chromogranins

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Localization of three types of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/Ca(2+) channel in the secretory granules and coupling with the Ca(2+) storage proteins chromogranins A and B
    S H Yoo
    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Secretory Granule Research, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yu Sung Gu, Dae Jeon, Korea 305 701
    J Biol Chem 276:45806-12. 2001
  2. ncbi A 63-year-old woman with intractable back pain
    Michelle K Zimmerman
    Department of Pathology, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, Tex, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 129:e155-6. 2005
  3. ncbi Granins as disease-biomarkers: translational potential for psychiatric and neurological disorders
    A Bartolomucci
    Department of Evolutionary and Functional Biology, University of Parma, 43124 Parma, Italy
    Neuroscience 170:289-97. 2010
  4. ncbi Interaction between secretogranin III and carboxypeptidase E facilitates prohormone sorting within secretory granules
    Masahiro Hosaka
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371 8512, Japan
    J Cell Sci 118:4785-95. 2005
  5. ncbi New insights into granin-derived peptides: evolution and endocrine roles
    E Zhao
    Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 164:161-74. 2009
  6. ncbi Catestatin (CgA344-364) stimulates rat mast cell release of histamine in a manner comparable to mastoparan and other cationic charged neuropeptides
    Per Gøran Krüger
    Department of Anatomy, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Regul Pept 114:29-35. 2003
  7. ncbi Granins and their derived peptides in normal and tumoral chromaffin tissue: Implications for the diagnosis and prognosis of pheochromocytoma
    Marlène Guérin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, U982, Laboratory of Neuronal and Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Communication, European Institute for Peptide Research IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Regul Pept 165:21-9. 2010
  8. ncbi Identification and characterization of novel chromogranin B-derived peptides from porcine chromaffin granules by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem MS
    Z Wang
    Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, University of Antwerp UIA, Universiteitsplein 1, B 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
    Eur J Biochem 268:235-42. 2001
  9. ncbi Granins and granin-related peptides in neuroendocrine tumours
    Guida M Portela-Gomes
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Regul Pept 165:12-20. 2010
  10. ncbi Expression of regulated secretory proteins is sufficient to generate granule-like structures in constitutively secreting cells
    Nicole Beuret
    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:20242-9. 2004

Detail Information

Publications207 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Localization of three types of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/Ca(2+) channel in the secretory granules and coupling with the Ca(2+) storage proteins chromogranins A and B
    S H Yoo
    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Secretory Granule Research, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yu Sung Gu, Dae Jeon, Korea 305 701
    J Biol Chem 276:45806-12. 2001
    ..5 mm at pH 5.5 but virtually no Ca(2+) at pH 7.5. The high capacity, low affinity Ca(2+)-binding property of CGB at pH 5.5 is comparable with that of CGA and is in line with its role as a Ca(2+) storage protein in the secretory granules...
  2. ncbi A 63-year-old woman with intractable back pain
    Michelle K Zimmerman
    Department of Pathology, Wilford Hall Medical Center, San Antonio, Tex, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 129:e155-6. 2005
  3. ncbi Granins as disease-biomarkers: translational potential for psychiatric and neurological disorders
    A Bartolomucci
    Department of Evolutionary and Functional Biology, University of Parma, 43124 Parma, Italy
    Neuroscience 170:289-97. 2010
    ....
  4. ncbi Interaction between secretogranin III and carboxypeptidase E facilitates prohormone sorting within secretory granules
    Masahiro Hosaka
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371 8512, Japan
    J Cell Sci 118:4785-95. 2005
    ..We suggest that SgIII and CPE form the separate functional sorting complex by anchoring to cholesterol-rich SG membranes, and POMC-derived peptides are transferred from CPE to SgIII, and subsequently to CgA...
  5. ncbi New insights into granin-derived peptides: evolution and endocrine roles
    E Zhao
    Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 164:161-74. 2009
    ....
  6. ncbi Catestatin (CgA344-364) stimulates rat mast cell release of histamine in a manner comparable to mastoparan and other cationic charged neuropeptides
    Per Gøran Krüger
    Department of Anatomy, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Regul Pept 114:29-35. 2003
    ....
  7. ncbi Granins and their derived peptides in normal and tumoral chromaffin tissue: Implications for the diagnosis and prognosis of pheochromocytoma
    Marlène Guérin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, U982, Laboratory of Neuronal and Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Communication, European Institute for Peptide Research IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Regul Pept 165:21-9. 2010
    ..However, the existing data need to be substantiated in larger groups of patients, particularly in the case of malignant disease...
  8. ncbi Identification and characterization of novel chromogranin B-derived peptides from porcine chromaffin granules by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem MS
    Z Wang
    Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, University of Antwerp UIA, Universiteitsplein 1, B 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
    Eur J Biochem 268:235-42. 2001
    ..This is the first report that the C-terminal region of CgB, the homologue of human CCB, is proteolytically processed further into three small peptide fragments...
  9. ncbi Granins and granin-related peptides in neuroendocrine tumours
    Guida M Portela-Gomes
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Regul Pept 165:12-20. 2010
    ..Further research will probably establish new staining patterns with marker functions for granins in NETs which may be of histopathological diagnostic value...
  10. ncbi Expression of regulated secretory proteins is sufficient to generate granule-like structures in constitutively secreting cells
    Nicole Beuret
    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:20242-9. 2004
    ....
  11. ncbi Neuropeptides and chromogranins: session overview
    Andrea Laslop
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Innsbruck, Peter Mayr Strasse 1a, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 971:294-9. 2002
    ..in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells, transmitters or hormones are stored together with neuropeptides and chromogranins. For most neuropeptides, functions have been established and new findings on their secretion, receptors, and ..
  12. ncbi Differential expression of vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) 1 and 2 in gastrointestinal endocrine tumours
    A M Jakobsen
    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, , Sweden
    J Pathol 195:463-72. 2001
    ..VMAT1 and VMAT2 may therefore become valuable markers in the classification of neuroendocrine tumours and may also indicate patients suitable for radioisotope treatment operating via these transporter systems...
  13. ncbi Chromogranins as markers of altered hippocampal circuitry in temporal lobe epilepsy
    S Pirker
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Innsbruck, Austria
    Ann Neurol 50:216-26. 2001
    b>Chromogranins are polypeptides which are widely expressed in the central nervous system. They are stored in dense core vesicles of nerve terminals, from where they are released upon stimulation...
  14. ncbi Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors
    J Michael Conlon
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, 17666 Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
    Regul Pept 165:5-11. 2010
    ..These examples point to a limited although potentially valuable role for granin-derived peptides as tumor markers...
  15. ncbi Analysis of the post-translational processing of chromogranin A in rat neuroendocrine tissue employing an N-terminal site-specific antiserum
    C M McVicar
    Department of Medicine, School of Biology and Biochemistry, The Queen's University of Belfast, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 13:588-95. 2001
    ....
  16. ncbi Secretogranin III in human neuroendocrine tumours: a comparative immunohistochemical study with chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II
    Guida Maria Portela-Gomes
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Regul Pept 165:30-5. 2010
    ..SgIII has been recently reported in endocrine pancreas. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of SgIII in different NETs and compare it with the expression of CgA, CgB and SgII epitopes...
  17. ncbi The crucial role of chromogranins in storage and exocytosis revealed using chromaffin cells from chromogranin A null mouse
    Monica S Montesinos
    Unit of Pharmacology, Medical School, University of La Laguna, 38071 Tenerife, Spain
    J Neurosci 28:3350-8. 2008
    b>Chromogranins (Cgs) are the major soluble proteins of dense-core secretory vesicles...
  18. ncbi The chromogranin-secretogranin family
    Laurent Taupenot
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla 92161, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1134-49. 2003
  19. ncbi Complex co-localization of chromogranins and neurohormones in the human gastrointestinal tract
    G M Portela-Gomes
    Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Histochem Cytochem 45:815-22. 1997
    ..e., also CgC. Some CCK cells also contained all three chromogranins. Enteroglucagon cells in the duodenal villi contained CgA and some CgB...
  20. ncbi Processing of chromogranin B in bovine adrenal medulla. Identification of secretolytin, the endogenous C-terminal fragment of residues 614-626 with antibacterial activity
    J M Strub
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 338 de Biologie de la Communication Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
    Eur J Biochem 229:356-68. 1995
    b>Chromogranins constitute a family of acidic soluble proteins widely distributed in endocrine cells and neurons...
  21. ncbi Chromogranins--new sensitive markers for neuroendocrine tumors
    B Eriksson
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden
    Acta Oncol 28:325-9. 1989
    b>Chromogranins A, B and C, proteins that are costored and coreleased with peptides and amines, have been identified in a variety of endocrine and nervous tissues, both normal and neoplastic...
  22. ncbi Small cell carcinoma of the bladder: a contemporary clinicopathological study of 51 cases
    N A Abrahams
    Department of Pathology and Genitourinary Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Histopathology 46:57-63. 2005
    ..We present 51 cases of primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder in a clinicopathological study with emphasis on features that aid in the initial recognition and diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the bladder...
  23. ncbi Genome-wide linkage analysis of chromogranin B expression in the CEPH pedigrees: implications for exocytotic sympathochromaffin secretion in humans
    Tiffany A Greenwood
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, USA
    Physiol Genomics 18:119-27. 2004
    ..Allelic variation in this region may thus influence effects of sympathetic outflow on target organs in humans...
  24. ncbi Dispersion of chromogranin/secretogranin secretory protein family loci in mammalian genomes
    S K Mahata
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, 92161, USA
    Genomics 33:135-9. 1996
    ..Our results indicate that each locus lies in a region of locally syntenic chromosomal homology across the three species...
  25. ncbi Chromogranin B-induced secretory granule biogenesis: comparison with the similar role of chromogranin A
    Yang Hoon Huh
    Department of Biochemistry, Inha University College of Medicine, Jung Gu, Incheon 400 712, Korea
    J Biol Chem 278:40581-9. 2003
    The two major proteins of secretory granules of secretory cells, chromogranins A (CGA) and B (CGB), have previously been proposed to play key roles in secretory granule biogenesis...
  26. ncbi Carboxypeptidase E is a regulated secretory pathway sorting receptor: genetic obliteration leads to endocrine disorders in Cpe(fat) mice
    D R Cool
    Section on Cellular Neurobiology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell 88:73-83. 1997
    ..Thus, obliteration of CPE, the sorting receptor, leads to multiple endocrine disorders in these genetically defective mice, including hyperproinsulinemia and infertility...
  27. ncbi Antibacterial activity of secretolytin, a chromogranin B-derived peptide (614-626), is correlated with peptide structure
    J M Strub
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 338 de Biologie de la Communication Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France
    FEBS Lett 379:273-8. 1996
    ..Our results suggest that an alpha-helical amphipathic structure common to secretolytin, cecropins and pig myeloid antibacterial peptide may account for the antibacterial activity...
  28. ncbi Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/Ca(2+) channel modulatory role of chromogranins A and B
    Seung Hyun Yoo
    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Secretory Granule Research, Department of Biochemistry, Inha University College of Medicine, Shinheungdong 3ga, Jung Gu, Incheon 400 712, Korea
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 971:300-10. 2002
    ..1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R)/Ca(2+) channels and high-capacity, low-affinity Ca(2+) storage proteins chromogranins A (CgA) and B (CgB)...
  29. ncbi The chromogranin A fragment catestatin: specificity, potency and mechanism to inhibit exocytotic secretion of multiple catecholamine storage vesicle co-transmitters
    Nitish R Mahapatra
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, CA 92093 0838, USA
    J Hypertens 24:895-904. 2006
    ..However, the specificity of catestatin to exert nicotinic-cholinergic antagonism among its co-transmitters is not clearly known, nor is the potential effect of catestatin on multiple vesicle co-transmitters understood...
  30. pmc Hypertension from targeted ablation of chromogranin A can be rescued by the human ortholog
    Nitish R Mahapatra
    Department of Medicine, UCSD, San Diego, CA, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1942-52. 2005
    ..Loss of the physiological "brake" catestatin in Chga mice coupled with dysregulation of transmitter storage and release may act in concert to alter autonomic control of the circulation in vivo, eventuating in hypertension...
  31. ncbi The chromogranins: their roles in secretion from neuroendocrine cells and as markers for neuroendocrine neoplasia
    Steven A Feldman
    Section on Molecular Virology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD 20892 4090, USA
    Endocr Pathol 14:3-23. 2003
    b>Chromogranins are the major components of the secretory granules of most neuroendocrine cells...
  32. ncbi Chromogranin A, an "on/off" switch controlling dense-core secretory granule biogenesis
    T Kim
    Section on Cellular Neurobiology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 106:499-509. 2001
    ..We conclude that CGA is an "on/off" switch that alone is sufficient to drive dense-core secretory granule biogenesis and hormone sequestration in endocrine cells...
  33. pmc Novel autocrine feedback control of catecholamine release. A discrete chromogranin a fragment is a noncompetitive nicotinic cholinergic antagonist
    S K Mahata
    Department of Medicine and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA
    J Clin Invest 100:1623-33. 1997
    Catecholamine secretory vesicle core proteins (chromogranins) contain an activity that inhibits catecholamine release, but the identity of the responsible peptide has been elusive...
  34. ncbi Catecholamine storage vesicle protein expression in genetic hypertension
    D T O'Connor
    Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, V A San Diego Healthcare System, USA
    Blood Press 8:285-95. 1999
    ..In one rodent model (the SHR), over-expression of chromogranin A is largely controlled by a single genetic locus, but the chromogranin A locus itself is not directly linked to determination of the blood pressure elevation of the SHR...
  35. ncbi Desensitization of catecholamine release. The novel catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide catestatin (chromogranin a344-364) acts at the receptor to prevent nicotinic cholinergic tolerance
    S K Mahata
    Department of Medicine and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, and San Diego Veterans Administration Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:2920-8. 1999
    ..003). We conclude that catestatin is a highly potent, dose-dependent, noncompetitive, noncooperative, specific inhibitor of nicotinic desensitization, an effect which may have implications for control of catecholamine release...
  36. ncbi Early decline in the catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide catestatin in humans at genetic risk of hypertension
    DANIEL T O'CONNOR
    Department of Medicine and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California and V A San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Hypertens 20:1335-45. 2002
    ....
  37. ncbi Secretoneurin: a functional neuropeptide in health and disease
    C J Wiedermann
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Innsbruck, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Peptides 21:1289-98. 2000
    b>Chromogranins belong to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that serve as neuropeptide pro-proteins, besides having other functions...
  38. ncbi Coupling of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and chromogranins A and B in secretory granules
    S H Yoo
    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Secretory Granule Research, Biomedical Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yu Sung Gu, Dae Jeon 305 701, Korea
    J Biol Chem 275:12553-9. 2000
    The secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells which contain large amounts of Ca(2+) and chromogranins have been demonstrated to release Ca(2+) in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))...
  39. ncbi Enrichment of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/Ca2+ channels in secretory granules and essential roles of chromogranins
    Seung Hyun Yoo
    Department of Biochemistry, Inha University School of Medicine, Jung Gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea
    Cell Calcium 51:342-50. 2012
    The high capacity, low affinity Ca(2+) storage protein chromogranins are marker proteins of secretory granules that contain the most Ca(2+) in secretory cells...
  40. ncbi Subcellular distribution of chromogranins A and B in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells
    Yang Hoon Huh
    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Secretory Granule Research, and Department of Biochemistry, Inha University College of Medicine, Jung Gu, Incheon 400 712, Republic of Korea
    FEBS Lett 579:5145-51. 2005
    The major secretory granule proteins chromogranins A (CGA) and B (CGB) have recently been shown to play critical roles in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) mobilizations...
  41. pmc A transplantable human carcinoid as model for somatostatin receptor-mediated and amine transporter-mediated radionuclide uptake
    L Kolby
    Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, The Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Göteberg, Goteberg, Sweden
    Am J Pathol 158:745-55. 2001
    ..This human transplantable carcinoid tumor, designated GOT1, grafted to nude mice, will give unique possibilities for studies of somatostatin receptor- and VMAT-mediated radionuclide uptake as well as for studies of secretory mechanisms...
  42. ncbi Chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II: evolutionary and functional aspects
    M Montero-Hadjadje
    INSERM U413, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neuroendocrinology, European Institute for Peptide Research IFRMP 23, UA CNRS, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 192:309-24. 2008
    b>Chromogranins/secretogranins or granins are a class of acidic, secretory proteins that occur in endocrine, neuroendocrine, and neuronal cells...
  43. pmc Both rare and common polymorphisms contribute functional variation at CHGA, a regulator of catecholamine physiology
    Gen Wen
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 74:197-207. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver: an autopsy case
    G Kaya
    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland
    Pathol Int 51:874-8. 2001
    ..The patient also had metastases in the bone marrow. No alternative primary source of endocrine tumor was detected. The patient died 4 days after presentation...
  45. ncbi The granin family of uniquely acidic proteins of the diffuse neuroendocrine system: comparative and functional aspects
    Karen B Helle
    Department of Biomedicine, Division of Physiology, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, 5009 Bergen, Norway
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 79:769-94. 2004
    The chromogranins A (CgA) and B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII) constitute the main members of a family of uniquely acidic secretory proteins in elements of the diffuse neuroendocrine system...
  46. ncbi Presence of syntaxin 1A in secretory granules of chromaffin cells and interaction with chromogranins A and B
    Seung Hyun Yoo
    Department of Biochemistry, National Creative Research Initiative Center for Secretory Granule Research, Inha University College of Medicine, Jung Gu, Incheon 400 712, Republic of Korea
    FEBS Lett 579:222-8. 2005
    ..cells by immunogold electron microscopy, and further demonstrate the interaction of these proteins with chromogranins A and B (CGA and CGB), two major proteins of secretory granules...
  47. ncbi Secretogranin III binds to cholesterol in the secretory granule membrane as an adapter for chromogranin A
    Masahiro Hosaka
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371 8512, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:3627-34. 2004
    ..Thus, we suggest that SgIII directly binds to cholesterol components of the SGM and targets CgA to SGs in pituitary and pancreatic endocrine cells...
  48. pmc Characterization of the endopeptidase PC2 activity towards secretogranin II in stably transfected PC12 cells
    A S Dittie
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, U K
    Biochem J 310:777-87. 1995
    ..Our results demonstrate that SgII is proteolytically processed by PC2 in the immature secretory granule into several lower-molecular-mass proteins, the major ones being an 18 kDa sulphated fragment and a 28 kDa fragment...
  49. ncbi Chromogranin B (secretogranin I), a putative precursor of two novel pituitary peptides through processing at paired basic residues
    S Benjannet
    Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    FEBS Lett 224:142-8. 1987
    ..These data are thus in favor of a putative role of chromogranins as precursors to potentially bioactive peptides.
  50. ncbi Immunohistochemical expression of chromogranins A and B, prohormone convertases 2 and 3, and amidating enzyme in carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors
    N Kimura
    Department of Pathology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai, Japan
    Mod Pathol 13:140-6. 2000
    ..In conclusion, expression of CgA and CgB was different depending on the tumor location. High frequency of PCs and PGM may explain why even nonfunctioning tumors produce some inconspicuous peptides...
  51. ncbi Elevated serum chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    N Leone
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital S Giovanni Battista, Turin, Italy
    Clin Exp Med 2:119-23. 2002
    ..We propose further studies to ascertain whether serum levels of chromogranin A are useful as a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma as in prostate cancer...
  52. pmc Processing of chromogranin A by plasmin provides a novel mechanism for regulating catecholamine secretion
    R J Parmer
    Department of Medicine, University of California, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, California 92161, USA
    J Clin Invest 106:907-15. 2000
    ..Interactions between CgA and plasmin(ogen) define a previously unrecognized autocrine/paracrine system that may have a dramatic impact upon catecholamine secretion...
  53. pmc The primary structure of rat secretogranin II deduced from a cDNA sequence
    H H Gerdes
    Cell Biology Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, FRG
    Nucleic Acids Res 16:11811. 1988
  54. pmc The chromogranins and the counter-regulatory hormones: do they make homeostatic sense?
    J H Koeslag
    Department of Medical Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Physiol 517:643-9. 1999
    1. The chromogranins are ubiquitous proteins which are co-stored and co-secreted with many peptide hormones. All appear to be powerful inhibitors of endocrine secretions. This poses a problem. 2...
  55. ncbi Chromogranin 'A' in normal subjects, essential hypertensives and adrenalectomized patients
    Bernini Giampaolo
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 57:41-50. 2002
    ..Although currently used as a humoral marker of endocrine tumours, several aspects of CgA secretion still need to be clarified in humans...
  56. ncbi Antimicrobial chromogranins and proenkephalin-A-derived peptides: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of chromogranins and proenkephalin-A-derived peptides
    M H Metz-Boutigue
    INSERM Unité 575, IFR37 Physiopathologie du Système Nerveux, Strasbourg, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 992:168-78. 2003
    ..ascorbate, nucleotides, calcium, peptides, and several high-molecular mass water-soluble proteins including chromogranins and proenkephalin-A...
  57. ncbi Carcinoid tumor in the female urethral orifice: rare case report and a review of the literature
    Masaki Katayama
    Department of Pathology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan
    Pathol Int 53:102-5. 2003
    ..The patient did not complain of any symptoms until 5 years after the resection of the tumor. Therefore, the case we describe here is the first known report of carcinoid tumor in the Japanese female urethra...
  58. ncbi Clinical significance of elevated serum chromogranin A levels
    U Syversen
    Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim
    Scand J Gastroenterol 39:969-73. 2004
    ..The clinical significance of CgA has been studied mostly in patients with known NE tumours. The diagnosis was evaluated in 153 consecutive patients in whom CgA was measured in a given time interval...
  59. ncbi Lipomatous ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneum
    Shiro Adachi
    Department of Pathology, City Hospital of Ikeda, Ikeda, Japan
    Pathol Int 58:183-6. 2008
    ..Because the presence of such a large amount of adipose tissue seems to be rare in ganglioneuromas, its histogenesis is discussed...
  60. ncbi Mixed carcinoid and adenocarcinoma of the appendix: report of 4 cases with immunohistochemical studies and a review of the literature
    Bryan Tzy young Lin
    Division of Surgical Pathology, Encino Tarzana Regional Medical Center, 18321 Clark Street, Tarzana, CA 91356, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 12:271-6. 2004
    ..Peritoneal serous adenocarcinomas were CK20 negative. These cases were clinically aggressive, and 1 patient had multiple recurrences and responded partially to chemotherapy...
  61. ncbi Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases
    Alexandra C Hristov
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Hospital, 401 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 31:1502-11. 2007
    ..In cases in which the primary tumor is not already evident, their "goblet cell carcinoidlike" patterns should direct attention to the appendix as a possible source...
  62. ncbi Chromogranin A expression in human colonic adenocarcinoma
    R Romeo
    Anatomy, Diagnostic Pathology, Phorens Medicine, Hygiene and Public Healt Department, University of Catania
    Ital J Anat Embryol 107:177-83. 2002
    ..Therefore, we suggest that to carry out a proper adenocarcinoma histological examination, and to establish a consequent therapy, not only common staining techniques but also immunohistochemical methods should be used...
  63. ncbi Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer
    Snezana J Cerović
    Military Medical Academy, Institute of Pathology, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
    Vojnosanit Pregl 61:513-8. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NED status, based only on immunohistochemical use of neuroendocrine (NE) markers, with PC grade and stage, and preoperative serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)...
  64. ncbi Loss of cell cohesion in breast cytology as a characteristic of neuroendocrine carcinoma
    Weihua Tang
    Department of Pathology, Wakayama Medical University, 811 1 Kimiidera, Wakayama City, Wakayama, 641 8509 Japan
    Acta Cytol 46:835-40. 2002
    ..To characterize a specific group of breast cancers displaying a scattered single cell pattern in cytology and correlate it with histologic and immunohistochemical findings...
  65. ncbi Neuroendocrine marker expression in cervical carcinomas of non-small cell type
    A Chavez-Blanco
    Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 21:368-74. 2002
    ..We conclude that the neuroendocrine marker SYN is expressed in a small subset of non-small-cell carcinomas of the cervix and its expression seems to correlate with a poor outcome...
  66. ncbi Expression of neuroendocrine markers: a signature of human undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon and rectum
    Patricia Grabowski
    Medical Clinic I Gastroenterology InfectiousDiseases Rheumatology, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Free University of Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin, Germany
    Virchows Arch 441:256-63. 2002
    ..002). Our results show that neuroendocrine differentiation is often seen in small cell undifferentiated colorectal cancer. It correlates with a more aggressive course of the disease...
  67. ncbi Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor with metachronous lymph node metastasis after long-term follow up
    Yuji Iimuro
    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:1119-24. 2002
    ..After lymphadenectomy, the patient is free from recurrence in the regional lymph nodes for more than 1 year. This case is con-sidered to be a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor with metachronous lymph node metastasis...
  68. ncbi Neuroendocrine expression in node positive prostate cancer: correlation with systemic progression and patient survival
    David G Bostwick
    Bostwick Laboratories, Richmond, USA
    J Urol 168:1204-11. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi Constant light exposure causes dissociation in gonadotrophin secretion and inhibits partially neuroendocrine differentiation of Leydig cells in adult rats
    H H Ortega
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina
    Reprod Domest Anim 39:417-23. 2004
    ..Moreover, the constant light exposure affects the expression of some immunomarkers in Leydig cells, possibly because of the changes found in the gonadotrophin level and feedback mechanism...
  70. ncbi Sertoli cell tumor of the testis (not otherwise specified) with the expression of neuroendocrine markers and without the expression of inhibin-alpha
    Naoto Kuroda
    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, Japan
    Pathol Int 54:719-24. 2004
    ..It is important to differentiate between Sertoli cell tumor and carcinoid tumor because of the positive reaction for neuroendocrine markers in both tumors. Myofibroblasts are a major stromal component of Sertoli cell tumor of the testis...
  71. ncbi Practical markers used in the diagnosis of endocrine tumors
    Lori A Erickson
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Adv Anat Pathol 11:175-89. 2004
    ..This article reviews the common markers used to characterize endocrine tumors and to recognize tumors involved in the differential diagnosis of specific lesions...
  72. ncbi Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the submandibular gland with neuroendocrine features
    Juan Carlos de Vicente Rodríguez
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Central Hospital of Asturias and Faculty of Medicine, Oviedo, Spain
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 113:55-9. 2004
    ..When this tumor entity is located on the salivary glands, it appears to behave less aggressively than when it is a primary tumor of the bronchial tree...
  73. ncbi Practical markers used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors
    Ricardo V Lloyd
    Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Endocr Pathol 14:293-301. 2003
    ..2 to avoid false-negative results in the workup of some neuroendocrine tumors is emphasized. Finally, the use of in situ hybridization in diagnostic pathology is briefly summarized...
  74. ncbi Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report with fine-needle aspiration biopsy, histopathology, electron microscopy, and cytogenetics
    Henryk A Domanski
    Department of Pathology and Cytology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Ultrastruct Pathol 27:363-8. 2003
    ....
  75. ncbi The expression of selected neuroendocrine markers and of anti-neoplastic cytokines (IL-2 and IL-12) in lung cancers
    Aldona Kasprzak
    Department of Histology and Embryology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Folia Morphol (Warsz) 62:497-9. 2003
    ..The lowered expression of the two cytokines at the time of diagnosis may represent a prognostic factor for survival in SCLC...
  76. ncbi Tissue microarray analysis of neuroendocrine differentiation and its prognostic significance in breast cancer
    Nikita Makretsov
    Genetic Pathology Evaluatoin Centre of the Department of Pathology, Vancouver General Hospital, British Columbia, Canada
    Hum Pathol 34:1001-8. 2003
    ..043) and overall survival (P = 0.03) in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. The expression of Syn and ChA, as well as coexpression of multiple NE markers, had no prognostic significance...
  77. ncbi Neuroendocrine tissue-specific transcription factor, BETA2/NeuroD, in gastric carcinomas: a comparison with chromogranin A and synaptophysin expressions
    Akiko Fujii
    Department of Pathology, Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Kawachi, Tochigi, Japan
    Pathol Res Pract 199:513-9. 2003
    ..In addition, the negative expression of NeuroD in neuroendocrine carcinomas suggests that other regulatory mechanisms are possibly involved in the development of neuroendocrine carcinoma...
  78. ncbi Primary atypical carcinoid of the kidney: a classification is needed
    Jean François Quinchon
    Pathology 35:353-5. 2003
  79. ncbi [Carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract: importance of determining differentiation and proliferation markers]
    T Jirasek
    Ustav patologie 3 lékarské fakulty UK a Fakultní nemocnice Královské Vinohrady, Praha
    Cesk Patol 39:47-53. 2003
    ..One tumour (2.9%) was positive only for Leu-7. Tumour cells revealed predominantly low proliferative activity evaluated by PCNA and Ki-67 immunodetection. Higher degree of proliferation was observed especially in atypical carcinoids...
  80. ncbi Raf-1 activation suppresses neuroendocrine marker and hormone levels in human gastrointestinal carcinoid cells
    Rebecca S Sippel
    Dept of Surgery, Univ of Wisconsin Medical School, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison 53792, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285:G245-54. 2003
    ..These results show that raf-1 induction suppresses neuroendocrine marker and hormone production in human gastrointestinal carcinoid cells via a pathway dependent on MEK activation...
  81. ncbi [Multidrug resistance and its relationship with neuroendocrine differentiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma]
    Shao Ping Yu
    Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China
    Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 26:165-8. 2003
    ..To study the multidrug resistance (MDR) of non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) and its relationship with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation...
  82. ncbi Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation
    Karin Birkenkamp-Demtroder
    Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Center for Molecular Clinical Cancer Research, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby Sygehus, Aarhus, Denmark
    Neuroendocrinology 82:121-38. 2005
    ..We conclude that secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation...
  83. ncbi Immunohistochemical localization of human pineal tissue antigens in normal retina and retinoblastomas
    Junki Sawai
    First Department of Pathology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
    Neuropathology 23:119-28. 2003
    ..These results suggest that the retinoblastoma might be developed from visual stem cells, which are common progenitor cells of photoreceptor cells, intermediate neurons, and ganglion cells...
  84. ncbi Prognostic implications of neuroendocrine differentiation and hormone production in patients with Stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinoma
    Giuseppe Pelosi
    Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology and University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan, Italy
    Cancer 97:2487-97. 2003
    ..However, little is known regarding the prevalence and clinical implications of NE differentiation in patients with Stage I NSCLC...
  85. ncbi Neuroendocrine differentiation in colorectal carcinomas: assessing its prognostic significance
    Pinar Atasoy
    Department of Pathology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Tumori 89:49-53. 2003
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate neuroendocrine differentiation in colorectal carcinomas in relation to its prognostic significance...
  86. ncbi Neuroendocrine differentiation in pure type mammary mucinous carcinoma is associated with favorable histologic and immunohistochemical parameters
    Gary M K Tse
    Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
    Mod Pathol 17:568-72. 2004
    ..Our findings suggest that the identification of neuroendocrine differentiation in pure mucinous carcinoma is associated with more favorable histologic and immunohistochemical parameters...
  87. ncbi A metastatic renal carcinoid tumor presenting as breast mass: a diagnostic dilemma
    Farnaz Hasteh
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 35:306-10. 2007
    ..This report highlights the cytological features of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid tumor) and its potential diagnostic pitfalls...
  88. ncbi Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix with cytogenetic analysis by comparative genomic hybridization: a case study
    Shigeto Kawauchi
    Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi 755 8505, Japan
    Hum Pathol 36:1096-100. 2005
    ..Although CGH reports are extremely rare in neuroendocrine tumors of the uterine cervix, specific chromosomal aberrations may be useful in their distinction...
  89. ncbi Immunoexpression of the alpha subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Go) in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and neoplasms
    N Kawano
    Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Japan
    Pathol Int 46:393-8. 1996
    ..The biological significance of Go alpha is unclear in normal and neoplastic lung tissues, but Go alpha is a useful marker of neuroendocrine cells and neoplasma of the lung...
  90. ncbi Heterogeneity of so-called neuroendocrine lung tumors
    R Yesner
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 70:179-82. 2001
    ..This is expensive and without clinical significance...
  91. ncbi Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung with a cystic appearance on computed tomography
    Koichi Tanaka
    Department of Surgery, Sapporo Kosei General Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
    Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 54:174-7. 2006
    ..Given these findings, LCNEC was diagnosed. This is the first report of LCNEC with a cystic shape. This case challenges preconceptions regarding the radiographic appearance of LCNEC...
  92. ncbi Neuroendocrine differentiation is a relevant prognostic factor in stage III-IV colorectal cancer
    P Grabowski
    Medizinische Klinik I, , FU Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:405-11. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: Neuroendocrine differentiation is often seen in colorectal cancer. It is an independent prognostic factor in stage III-IV colorectal cancer...
  93. ncbi Neuroendocrine differentiation in extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas and its prognostic significance
    Seung Mo Hong
    Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138 736, South Korea
    Hum Pathol 36:732-40. 2005
    ..Therefore, immunohistochemical studies for neuroendocrine differentiation may be helpful in routine pathological examinations for evaluating the survival and the prognosis of patients with EBD carcinomas...
  94. ncbi Immunohistochemical distinction between merkel cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung
    Mattheos Bobos
    Department of Pathology, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Am J Dermatopathol 28:99-104. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that a set of three immunohistochemical stains, including CK20, NF, and TTF-1, is useful in affording a distinction between Merkel cell carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma...
  95. ncbi Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: proposed criteria for cytologic diagnosis
    B A Wiatrowska
    Cytology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 24:58-64. 2001
    ..LCNEC can be diagnosed in cytologic material, using morphology confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Treatment can be offered on the basis of cytologic examination...
  96. ncbi [Spindle cell carcinoma of breast with neuroendocrine differentiation]
    Hua Ye Ding
    Department of Pathology, General Hospital of Beijing Military Command, Beijing 100700, China
    Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 35:13-7. 2006
    ..To describe the morphologic features and immunohistochemistry of spindle cell carcinoma of breast with neuroendocrine differentiation...
  97. ncbi [Malignancy prediction in endocrine pancreas neoplasias]
    Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo
    Escuela de Medicina de Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    Rev Invest Clin 57:481-7. 2005
  98. ncbi Multimodality treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus
    T Dosios
    Second Department of Propedeutic Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Athens University, Greece
    Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 53:305-9. 2005
    ..Neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus are rare neoplasms. Four patients with this tumor who underwent multimodality treatment are presented and the literature is briefly reviewed...
  99. ncbi [Pancreatic endocrine tumor secreting growth hormone]
    Hela Mnif
    Ann Pathol 25:412-4. 2005
  100. pmc Q RT-PCR detection of chromogranin A: a new standard in the identification of neuroendocrine tumor disease
    Mark Kidd
    Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8062, USA
    Ann Surg 243:273-80. 2006
    ..Message and protein expression of CgA was examined to evaluate the sensitivity of a PCR-based approach in the detection of covert neuroendocrine (NE) tissue...
  101. ncbi Immunohistochemical study of neuroendocrine differentiation in primary glandular lesions and tumors of the urinary bladder
    Enrico R Bollito
    Division of Pathology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Italy
    Anal Quant Cytol Histol 27:218-24. 2005
    ..Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are uncommon in primary adenocarcinoma (AC) and other glandular lesions of the bladder, with no recent study series concerning its significance in differential diagnosis, prognosis or biologic significance...

Research Grants18

  1. The Neurosecretory Protein VGF: Contributions to Pain
    LYUDMILA H VULCHANOVA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..VGF (non-acronymic) is a neurosecretory protein similar to the family of chromogranins. It is sorted in the regulated secretory pathway and proteolytically processed into fragments that are ..
  2. CHROMOGRANIN A--NICOTINIC SIGNALING AND DESENSITIZATION
    Sushil Mahata; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..prompting exocytotic co-release of storage vesicle constituents: catecholamines, neuropeptides, and acidic chromogranins, the major component being chromogranin A (CgA)...
  3. STIMULUS/TRANSCRIPTION COUPLING IN SYMPATHOADRENAL CELLS
    DANIEL O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The mRNAs for chromogranins A and B, as well as tyrosine hydroxylase, are augmented by nicotinic stimulation...
  4. Sympathetic Neuroeffector Junctions & Blood Pressure
    DANIEL O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition to catecholamines, the secretory "quantum" includes neuropeptides and chromogranins, precursors of active peptides mediating vascular responses to sympathoadrenal activation, and hence blood ..
  5. SYNTHESIS OF DBH, CHROMOGRANINS AND CHROMAFFIN VESICLES
    NORMAN KIRSHNER; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..CgA has recently been shown to be widely distributed in non-catecholamine neuroendocrine tissues and knowledge of its synthesis and packaging into chromaffin vesicles may also be relevant to other neuroendocrine tissues...
  6. Chromaffin Cell physiology: Novel molecular approaches
    Sushil Mahata; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies, utilizing unique knockout, transgenic, and human variants of catestatin, are likely to establish novel catestatin mechanisms in the development of hypertension and its modulation through nicotinic-cholinergic receptors. ..
  7. Sympathetic Outflow to Catecholamine Storage Vesicles
    DANIEL O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The chromogranins/secretogranins (chromogranin A [Cga]. Chromogranin B [Cgb]...
  8. Traffic of catecholamine storage vesicle proteins
    Laurent Taupenot; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of these studies will enhance our knowledge of catecholamine/granins storage and release during sympathetic stimulation, leading to a better understanding of neuroendocrine secretory granule biogenesis . ..
  9. PROCESSING OF CHROMOGRANIN A BY THE FIBRINOLYTIC SYSTEM
    ROBERT PARMER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  10. New Perspectives in Transporter Biology-FASEB conference
    Robert Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Each oral session will be followed by a panel discussion of the topic. To promote the advancement of junior faculty, the most exciting poster submissions will be selected for short oral presentations during the regular oral sessions. ..
  11. TRANSPORT OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS INTO SYNAPTIC VESICLES
    Robert Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Third, we will manipulate the expression, localization and regulation of the transporters in vivo to assess the role of these mechanisms in synaptic transmission and behavior. ..
  12. Pancreatic zymogen activation in a reconstituted system
    Edwin Thrower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We plan to use this system to identify the compartment(s) responsible for zymogen processing and to examine the ATP and calcium-dependent mechanism of activation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. NMDA receptor dysfunction after traumatic brain injury
    CHRISTOPHER GIZA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Cysteine String Proteins: Cellular & Molecular Function
    JOY UMBACH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Taken together, these aims constitute substantial progress toward resolving the role of csps in normal and pathological circumstances. ..