chloramines

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Kinetics of the reactions of hypochlorous acid and amino acid chloramines with thiols, methionine, and ascorbate
    A V Peskin
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:572-9. 2001
  2. ncbi Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia cells is mediated by the oxidants hypochlorous acid and chloramines
    Brett A Wagner
    Department of Medicine and Radiation Oncology Free Radical and Radiation Biology Graduate Program, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 401:223-34. 2002
  3. ncbi Modeling monochloramine loss in the presence of natural organic matter
    Stephen E Duirk
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1527, USA
    Water Res 39:3418-31. 2005
  4. ncbi Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools
    William A Weaver
    School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2051, USA
    Water Res 43:3308-18. 2009
  5. ncbi Investigation of opportunistic pathogens in municipal drinking water under different supply and treatment regimes
    M Pryor
    Pinellas County Utilities Laboratory, Largo, FL, USA
    Water Sci Technol 50:83-90. 2004
  6. pmc Oxidation of multiple methionine residues impairs rapid sodium channel inactivation
    Mario Kassmann
    Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Hans Knöll Str 2, 07745, Jena, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 456:1085-95. 2008
  7. ncbi Population diversity in model potable water biofilms receiving chlorine or chloramine residual
    Margaret M Williams
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biofouling 21:279-88. 2005
  8. ncbi Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate
    Maaike K Ramseier
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Water Res 45:1490-500. 2011
  9. pmc Mycobacterium avium infections of Acanthamoeba strains: host strain variability, grazing-acquired infections, and altered dynamics of inactivation with monochloramine
    David Berry
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6685-8. 2010
  10. ncbi Free chlorine and monochloramine application to nitrifying biofilm: comparison of biofilm penetration, activity, and viability
    Woo Hyoung Lee
    School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 45:1412-9. 2011

Research Grants

  1. INFIDELITY OF CYTOSINE METHYLATION AND HUMAN CANCER
    Lawrence C Sowers; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. PEROXYNITRITE DAMAGE TO MICROTUBULE PROTEINS
    LISA MARIE LANDINO; Fiscal Year: 2011
  3. Countermeasure for Chlorine Inhalation
    SIGRIDUR G SUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
  4. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DAPSONE
    PAULA BOZEMAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
  5. MYLEOPEROXIDASE AND LEUKOCYTE GRANULE COMPONENTS
    EDWIN THOMAS; Fiscal Year: 1992
  6. ASYMMETRIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    K Sharpless; Fiscal Year: 1980
  7. DIRECT TEST FOR CHOLORAMINES IN HEMODIALYSIS WATER
    JAMES CHRISTNER; Fiscal Year: 1990
  8. ROLE OF OXIDANTS IN ACUTE INFLAMMATORY INJURY
    Ingrid Schraufstatter; Fiscal Year: 1993
  9. Myeloperoxidase and NO signaling in the vasculature
    C White; Fiscal Year: 2004
  10. 2006 Drinking Water Disinection By-Product (DBP) Gordon Conference
    Susan Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications227 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Kinetics of the reactions of hypochlorous acid and amino acid chloramines with thiols, methionine, and ascorbate
    A V Peskin
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:572-9. 2001
    Thiol oxidation by hypochlorous acid and chloramines is a favorable reaction and may be responsible for alterations in regulatory or signaling pathways in cells exposed to neutrophil oxidants...
  2. ncbi Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of HL-60 human leukemia cells is mediated by the oxidants hypochlorous acid and chloramines
    Brett A Wagner
    Department of Medicine and Radiation Oncology Free Radical and Radiation Biology Graduate Program, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 401:223-34. 2002
    ..HL-60 cells underwent apoptosis when exposed to HOCl in full medium, which gives rise to chloramines by the reaction of HOCl with amine groups, but not by HOCl in the amine-free HBSS, in which HOCl but not ..
  3. ncbi Modeling monochloramine loss in the presence of natural organic matter
    Stephen E Duirk
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1527, USA
    Water Res 39:3418-31. 2005
    ..This knowledge is of value in assessing monochloramine stability in distribution systems and reaction pathways leading to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation...
  4. ncbi Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools
    William A Weaver
    School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2051, USA
    Water Res 43:3308-18. 2009
    ..Pairwise correlations among the measured volatile DBPs allowed identification of dichloromethylamine and dichloroacetonitrile as potential swimming pool water quality indicator compounds...
  5. ncbi Investigation of opportunistic pathogens in municipal drinking water under different supply and treatment regimes
    M Pryor
    Pinellas County Utilities Laboratory, Largo, FL, USA
    Water Sci Technol 50:83-90. 2004
    ..The results suggested that consideration should be given to the microbiological effects of changing disinfection regimes in drinking-water and distribution system biofilms...
  6. pmc Oxidation of multiple methionine residues impairs rapid sodium channel inactivation
    Mario Kassmann
    Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Hans Knöll Str 2, 07745, Jena, Germany
    Pflugers Arch 456:1085-95. 2008
    ..This arrangement using multiple Met residues confers a finely graded oxidative modulation of Na(V) channels and allows organisms to adapt to a variety of oxidative stress conditions, such as ischemic reperfusion...
  7. ncbi Population diversity in model potable water biofilms receiving chlorine or chloramine residual
    Margaret M Williams
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biofouling 21:279-88. 2005
    ..These results also suggest that biofilm communities in distribution systems are capable of changing in response to disinfection practices...
  8. ncbi Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate
    Maaike K Ramseier
    Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Water Res 45:1490-500. 2011
    ..Based on the different reactivity of these oxidants it was suggested that HNA and LNA bacterial cell membranes have a different chemical constitution...
  9. pmc Mycobacterium avium infections of Acanthamoeba strains: host strain variability, grazing-acquired infections, and altered dynamics of inactivation with monochloramine
    David Berry
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6685-8. 2010
    ..Exposure of M. avium in coculture with Acanthamoeba castellanii to monochloramine yielded inactivation kinetics markedly similar to those observed for A. castellanii alone...
  10. ncbi Free chlorine and monochloramine application to nitrifying biofilm: comparison of biofilm penetration, activity, and viability
    Woo Hyoung Lee
    School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 45:1412-9. 2011
    ..Limited free chlorine penetration has implications when converting to free chlorine in full-scale chloraminated systems in response to nitrification episodes...
  11. ncbi Comparative transcriptomics of the response of Escherichia coli to the disinfectant monochloramine and to growth conditions inducing monochloramine resistance
    David Berry
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Ave, 107 EWRE Bldg, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2125, USA
    Water Res 44:4924-31. 2010
    ..This characterization highlights the bacterial responses responsible for decreased sensitivity to monochloramine under different growth conditions...
  12. pmc Reducing Legionella colonization in water systems with monochloramine
    Brendan Flannery
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:588-96. 2006
    ..Increasing use of monochloramine in water supplies throughout the United States may reduce Legionella transmission and incidence of Legionnaires' disease...
  13. pmc What's in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water
    Susan D Richardson
    National Exposure Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Georgia 30606, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 118:1523-30. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc Functional consequences of methionine oxidation of hERG potassium channels
    Zhi Su
    Department of Integrative Pharmacology, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, IL 60064, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 74:702-11. 2007
    ..In contrast, the reversal potential, inactivation kinetics, and voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation remained unaltered. Our results demonstrate that the redox status of methionine is an important modulator of hERG channel...
  15. ncbi Legionella pneumophila associated with the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis in a model multi-species biofilm has reduced susceptibility to disinfectants
    R M Donlan
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta 30333, USA
    Biofouling 21:1-7. 2005
    ..A similar pattern was observed for 15 and 60 min contact times. These results indicate that L. pneumophila was less susceptible to MCA or FRC when associated with biofilm-associated H. vermiformis in a model potable water biofilm...
  16. ncbi Role of disinfectant concentration and pH in the inactivation kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with ozone and monochloramine
    J L Rennecker
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:2752-7. 2001
    ..If so, partial completion of these reactions by the primary disinfectant would have resulted in the disappearance of the lag phase and the faster rate of inactivation observed for the secondary disinfectant...
  17. ncbi Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with monochloramine
    Jeanne Luh
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 42:8051-6. 2008
    ..avium in water could vary broadly from adequate (e.g., 99.9% inactivation efficiency in 32 min at 5 mg Cl2/L, pH 6, 30 degrees C) to impractical (e.g., 99.9% inactivation efficiency in 9 d at 1 mg Cl2/L, pH 9, 5 degrees C)...
  18. ncbi Distinct modes of cell death induced by different reactive oxygen species: amino acyl chloramines mediate hypochlorous acid-induced apoptosis
    Robert P Englert
    Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20815, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:20518-26. 2002
    ..HOCl-induced apoptosis is mediated by aminoacyl chloramines generated in the culture media and can be mimicked by treatment of cells with taurine chloramine or with long ..
  19. ncbi Microbicidal activity of monochloramine and chloramine T compared
    R Arnitz
    Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    J Hosp Infect 73:164-70. 2009
    ..This phenomenon can be attributed to its lipophilicity and smaller bulk, and it should be taken into account when developing and using chloramine antiseptics...
  20. ncbi Oxidation of 2-cys peroxiredoxins in human endothelial cells by hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and chloramines
    Melissa M Stacey
    Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Antioxid Redox Signal 17:411-21. 2012
    ..Activated neutrophils generate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as chloramines that are formed when HOCl reacts with amino compounds...
  21. ncbi Myocardial damage after inhalation of chloramines
    Alejandro Gonzalez-Castro
    Intensive Care Unit, H U Marques de Valdecilla Santander, Spain
    Eur J Emerg Med 13:108-10. 2006
    The objective of this case report was to document a rare case of myocardial damage, in the context of an accidental inhalation of chloramines, demonstrated by electrocardiogram and myocardium-specific enzymes.
  22. pmc Small molecular, macromolecular, and cellular chloramines react with thiocyanate to give the human defense factor hypothiocyanite
    Bheki A Xulu
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
    Biochemistry 49:2068-74. 2010
    ..where the concentration of SCN(-) is relatively low, proteins may be the principal initial targets of HOCl, and chloramines are a significant product. Chloramines eventually decompose to irreversibly damage proteins...
  23. ncbi Identification of proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation in endothelial cells exposed to hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines
    Fiona A Summers
    Inflammation Group, The Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW 2042, Australia
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 425:157-61. 2012
    ..HOCl reacts readily with free amino groups to form N-chloramines, which also cause damage in vivo, owing to the extracellular release of myeloperoxidase and production of HOCl...
  24. ncbi Occupational asthma caused by chloramines in indoor swimming-pool air
    K M Thickett
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK
    Eur Respir J 19:827-32. 2002
    The first series of three workers who developed occupational asthma following exposure to airborne chloramines in indoor chlorinated swimming pools is reported...
  25. ncbi In vitro toxicity and genotoxicity assessment of disinfection by-products, organic N-chloramines
    S Laingam
    Australian Water Quality Centre, 250 Victoria Square, SA 5000, Australia
    Environ Mol Mutagen 53:83-93. 2012
    ..Organic N-chloramines are a group of DBPs, which can be formed during common disinfection processes such as chlorination and ..
  26. ncbi Evidence for rapid inter- and intramolecular chlorine transfer reactions of histamine and carnosine chloramines: implications for the prevention of hypochlorous-acid-mediated damage
    David I Pattison
    The Heart Research Institute, 114 Pyrmont Bridge Road, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia
    Biochemistry 45:8152-62. 2006
    ..However, as recent studies have shown that histidine-containing compounds readily form imidazole chloramines that can rapidly chlorinate other targets, it was hypothesized that similar reactions may occur with histamine ..
  27. ncbi Risk of hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease in cities using monochloramine versus other water disinfectants
    James D Heffelfinger
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:569-74. 2003
    ..To measure the association between the disinfection of municipal drinking water with monochloramine and the occurrence of hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease (LD)...
  28. pmc IkappaB is a sensitive target for oxidation by cell-permeable chloramines: inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by glycine chloramine through methionine oxidation
    Robyn G Midwinter
    Free Radical Research Group, Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, P O Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Biochem J 396:71-8. 2006
    ..acid (HOCl) is produced by the neutrophil enzyme, myeloperoxidase, and reacts with amines to generate chloramines. These oxidants react readily with thiols and methionine and can affect cell-regulatory pathways...
  29. ncbi Hypochlorite-induced damage to DNA, RNA, and polynucleotides: formation of chloramines and nitrogen-centered radicals
    Clare L Hawkins
    The EPR Group, Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia
    Chem Res Toxicol 15:83-92. 2002
    ..Reaction of HOCl with these materials is shown to yield multiple semistable chloramines (RNHCl/RR'NCl), which are the major initial products, and account for 50-95% of the added HOCl...
  30. pmc Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations
    Clifford P Weisel
    Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:500-7. 2009
    ....
  31. ncbi Volatile disinfection byproduct formation resulting from chlorination of organic-nitrogen precursors in swimming pools
    Jing Li
    School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2051, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:6732-9. 2007
    ..analysis by MIMS clearly indicates that volatile DBP formation in swimming pools is not limited to inorganic chloramines and haloforms...
  32. pmc Outbreaks of short-incubation ocular and respiratory illness following exposure to indoor swimming pools
    Anna B Bowen
    Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector borne and Enteric Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333 USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:267-71. 2007
    ..Chlorination destroys pathogens in swimming pool water, but by-products of chlorination can cause human illness. We investigated outbreaks of ocular and respiratory symptoms associated with chlorinated indoor swimming pools at two hotels...
  33. pmc Changes in blood lead levels associated with use of chloramines in water treatment systems
    Marie Lynn Miranda
    Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 115:221-5. 2007
    More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems...
  34. ncbi Factors associated with seeking emergency treatment following suspected chemical contamination of a leisure pool
    E C Goyder
    School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield
    Commun Dis Public Health 3:208-11. 2000
    ..The number of different symptoms was associated with the length of time spent at the pool, but not with being present at the time of the evacuation or with having heard about the incident on radio or television...
  35. ncbi Hypochlorite-induced damage to nucleosides: formation of chloramines and nitrogen-centered radicals
    C L Hawkins
    The EPR Group, Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia
    Chem Res Toxicol 14:1071-81. 2001
    ..the exocyclic -NH(2) groups of cytidine, adenosine, and guanosine, and the ring NH groups of all bases, yields chloramines (RNHCl/RR'NCl). These are the major initial products...
  36. ncbi The determinants of prevalence of health complaints among young competitive swimmers
    Benoît Lévesque
    Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, 945 Ave Wolfe, G1V 5B3, Sainte Foy, Quebec, Canada
    Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80:32-9. 2006
    b>Chloramines, which are produced by the reaction of chlorine with the organic matter present in indoor pools, are potential airway irritants in swimmers...
  37. ncbi Kinetic analysis of the role of histidine chloramines in hypochlorous acid mediated protein oxidation
    David I Pattison
    The Heart Research Institute, 145 Missenden Road, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
    Biochemistry 44:7378-87. 2005
    ..HOCl reacts rapidly with biological materials, with proteins being major targets. Chlorinated amines (chloramines) formed from Lys and His side chains and alpha-amino groups on proteins are major products of these reactions; ..
  38. ncbi Effect of monochloramine disinfection of municipal drinking water on risk of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease
    J L Kool
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Lancet 353:272-7. 1999
    ..Although about 25% of municipalities in the USA use monochloramine for disinfection of drinking water, the effect of monochloramine on the occurrence of Legionnaires' disease has never been studied...
  39. pmc Oxidative regulation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels
    X D Tang
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Gen Physiol 117:253-74. 2001
    ..Regulation of the Slo channel by methionine oxidation may represent an important link between cellular electrical excitability and metabolism...
  40. ncbi Evidence that monochloramine disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water
    Jay A Switzer
    Department of Chemistry and Graduate Center for Materials Research, University of Missouri, Rolla, Missouri 65409 1170, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:3384-7. 2006
    ..Although NH2Cl may produce less halogenated organic byproducts than HOCl/OCl- when used as a disinfectant, it may lead to increased Pb levels in drinking water...
  41. pmc Introduction of monochloramine into a municipal water system: impact on colonization of buildings by Legionella spp
    Matthew R Moore
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS C 23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:378-83. 2006
    ..in buildings served by the system. Monochloramine may hold promise as community-wide intervention for the prevention of LD...
  42. ncbi In vitro testing of fungicidal activity of biocides against Aspergillus fumigatus
    Anna Maria Tortorano
    Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Università degli Studi di Milano IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Via F Sforza 35, 20122 Milano, Italy
    J Med Microbiol 54:955-7. 2005
    ..fumigatus and a simplified procedure may be adopted for testing the fungicidal activity of new compounds...
  43. ncbi Interactions of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents with aqueous chlorine: reaction kinetics, mechanisms, and transformation pathways
    Michael C Dodd
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology EAWAG, Duebendorf, Switzerland
    Environ Sci Technol 39:7065-76. 2005
    ..kinetics were determined under selected conditions to evaluate the potential significance of reactions with chloramines. CF's rapid kinetics in direct reactions with HOCl, and relatively high reactivity toward CC, indicate that ..
  44. ncbi [Optimal process combination for control of disinfection by-products and precursors]
    Chao Chen
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Huan Jing Ke Xue 26:87-94. 2005
    ..We recommend that water plants apply the sequential chlorination disinfection and ozonization-active carbon process...
  45. ncbi Factors affecting bacterial growth in drinking water distribution system
    Wei Lu
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Biomed Environ Sci 18:137-40. 2005
    ..To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems...
  46. ncbi Characterization of disinfection byproduct precursors based on hydrophobicity and molecular size
    Guanghui Hua
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:3309-15. 2007
    ..However, hydrophobic and high MW precursors produced more UTOX when reacting with bromine and iodine...
  47. ncbi Studies on the efficacy of Chloramine T trihydrate (N-chloro-p-toluene sulfonamide) against planktonic and sessile populations of different Legionella pneumophila strains
    Nazmiye Ozlem Sanli-Yurudu
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, 34418 Istanbul, Turkey
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:147-53. 2007
    ..pneumophila for biocide tests might not be sufficient to provide information about the optimum dosage and contact time. Therefore, efficacy has to be tested on both planktonic and sessile bacteria...
  48. ncbi Chlorine covers on living bacteria: the initial step in antimicrobial action of active chlorine compounds
    Waldemar Gottardi
    Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz Pregl Strasse 3, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:475-82. 2005
    ..Using N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous mild representative, we observed persisting oxidation capacity affixed to bacteria. It was the aim of this study to investigate this 'chlorine cover'...
  49. ncbi Occurrence and production of chloramines in the chlorination of creatinine in aqueous solution
    Mariko Tachikawa
    College of Pharmacy, Nihon University, 7 7 1 Narashinodai, Funabashi 274 8555, Japan
    Water Res 39:371-9. 2005
    Occurrence and production of stable chloramines in the chlorination of creatinine, a constituent of perspiration and urine, in aqueous media were studied...
  50. ncbi Stability of cyanogen chloride in the presence of free chlorine and monochloramine
    Chongzheng Na
    Environmental and Water Resource Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2125, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 38:6037-43. 2004
    ..The results of this study demonstrate that the observed association of CNCl with chloramination systems can in part be explained by the differences in its stability with chlorine and chloramines.
  51. ncbi Chemical and biological characterization of newly discovered iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts
    Michael J Plewa
    College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 38:4713-22. 2004
    ..in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification of iodoacetic acid (IA) and ..
  52. ncbi More chloramine complications
    Rebecca Renner
    Environ Sci Technol 38:342A-343A. 2004
  53. pmc The beta1 subunit enhances oxidative regulation of large-conductance calcium-activated K+ channels
    Lindsey Ciali Santarelli
    Neuroscience Graduate Group, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Gen Physiol 124:357-70. 2004
    ..Together, the oxidized BKCa channel complex with beta1 has a considerable chance of being open within the physiological voltage range even at low [Ca2+]i...
  54. ncbi Endogenous formation of novel halogenated 2'-deoxycytidine. Hypohalous acid-mediated DNA modification at the site of inflammation
    Yoshichika Kawai
    Laboratory of Food and Biodynamics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:51241-9. 2004
    ..Halogenation (chlorination and/or bromination) of DNA therefore may constitute one mechanism for oxidative DNA damage at the site of inflammation...
  55. ncbi Kinetics of the oxidation of cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a with chlorine, monochloramine and permanganate
    Eva Rodriguez
    Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz, Spain
    Water Res 41:2048-56. 2007
    ..The reactivity of ANTX with chlorine and chloramines is also very low (k<1M(-1)s(-1)). The elimination of CYN and ANTX in surface water was also investigated...
  56. ncbi Relevance of diffusion through bacterial spore coats/membranes and the associated concentration boundary layers in the initial lag phase of inactivation: a case study for Bacillus subtilis with ozone and monochloramine
    W J N Fernando
    School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Math Biosci 199:175-87. 2006
    ..The results seem to be in good agreement with the theoretical equations indicating the importance of diffusion process across the outer cell membranes and the resulting CBL's during the lag phase of disinfection...
  57. ncbi Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants
    Guanghui Hua
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Water Res 41:1667-78. 2007
    ..b>Chloramines and chlorine dioxide produced a higher percentage of UTOX than free chlorine...
  58. ncbi Oxidation of sulfonamides, macrolides, and carbadox with free chlorine and monochloramine
    E Chamberlain
    Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Research Center for Emerging Contaminants, University of Missouri Rolla, USA
    Water Res 40:2517-26. 2006
    ..1-9.1. Monochloramine was less effective at typical drinking water dosage concentrations of 3 mg/L, with average removals of 35, 10, and 0 percent at a pH of 6.1, 7.6, and 9.1, respectively...
  59. ncbi Contributions of silane cross-linked PEX pipe to chemical/solvent odours in drinking water
    M L Durand
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 418 Durham Hall, Blacksburg, VA, 24061 0246, USA
    Water Sci Technol 55:153-60. 2007
    ..The presence of disinfectant, chlorine or chloramines, did not alter the odour characteristics or intensity of the PEX odour...
  60. ncbi Use of flavour profile and consumer panels to determine differences between local water supplies and desalinated seawater
    M J McGuire
    McGuire Malcolm Pirnie, 1919 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 200, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA
    Water Sci Technol 55:275-82. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi New ORP/pH based control strategy for chlorination and dechlorination of wastewater: pilot scale application
    H Kim
    The University of Seoul Dept of Environmental Engineering, Seoul, South Korea
    Water Sci Technol 53:145-51. 2006
    ..In short, the disinfection system with the pH/ORP based controller showed very successful results; complete inactivation of total coliforms, and almost zero residual chlorines and high DO in its effluent...
  62. ncbi Characteristics of salt taste and free chlorine or chloramine in drinking water
    K E Wiesenthal
    Department of Environmental Health and Science, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Water Sci Technol 55:293-300. 2007
    ..with the concentration of ions in the saliva in the mouth and the concentration of free chlorine or chloramines cannot be tasted correctly...
  63. ncbi Triclosan reactivity in chloraminated waters
    Aimee E Greyshock
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:2615-22. 2006
    ..b>Chloramines used either as alternative disinfectants in drinking water treatment or formed during chlorination of ..
  64. ncbi Effect of immersion chilling of broiler chicken carcasses in monochloramine on lipid oxidation and halogenated residual compound formation
    Stephen P Axtell
    Zentox Corporation, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA
    J Food Prot 69:907-11. 2006
    ..There were no statistical differences between TAP- and MON-treated fresh or stored products with regard to chloroform levels, total chlorine content, TBA values, or fatty acid profiles...
  65. ncbi [Simultaneous control of microorganism, disinfection by-products and bio-stability by sequential chlorination disinfection]
    Chao Chen
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Huan Jing Ke Xue 27:74-9. 2006
    ..safe chlorination disinfection process, the sequential disinfection process with short-term free chlorine plus chloramines was investigated its efficiency on control of indices of microorganism, disinfection by-products and bio-..
  66. ncbi Nitrile, aldehyde, and halonitroalkane formation during chlorination/chloramination of primary amines
    Sung Hee Joo
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Yale University, Mason Lab 313b, 9 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:1288-96. 2007
    ..Chlorine and chloramines transformed primary amines to nitriles and aldehydes in significant yields overtime scales relevant to drinking ..
  67. ncbi [Estimation of activity of pharmakopeal disinfectants and antiseptics against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, drugs and environment]
    Wanda Grzybowska
    Zakład Antybiotyków i Mikrobiologii Narodowego Instytutu Zdrowia Publicznego w Warszawie
    Med Dosw Mikrobiol 59:65-73. 2007
    ..The biggest diversification of sensitivity was observed among strains originated from drugs where besides sensitive appeared strains characterizing by very high MIC values of some substances, eg. boric acid...
  68. ncbi Simultaneous control of microorganisms and disinfection by-products by sequential chlorination
    Chao Chen
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Biomed Environ Sci 20:119-25. 2007
    ..To introduce a new sequential chlorination disinfection process in which short-term free chlorine and chloramine are sequentially added...
  69. ncbi Synergetic inactivation of microorganisms in drinking water by short-term free chlorination and subsequent monochloramination
    Xiao Jian Zhang
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Biomed Environ Sci 20:373-80. 2007
    ..To introduce synergetic inactivation of microorganisms in drinking water by short-term free chlorination for less than 15 minutes followed by monochloramination...
  70. ncbi Effect of disinfectants on microbial ecology in model distribution systems
    C Chauret
    Indiana University Kokomo, PO Box 9003, Kokomo, IN 46904, USA
    J Water Health 3:359-69. 2005
    ..4 mg/l), chlorine dioxide (0.15 mg/l), or chloramines (0.9 mg/l)...
  71. ncbi [Modeling of inactivation kinetics of E. coli with free chlorine and monochloramine]
    Yun Wang
    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    Huan Jing Ke Xue 26:100-4. 2005
    ..coli, and for monochloramine the two-parameter Selleck model was the best fit model...
  72. ncbi Vulnerability of water distribution systems to pathogen intrusion: how effective is a disinfectant residual?
    Marco Propato
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 38:3713-22. 2004
    ..Moreover, the addition of a booster station at storage tanks may improve consumer protection without requiring excessive disinfectant...
  73. ncbi Methaemoglobinaemia and haemolysis associated with hydrogen peroxide in a paediatric haemodialysis centre: a warning note
    Miriam Davidovits
    Nephrology Clinic and Dialysis Unit, Schneider Children s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:2354-8. 2003
    ..The AAMI standards deal only with two disinfectants, chlorine and chloramine. We report an event of methaemoglobinaemia and haemolysis related to an unsuspected disinfection agent...
  74. pmc Growth of Escherichia coli in model distribution system biofilms exposed to hypochlorous acid or monochloramine
    Margaret M Williams
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:5463-71. 2003
    ..The persistence of diverse bacterial species within disinfectant-treated biofilms suggests that current testing practices underestimate the risk to immunocompromised individuals of contracting waterborne disease...
  75. ncbi Determination of N-chloramines in As-samra chlorinated wastewater and their effect on the disinfection process
    M K Fayyad
    Water and Environment Research and Study Center, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
    Water Res 35:1304-10. 2001
    ..chlorine and compounds containing a nitrogen atom with one or more hydrogen atoms attached to it will form chloramines which have lower disinfection efficiency...
  76. ncbi Chlorination of pure bacterial cultures in aqueous solution
    C Shang
    School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1284, USA
    Water Res 35:244-54. 2001
    ..These results indicated the residual chloramines existed in the form of organic chloramines; these compounds are generally recognized as being poor ..
  77. ncbi Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from dimethylamine during chlorination
    William A Mitch
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 36:588-95. 2002
    ..It may be possible to reduce NDMA formation during chlorination by removing ammonia prior to chlorination, by breakpoint chlorination, or by avoidance of the use of monochloramine for drinking water disinfection...
  78. ncbi Combining chlorination and chloramination processes for the inhibition of biofilm formation in drinking surface water system models
    M N B Momba
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice South Africa
    J Appl Microbiol 92:641-8. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS) and galvanized mild steel (MS) in chlorine (AFC(1)) and chlorine-monochloramine treated waters (AFC(2)M)...
  79. ncbi The influence of plasma on the disinfecting activity of the new antimicrobial agent N-chlorotaurine-sodium in comparison with chloramine T
    W Gottardi
    Institute for Hygiene und Social Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Austria
    J Pharm Pharmacol 53:689-97. 2001
    ..The increase in bactericidal activity, on the other hand, can be explained by transhalogenation, leading to the formation of more bactericidal N-chloro compounds by which the loss of N-chlorotaurine is over-compensated...
  80. ncbi Factors influencing inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae by chlorine and chloramine
    Sudha Goel
    Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    Water Res 38:301-8. 2004
    ..9) values for chloramine. These results indicate that inactivation of K. pneumoniae cultures by chlorine was highly sensitive to changes in growth conditions unlike inactivation by chloramine...
  81. ncbi Monochloramine loss in the presence of humic acid
    Stephen E Duirk
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1527, USA
    J Environ Monit 4:85-9. 2002
    ..The results shown here demonstrate the ability of a semi-mechanistic model to predict monochloramine residuals and DBP formation in the presence of humic material...
  82. ncbi Chemical oxidants acidify solitary complex (SC) neurons in the rat
    D K Mulkey
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Environmental and Hyperbaric Cell Biology Facility, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435, USA
    Undersea Hyperb Med 31:107-11. 2004
  83. pmc Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial communities in a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution system
    John M Regan
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 1691, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:73-81. 2002
    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection...
  84. ncbi Formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from reaction of monochloramine: a new disinfection by-product
    Junghoon Choi
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1527, USA
    Water Res 36:817-24. 2002
    ..We conclude that reactions involving monochloramine in addition to classical nitrosation reactions are potentially important pathways for NDMA formation...
  85. ncbi Endotoxin inactivation by selected drinking water treatment oxidants
    William B Anderson
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont, Canada N2L 3G1
    Water Res 37:4553-60. 2003
    ....
  86. pmc Effect of oxidizing disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, and ozone) on Helicobacter pylori
    Katherine H Baker
    Environmental Engineering Programs, Penn State Capital College, 777 W Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA 17057, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:981-4. 2002
    ..H. pylori is more resistant than E. coli to chlorine and ozone but not monochloramine. H. pylori may be able to tolerate disinfectants in distribution systems and, therefore, may be transmitted by a waterborne route...
  87. ncbi Determination of nutrients limiting biofilm formation and the subsequent impact on disinfectant decay
    J P Chandy
    Australian Water Technologies--Environment, Science and Technology, NSW
    Water Res 35:2677-82. 2001
    ....
  88. ncbi Influence of phosphate and disinfection on the composition of biofilms produced from drinking water, as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization
    M Batté
    Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C P 6079, Succ Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
    Can J Microbiol 49:741-53. 2003
    ..The results suggest that there were variations in the kinetics of inactivation by disinfectant, depending on the bacterial populations involved...
  89. ncbi Making chlorine greener: investigation of alternatives to sulfite for dechlorination
    Mary Bedner
    Analytical Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
    Water Res 38:2505-14. 2004
    Inorganic and organic chloramines pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems that are exposed to discharges of treated and disinfected wastewater...
  90. ncbi Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research
    Susan D Richardson
    National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Mutat Res 636:178-242. 2007
    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines) react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of ..
  91. ncbi Literature review--efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in water systems
    B R Kim
    Ford Research Laboratory, Dearborn, MI 48121, USA
    Water Res 36:4433-44. 2002
    ..and silver), oxidizing agents (halogen containing compounds [chlorine, bromine, iodine, chlorine dioxide, chloramines, and halogenated hydantoins], ozone, and hydrogen peroxide), non-oxidizing agents (heterocyclic ketones, ..
  92. ncbi Potential carcinogenic hazards of non-regulated disinfection by-products: haloquinones, halo-cyclopentene and cyclohexene derivatives, N-halamines, halonitriles, and heterocyclic amines
    Richard J Bull
    MoBull Consulting, 1928 Meadows Drive North, Richland, WA 99352, USA
    Toxicology 286:1-19. 2011
    ..HQs), related halo-cyclopentene and cyclohexene (HCP&H) derivatives, halonitriles (HNs), organic N-chloramines (NCls), haloacetamides (HAMs), and nitrosamines (NAs)...
  93. ncbi A convenient new route to piperidines, pyrrolizidines, indolizidines, and quinolizidines by cyclization of acetylenic sulfones with beta and gamma-chloroamines. Enantioselective total synthesis of indolizidines (-)-167B, (-)-209D, (-)-209B, and (-)-207A
    T G Back
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Org Chem 65:4543-52. 2000
    ..This was subjected to chlorination of the alcohol group with thionyl chloride and substitution with a higher order allyl cuprate reagent to afford (-)-indolizidine 207A...
  94. ncbi Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water
    Kristina D Mena
    University of Texas Houston School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA
    Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 201:71-115. 2009
    ..it does not exhibit any marked resistance to the disinfectants used to treat drinking water such as chlorine, chloramines, ozone, or iodine...
  95. ncbi Site-specific hypochlorous acid-induced oxidation of recombinant human myoglobin affects specific amino acid residues and the rate of cytochrome b5-mediated heme reduction
    Andrea J Szuchman-Sapir
    Vascular Biology Group, ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW 2139, Australia
    Free Radic Biol Med 48:35-46. 2010
    ..a longer incubation time (24 h), consistent with the formation via chlorine-transfer reactions from preformed chloramines. HOCl-mediated oxidation of wild-type HMb resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the observed rate constant ..
  96. ncbi Tribromopyrrole, brominated acids, and other disinfection byproducts produced by disinfection of drinking water rich in bromide
    Susan D Richardson
    National Exposure Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 37:3782-93. 2003
    ..high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of DBPs formed by chlorine dioxide under high ..
  97. ncbi Disinfection by-products and microbial contamination in the treatment of pool water with granular activated carbon
    W Uhl
    University of Duisburg Essen, Institute for Energy and Environmental Process Engineering EUT, Water Technology Department, Germany
    Water Sci Technol 52:71-6. 2005
    ..AOC), of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella, coliforms, HPC) as well as the removal of chlorine and chloramines are monitored as function of GAC bed depth...
  98. ncbi Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts
    Stuart W Krasner
    Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, 700 Moreno Avenue, La Verne, California 91750 3399, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:7175-85. 2006
    ..Although the use of alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramines) minimized the formation of the four regulated THMs, trihalogenated HAAs, and total organic halogen (TOX), ..
  99. ncbi The fibrinogen antigenic turbidimetric assay (FIATA): the X2x test--the corrected chi-square comparison against the control-mean
    Thomas W Stief
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Central Laboratory, University Hospital, Marburg, Germany
    Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 13:73-100. 2007
    ..In contrast to chloramine-T, vancomycin does not react in NaJ-based photometric assay for chloramines,vancomycin does not inactivate the singlet oxygen-sensible antithrombin III, and the vancomycin action against ..
  100. ncbi Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Mitchell P Fink
    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Curr Opin Crit Care 8:6-11. 2002
    ..related species include the hypohalous acids, particularly hypochlorous acid; chloramine and substituted chloramines; and singlet oxygen. Reactive nitrogen species are derived from the simple diatomic gas, nitric oxide...
  101. ncbi Chloramination of nitrogenous contaminants (pharmaceuticals and pesticides): NDMA and halogenated DBPs formation
    Julien Le Roux
    Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l Eau CNRS UMR 6008, Université de Poitiers ENSIP, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France
    Water Res 45:3164-74. 2011
    Disinfection with chloramines is often used to reduce the production of regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)...

Research Grants24

  1. INFIDELITY OF CYTOSINE METHYLATION AND HUMAN CANCER
    Lawrence C Sowers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary data support the hypothesis that the formation of chloramines or bromamines might facilitate the delivery of reactive molecules to the nucleus, and that some tertiary amines,..
  2. PEROXYNITRITE DAMAGE TO MICROTUBULE PROTEINS
    LISA MARIE LANDINO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..point for understanding how reactive species including peroxynitrite anion, nitroxyl, hypochlorous acid and chloramines could jeopardize cell viability in vivo...
  3. Countermeasure for Chlorine Inhalation
    SIGRIDUR G SUMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This R21 application outlines an approach to reduce chloramines formed in human tissue after accidental exposure to chlorine gas following an industrial accident or terrorist attack...
  4. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DAPSONE
    PAULA BOZEMAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..the oxidation of chloride (Cl-) by H202 to yield hypochlorous acid, which in turn reacts with amines, forming chloramines. These oxidants, while exerting a beneficial effect by killing microorganisms, may also have a deleterious ..
  5. MYLEOPEROXIDASE AND LEUKOCYTE GRANULE COMPONENTS
    EDWIN THOMAS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The reaction of HOC1 with the lysine-peptides yields relatively non-toxic though long-lived peptide-chloramines. The proposed studies will characterize the interaction of 02-, H202, and products of the MPO system with ..
  6. ASYMMETRIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    K Sharpless; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..either enantiomer and the asymmetric oxidative amination of olefins (both Os and Se catalyzed) by these chiral chloramines is being studied...
  7. DIRECT TEST FOR CHOLORAMINES IN HEMODIALYSIS WATER
    JAMES CHRISTNER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    b>Chloramines are strongly hemolytic and therefore are highly toxic to hemodialysis patients. Purified water for dialysis should not contain more than 0.1 ppm of chloramines...
  8. ROLE OF OXIDANTS IN ACUTE INFLAMMATORY INJURY
    Ingrid Schraufstatter; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..0 Definition of cellular targets of H202 1.1 Definition of cellular targets of HOCl and chloramines 1...
  9. Myeloperoxidase and NO signaling in the vasculature
    C White; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the effects of MPO on endothelial NO signaling processes; 2) characterizing the role of L-arginine derived N-chloramines in MPO-dependent endothelial cell injury; and 3) by determining whether inhibitors of MPO prevent endothelial ..
  10. 2006 Drinking Water Disinection By-Product (DBP) Gordon Conference
    Susan Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Issues to be covered include new reproductive/developmental toxicological issues, human exposure, chemistry of formation, and remaining cancer issues. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Reversible oxidation of methionine in aging
    Toshinori Hoshi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results expected should prove valuable in designing interventions to extend lifespan. ..
  12. Life-span extension /methionine sulfoxide reductase
    Toshinori Hoshi; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. REGULATION OF ION CHANNELS BY APOPTOSIS TRIGGER PROTEINS
    Toshinori Hoshi; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. MOLECULAR BASIS OF LIGAND/SODIUM CHANNEL INTERACTIONS
    GING WANG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  15. THERAPEUTIC NA+ CHANNEL BLOCKERS: RECEPTOR & DRUG DESIGN
    GING WANG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such drugs, either taken orally or injected locally, may be beneficial for patients with chronic and intractable cancer pain. ..
  16. Occupational Asthmagens in Cleaners: A Focus Group Study
    Ahmed Arif; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The information from the focus group interviews will be used to develop JEM and a draft survey instrument for use among cleaners. ..
  17. DISPARITIES IN ASTHMA AMONG ELDERLY IN WEST TEXAS
    Ahmed Arif; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..A similar comparison will be made to evaluate urban/rural differences. ..
  18. Biodurability of Dentin-Adhesive Resin Bond Joint
    Steven Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race or ethnicity or disability. ..
  20. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race, ethnicity or disability. ..
  21. Duke Center for Geospatial Medicine (RMI)
    Marie Lynn Miranda; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Using neural tube defects as a prototype health endpoint, we will develop a generalized framework for applying these methods to a wide variety of health endpoints, including autism, asthma, ADHD, and obesity. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. The 17th Annual Conference of the International Society of Exposure of Analysis
    Clifford Weisel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The primary outcome of the meeting will be the advancement of knowledge of human exposure science. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Student Travel to the Environmental Mutagen Society
    Michael Plewa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Awards will be made without regard to gender, race or ethnicity. ..