
    Human Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Center for Physical Activity, Disease Prevention, and Aging, Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309, USA
    Circulation 102:1351-7. 2000
    ..We determined the influence of regular aerobic exercise on the age-related decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilation...
  74. ncbi A neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha 7) is developmentally regulated and forms a homo-oligomeric channel blocked by alpha-BTX
    S Couturier
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    Neuron 5:847-56. 1990
    cDNA and genomic clones encoding alpha 7, a novel neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha subunit, were isolated and sequenced...
  75. ncbi Scanning mutagenesis studies of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
    E C Hulme
    Division of Physical Biochemistry, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    Receptors Channels 9:215-28. 2003 X-ray crystallography, it has been possible to build an improved homology model of the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor...
  76. ncbi Atypical antipsychotic drugs, quetiapine, iloperidone, and melperone, preferentially increase dopamine and acetylcholine release in rat medial prefrontal cortex: role of 5-HT1A receptor agonism
    Junji Ichikawa
    Division of Psychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Brain Res 956:349-57. 2002
    Preferential increases in both cortical dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) release have been proposed to distinguish the atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone from typical APDs such as ..
  77. ncbi Cholinergic mediation of attention: contributions of phasic and tonic increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity
    Vinay Parikh
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1129:225-35. 2008
    Contrary to the classic description of acetylcholine (ACh) as a slowly acting neuromodulator that influences arousal states, results from experiments that employed enzyme-selective microelectrodes for the real-time monitoring of ACh ..
  78. ncbi Maintenance of acetylcholine receptor number by neuregulins at the neuromuscular junction in vivo
    A W Sandrock
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 276:599-603. 1997
    ARIA (for acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity), a protein purified on the basis of its ability to stimulate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) synthesis in cultured myotubes, is a member of the neuregulin family and is present at motor ..
  79. ncbi Developmental aspects of the cholinergic system
    Yael Abreu-Villaça
    Laboratorio de Neurofisiologia, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Centro Biomedico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av Prof Manoel de Abreu 444, 5 andar, Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20550 170, Brazil
    Behav Brain Res 221:367-78. 2011, we focus on the developmental aspects associated with major components of the cholinergic system: Acetylcholine, choline acetyltransferase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, high-affinity choline transporter, ..
  80. ncbi Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of nAChR alpha1 bound to alpha-bungarotoxin at 1.94 A resolution
    Cosma D Dellisanti
    Molecular and Computation Biology, University of Southern California, 1050 Childs Way, RIH201, Los Angeles, California 90089 2910, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:953-62. 2007
    We determined the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha1 subunit bound to alpha-bungarotoxin at 1.94 A resolution...
  81. ncbi Acetylcholine and attention
    Inge Klinkenberg
    Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, European Graduate School of Neuroscience, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Behav Brain Res 221:430-42. 2011
    ..Thus, it appears that the role of ACh in cognition is different per brain region and between nicotinic versus muscarinic receptor subtypes...
  82. pmc Hydrogen peroxide is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in mice
    T Matoba
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Clin Invest 106:1521-30. 2000
    ..EDHF-mediated relaxation and hyperpolarization in response to acetylcholine (ACh) were markedly attenuated in small mesenteric arteries from eNOS knockout (eNOS-KO) mice...
  83. ncbi Desensitization of nicotinic ACh receptors: shaping cholinergic signaling
    Rashid Giniatullin
    Neurobiology Sector and INFM Unit, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Via Beirut 4, 34014, Trieste, Italy
    Trends Neurosci 28:371-8. 2005
  84. ncbi Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2 subunits in the medial prefrontal cortex control attention
    Karine Guillem
    Department of Integrative Neurophysiology, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research CNCR, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Science 333:888-91. 2011
    More than one-third of all people are estimated to experience mild to severe cognitive impairment as they age. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain diminish with aging, and nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) stimulation is known to ..
  85. pmc Agonist activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site
    Jaskiran K Gill
    Department of Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5867-72. 2011
    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular "orthosteric" binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits...
  86. ncbi Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor against Alzheimer's dementia, promotes angiogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb model
    Yoshihiko Kakinuma
    Department of Cardiovascular Control, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi 783 8505, Japan
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 48:680-93. 2010
    Our recent studies have indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) protects cardiomyocytes from prolonged hypoxia through activation of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1alpha/VEGF pathway and that cardiomyocyte-derived VEGF promotes angiogenesis in a paracrine ..
  87. ncbi Cognitive functions of cortical acetylcholine: toward a unifying hypothesis
    M Sarter
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 23:28-46. 1997
    ..In contrast to previous descriptions of the role of cortical acetylcholine (ACh) in specific behavioral phenomena (e.g...
  88. ncbi Efferent vagal nerve stimulation protects heart against ischemia-induced arrhythmias by preserving connexin43 protein
    Motonori Ando
    Department of Cardiovascular Control, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan
    Circulation 112:164-70. 2005
    ..Vagal nerve stimulation has been postulated to contribute to the antifibrillatory effect. Here, we suggest a novel mechanism for the antiarrhythmogenic properties of vagal stimulation during acute MI...
  89. ncbi Focusing effect of acetylcholine on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex
    Min Fang Kuo
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University Gottingen, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:14442-7. 2007
    ..Such dysfunction can be at least partially restored by an increase of acetylcholine (ACh)...
  90. pmc Bulbar acetylcholine enhances neural and perceptual odor discrimination
    Dipesh Chaudhury
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA
    J Neurosci 29:52-60. 2009
    ..These results together present a first direct comparison between neural and perceptual effects of a bulbar neuromodulator...
  91. ncbi Age-related reduction of NO availability and oxidative stress in humans
    S Taddei
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Hypertension 38:274-9. 2001
    ..modifications induced by intrabrachial sodium nitroprusside (1, 2, and 4 microg/100 mL per minute) and acetylcholine (0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4...
  92. ncbi Acetylcholine synthesis by choline acetyltransferase of a peripheral type as demonstrated in adult rat dorsal root ganglion
    Jean Pierre Bellier
    Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan
    J Neurochem 101:1607-18. 2007
    ..alternatively by the gene for choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis...
  93. pmc Non-neuronal acetylcholine and urinary bladder urothelium
    Ann T Hanna-Mitchell
    University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Department of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Life Sci 80:2298-302. 2007
    Non-neuronal release of acetylcholine (ACh) has been proposed to play a role in urinary bladder function...
  94. ncbi Evaluation of vascular function in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with angiotensin-dependent renovascular hypertension
    Roberia M P Arruda
    Laboratory of Transgenes and Cardiovascular Control, Biomedical Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Brazil
    Hypertension 46:932-6. 2005
    ..05). The vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE; 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-3) mol/L), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10(-10) to 10(-3) mol/L) was evaluated in the mesenteric arteriolar bed ..
  95. ncbi The biological role of non-neuronal acetylcholine in plants and humans
    I Wessler
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Mainz, Germany
    Jpn J Pharmacol 85:2-10. 2001
    b>Acetylcholine, one of the most exemplary neurotransmitters, has been detected in bacteria, algae, protozoa, tubellariae and primitive plants, suggesting an extremely early appearance in the evolutionary process and a wide expression in ..
  96. pmc Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4-deficient mice exhibit impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine in vitro and in vivo
    David X Zhang
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Hypertension 53:532-8. 2009
    ..Here we investigated the role of TRPV4 channels in acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in vitro and in vivo using the TRPV4 knockout mouse model...
  97. pmc Starvation activates MAP kinase through the muscarinic acetylcholine pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx
    Young jai You
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell Metab 3:237-45. 2006
    Starvation activates MAPK in the pharyngeal muscles of C. elegans through a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Gqalpha, and nPKC as shown by the following results: (1) Starvation causes phosphorylation of MAPK in pharyngeal muscle...
  98. ncbi Protein kinase C activation increases endothelial nitric oxide release in mesenteric arteries from orchidectomized rats
    Javier Blanco-Rivero
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C Arzobispo Morcillo 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain
    J Endocrinol 192:189-97. 2007
    ..of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO), as well as to assess the regulatory action of protein kinase C (PKC) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelial NO release...
  99. pmc Effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on Ca2+ transient, cAMP production and pacemaker frequency of rabbit sinoatrial node cells
    Marcel M G J van Borren
    Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Basic Res Cardiol 105:73-87. 2010
    We investigated the contribution of the intracellular calcium (Ca (i) (2+) ) transient to acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated reduction of pacemaker frequency and cAMP content in rabbit sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cells...
  100. pmc Dehydroepiandrosterone protects against oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in ovariectomized rats
    João Paulo Gabriel Camporez
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of S ao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Physiol 589:2585-96. 2011
    ..were used to evaluate the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine (PHE) and the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
  101. pmc Crucial role of nitric oxide synthases system in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in mice
    Aya Takaki
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Exp Med 205:2053-63. 2008
    ..EDHF-mediated relaxation and hyperpolarization in response to acetylcholine of mesenteric arteries were progressively reduced as the number of disrupted NOS genes increased, whereas ..

Research Grants70

  1. Multi-targeted Countermeasures against Acute and Delayed Effects of OP Exposure
    John A Butera; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This process deactivates AChE and renders it unable to process acetylcholine in the synapse;resulting in excitotoxic levels of acetylcholine and hypersensitization of muscarinic and ..
  2. The Habenulo-Interpeduncular Pathway and Nicotine
    Christie D Fowler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is further hypothesized that cholinergic neurons expressing the alpha-5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit modulate information processing within the IPN-DTN pathway and that information is ..
  3. Structural and molecular basis of drug-induced IKACh reduction
    SAMI FOUAD NOUJAIM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 proteins that form the channels responsible for the acetylcholine-activated potassium current (IKAch) are important in perpetuating the rotors that underlie AF...
  4. Structural and molecular basis of drug-induced IKACh reduction
    SAMI FOUAD NOUJAIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 proteins that form the channels responsible for the acetylcholine-activated potassium current (IKAch) are important in perpetuating the rotors that underlie AF...
  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density and Veteran Cigarette Smokers
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These elevated levels would be expected to up-regulate the density of brain 1422* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which could mediate the greater severity of Tobacco Dependence found in menthol cigarette ..
  6. Epigenomic Events in Development of the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic Neurons
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. GABA, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine) or neuropeptide (e.g. galanin, NPY, VIP, substance P) phenotype...
  7. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury of Human Endothelium: Role of Glucose and Statins
    THOMAS JAY EBERT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A standard model to evaluate forearm endothelial function will be used. Acetylcholine (ACH) will be infused into the brachial artery to provoke synthesis and release of endothelial nitric oxide (..
  8. Intranasal CNS delivery of drugs against organophosphorous threat agents
    ..CTAs exert their toxic effects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to the accumulation of acetylcholine at synaptic and neuromuscular junctions leading to symptoms of acute CTA poisoning including salivation, ..
  9. KCNQ Channels and Vasoconstrictor Signal Transduction
    Kenneth L Byron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In neurons, these channels underlie a voltage-sensitive K+ (Kv) current, which is negatively regulated by acetylcholine to regulate postsynaptic neuronal excitability...
  10. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness
    Scott Kinlay; Fiscal Year: 2013 measure flow and artery responses to intra-arterial infusions of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine 10-6M, the microvascular endothelium-independent dilator adenosine, and the large artery vasodilator ..
    PALMER WILLIAM TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Our continuing investigation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) reflect a long standing and continuous commitment to the study of proteins that affect the ..
  12. Implantation of physiologically functional bioengineered innervated IAS construct
    Khalil N Bitar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The innervated constructs: 1) contracted and generated sustained force in response to acetylcholine and PdBU;and 2) relaxed in response to VIP and Electrical Filed Stimulation (EFS)...
  13. Fast accurate ultrasensitive in vitro assay to determine BoNT potency &stability
    ARMIN H REITMAIR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..BoNTs are zinc metalloproteases that cleave and inactivate proteins involved in synaptic vesicle fusion and acetylcholine release...
    Devendra K Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and -independent coronary vasodilatation will be measured by intracoronary administration of adenosine and acetylcholine. Biochemical parameters in epicardial fat will include the changes in adipocyte size, M1/M2 macrophage ..
  15. Role of Id1 in NSCLC Progression and Metastasis
    Srikumar P Chellappan; Fiscal Year: 2013 well as nicotine itself can promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)...
    Burton M Wice; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Rather, xenin-25 stimulates acetylcholine release from parasympathetic neurons that innervate the islets and this neurotransmitter then activates ..
  17. The Role of Vascular Innervation on Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator Release
    ..protease of this pathway and is released from the vasculature in response to numerous neurohormones including acetylcholine, catecholamines, substance P, arginine vasopressin and bradykinin...
  18. Development and Regulation of Cholinergic Synapses
    Andres Villu Maricq; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gain a mechanistic understanding of synaptic transmission, with a focus on the establishment and regulation of acetylcholine receptors...
    Helen A Baghdoyan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Cholinergic neurotransmission has unique relevance for mental health. Acetylcholine (ACh) plays a key role in generating the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep, and REM sleep abnormalities typify some forms of depression...
  20. Brain Nicotine Receptor Density &Response to Nicotine Patch
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013 to improve the delivery of smoking cessation treatment by determining if pre-treatment 1422* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) density in cigarette smokers is associated with smoking cessation outcome with the standard ..
  21. Cholinergic Receptors as Targets for Accelerated Anthelmintic Discovery
    MICHAEL JOHN KIMBER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The lead targets forming the substrate of this proposal are G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-gated chloride channels in the parasitic nematode B...
    Virginia M Pickel; Fiscal Year: 2012 other pharmacological or genetic manipulations that modulate either NMDA-dependent glutamate or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR)-mediated cholinergic transmission...
  23. Molecular mechanism of regulation of mI(CAT) in intestinal smooth muscle cells
    Michael X Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Acetylcholine is the primary transmitter released by enteric excitatory motor neurons. It plays a central role in the control of motility of the gastrointestinal tract...
  24. Endothelial Lipoxygenase Metabolites and Vascular Tone
    WILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..11,12,15-THETA mediates a portion of the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh), in- creases in flow and AA and opposes the action of vasoconstrictors...
  25. Induction of Nerve Growth Factor by Nicotine Leads to Airway Dysfunction
    CHERRY P WONGTRAKOOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Nicotine is a ligand for endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)...
  26. Diet, Insulin, Dopamine, and Reward.
    Margaret E Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on DA axons, but on cholinergic interneurons, and show a pivotal role for DA release regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) located on DA axons...
  27. Calcium wave propagation along microvascular endothelial tubes
    MATTHEW JOHN SOCHA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When delivered to a discrete site on an arteriole or FA, acetylcholine (ACh;the "gold standard" endothelium-dependent vasodilator) initiates a Ca+2 wave that travels from EC to EC ..
  28. Neurobiological mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement: Role of the nucleus tractus
    LUIS MIGUEL TUESTA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Nicotine acts in the brain by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are pentameric ion channels comprised of five discrete subunits...
  29. Determinants of developing efferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea
    ISABELLE CATHERINA ROUX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This cholinergic input is mediated by a9/a10nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is inhibitory due to the subsequent activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels...
  30. Neural Actions of Toluene
    John J Woodward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, the NR1/2B NMDA receptors and the 1422 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were among the most sensitive channels identified...
  31. Persistent Attenuation of Cocaine-Reinforced Behavior
    KENNETH W GRASING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In contrast, elevated levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens may inhibit appetitive behaviors, including drug-seeking...
  32. Physiology and structure of prefrontal projections to memory and motor circuits
    Maria Medalla; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While a number of neuromodulators influence cortical network dynamics, this project will focus on acetylcholine (ACh) due to its critical role in learning and memory...
  33. Pharmacological Management of Delirium
    Malaz Boustani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Disturbances in several neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been suggested to be ..
  34. Adolescent brains, nicotine and endogenous prototoxins
    Rae Nishi; Fiscal Year: 2010 nicotine is due to an imbalance between the endogenous cholinergic system and the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)...
  35. The Impact of Oxidative Stress on HIV-induced Lung Disease
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2013 which oxidation of Eh Cys/CySS stimulates tissue remodeling is through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)...
  36. Biobehavioral Role of Brain Kynurenine Metabolism in Mental Illness
    JASON C O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Conversely, endothelial cells and astrocytes produce kynurenic acid, which is a glutamate and 17-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist...
  37. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..mediated serotonin synthesis and secretion, or a loss of normal inhibitory responses to somatostatin and acetylcholine. Cytokines (particularly IL1[unreadable]) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) ..
  38. Tacrine Effects on Cocaine Self-Administration and Pharmacokinetic Measures
    KENNETH W GRASING; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Elevated levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens may also serve to inhibit appetitive behaviors...
  39. Genetic Determinants of Drug Effects
    Tamara J Phillips; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..stimulation on mouse chromosome 9, and advance our examination of the involvement of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes...
  40. Udall Parkinson's Disease Center at Emory University: Circuitry to Therapy
    THOMAS N WICHMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 4 (Dr. Conn, Vanderbilt), investigates the effects of a series of novel subtype-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists and activators on basal ganglia activity, and on parkinsonism in rodent models...
  41. Endothelial Aromatase in Sex-Specific Cerebrovascular Dysfunction After Ischemia
    KRISTEN LEANNE ZULOAGA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dysfunction following cerebral ischemia in mice, responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) will be compared in male and female mice before and after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (..
  42. Targeting of alpha7 nAChR for therapeutic effects
    Roger L Papke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is being energetically pursued as a drug target for diverse disorders, from Alzheimer's disease to septic shock...
  43. Nicotinic receptor stimulation and epigenetic regulation of GABAergic function.
    Alessandro Guidotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Postmortem examination of the brain of SZ patients reveals: a) a decrease of high and low affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes in telencephalic GABAergic neurons, which is possibly alleviated by nicotine abuse, ..
  44. Novel lead molecule optimization targeting nicotinic receptor subtypes
    DENNIS BRIAN contact MCKAY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our target is the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)...
  45. Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Older Adults: Dietary Sodium Restriction
    Kristen Jablonski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the forearm blood flow (FBF) response to an intrabrachial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh)...
  46. Signal transduction in TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The overarching hypothesis is that reduced levels of alfa7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the brains of schizophrenics, caused by polymorphism in the alfa7 receptor promoter, are the cause ..
  47. Hybrid atomic force-optical imaging system to investigate prenatal nicotine
    Jeffrey Potts; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR) are targets for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and exogenous cholinergic ligands such as nicotine from cigarette smoke...
  48. Models for?functional evaluation of?CHRN polymorphisms
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recent genetics studies support the involvement of a number of loci encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in addiction genetics...
  49. Effects of Ethanol on Insulin Signaling in the Brain
    Suzanne M de la Monte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..major mechanisms: 1) it inhibits insulin signaling required for viability, metabolism, synapse formation, and acetylcholine production;and 2) it functions as a neurotoxicant, causing oxidative stress, DNA damage and mitochondrial ..
  50. Molecular mechanisms of auditory nAChR synapse assembly
    Michele H Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..unreadable]9/10-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate synaptic transmission in hair cells...
  51. Pharmacology of Intravesical Antisense Based Therapy for Over Active Bladder
    Naoki Yoshimura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This mechanism is important to investigate because there is increasing evidence that non-neural acetylcholine (ACh) released from the urothelium during stretch can activate muscarinic receptors, leading to modulation of ..
  52. Mechanism for Reduced Adrenomedullary Epinephrine Release in Type 1 Diabetes
    BRANLY OSVALDO ORBAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our preliminary data show that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) signaling is impaired in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells isolated from streptozocin (STZ)-..
  53. Attenuation of cardiac parasympathetic nerve acetylcholine release in obesity by
    Wohaib Hasan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin, released from sympathetic terminals in the heart, can inhibit acetylcholine release from adjacent parasympathetic nerves...
  54. MiR-223 Regulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Function After Traumatic Brain Injury
    John B Redell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) peptide, which selectively transfect cells that express the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, including vascular endothelial cells, as a novel targeting strategy to transiently manipulate miR-..
  55. Novel Strategy for Lung Cancer Treatment Using IGF-1R Inhibitor
    Ho Young Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NNK), acting as an agonist for [unreadable]-adrenergic receptor ([unreadable]-AR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, induced IGF-1R phosphorylation and proliferative, angiogenic, invasive activities in NSCLC cell ..
  56. Development of a5* nAChR positive allosteric modulators for tobacco dependence
    JON MARTIN LINDSTROM; Fiscal Year: 2013 to develop new classes of potent and selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) at a5* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), that may prove efficacious in facilitating smoking cessation efforts...
  57. Next Generation Oxime Therapeutic for Chemical Agent Inhibited CNS (Brain) ChEs
    Richard K Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since the oxime does not penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBS), removal of excessive accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) is not accomplished by acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
    Yifan Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Acetylcholine (Ach) is a major neurotransmitter of PSNS...
  59. Skin Defense by Antimicrobial Peptides
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, we have found that catestatin, a stress-induced inhibitor of the acetylcholine receptor, acts to further regulate AMP production in the skin...
  60. Role of Dopamine Transporter: HIV-1 Tat Protein and Nicotine Sensitization
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..reinforcing agent in tobacco, stimulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain...
  61. GABA-B-R-mediated prevention of pancreatic cancer
    Hildegard M Schuller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activates this signaling pathway directly by binding to b-ARs and indirectly by stimulating the a7nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR)-mediated release of the stress neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are ..
  62. Role of nAChR stoichiometry in nicotine-induced upregulation
    CHRISTOPHER I RICHARDS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) plays an integral role in nicotine addiction...
  63. Development of Pharmacotherapies for Nicotine Addiction
    Frank Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies also indicate bupropion is an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), with the a4[unreadable]2 nAChR subtype identified as the most relevant...
    Michael Miller; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This projection system is one of the few to express nerve growth factor (NGF). Both NGF and acetylcholine are essential for maintaining neuronal plasticity...
  65. A Nonisotopic HTS Assay to Elucidate Choline Transporter (CHT) Modulators
    ALICIA RUGGIERO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the brain, the chemical acetylcholine (ACh) exerts powerful modulatory control over arousal, motor and cognitive circuits, and has been found to be deficient in Alzheimer's Disease (AD)...
    Richard Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..phasic contractile activity could be mimicked in muscle strips by addition of small concentrations of acetylcholine or by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase...
    Zhude Tu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..this project is to develop Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging agents to measure the level of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression in the human brain...
  68. The Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway in Human Obesity and Insulin Resistance
    Karen Teff; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Termed the 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway', the data suggest that the release of acetylcholine from vagal efferent fibers inhibits macrophage activation and the subsequent release of inflammatory cytokines ..
  69. Nicotinic Receptors in Glia-Neuron Interactions
    Sukumar Vijayaraghavan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..prerequisite for understanding the actions of nicotine is to elucidate the physiological role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. Recently, it has been shown that nAChRs are expressed in astrocytes...
    SERGEI GRANDO; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..keratinocytes possess all functional elements of a cholinergic system, the enzymes that synthesize or degrade acetylcholine and both the nicotinic and muscarinic types of acetylcholine receptors, and interference with acetylcholine ..