norepinephrine

Summary

Summary: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system: modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes
    Craig W Berridge
    Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 42:33-84. 2003
  2. ncbi An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: adaptive gain and optimal performance
    Gary Aston-Jones
    Laboratory of Neuromodulation and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:403-50. 2005
  3. ncbi The locus coeruleus and noradrenergic modulation of cognition
    Susan J Sara
    CNRS UMR 7152, College de France, Paris 75005, France
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:211-23. 2009
  4. ncbi Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Frank P Bymaster
    Neuroscience Research Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:699-711. 2002
  5. ncbi Generation of the melatonin endocrine message in mammals: a review of the complex regulation of melatonin synthesis by norepinephrine, peptides, and other pineal transmitters
    Valerie Simonneaux
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Rythmes, UMR 7518 CNRS ULP, 12, rue de l université, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Pharmacol Rev 55:325-95. 2003
  6. ncbi Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin
    R B Rothman
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Synapse 39:32-41. 2001
  7. ncbi Serum uric acid and plasma norepinephrine concentrations predict subsequent weight gain and blood pressure elevation
    Kazuko Masuo
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamada oka, Suita City, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Hypertension 42:474-80. 2003
  8. pmc Adrenergic pharmacology and cognition: focus on the prefrontal cortex
    Brian P Ramos
    Department Neurobiology, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT 06520 8001, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 113:523-36. 2007
  9. pmc Targeting QseC signaling and virulence for antibiotic development
    David A Rasko
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 321:1078-80. 2008
  10. ncbi Noradrenergic pain modulation
    Antti Pertovaara
    Biomedicum Helsinki, Institute of Biomedicine Physiology, PO Box 63, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Prog Neurobiol 80:53-83. 2006

Detail Information

Publications394 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system: modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes
    Craig W Berridge
    Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 42:33-84. 2003
    Through a widespread efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system...
  2. ncbi An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: adaptive gain and optimal performance
    Gary Aston-Jones
    Laboratory of Neuromodulation and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:403-50. 2005
    Historically, the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system has been implicated in arousal, but recent findings suggest that this system plays a more complex and specific role in the control of behavior than investigators previously ..
  3. ncbi The locus coeruleus and noradrenergic modulation of cognition
    Susan J Sara
    CNRS UMR 7152, College de France, Paris 75005, France
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:211-23. 2009
    ....
  4. ncbi Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Frank P Bymaster
    Neuroscience Research Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 27:699-711. 2002
    The selective norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitor atomoxetine (formerly called tomoxetine or LY139603) has been shown to alleviate symptoms in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)...
  5. ncbi Generation of the melatonin endocrine message in mammals: a review of the complex regulation of melatonin synthesis by norepinephrine, peptides, and other pineal transmitters
    Valerie Simonneaux
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Rythmes, UMR 7518 CNRS ULP, 12, rue de l université, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Pharmacol Rev 55:325-95. 2003
    ..circadian clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which controls the release of norepinephrine from the dense pineal sympathetic afferents...
  6. ncbi Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin
    R B Rothman
    Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Synapse 39:32-41. 2001
    ..Both amphetamine and cocaine increase norepinephrine (NE) via stimulation of release and inhibition of reuptake, respectively...
  7. ncbi Serum uric acid and plasma norepinephrine concentrations predict subsequent weight gain and blood pressure elevation
    Kazuko Masuo
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamada oka, Suita City, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Hypertension 42:474-80. 2003
    ..To clarify the relations between serum uric acid, plasma norepinephrine, and insulin or leptin levels in subjects with weight gain-induced blood pressure elevation, we conducted the ..
  8. pmc Adrenergic pharmacology and cognition: focus on the prefrontal cortex
    Brian P Ramos
    Department Neurobiology, Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT 06520 8001, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 113:523-36. 2007
    b>Norepinephrine (NE) has widespread projections throughout the brain, and thus, is ideally positioned to orchestrate neural functions based on arousal state...
  9. pmc Targeting QseC signaling and virulence for antibiotic development
    David A Rasko
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Science 321:1078-80. 2008
    ..Inhibition of signaling offers a strategy for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs...
  10. ncbi Noradrenergic pain modulation
    Antti Pertovaara
    Biomedicum Helsinki, Institute of Biomedicine Physiology, PO Box 63, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Prog Neurobiol 80:53-83. 2006
    b>Norepinephrine is involved in intrinsic control of pain. Main sources of norepinephrine are sympathetic nerves peripherally and noradrenergic brainstem nuclei A1-A7 centrally...
  11. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation increases norepinephrine concentration and the gene expression of BDNF and bFGF in the rat brain
    Paolo Follesa
    Department of Experimental Biology, Section of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
    Brain Res 1179:28-34. 2007
    ..neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor, and nerve growth factor as well as the concentration of norepinephrine in the rat brain...
  12. pmc Norepinephrine directly activates adult hippocampal precursors via beta3-adrenergic receptors
    Dhanisha J Jhaveri
    The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Neurosci 30:2795-806. 2010
    ..Among the neurotransmitters that are widely implicated in regulating this process are serotonin and norepinephrine, levels of which are modulated by stress, depression and clinical antidepressants...
  13. pmc Increased extracellular concentrations of norepinephrine in cortex and hippocampus following vagus nerve stimulation in the rat
    Rodney W Roosevelt
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences Program, Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, IL 62901 6512, USA
    Brain Res 1119:124-32. 2006
    ..information about visceral states and it provides input to the locus coeruleus (LC), the major source of norepinephrine (NE) in the brain...
  14. ncbi Mecp2 deficiency disrupts norepinephrine and respiratory systems in mice
    Jean Charles Viemari
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 25:11521-30. 2005
    ..of variable duration; meanwhile, their medulla contained a significantly reduced number of TH neurons and norepinephrine (NE) content, even in Mecp2-/y mice that showed a normal breathing pattern...
  15. pmc The QseC sensor kinase: a bacterial adrenergic receptor
    Marcie B Clarke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9048, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10420-5. 2006
    ..AI-3 quorum-sensing system is also involved in interkingdom signaling with the eukaryotic hormones epinephrine/norepinephrine. This signaling activates transcription of virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7...
  16. pmc Structure-based discovery of prescription drugs that interact with the norepinephrine transporter, NET
    Avner Schlessinger
    Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15810-5. 2011
    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) transports norepinephrine from the synapse into presynaptic neurons, where norepinephrine regulates signaling pathways associated with cardiovascular effects and behavioral traits via binding to ..
  17. ncbi Developmental origins of central norepinephrine neuron diversity
    Sabrina D Robertson
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Neurosci 16:1016-23. 2013
    Central norepinephrine-producing neurons comprise a diverse population of cells differing in anatomical location, connectivity, function and response to disease and environmental insult...
  18. ncbi Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychol Bull 131:510-32. 2005
    ..authors review evidence suggesting that the P3 reflects phasic activity of the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system...
  19. ncbi Current perspectives of the roles of the central norepinephrine system in anxiety and depression
    Andrew W Goddard
    Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Depress Anxiety 27:339-50. 2010
    b>Norepinephrine (NE) is a major monoamine neurotransmitter that has widespread effects across multiple brain areas to regulate arousal and stress responses...
  20. ncbi Levomilnacipran (F2695), a norepinephrine-preferring SNRI: profile in vitro and in models of depression and anxiety
    A L Auclair
    Neuropsychopharmacology Division, Centre de Recherche Pierre Fabre, 17 avenue Jean Moulin, 81106 Castres, France
    Neuropharmacology 70:338-47. 2013
    Levomilnacipran (LVM; F2695) is the more active enantiomer of the serotonin/norepinephrine (5-HT/NE) reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) milnacipran and is currently under development for the treatment of major depressive disorder...
  21. ncbi Phasic norepinephrine: a neural interrupt signal for unexpected events
    Peter Dayan
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London, London, UK
    Network 17:335-50. 2006
    Extensive animal studies indicate that the neuromodulator norepinephrine plays an important role in specific aspects of vigilance, attention and learning, putatively serving as a neural interrupt or reset function...
  22. pmc Pivotal role of the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor in producing inflammation and organ injury in a rat model of sepsis
    Michael Miksa
    Center for Immunology and Inflammation, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital and Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Manhasset, NY, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5504. 2009
    b>Norepinephrine (NE) modulates the responsiveness of macrophages to proinflammatory stimuli through the activation of adrenergic receptors (ARs)...
  23. pmc Hindbrain noradrenergic A2 neurons: diverse roles in autonomic, endocrine, cognitive, and behavioral functions
    Linda Rinaman
    Dept of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, A210 Langley Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300:R222-35. 2011
    ....
  24. ncbi The norepinephrine transporter inhibitor reboxetine reduces stimulant effects of MDMA ("ecstasy") in humans
    C M Hysek
    Psychopharmacology Research Group, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine and Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 90:246-55. 2011
    This study assessed the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of the interaction between the selective norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitor reboxetine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") in 16 healthy ..
  25. ncbi Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine and C-reactive protein: evidence for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in healthy human adults
    J F Thayer
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Intern Med 265:439-47. 2009
    ..Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effects of the ANS...
  26. ncbi Dopamine uptake through the norepinephrine transporter in brain regions with low levels of the dopamine transporter: evidence from knock-out mouse lines
    Jose A Morón
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci 22:389-95. 2002
    Selective blockers of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibit dopamine uptake in the prefrontal cortex. This suggests that dopamine in this region is normally cleared by the somewhat promiscuous NET...
  27. pmc Emotional enhancement of memory: how norepinephrine enables synaptic plasticity
    Keith Tully
    Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA
    Mol Brain 3:15. 2010
    Changes in synaptic strength are believed to underlie learning and memory. We explore the idea that norepinephrine is an essential modulator of memory through its ability to regulate synaptic mechanisms...
  28. ncbi Norepinephrine: The redheaded stepchild of Parkinson's disease
    K S Rommelfanger
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
    Biochem Pharmacol 74:177-90. 2007
    ..Historic and more recent experiments exploring the role of norepinephrine (NE) in PD will be analyzed in this review...
  29. ncbi Adaptive gain and the role of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system in optimal performance
    Gary Aston-Jones
    Laboratory of Neuromodulation and Behavior, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Comp Neurol 493:99-110. 2005
    Historically, the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system has been implicated in arousal, but recent findings suggest that this system plays a more complex and specific role in the control of behavior than investigators previously ..
  30. pmc Noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder and resilience
    John H Krystal
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06516, USA
    Brain Res 1293:13-23. 2009
    ....
  31. pmc Stress effects on FosB- and interleukin-8 (IL8)-driven ovarian cancer growth and metastasis
    Mian M K Shahzad
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, RNA, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:35462-70. 2010
    ..Here, we examined the molecular and biological significance of IL8 in stress-induced tumor growth. Norepinephrine (NE) treatment of ovarian cancer cells resulted in a 250-300% increase in IL8 protein and 240-320% increase in ..
  32. pmc α7-cholinergic receptor mediates vagal induction of splenic norepinephrine
    Gergely Vida
    Laboratory of Anti inflammatory Signaling and Surgical Immunology, Department of Surgery, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    J Immunol 186:4340-6. 2011
    ..of both the vagus nerve and cholinergic agonists, and abrogate their potential to induce splenic and plasma norepinephrine. Splenic nerve stimulation mimics vagal and cholinergic induction of norepinephrine and re-establishes ..
  33. ncbi Depression and anxiety symptoms are related to increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion among healthy middle-aged women
    Joel W Hughes
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3119, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Psychosom Res 57:353-8. 2004
    ..The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety and 24-hour urinary catecholamine excretion...
  34. pmc Norepinephrine-deficient mice lack responses to antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    John F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8186-91. 2004
    Mice unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine due to targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene, Dbh, were used to critically test roles for NE in mediating acute behavioral changes elicited by different ..
  35. ncbi M channels containing KCNQ2 subunits modulate norepinephrine, aspartate, and GABA release from hippocampal nerve terminals
    Maria Martire
    Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
    J Neurosci 24:592-7. 2004
    ..These findings provide novel evidence for a major regulatory role of KCNQ2 K+ channel subunits in neurotransmitter release from rat hippocampal nerve endings...
  36. ncbi Fluoxetine, but not other selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, increases norepinephrine and dopamine extracellular levels in prefrontal cortex
    Frank P Bymaster
    Neuroscience Research Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285 0510, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 160:353-61. 2002
    ..has been shown to not only increase the extracellular concentrations of serotonin, but also dopamine and norepinephrine extracellular concentrations in rat prefrontal cortex...
  37. pmc Renalase deficiency in heart failure model of rats--a potential mechanism underlying circulating norepinephrine accumulation
    Rong Gu
    Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e14633. 2011
    ..Here, we identify a potential mechanism underlying norepinephrine accumulation in a rat model of heart failure.
  38. ncbi There and back again: a tale of norepinephrine and drug addiction
    David Weinshenker
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1433-51. 2007
    Fueled by anatomical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological analyses of endogenous brain reward systems, norepinephrine (NE) was identified as a key mediator of both natural and drug-induced reward in the late 1960s and early 1970s...
  39. ncbi Modeling a negative response bias in the human amygdala by noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions
    Juraj Kukolja
    Cognitive Neurology Section, Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich, Germany
    J Neurosci 28:12868-76. 2008
    ..Acute stress leads to increased central levels of norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT), and evidence suggests that these endogenous neuromodulators synergistically ..
  40. pmc Norepinephrine enables the induction of associative long-term potentiation at thalamo-amygdala synapses
    Keith Tully
    Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14146-50. 2007
    Emotional arousal, linked to a surge of norepinephrine (NE) in the amygdala, leads to creation of stronger and longer-lasting memories. However, little is known about the synaptic mechanisms of such modulatory NE influences...
  41. ncbi Sympathetic augmentation in hypertension: role of nerve firing, norepinephrine reuptake, and Angiotensin neuromodulation
    Markus P Schlaich
    Department of Medicine IV, University of Erlangen Nuernberg, Krankenhausstr 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Hypertension 43:169-75. 2004
    ..Potential mechanisms include increased central sympathetic outflow, altered norepinephrine (NE) neuronal reuptake, diminished arterial baroreflex dampening of sympathetic nerve traffic, and sympathetic ..
  42. ncbi (-)-(1R,2R)-3-(3-dimethylamino-1-ethyl-2-methyl-propyl)-phenol hydrochloride (tapentadol HCl): a novel mu-opioid receptor agonist/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with broad-spectrum analgesic properties
    Thomas M Tzschentke
    Department of Pharmacology, Grunenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:265-76. 2007
    ..It is suggested that the broad analgesic profile of tapentadol and its relative resistance to tolerance development may be due to a dual mode of action consisting of both MOR activation and NE reuptake inhibition...
  43. ncbi Norepinephrine precursor therapy in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
    Horacio Kaufmann
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1052, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Circulation 108:724-8. 2003
    In patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), the availability of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic cleft is insufficient to maintain blood pressure while in the standing posture.
  44. ncbi Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as a human model of orthostatic intolerance
    Christoph Schroeder
    Clinical Research Center, Helios Klinkum Berlin, Germany
    Circulation 105:347-53. 2002
    Observations in patients with functional mutations of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene suggest that impaired norepinephrine uptake may contribute to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance.
  45. ncbi Effects of aging and hypertension on the participation of endothelium-derived constricting factor (EDCF) in norepinephrine-induced contraction of rat femoral artery
    Silvia Liskova
    Center of Cardiovascular Research and Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    Eur J Pharmacol 667:265-70. 2011
    ..The contribution of endothelium-derived constricting factor (EDCF) to norepinephrine-induced contraction is still unknown...
  46. ncbi CSF norepinephrine concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder
    T D Geracioti
    Mental Health Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3200 Vine St, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 158:1227-30. 2001
    ..nervous system (CNS) noradrenergic activity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), direct measures of CNS norepinephrine in PTSD have been lacking...
  47. pmc Norepinephrine drives persistent activity in prefrontal cortex via synergistic α1 and α2 adrenoceptors
    Zizhen Zhang
    Montreal Neurological Institute, Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e66122. 2013
    Optimal norepinephrine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increase delay-related firing and enhance working memory, whereas stress-related or pathologically high levels of norepinephrine are believed to inhibit working memory via α1 ..
  48. ncbi Exercise in fibromyalgia and related inflammatory disorders: known effects and unknown chances
    E Ortega
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
    Exerc Immunol Rev 15:42-65. 2009
    ..A better regulation of the cytokine-HPA axis feedback may be also involved...
  49. ncbi Maternal hen calls modulate memory formation in the day-old chick: the role of noradrenaline
    S E Field
    School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:321-30. 2007
    ..The current data suggest that call meaning and rhythmicity interact to yield the appropriate levels of beta(2)-adrenergic activation required to facilitate retention for a discriminative task...
  50. pmc Stressor-like effects of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition
    Melanie Clarke
    Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e44073. 2012
    ..Thus, endogenous JNK appears to affect stress relevant processes in a context-dependent manner...
  51. pmc Norepinephrine: a neuromodulator that boosts the function of multiple cell types to optimize CNS performance
    John O'Donnell
    Division of Glial Disease and Therapeutics, Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Neurochem Res 37:2496-512. 2012
    b>Norepinephrine (NE) is a neuromodulator that in multiple ways regulates the activity of neuronal and non-neuronal cells...
  52. pmc Norepinephrine and dopamine modulate impulsivity on the five-choice serial reaction time task through opponent actions in the shell and core sub-regions of the nucleus accumbens
    Daina Economidou
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:2057-66. 2012
    ..Although dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) have a significant role in the modulation of impulsivity their neural loci of action is not well ..
  53. pmc Brain derived nerve growth factor induces spinal noradrenergic fiber sprouting and enhances clonidine analgesia following nerve injury in rats
    Ken ichiro Hayashida
    Department of Anesthesiology and Center for the Pharmacologic Plasticity in the Presence of Pain, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Pain 136:348-55. 2008
    Many treatments for neuropathic pain activate or augment norepinephrine release in the spinal cord, yet these treatments are less effective against acute nociceptive stimuli...
  54. ncbi The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment
    David J Nutt
    Psychopharmacology Unit, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:3-8. 2006
    ..Through the past several decades, approaches undertaken to clarify the roles of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in depression have included animal studies, human biological and postmortem studies, ..
  55. ncbi Monoamine-dependent, opioid-independent antihypersensitivity effects of intrathecally administered milnacipran, a serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, in a postoperative pain model in rats
    Hideaki Obata
    Department of Anesthesiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3 39 22 Showa, Maebashi, Gunma 371 8511, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:1059-65. 2010
    ..Combined administration of an SNRI with morphine might be a promising treatment to suppress postoperative hypersensitivity...
  56. ncbi Renal sympathoinhibition induced by hypernatremia: involvement of A1 noradrenergic neurons
    Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino
    Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Auton Neurosci 142:55-63. 2008
    ..These results suggest that A1 noradrenergic neurons are involved in the sympathoinhibition and consequent renal vasodilatation to acute changes in the extracellular fluid compartment...
  57. pmc Effects of β-adrenoceptor antagonists on alcohol drinking by alcohol-dependent rats
    Nicholas W Gilpin
    Committee on Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, SP30 2400 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 212:431-9. 2010
    ..display enhanced stress responsivity, reward thresholds, and alcohol self-administration during alcohol withdrawal, and some of these aspects of alcohol dependence may be mediated by activation of brain norepinephrine (NE) systems.
  58. pmc Neural mechanisms of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia in ambulatory canines
    Alex Y Tan
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Circulation 118:916-25. 2008
    ..The relationship between autonomic activation and the mechanisms of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation remains unclear...
  59. ncbi Baseline psychological stress and ovarian norepinephrine levels negatively affect the outcome of in vitro fertilisation
    Xiao Hong Li
    Reproductive Medical Center of West China 2nd Hospital, Sichuan University, Ren Min Nan Lu, City of Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People s Republic of China
    Gynecol Endocrinol 27:139-43. 2011
    We determined the effect of baseline psychological stress and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the follicular fluid on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF).
  60. ncbi Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions
    Jayme R McReynolds
    School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 3021, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 93:312-21. 2010
    ..rats immediately after inhibitory avoidance training to examine effects on long-term memory, amygdala norepinephrine levels, and hippocampal Arc expression...
  61. pmc Inhibition of brain proinflammatory cytokine synthesis reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with ischemia-induced heart failure
    Yu Ming Kang
    Univ of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H227-36. 2008
    ..VEH-treated HF rats had higher plasma levels of norepinephrine, ANG II, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, increased left ventricular end-diastolic ..
  62. ncbi Altered sympathetic nervous reactivity and norepinephrine transporter expression in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome
    Elisabeth Lambert
    Human Neurotransmitter Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 1:103-9. 2008
    Clinical observations in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) suggest abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity and a dysfunction of the norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET).
  63. pmc Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety
    Jesse R Schank
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:1007-12. 2008
    ..While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety...
  64. pmc CRF₂ mediates the increased noradrenergic activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the negative state of morphine withdrawal in rats
    Javier Navarro-Zaragoza
    Group of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University School of Medicine, Murcia, Spain
    Br J Pharmacol 162:851-62. 2011
    ....
  65. pmc Greater systemic lipolysis in women compared with men during moderate-dose infusion of epinephrine and/or norepinephrine
    Tracy J Horton
    Section of Nutrition, Dept of Pediatrics, Univ of Colorado Denver, Campus Box C225, 12700 East 19th Ave, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 107:200-10. 2009
    ..men (n = 10) were recruited and studied on 3 separate days with the following infusions: epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), or the two combined...
  66. ncbi Norepinephrine stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion via β-adrenergic receptor-dependent activation of P38/MAPK pathway
    Xin Yu Huang
    Department of Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
    Hepatogastroenterology 59:889-93. 2012
    ..This study aims to examine the effect of stress hormone norepinephrine (NE) on proliferation, migration and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells and the molecular pathway ..
  67. pmc Norepinephrine transporter regulation mediates the long-term behavioral effects of the antidepressant desipramine
    Zaorui Zhao
    Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:3190-200. 2008
    The relationship between the ability of repeated desipramine treatment to cause downregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and produce antidepressant-like effects on behavior was determined...
  68. ncbi Catecholamine mapping within nucleus accumbens: differences in basal and amphetamine-stimulated efflux of norepinephrine and dopamine in shell and core
    Christina R McKittrick
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    J Neurochem 100:1247-56. 2007
    ..We used in vivo microdialysis to measure extracellular levels of both norepinephrine and dopamine in the accumbens shell and core...
  69. pmc Cardiac implications of increased arterial entry and reversible 24-h central and peripheral norepinephrine levels in melancholia
    Philip W Gold
    Clinical Neuroendocrinology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1284, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8303-8. 2005
    ..The mortality of chronic heart failure (CHF) doubles either when CHF patients are depressed or when their plasma norepinephrine (NE) level exceeds those of controls by approximately 40%...
  70. ncbi Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland
    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari Garcia
    University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1524, 1st Floor, Room 118, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508 900, Brazil
    Life Sci 82:108-14. 2008
    ..The aim of the current study was to determine whether insulin modulates norepinephrine (NE)-mediated melatonin synthesis...
  71. ncbi The human sympathetic nervous system: its relevance in hypertension and heart failure
    Gianfranco Parati
    Department of Cardiology, S Luca Hospital, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, piazza Brescia 20, 20149 Milan, Italy
    Eur Heart J 33:1058-66. 2012
    ....
  72. pmc Layer-specific noradrenergic modulation of inhibition in cortical layer II/III
    Humberto Salgado
    Laboratory of Cell and Synaptic Physiology, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
    Cereb Cortex 21:212-21. 2011
    b>Norepinephrine (NE) is released in the neocortex after activation of the locus coeruleus of the brain stem in response to novel, salient, or fight-or-flight stimuli...
  73. pmc Norepinephrine suppresses wound macrophage phagocytic efficiency through alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor dependent pathways
    Ankush Gosain
    Burn and Shock Trauma Institute, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Ill, USA
    Surgery 142:170-9. 2007
    The systemic response to injury is characterized by massive release of norepinephrine (NE) into the circulation as a result of global sympathetic activation...
  74. ncbi Regulation of the norepinephrine transporter by alpha-synuclein-mediated interactions with microtubules
    ALEXIS M JEANNOTTE
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:1509-20. 2007
    ..We demonstrate that alpha-Syn regulates the activity and surface expression of the norepinephrine transporter (NET), depending on its expression levels...
  75. ncbi Noradrenergic deficits alter processing of communication signals in female songbirds
    Kathleen S Lynch
    Johns Hopkins University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Baltimore, Maryland 21211, USA
    Brain Behav Evol 72:207-14. 2008
    ..Overall, our results reveal that noradrenaline plays a significant neuromodulatory role during the reception of species-typical communication signals...
  76. ncbi A distinct role for norepinephrine in memory retrieval
    Charles F Murchison
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cell 117:131-43. 2004
    A role for norepinephrine in learning and memory has been elusive and controversial. A longstanding hypothesis states that the adrenergic nervous system mediates enhanced memory consolidation of emotional events...
  77. pmc Inhibition of β-adrenergic receptors induces a persistent deficit in retrieval of a cocaine-associated memory providing protection against reinstatement
    James M Otis
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1912-20. 2011
    ..Thus, retrieval of cocaine-associated memories is mediated by norepinephrine acting at central β-adrenergic receptors...
  78. ncbi Chronic exposure to estrogen and the tobacco carcinogen NNK cooperatively modulates nicotinic receptors in small airway epithelial cells
    Hussein A N Al-Wadei
    Experimental Oncology Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    Lung Cancer 69:33-9. 2010
    ..This selective imbalance in stimulatory and inhibitory signaling may contribute to the development and progression of small airway-derived adenocarcinoma in women who smoke...
  79. pmc BMP signaling regulates sympathetic nervous system development through Smad4-dependent and -independent pathways
    Yuka Morikawa
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Development 136:3575-84. 2009
    ....
  80. pmc Monoamine oxidase A-mediated enhanced catabolism of norepinephrine contributes to adverse remodeling and pump failure in hearts with pressure overload
    Nina Kaludercic
    Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Circ Res 106:193-202. 2010
    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial enzymes that catabolize prohypertrophic neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, generating hydrogen peroxide...
  81. ncbi Stress hormones increase cell proliferation and regulates interleukin-6 secretion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells
    Daniel G Bernabé
    Oral Oncology Center, School of Dentistry of Aracatuba, Unesp Univ Estadual Paulista, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Brain Behav Immun 25:574-83. 2011
    ..The effects of norepinephrine (NE), and cortisol were studied in SCC9, SCC15, and SCC25 cells and effects of isoproterenol in SCC9 and SCC25 ..
  82. ncbi Role of brain norepinephrine in the behavioral response to stress
    David A Morilak
    Department of Pharmacology and Center for Biomedical Neuroscience, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78229 3900, USA
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29:1214-24. 2005
    The brain noradrenergic system is activated by acute stress. The post-synaptic effects of norepinephrine (NE), exerted at a cellular or neural circuit level, have been described as modulatory in nature, as NE facilitates responses evoked ..
  83. pmc Norepinephrine upregulates VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 expression in human melanoma tumor cell lines: implications for stress-related enhancement of tumor progression
    Eric V Yang
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:267-75. 2009
    ..The catecholamine stress hormone, norepinephrine (NE), may influence tumor progression by modulating the expression of factors implicated in angiogenesis and ..
  84. pmc Molecular modulation of prefrontal cortex: rational development of treatments for psychiatric disorders
    Nao J Gamo
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8001, USA
    Behav Neurosci 125:282-96. 2011
    ..In this review, we discuss the molecular signaling events initiated by norepinephrine and dopamine that strengthen working memory function mediated by the dorsolateral PFC under optimal conditions,..
  85. ncbi Different contributions of endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptors in postischemic cardiac dysfunction and norepinephrine overflow in rat hearts
    Satoshi Yamamoto
    Department of Pharmacology, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka, Japan
    Circulation 111:302-9. 2005
    Endothelin (ET)-1 and norepinephrine (NE) are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury...
  86. ncbi The effects of peripheral vagal nerve stimulation at a memory-modulating intensity on norepinephrine output in the basolateral amygdala
    D L Hassert
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:79-88. 2004
    ..It has long been assumed that these effects are related to stimulation-induced increases of norepinephrine (NE) release in limbic brain structures...
  87. ncbi Effect of chronic treatment with propranolol on the cardiovascular responses to chronic cold exposure
    Z Sun
    Department of Physiology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA
    Physiol Behav 62:379-84. 1997
    ..Propranolol, however, did not affect cold-induced cardiac hypertrophy...
  88. ncbi The antidepressants maprotiline and fluoxetine have potent selective antiproliferative effects against Burkitt lymphoma independently of the norepinephrine and serotonin transporters
    Suzanne M Cloonan
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
    Leuk Lymphoma 51:523-39. 2010
    The discovery that some selective serotonin transporter- (SSRI) and norepinephrine transporter- (NSRI) targeting antidepressants have the potential to act as anticancer agents adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application...
  89. ncbi Sympathetic activity in major depressive disorder: identifying those at increased cardiac risk?
    David A Barton
    Human Neurotransmitter Laboratory, Australia
    J Hypertens 25:2117-24. 2007
    ..Evidence exists linking major depressive disorder (MDD) with clinical cardiovascular events. The importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the generation of cardiac risk in other contexts is established...
  90. ncbi Synergistic polymorphisms of beta1- and alpha2C-adrenergic receptors and the risk of congestive heart failure
    Kersten M Small
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati 45267 0564, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:1135-42. 2002
    ..Release of norepinephrine is controlled by negative feedback from presynaptic alpha2-adrenergic receptors, and the targets of the ..
  91. pmc What birdsong can teach us about the central noradrenergic system
    Christina B Castelino
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States
    J Chem Neuroanat 39:96-111. 2010
    ..These include the ability to investigate the effect of norepinephrine on synaptic function using brain slices, identifying its influence on singing-related gene expression and ..
  92. ncbi Altered central catecholaminergic transmission and cardiovascular disease
    S Kasparov
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Exp Physiol 93:725-40. 2008
    ..These studies may reveal new therapeutic strategies for various cardiovascular diseases which are accompanied by heightened sympathetic nerve activity...
  93. ncbi Inhibitory effects of halothane on the thermogenic pathway in brown adipocytes: localization to adenylyl cyclase and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation
    Kerstin B E Ohlson
    The Wenner Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:463-77. 2004
    ..efficiently inhibit nonshivering thermogenesis as well as the cellular manifestation of that phenomenon: norepinephrine-induced respiration in brown adipocytes...
  94. ncbi Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats: implications for theories of selective attention and arousal
    B J Cole
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, U K
    Behav Brain Res 33:165-79. 1989
    ..They therefore complete a double dissociation of effects on accuracy and vigour of responding, supporting theories of a division of arousal-type processes...
  95. ncbi Topographic architecture of stress-related pathways targeting the noradrenergic locus coeruleus
    E J van Bockstaele
    Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Suite 520, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Physiol Behav 73:273-83. 2001
    ..of the locus coeruleus (LC) respond in parallel to a variety of stress-related stimuli which results in norepinephrine release both peripherally and centrally...
  96. ncbi Restraining influence of A2 neurons in chronic control of arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Hanad Duale
    Department of Physiology, Bristol Heart Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK
    Cardiovasc Res 76:184-93. 2007
    ..We aimed to genetically target A2 neurons and induce expression of a potassium channel to reduce their electrical excitability and study how this impacts on long-term blood pressure control...
  97. pmc Catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical function: relevance to treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders
    Amy F T Arnsten
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 99:211-6. 2011
    ..known to be especially sensitive to its neurochemical environment; relatively small changes in the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine can produce significant changes in its function...
  98. ncbi MPTP and MPP+ target specific aminergic cell populations in larval zebrafish
    V Sallinen
    Neuroscience center and Institute of Biomedicine Anatomy, Haartmaninkatu, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Neurochem 108:719-31. 2009
    ..The results suggest that MPTP and MPP+ induce a transient functional deficit and motility disorder in larval zebrafish...
  99. ncbi Norepinephrine regulates hepatic innate immune system in leptin-deficient mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Zhiping Li
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Hepatology 40:434-41. 2004
    ..NKT cells express adrenoceptors. Thus, we hypothesize that the low norepinephrine (NE) activity of ob/ob mice promotes depletion of liver NKT cells, thereby sensitizing ob/ob livers to ..
  100. ncbi Emotion enhances learning via norepinephrine regulation of AMPA-receptor trafficking
    Hailan Hu
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Cell 131:160-73. 2007
    Emotion enhances our ability to form vivid memories of even trivial events. Norepinephrine (NE), a neuromodulator released during emotional arousal, plays a central role in the emotional regulation of memory...
  101. ncbi Noradrenergic inputs mediate state dependence of auditory responses in the avian song system
    Jessica A Cardin
    Department of Biology and Neuroscience Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7745-53. 2004
    b>Norepinephrine (NE) plays a complex role in the behavioral state-dependent regulation of sensory processing. However, the role of forebrain NE action in modulating high-order sensory activity has not been directly addressed...

Research Grants69

  1. Gamma-Synuclein-Mediated Regulation of Norepinephrine Transporter
    Anita Sidhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Aberrant norepinephrine [NE] neurotransmission in the human brain is linked to mood disorders, depression, drug addiction and neurodegenerative diseases...
  2. Chronic Sleep Restriction Increases Immunity to Autoantigen: Role of the SNS
    Arnold E Postlethwaite; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system releasing norepinephrine which activates the immune system, scleroderma, lupus and other autoimmune diseases...
  3. Ghrelin: Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Components of Obesity
    BRETT JOHN WARREN TEUBNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and measure BAT temperature, uncoupling protein-1 (the critical factor for BAT thermogenesis) protein, and norepinephrine turnover rate (NETO, a neurochemical measure of SNS drive) and from WAT, and two SNS-induced intracellular ..
  4. Mechanisms of Vasovagal Syncope
    Julian M Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurotransmission will be assessed by step wise tyramine doses using HPLC analysis of microdialysate norepinephrine (NE)...
  5. IDENTIFICATION OF ACOUSTICO-LATERALIS TRANSMITTERS
    Dennis G Drescher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will investigate norepinephrine-containing adrenergic efferents constituting a newly-recognized neural system operating within the organ of ..
  6. Novel treatment of menopausal hot flushes with an estradiol prodrug
    Laszlo Prokai; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..or hormone (estrogens + progestins) therapies (ERT and HRT), clonidine, the selective serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and gabapentine...
  7. Phospholipid-Mediated Metabolic Control in Liver and Brown Adipose Tissue
    David E Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cultured brown adipocytes wil also be used to evaluate whether PC-TP-Them2 interactions reduce norepinephrine signaling by increasing oxidative stress...
  8. Inducible recombination and gene expression in specific neurotransmitter systems
    Steven A Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The four are the adrenergic (norepinephrine and epinephrine), dopaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems...
  9. Steroid Regulation of Serotonin in Males
    CYNTHIA LOUISE BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..indication of serotonin neurotransmission, and to obtain preliminary support for the potential involvement of norepinephrine. Together, these experiments will further our understanding of the regulation of the serotonin system in male ..
  10. Metal Exposure and Children?s Preschool Neurodevelopment
    David C Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..metabolism (apolipoprotein E), neurotransmitter metabolism (dopamine transporter, dopamine D4 receptor, norepinephrine transporter, monoamine oxidase, catechol O-methyltransferase, NMDA receptor, 5-HT1A receptor), and methylation ..
  11. Developmental Regulation of Brain and Behavior
    JULI S WADE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Aim 3 will evaluate a set of mechanistic hypotheses regarding the roles of E2, norepinephrine (NE), BDNF, and the three sex chromosome genes (trkB, SCAMP1 and SNX2)...
  12. Regulation of Innate Immunity by the Sympathetic Nervous System Druing Sepsis
    Eric J Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminar studies indicate that decreasing the release of norepinephrine, a compound released from sympathetic nerves during stress, improves survival in mouse models of infection...
  13. Quorum sensing regulation of EHEC virulence genes
    Vanessa Sperandio; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aromatic autoinducer (AI-3) produced by the normal gastrointestinal flora, and two hormones (epinephrine/norepinephrine) produced by the host...
  14. Sex Differences in Stress Receptors Underlie Female Vulnerability to Stress
    Debra A Bangasser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates stress responses, in part, by regulating norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) transmission, and CRF is dysregulated in stress-related disorders...
  15. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial homologs of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters
    Jonathan A Javitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NSS include the transporters for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine-targets for amphetamine, cocaine, and antidepressant drugs-as well as the transporters for GABA and glycine, ..
  16. GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE
    Rohit Loomba; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..system has a strong genetic association with HTN, IR &TG;and in-vitro and in-vivo studies suggest that norepinephrine (increased adrenergic activity) activates hepatic stellate cells &induces fibrogenesis in mice model of ..
  17. Endothelial Lipoxygenase Metabolites and Vascular Tone
    WILLIAM BRYSON CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Agonists such as norepinephrine and angiotensin promote constriction by activating the RhoA-Rho kinase cascade that sensitizes contractile ..
  18. How do Amine Neurons Work?
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug abuse in which the amines dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine all have been directly implicated...
  19. Spinal Cord-Mediated Acute Neurogenic Inflammation
    Qing Lin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 4 is to examine if sympathetic effects on neurogenic inflammation by release of norepinephrine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate are done by modulating the function of TRPNA, receptors via the PKC cascade...
  20. Reciprocal Control of Ca2+ Channels by Anchored Protein Kinase A and Calcineurin
    William A Sather; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In hippocampal pyramidal neurons, norepinephrine binding to beta adrenergic receptors initiates a cascade that leads to cAMP production and PKA activation...
  21. Mechanisms of airborne particulate matter induced thrombosis
    Gokhan M Mutlu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also observed that mice exposed to inhaled PM had increased lung and systemic levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine, directly confirming data from human exposure studies suggesting that PM exposure activates the sympathetic ..
  22. Pharmacological Management of Delirium
    Malaz Boustani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Disturbances in several neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, norepinephrine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of delirium...
  23. Adolescent Alcohol,Dysregulated Stress System, and PTSD Vulnerability
    GERHARD H SCHULTEIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A further prediction is that corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and/or norepinephrine (NE) systems in the CNS are central to the potentiative effects of ethanol exposure and withdrawal on PTSD ..
  24. Sex Differences in Stress Receptors Underlie Female Vulnerability to Stress
    Debra A Bangasser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates stress responses, in part, by regulating norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) transmission, and CRF is dysregulated in stress-related disorders...
  25. Chronic stress-induced gene expression in colonic circular smooth muscle cells.
    Sushil K Sarna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The primary mediators of the stress response are: corticotropin releasing hormone, norepinephrine, glucocorticoids and the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system...
  26. Ecstasy and the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus
    Daniel E Rusyniak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Along with physiologic similarities, the DMH is an anatomic area rich in norepinephrine and dopamine, both integral in mediating MDMA's effects...
  27. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is altered in Crohn's by: 1) determining whether 5HT, substance P and guanylin secretion is regulated by norepinephrine, mechanic forces somatostatin analogs and acetylcholine in Crohn's EC cells;2) determining if [unreadable]..
  28. Histamine Receptor Norepinephrine in Cardiac Dysfunction
    Roberto Levi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a) how ischemic preconditioning prevents the activation of the mast cell-dependent RAS, thus alleviating norepinephrine- and angiotensin-induced arrhythmias;and, b) how H3-receptor activation mimics the cardioprotective anti-RAS ..
  29. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Stable Heart Failure
    Nancy S Redeker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will also obtain day and night measures of urinary free cortisol, free epinephrine/norepinephrine, and melatonin sulfate...
  30. CRF and Stress Modulation of Phasic Dopamine Release and Behavior
    MATTHEW J WANAT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that catecholamine (dopamine and norepinephrine) release in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also involved with mediating the response to stress, so the ..
  31. Central Nervous System Mechanisms in Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA)
    Daniel J Clauw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RCTs have demonstrated that compounds that alter pain neurotransmitters centrally such as 15,16 serotonin and norepinephrine (e.g., duloxetine, tricyclics) are efficacious in OA ...
  32. Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Biosynthesis
    Paul F Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..hydroxylase results in phenylketonuria;tyrosine hydroxylase is required to make the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine;and tryptophan hydroxylase is required to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin.
  33. A Genetic Model for Understanding the Metabolic Syndrome/Obesity Relationship
    BENJAMIN JENNINGS RENQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2007). Aim 1 will examine sensitivity to ip injected ^-agonists and antagonists, identify basal norepinephrine (NE) and NE turnover in WAT of WT, MC4-R -/-, and MC3-R -/- mice, and identify the role pharmacological ..
  34. The Norepinephrine Transporter: A Novel Target for Imaging Brown Adipose Tissue
    ROBERT STANLEY SHERWIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to use a structural feature of the sympathetic nervous system, and image the norepinephrine recycling component, designated the norepinephrine transporter (NET)...
  35. Octopamine Neuroanatomy and Functioning in Fruit Fly Social Behavior
    KYLE LYNN GOBROGGE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, the phenol analogue of norepinephrine - octopamine (OA), which is commonly found in invertebrate species, was recently found to play a critical role ..
  36. Interactions of MAO A with vulnerability factors for aggression
    Marco Bortolato; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..activity of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, the major enzyme for the degradation of brain serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA);male gender, in relation to the high levels of androgen testosterone and its ..
  37. Intervention for Menstrual Mood Disorders &Early Life Abuse: Biopsych Mechanisms
    Susan S Girdler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..at rest and in response to mental stress: 1) sympathetic nervous system (blood pressure, heart rate, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine);2) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (plasma ACTH and cortisol);3) inflammatory (plasma IL-6);..
  38. RENALASE DEFICIENCY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    Gary V Desir; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by either modest increases in blood pressure and/or brief surges in either plasma dopamine, epinephrine or norepinephrine. The active enzyme specifically degrades circulating catecholamines in vivo, causing a significant fall in ..
  39. smFRET Investigation of Gating in a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog
    RACHEL ANN KOLSTER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The neurotransmitter: sodium symporter (NSS) family includes the transporters for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are targeted by antidepressants, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and the widely abused psychostimulants ..
  40. Hormonal Modulation of Aggression in Drosophila
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..focus on two major amines found in the fruit fly nervous system: octopamine (OA), the phenol analogue of norepinephrine, is the major amine synthesized from tyrosine;and serotonin (5HT), is the major amine derived from tryptophan...
  41. Neurotrophins and Post-infarct Plasicity in Cardiac Sympathetic Neurons
    Beth A Habecker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First are key neurotransmitter and neuropeptide changes, as extracellular norepinephrine (NE) increases together with neuronal expression of the peptides galanin and PACAP (pituitary adenylate ..
  42. SERT KO rats are a model of sex specific visceral pain
    James J Galligan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IHC localization of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters and organic cation transporters will be assessed to determine if their expression increases in ..
  43. NUTRITIONAL COPPER STATUS AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    JOSEPH ROBERT PROHASKA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4-dihydroxyphenvlserine (L-DOPS) to bypass the DBM step and restore low brain norepinephrine. AIM 2: We will test the hypothesis that limitation in Cu...
  44. Using Electrochemical Methods to Probe Neuronal Signaling in the GI Tract
    Greg M Swain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also propose to expand the scope of the studies to include dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) released in the myenteric plexus...
  45. Modulation of Hepatocellular Function in Sepsis
    Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, norepinephrine directly upregulates CIRP expression, while nicotine decreases endotoxin-induced CIRP expression in isolated ..
  46. The geriatric surgical patient: stress, anesthetics, and functional outcomes
    Stacie Deiner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with a lesser activation of the stress response as evidenced by serum cortisol, lower plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and growth hormone (GH), and lesser heart rate variability (HRV)...
  47. NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM IN DEPRESSION
    GREGORY ALLEN ORDWAY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Both human and laboratory animal research findings strongly implicate brain noradrenergic overactivity and norepinephrine (NE) depletion in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD)...
  48. FETAL AND NEONATAL NEUROBEHAVIOR AND PRENATAL ANTIDEPRESSANT EXPOSURE: THE CHILD
    Amy L Salisbury; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SRIs), antidepressant medications remain the most commonly chosen treatment for MDD ..
  49. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: animal models
    Athina Markou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pharmacological treatments probing specific neurotransmitter and receptor systems, including serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, and GABA, may reverse PCP-induced cognitive deficits...
  50. AT2 Receptors in the RVLM: Regulation of Sympathetic Outflow in Heart Failure
    Lie Gao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of over expressing AT2R in the RVLM on arterial blood pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), cardiac function, and norepinephrine excretion in conscious normal and CHF rats...
  51. Radiation Combined Injury: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches
    Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ghrelin inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the reduction of norepinephrine (NE) release and inactivation of sympathostimulatory neurons in the brain in sepsis...
  52. Right Heart Function in Health and Chronic Lung Disease
    Anthony J Baker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We found that in failing RV the inotropic response to norepinephrine (NE, a mixed 1/2 agonist) was appreciably increased, despite downregulation of 2-responses;thus, suggesting ..
  53. Recognition of host catecholamines in Borrelia burgdorferi gene regulation
    Linden T Hu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In our preliminary studies, we have identified the first host molecule, the adrenergic hormone norepinephrine (NE), which is recognized by B. burgdorferi as a signal for a specific environmental change...
  54. Conformational Changes Underlying Intracellular Gating of the Leucine Transporter
    Kelli Kazmier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NSS members including human dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporters harness sodium and chloride gradients to facilitate reuptake of neurotransmitters from the ..
  55. Modeling Individual Differences in PTSD
    Marlene A Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) activity and other indices of sympathetic activation including norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels...
  56. Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System Regulation of Prepulse Inhibition
    Vaishali P Bakshi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Nevertheless, there is a striking gap in knowledge about the role of the norepinephrine (NE) system in regulating PPI...
  57. Synaptic basis of perceptual learning in primary auditory cortex
    ROBERT CROOKS FROEMKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..thalamic plasticity for enhancing auditory perception when sounds are paired with the powerful neuromodulator norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is important for selective attention, general arousal, and learning, is a major factor in ..
  58. Cell-Cell Interactions in Thrombosis -Request for Extension of Merit Award
    AARON JACOB MARCUS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..11Studies of the effects of NTPDases on cell-cell signaling during ischemia: Modulation of norepinephrine release by NTPDases from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings (cSNE) and isolated hearts from guinea pigs, wild ..
  59. Biogenic Amine Transporters: Mechanisms of Ligand Interaction
    MAARTEN E REITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Other biogenic amine transporters are the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), targets for many different antidepressant drugs...
  60. Alpha-1A-adrenergic agonist therapy for cardiomyopathy and heart failure
    Paul C Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) activate two types of ARs on cardiac muscle cells, the dominant beta-ARs, which ..
  61. MICROENVIRONMENT IN ENTERIC NEURON DEVELOPMENT
    Michael D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurons, which are among the first to born in the ENS, are transiently catecholaminergic (TC) and express the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Genetic NET deletion (NETKO) interferes with development of enteric serotonergic neurons...
  62. Non-linear Characterization of the Stretch Reflex Arc and its Neuromodulation
    AMAN BEHAL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..3. To quantify the effect of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine on the non-linear dynamics of the DRG AE motoneuron segment. 4...
  63. MULTIDIMENSIONAL HORMONAL ASSESSMENT OF PTSD
    Sheila Wang; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..has found characteristic alterations in several major hormonal systems in combat-related PTSD, including norepinephrine, cortisol, and especially an unusual thyroid hormone profile characterized by marked elevations of both free ..
  64. Development of Pharmacotherapies for Nicotine Addiction
    Frank Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These changes likely occur by its activity at the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, DAT and NET, respectively...
  65. THE EFFECTS OF COCAINE ON FETAL OXYGENATION
    James Woods; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Cocaine produces increases in blood pressure and heart rate by interfering with the uptake and degradation of norepinephrine at adrenergic nerve terminals...
  66. Pupil Size and Circadian Salivary Variations in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    JOHN A COLOMBO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The aim of the current application is to explore non-invasive measures of both the hypothalamic and norepinephrine systems to determine their involvement in producing atypical autonomic responses in children with autism...
  67. RADIOLIGANDS FOR CENTRAL NORADRENERGIC UPTAKE SITES
    Shanaz Tejani Butt; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..disorders or the mechanism(s) of action of psychotropic drugs has focused on brain monoamines, in particular norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT)...
  68. Radiation Combined Injury: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches
    Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Ghrelin inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the reduction of norepinephrine (NE) release and inactivation of sympathostimulatory neurons in the brain in sepsis...
  69. Methamphetamine, Stress and SIV: Effects at Blood-Brain Barrier and Lymph Nodes
    John P Capitanio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Meth is a sympathomimetic causing release of norepinephrine from peripheral nerves, and we have shown that norepinephrine promotes HIV and SIV replication...