lipopolysaccharides

Summary

Summary: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc NF-kappaB-dependent induction of microRNA miR-146, an inhibitor targeted to signaling proteins of innate immune responses
    Konstantin D Taganov
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12481-6. 2006
  2. ncbi Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance
    Patrice D Cani
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, I2MR Toulouse, France
    Diabetes 56:1761-72. 2007
  3. ncbi Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection
    Jason M Brenchley
    Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 12:1365-71. 2006
  4. ncbi Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo
    Axel Nimmerjahn
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 308:1314-8. 2005
  5. ncbi Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene
    A Poltorak
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235 9050, USA
    Science 282:2085-8. 1998
  6. pmc Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins
    Christian R H Raetz
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 71:635-700. 2002
  7. ncbi HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice
    H Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine and Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Science 285:248-51. 1999
  8. ncbi The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex
    Beom Seok Park
    Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejeon, 305 701, Korea
    Nature 458:1191-5. 2009
  9. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
    L V Borovikova
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 405:458-62. 2000
  10. ncbi The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta
    Fabio Martinon
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research Center, Chemin des Boveresses 155, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Mol Cell 10:417-26. 2002

Detail Information

Publications332 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc NF-kappaB-dependent induction of microRNA miR-146, an inhibitor targeted to signaling proteins of innate immune responses
    Konstantin D Taganov
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12481-6. 2006
    ....
  2. ncbi Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance
    Patrice D Cani
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, I2MR Toulouse, France
    Diabetes 56:1761-72. 2007
    ..We conclude that the LPS/CD14 system sets the tone of insulin sensitivity and the onset of diabetes and obesity. Lowering plasma LPS concentration could be a potent strategy for the control of metabolic diseases...
  3. ncbi Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection
    Jason M Brenchley
    Human Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 12:1365-71. 2006
    ..These data establish a mechanism for chronic immune activation in the context of a compromised gastrointestinal mucosal surface and provide new directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection...
  4. ncbi Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo
    Axel Nimmerjahn
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 308:1314-8. 2005
    ..Microglia thus are busy and vigilant housekeepers in the adult brain...
  5. ncbi Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene
    A Poltorak
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235 9050, USA
    Science 282:2085-8. 1998
    ..Destructive mutations of Tlr4 predispose to the development of Gram-negative sepsis, leaving most aspects of immune function intact...
  6. pmc Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins
    Christian R H Raetz
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 71:635-700. 2002
    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) typically consist of a hydrophobic domain known as lipid A (or endotoxin), a nonrepeating "core" oligosaccharide, and a distal polysaccharide (or O-antigen)...
  7. ncbi HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice
    H Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine and Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Science 285:248-51. 1999
    ..Septic patients who succumbed to infection had increased serum HMG-1 levels, suggesting that this protein warrants investigation as a therapeutic target...
  8. ncbi The structural basis of lipopolysaccharide recognition by the TLR4-MD-2 complex
    Beom Seok Park
    Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejeon, 305 701, Korea
    Nature 458:1191-5. 2009
    ..The TLR4-MD-2-LPS structure illustrates the remarkable versatility of the ligand recognition mechanisms employed by the TLR family, which is essential for defence against diverse microbial infection...
  9. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
    L V Borovikova
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 405:458-62. 2000
    ..Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock...
  10. ncbi The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta
    Fabio Martinon
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, BIL Biomedical Research Center, Chemin des Boveresses 155, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Mol Cell 10:417-26. 2002
    ..Thus, the inflammasome constitutes an important arm of the innate immunity...
  11. ncbi Modulation of miR-155 and miR-125b levels following lipopolysaccharide/TNF-alpha stimulation and their possible roles in regulating the response to endotoxin shock
    Esmerina Tili
    Ohio State University, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Immunol 179:5082-9. 2007
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that the LPS/TNF-alpha-dependent regulation of miR-155 and miR-125b may be implicated in the response to endotoxin shock, thus offering new targets for drug design...
  12. ncbi Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product
    K Hoshino
    Department of Biochemistry, Hyogo College of Medicine, Japan
    J Immunol 162:3749-52. 1999
    ..Overexpression of wild-type TLR4 but not the mutant TLR4 from C3H/HeJ mice activated NF-kappaB. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response...
  13. ncbi LPS/TLR4 signal transduction pathway
    Yong Chen Lu
    The Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Ontario Cancer Institute, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont, Canada M5G 2M9
    Cytokine 42:145-51. 2008
    ..LPS/TLR4 signaling has been intensively studied in the past few years. Here we review molecules involved in TLR4-mediated signaling, including players that are involved in the negative regulation of this important pathway...
  14. ncbi Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Michelle L Monje
    Stanford University, Department of Neurosurgery, MSLS P309, Mail Code 5487, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5487, USA
    Science 302:1760-5. 2003
    ....
  15. ncbi Differential activation of the inflammasome by caspase-1 adaptors ASC and Ipaf
    Sanjeev Mariathasan
    Molecular Oncology Department, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 430:213-8. 2004
    ..Notably, cell death triggered by stimuli that engage caspase-1 was ablated in macrophages lacking either ASC or Ipaf, suggesting a coupling between the inflammatory and cell death pathways...
  16. ncbi Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
    Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
    ..These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition...
  17. ncbi Negative regulation of TLR4 via targeting of the proinflammatory tumor suppressor PDCD4 by the microRNA miR-21
    Frederick J Sheedy
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
    Nat Immunol 11:141-7. 2010
    ..Thus, miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression after LPS stimulation...
  18. pmc Unbiased reconstruction of a mammalian transcriptional network mediating pathogen responses
    Ido Amit
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 326:257-63. 2009
    ..This study establishes a broadly applicable, comprehensive, and unbiased approach to reveal the wiring and functions of a regulatory network controlling a major transcriptional response in primary mammalian cells...
  19. ncbi LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes
    M Guha
    Departments of Immunology, C-204, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell Signal 13:85-94. 2001
    ..These signaling pathways in turn activate a variety of transcription factors that include NF-kappaB (p50/p65) and AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun), which coordinate the induction of many genes encoding inflammatory mediators...
  20. ncbi Transcriptional control of the inflammatory response
    Ruslan Medzhitov
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:692-703. 2009
    ..Here, we discuss the mechanisms of and the emerging principles in the transcriptional regulation of inflammatory responses in diverse physiological settings...
  21. pmc Activation of innate immunity in the CNS triggers neurodegeneration through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway
    Seija Lehnardt
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8514-9. 2003
    ..In contrast, animals bearing a loss-of-function mutation in the tlr4 gene are resistant to neuronal injury in the same model. The present study demonstrates a mechanistic link among innate immunity, TLRs, and neurodegeneration...
  22. ncbi Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock
    Thomas Vogl
    Institute of Experimental Dermatology, University of Munster, D 48129 Munster, Germany
    Nat Med 13:1042-9. 2007
    ..Therefore Mrp8-Mrp14 complexes are new inflammatory components that amplify phagocyte activation during sepsis upstream of TNFalpha-dependent effects...
  23. ncbi The ubiquitin-modifying enzyme A20 is required for termination of Toll-like receptor responses
    David L Boone
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0451, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:1052-60. 2004
    ..The critical function of this deubiquitinating enzyme in the restriction of TLR signals emphasizes the importance of the regulation of ubiquitin conjugation in innate immune cells...
  24. ncbi CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein
    S D Wright
    Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Science 249:1431-3. 1990
    ..Thus, LPS may induce responses by interacting with a soluble binding protein in serum that then binds the cell surface protein CD14...
  25. pmc MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4
    R Shimazu
    Department of Immunology, Saga Medical School, Saga, Japan
    J Exp Med 189:1777-82. 1999
    ..MD-2 is thus a link between TLR4 and LPS signaling. Identification of this new receptor complex has potential implications for understanding host defense, as well as pathophysiologic, mechanisms...
  26. ncbi Involvement of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cellular activation by high mobility group box 1 protein
    Jong Sung Park
    Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:7370-7. 2004
    ..Interactions of HMGB1 with TLR 2 and TLR 4 may provide an explanation for the ability of HMGB1 to generate inflammatory responses that are similar to those initiated by LPS...
  27. pmc Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine production is differentially regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3
    Michael Martin
    Department of Oral Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 2170, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:777-84. 2005
    ..These findings demonstrate a regulatory function for GSK3 in modulating the inflammatory response...
  28. pmc Lipid A modification systems in gram-negative bacteria
    Christian R H Raetz
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Biochem 76:295-329. 2007
    ..Although not required for growth, the modification enzymes modulate virulence of some gram-negative pathogens. Heterologous expression of lipid A modification enzymes may enable the development of new vaccines...
  29. pmc Inflammation is detrimental for neurogenesis in adult brain
    Christine T Ekdahl
    Laboratory of Neurogenesis and Cell Therapy, Section of Restorative Neurology, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Biomedical Center A 11, Lund, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13632-7. 2003
    ..Our data raise the possibility that suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis by activated microglia contributes to cognitive dysfunction in aging, dementia, epilepsy, and other conditions leading to brain inflammation...
  30. pmc Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration
    Liya Qin
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    Glia 55:453-62. 2007
    ..These findings provide valuable insight into the potential pathogenesis and self-propelling nature of Parkinson's disease...
  31. pmc Biochemical and functional characterization of three activated macrophage populations
    Justin P Edwards
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 80:1298-307. 2006
    ..These are sphingosine kinase-1 and LIGHT (TNF superfamily 14). Thus, Ca-Mphi, Mphi-II, and AA-Mphi represent three populations of cells with different biological functions...
  32. pmc Control of inducible gene expression by signal-dependent transcriptional elongation
    Diana C Hargreaves
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 138:129-45. 2009
    ..Our findings suggest that the permissive structure of PRGs both stipulates their unique regulation in the basal state by corepressor complexes and enables their rapid induction in multiple cell types...
  33. pmc High mobility group 1 protein (HMG-1) stimulates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in human monocytes
    U Andersson
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Exp Med 192:565-70. 2000
    ..Together, these results indicate that, like other cytokine mediators of endotoxin lethality (e.g., TNF and IL-1), extracellular HMG-1 is a regulator of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine synthesis...
  34. ncbi An advanced culture method for generating large quantities of highly pure dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow
    M B Lutz
    Department of Dermatology, University of Erlangen, Germany
    J Immunol Methods 223:77-92. 1999
    ..This method allows by simple means the generation of high numbers of murine DC with very low B cell or granulocyte contaminations. It will be valuable to study DC biology notably at the molecular level...
  35. ncbi Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer
    Jin Young Kang
    Department of Chemistry, KAIST, Daejon, 305 701, Korea
    Immunity 31:873-84. 2009
    ..The structures of the TLR2-lipoteichoic acid and the TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes demonstrate that a precise interaction pattern of the head group is essential for a robust immune response by TLR2 heterodimers...
  36. ncbi Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    Masahiro Yamamoto
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Science 301:640-3. 2003
    ..These findings demonstrate that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense...
  37. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide recognition: CD14, TLRs and the LPS-activation cluster
    Martha Triantafilou
    Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, King Henry Building, King Henry I Street, PO1 2DY, Portsmouth, UK
    Trends Immunol 23:301-4. 2002
    ..Taking into account the discovery of the TLRs and the LPS-activation cluster, we propose a new model of LPS recognition...
  38. ncbi Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications
    Simmie L Foster
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06405, USA
    Nature 447:972-8. 2007
    ..These findings illustrate an adaptive response in macrophages and reveal component-specific regulation of inflammation...
  39. pmc Plasma levels of bacterial DNA correlate with immune activation and the magnitude of immune restoration in persons with antiretroviral-treated HIV infection
    Wei Jiang
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1177-85. 2009
    ..These findings are consistent with the importance of microbial translocation in immunodeficiency and T cell homeostasis in chronic HIV infection...
  40. pmc CD14 controls the LPS-induced endocytosis of Toll-like receptor 4
    Ivan Zanoni
    Harvard Medical School and Division of Gastroenterology, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 147:868-80. 2011
    ..This innate immune trafficking cascade illustrates how pathogen detection systems operate to induce both membrane transport and signal transduction...
  41. pmc Induction and regulatory function of miR-9 in human monocytes and neutrophils exposed to proinflammatory signals
    Flavia Bazzoni
    Department of Pathology, Division of General Pathology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, I 37134 Verona, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5282-7. 2009
    ....
  42. ncbi A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease
    Y Ogura
    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 411:603-6. 2001
    ..Wild-type NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kappaB, making it responsive to bacterial lipopolysaccharides; however, this induction was deficient in mutant NOD2...
  43. pmc Sustained expression of microRNA-155 in hematopoietic stem cells causes a myeloproliferative disorder
    Ryan M O'Connell
    Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    J Exp Med 205:585-94. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi Virulence factors of Yersinia pestis are overcome by a strong lipopolysaccharide response
    Sara W Montminy
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:1066-73. 2006
    ..pestis virulence. Evading TLR4 activation by lipid A alteration may contribute to the virulence of various Gram-negative bacteria...
  45. ncbi Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes
    S J Creely
    Diabetes and Metabolism Research Laboratories, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, Clinical Sciences Bldg, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, West Midlands, UK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E740-7. 2007
    ..Thus, increased adiposity may increase proinflammatory cytokines and therefore contribute to the pathogenic risk of T2DM...
  46. ncbi Identification and characterization of enhancers controlling the inflammatory gene expression program in macrophages
    Serena Ghisletti
    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology IEO, IFOM IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, Milan, Italy
    Immunity 32:317-28. 2010
    ..We suggest that this may represent a general paradigm in tissue-restricted and stimulus-responsive gene regulation...
  47. pmc Nrf2 is a critical regulator of the innate immune response and survival during experimental sepsis
    Rajesh K Thimmulappa
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:984-95. 2006
    ..Our study reveals Nrf2 as a novel modifier gene of sepsis that determines survival by mounting an appropriate innate immune response...
  48. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost, urine antigen, point-of-care screening assay for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy: a descriptive study
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:201-9. 2012
    ..We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a urine antigen test Determine TB-LAM Ag (Determine TB-LAM; Alere, Waltham, MA, USA) for screening for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  49. ncbi Class switch recombination and hypermutation require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a potential RNA editing enzyme
    M Muramatsu
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Japan
    Cell 102:553-63. 2000
    ..These results suggest that AID may be involved in regulation or catalysis of the DNA modification step of both class switching and somatic hypermutation...
  50. pmc miR-147, a microRNA that is induced upon Toll-like receptor stimulation, regulates murine macrophage inflammatory responses
    Gang Liu
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15819-24. 2009
    ..These data demonstrate a negative-feedback loop in which TLR stimulation induces miR-147 to prevent excessive inflammatory responses...
  51. ncbi Mechanisms of bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial apoptosis
    Douglas D Bannerman
    Immunology and Disease Resistance Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Maryland 20705, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284:L899-914. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the role of apoptotic signaling molecules in mediating LPS-induced activation of endothelial cells will be considered...
  52. ncbi The vaccine adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A as a TRIF-biased agonist of TLR4
    Veronica Mata-Haro
    Institute for Cellular Therapeutics, University of Louisville, 570 South Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
    Science 316:1628-32. 2007
    ..This finding may have important implications for the development of future vaccine adjuvants...
  53. ncbi Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors
    Min Fu Tsan
    Office of Research Oversight, Department of Veterans Affairs, 50 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20422, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 76:514-9. 2004
    ....
  54. ncbi LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity
    Samuel I Miller
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:36-46. 2005
    ..This review will examine the hypothesis that the variability of bacterial ligands such as LPS and their innate immune receptors is an important factor in determining the outcome of infectious disease...
  55. ncbi Innate immune sensing and its roots: the story of endotoxin
    Bruce Beutler
    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:169-76. 2003
    ..The discovery of the host sensors--the Toll-like receptors--was rooted in chemical, biological and genetic analyses that centred on a bacterial poison, termed endotoxin...
  56. ncbi DCs induce CD40-independent immunoglobulin class switching through BLyS and APRIL
    Mikhail B Litinskiy
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Joan and Sanford I Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:822-9. 2002
    ..By eliciting CD40-independent Ig class switching and plasmacytoid differentiation, BLyS and APRIL critically link the innate and adaptive immune responses...
  57. ncbi Feedback inhibition of macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by tristetraprolin
    E Carballo
    Office of Clinical Research and Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Science 281:1001-5. 1998
    ..These findings identify TTP as a component of a negative feedback loop that interferes with TNF-alpha production by destabilizing its messenger RNA. This pathway represents a potential target for anti-TNF-alpha therapies...
  58. pmc Inflammation as a causative factor in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease
    P S Whitton
    1Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, London, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 150:963-76. 2007
    ..These factors are examined in this review along with a consideration of the possible use of anti-inflammatory drugs in PD...
  59. ncbi The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway limits lipopolysaccharide activation of signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory mediators in human monocytic cells
    Mausumee Guha
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32124-32. 2002
    ..Our study provides new insight into the inhibitory mechanism by which the PI3K-Akt pathway ensures transient expression of these potent inflammatory mediators...
  60. ncbi Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system
    Ruslan Medzhitov
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 296:298-300. 2002
    ..These patterns are deciphered by receptors that either induce or inhibit an immune response, depending on the meaning of these signals...
  61. pmc c-di-AMP is a new second messenger in Staphylococcus aureus with a role in controlling cell size and envelope stress
    Rebecca M Corrigan
    Section of Microbiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002217. 2011
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a function for this novel secondary messenger in controlling cell size of S. aureus and in helping bacteria to cope with extreme membrane and cell wall stress...
  62. ncbi LPS-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and macrophages
    Manuela Rossol
    Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 21, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Crit Rev Immunol 31:379-446. 2011
    ..Finally, we review the regulation and function of LPS-inducible cytokines produced by human monocytes and macrophages including TNFα, the IL-1 family, IL-6, IL-8, the IL-10 family, the IL-12 family, IL-15 and TGFβ...
  63. ncbi Crystal structure of the TLR4-MD-2 complex with bound endotoxin antagonist Eritoran
    Ho Min Kim
    Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon, Korea 305 701
    Cell 130:906-17. 2007
    ..The interaction with Eritoran is mediated by a hydrophobic internal pocket in MD-2. Based on structural analysis and mutagenesis experiments on MD-2 and TLR4, we propose a model of TLR4-MD-2 dimerization induced by LPS...
  64. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner
    Hideyuki Takeuchi
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:21362-8. 2006
    ..These drugs may give us a new therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative diseases with minimum adverse side effects...
  65. pmc Inositol phosphatase SHIP1 is a primary target of miR-155
    Ryan M O'Connell
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 330 Braun, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7113-8. 2009
    ..Our study unveils a molecular link between miR-155 and SHIP1 and provides evidence that repression of SHIP1 is an important component of miR-155 biology...
  66. ncbi Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through toll-like receptor-2
    A O Aliprantis
    Skirball Institute and Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Science 285:736-9. 1999
    ..Thus, hTLR2 is a molecular link between microbial products, apoptosis, and host defense mechanisms...
  67. pmc Allergenicity resulting from functional mimicry of a Toll-like receptor complex protein
    Aurelien Trompette
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Nature 457:585-8. 2009
    ....
  68. ncbi The histone H3 lysine-27 demethylase Jmjd3 links inflammation to inhibition of polycomb-mediated gene silencing
    Francesca De Santa
    Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Campus IFOM IEO, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy
    Cell 130:1083-94. 2007
    ....
  69. ncbi Tenascin-C is an endogenous activator of Toll-like receptor 4 that is essential for maintaining inflammation in arthritic joint disease
    Kim Midwood
    Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    Nat Med 15:774-80. 2009
    ..Thus, we have identified tenascin-C as a novel endogenous activator of TLR4-mediated immunity that mediates persistent synovial inflammation and tissue destruction in arthritic joint disease...
  70. pmc NF-kappaB is a negative regulator of IL-1beta secretion as revealed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKKbeta
    Florian R Greten
    Second Department of Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, 81675 Germany
    Cell 130:918-31. 2007
    ..These results unravel an unanticipated role for IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB signaling in the negative control of IL-1beta production and highlight potential complications of long-term IKKbeta inhibition...
  71. ncbi The toll-like receptor TLR4 is necessary for lipopolysaccharide-induced oligodendrocyte injury in the CNS
    Seija Lehnardt
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 22:2478-86. 2002
    ..Our data provide a general mechanistic link between (1) lipopolysaccharide and similar microbial molecular motifs and (2) injury to oligodendrocytes and myelin as occurs in periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis...
  72. ncbi Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by TLR family
    Shizuo Akira
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, SORST of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Immunol Lett 85:85-95. 2003
    ..These results indicate that TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 may play an important role in detecting and combating viral infections...
  73. pmc Gastrodin inhibits expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured LPS-stimulated microglia via MAPK pathways
    Ji Nan Dai
    Department of Anatomy, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e21891. 2011
    ..The current study investigates the potential mechanisms whereby gastrodin affects the expression of potentially pro-inflammatory proteins by cultured murine microglial BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  74. pmc Mycobacteria target DC-SIGN to suppress dendritic cell function
    Teunis B H Geijtenbeek
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands
    J Exp Med 197:7-17. 2003
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN has a broader pathogen recognition profile than previously shown, suggesting that DC-SIGN may represent a molecular target for clinical intervention in infections other than HIV-1...
  75. pmc Lipoarabinomannan and related glycoconjugates: structure, biogenesis and role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology and host-pathogen interaction
    Arun K Mishra
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1126-57. 2011
    ..This review provides a comprehensive account of the structure, biosynthesis and immunomodulatory properties of these important glycoconjugates...
  76. ncbi SphK1 regulates proinflammatory responses associated with endotoxin and polymicrobial sepsis
    Padmam Puneet
    Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore, 117597 Singapore
    Science 328:1290-4. 2010
    ..These results demonstrated a critical role for SphK1 in endotoxin signaling and sepsis-induced inflammatory responses and suggest that inhibition of SphK1 is a potential therapy for septic shock...
  77. ncbi NADPH oxidase mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity and proinflammatory gene expression in activated microglia
    Liya Qin
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:1415-21. 2004
    ....
  78. pmc Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut microbiota
    Jennifer M Bates
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 2:371-82. 2007
    ..Thus, by preventing inflammatory responses, Iap plays a crucial role in promoting mucosal tolerance to resident gut bacteria...
  79. ncbi Characterization of heme as activator of Toll-like receptor 4
    Rodrigo T Figueiredo
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    J Biol Chem 282:20221-9. 2007
    ..Thus, our results presented here reveal a previous unrecognized role of heme as an extracellular signaling molecule that affects the innate immune response through a receptor-mediated mechanism...
  80. ncbi Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4
    Masahiro Yamamoto
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nature 420:324-9. 2002
    ..Instead, TIRAP has a crucial role in the MyD88-dependent signalling pathway shared by TLR2 and TLR4...
  81. pmc MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily
    M R Bootcov
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, and University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2010, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:11514-9. 1997
    ..Its production in response to secreted proinflammatory cytokines and TGF-beta may serve to limit the later phases of macrophage activation...
  82. ncbi Inhibition of microglial phagocytosis is sufficient to prevent inflammatory neuronal death
    Jonas J Neher
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QW, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 186:4973-83. 2011
    ..Thus, blocking phagocytosis may prevent some forms of inflammatory neurodegeneration, and therefore might be beneficial during brain infection, trauma, ischemia, neurodegeneration, and aging...
  83. pmc Tolerance and M2 (alternative) macrophage polarization are related processes orchestrated by p50 nuclear factor kappaB
    Chiara Porta
    Fondazione Humanitas per la Ricerca, 20089 Rozzano, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14978-83. 2009
    ..Thus, NF-kappaB p50 is a key component in the orchestration of M2-driven inflammatory reactions...
  84. ncbi Increased intestinal permeability in obese mice: new evidence in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Paola Brun
    Department of Histology, Univ of Padua, Via Gabelli 63, Padova, Italy
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G518-25. 2007
    ..We suggest that in metabolic syndrome, patients may likewise have a greater intestinal mucosa permeability and increased lipopolysaccharide levels in portal blood that can contribute to the liver inflammatory damage...
  85. ncbi Structures of the toll-like receptor family and its ligand complexes
    Mi Sun Jin
    Department of Chemistry and Institute for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong gu, Daejeon, 305 701, Korea
    Immunity 29:182-91. 2008
    ..This observation suggests the hypothesis that dimerization of the extracellular domains forces the intracellular TIR domains to dimerize, and this initiates signaling by recruiting intracellular adaptor proteins...
  86. pmc Interleukin-1 mediates pathological effects of microglia on tau phosphorylation and on synaptophysin synthesis in cortical neurons through a p38-MAPK pathway
    Yuekui Li
    Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Neurosci 23:1605-11. 2003
    ....
  87. ncbi Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is involved in Toll-like receptor 4-mediated cytokine expression in mouse macrophages
    Marja Ojaniemi
    Biocenter Oulu and Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FIN 90014 Oulu, Finland
    Eur J Immunol 33:597-605. 2003
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 results in PI 3-kinase-MyD88 complex formation, and that PI 3-kinase activity selectively leads to cytokine induction downstream of TLR4...
  88. pmc A unifying model for the selective regulation of inducible transcription by CpG islands and nucleosome remodeling
    Vladimir R Ramirez-Carrozzi
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Cell 138:114-28. 2009
    ..By activating a diverse set of transcription factors, Toll-like receptors induce both classes and others for an optimal response to microbial pathogens...
  89. ncbi SOCS-1 participates in negative regulation of LPS responses
    Reiko Nakagawa
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    Immunity 17:677-87. 2002
    ....
  90. pmc miR-146a is critical for endotoxin-induced tolerance: IMPLICATION IN INNATE IMMUNITY
    Md A Nahid
    Department of Oral Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:34590-9. 2009
    ..Thus our studies demonstrated that miR-146a is critical for the in vitro monocytic cell-based endotoxin tolerance...
  91. pmc Increase in plasma endotoxin concentrations and the expression of Toll-like receptors and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in mononuclear cells after a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal: implications for insulin resistance
    Husam Ghanim
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
    Diabetes Care 32:2281-7. 2009
    ....
  92. pmc The kinase Akt1 controls macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide by regulating microRNAs
    Ariadne Androulidaki
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Crete, Greece
    Immunity 31:220-31. 2009
    ..These results indicate that Akt1 regulates the response of macrophages to LPS by controlling miRNA expression...
  93. pmc NF-kappaB p65-dependent transactivation of miRNA genes following Cryptosporidium parvum infection stimulates epithelial cell immune responses
    Rui Zhou
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000681. 2009
    ..parvum infection, a process that may be relevant to the regulation of epithelial anti-microbial defense in general...
  94. ncbi Structure and function of lipopolysaccharide binding protein
    R R Schumann
    Department of Immunology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA 92037
    Science 249:1429-31. 1990
    ..binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA...
  95. ncbi Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides
    Sarbani Ghoshal
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Lipid Res 50:90-7. 2009
    Recent data suggest that dietary fat promotes intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the gut microflora, which might contribute to various inflammatory disorders...
  96. ncbi Heat-shock proteins as activators of the innate immune system
    Robert P A Wallin
    Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
    Trends Immunol 23:130-5. 2002
    ..Here, we discuss the similarities between the responses to HSPs and LPS and also, emphasize that care must be taken when working with preparations of HSPs in experimental settings and interpreting experimental data...
  97. ncbi Microglial activation and its implications in the brain diseases
    S Thameem Dheen
    Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Blk MD10, 4 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597
    Curr Med Chem 14:1189-97. 2007
    ....
  98. ncbi Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils
    K Takeda
    Department of Biochemistry, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan
    Immunity 10:39-49. 1999
    ..The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10...
  99. pmc Resveratrol differentially modulates inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes
    Xiaofeng Lu
    Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    J Neuroinflammation 7:46. 2010
    ..We investigated the capacity of resveratrol to protect microglia and astrocyte from inflammatory insults and explored mechanisms underlying different inhibitory effects of resveratrol on microglia and astrocytes...
  100. pmc Central and systemic IL-1 exacerbates neurodegeneration and motor symptoms in a model of Parkinson's disease
    María Clara Pott Godoy
    Fundacion Instituto Leloir, FBMC UBA, CONICET, Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Brain 131:1880-94. 2008
    ....
  101. ncbi Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan and related lipoglycans: from biogenesis to modulation of the immune response
    Volker Briken
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Mol Microbiol 53:391-403. 2004
    ..In addition, inactivation of these genes may lead to attenuated strains of M. tuberculosis for the development of new vaccine candidates...

Research Grants65

  1. Targeting superbugs: discovery and development of new broad-spectrum lipopeptides
    Jian Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our approach, based upon modeling the interaction between polymyxins and the lipid A of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is novel...
  2. Effects of periodontitis on insulin target organs and glucose homeostasis
    Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since certain bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from periodontal lesions and free fatty acids (FFAs) from HF diet promote inflammation through Toll-..
  3. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Shiga Toxins
    Vernon L Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, the innate immune response elicited by bacterial products such as Stxs or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) may contribute to vascular damage...
  4. Biogenesis of lipoarabinomannan in mycobacteria
    Mary Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. Ac1PIM1 corresponds to the phosphatidylinositol mono-mannoside PIM1 carrying two acyl groups attached to the glycerol (the diacylglycerol substituent) and one acyl group esterified to the mannose residue. ..
  5. Molecular mechanism of apolipoprotein binding to lipopolysaccharides
    PAUL MICHIEL WEERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In that role, apolipoproteins have the ability to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are abundantly present in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria...
  6. Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Barrier
    Thomas Y Ma; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Although gut-derived lipopolysaccharides play a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory response, ..
  7. Mechanisms of abnormal enterochromaffin cell secretion in Crohn's disease
    Mark S Kidd; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Cytokines (particularly IL1[unreadable]) and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) have been implicated in Crohn's pathogenesis through activation of ..
  8. BIOSYNTHESIS AND FUNCTION OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES
    Pei Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  9. Stomate-based innate immunity against bacterial infection in Arabidopsis
    Maeli Melotto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..conserved pathogen/microbe- associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as bacterial flagellin and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)...
  10. Synthetic Oligosaccharides for Probing Infection and Innate Immunity
    Geert Jan Boons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to develop such approaches for the synthesis of libraries of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors and chondroitin sulfates (CS), and employ the resulting ..
  11. Functional characterization of hsa-mir-939 as a novel regulator of pain
    Seena Ajit; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using exosomes secreted by THP-1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and exosomes purified from patient blood samples, we will measure the alterations in miRNAs including ..
  12. TLR-mediated Signaling Complex Formation and Regulation of Effector Functions
    Hans Haecker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Ten TLRs are known in humans that specifically recognize diverse pathogen constituents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycans (PGN), nucleotides and proteins...
  13. CELLULAR ACTIVATION MECHANISMS IN SEPTIC SHOCK
    Peter S Tobias; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..severe inflammation induced by conserved and often integral structural components of microbes, such as the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria...
  14. Identification of anti-inflammatory compounds from chocolate for the treatment of
    Andy McShea; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..separation and screened for the inhibition of Nf-kB activation in a mammalian cell line induced by lipopolysaccharides derived from Fusobacterium nucleatum...
  15. Induced immunity as a source of maternal effects on offspring phenotype
    Charles Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our basic approach for imposing prenatal stress will be to inject females with lipopolysaccharides, a nonliving, nonpathogenic, molecular component of the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram-negative ..
  16. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lipopolysaccharides
    Jennifer S Brodbelt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..focuses on the development of advanced mass spectrometric approaches for characterization of the complex lipopolysaccharides (LPS), including the endotoxic lipid A sub-unit, that comprise the key constituents of the outer membrane ..
  17. Innate Immune Sensing of Bacterial Sugars
    David M Underhill; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, the "pattern recognition receptor" TLR4 recognizes lipopolysaccharides produced as part of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria...
  18. Role of SR-BI in LPS detoxification
    Xiang An Li; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a central role in sepsis. LPS is released by bacteria in sepsis...
  19. Identification of age-related mediators of pro-inflammatory signaling
    AMANDA OPALUCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of systems-level analyses towards mechanistic and physiological understanding of macrophage response to lipopolysaccharides and age-related chronic inflammation...
  20. GLYCOLIPIDS AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPATHY
    Robert K Yu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These glycoconjugates include bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that share carbohydrate epitopes similar to those of GSLs...
  21. PGT Inhibitors Mapped From a Tunicamycin Blueprint
    Barbara Imperiali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..early step that features in many glycoconjugate assembly pathways including those that lead to bacterial lipopolysaccharides and capsular polysaccharides, teichoic acids, and N- and O-linked glycoproteins...
  22. Preclinical development of DS-96, a novel alkylpolyamine endotoxin squestrant
    SUNIL ABRAHAM DAVID; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in critically ill patients, is a consequence of the overwhelming innate immune response to endotoxins, or lipopolysaccharides (LPS), present on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria (including Category A and B Select Agents)...
  23. TLR Ectodomains for Microbial Detection and Therapeutics
    Neal Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..products such as lipopeptides, flagellin, lipoteichoic acid, GPI anchors, various nucleic acids, and lipopolysaccharides. In many cases, the ectodomains of the TLRs, which consists of a series of Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), ..
  24. Novel approaches to attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation
    Ramesh K Ganju; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, we have shown that Slit2 inhibits lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced changes in proteins that promote vascular stability in endothelial cells...
  25. Regulation of lipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    John T Belisle; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  26. Genetics and biosynthesis of an O antigen essential for symbiosis
    KENNETH D NOEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria have complex structures and multiple functions...
  27. Immune Enhancing Echinacea Bacterial Endophytes
    David S Pasco; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that the bacterial components lipopolysaccharides and Braun-type lipoproteins are major in vitro and in vivo innate immune cell activators within Echinacea ..
  28. A novel Anti-endotoxin Peptide for Septic Shock
    Xiao Jia Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Because CN16 is so effective in blocking the function of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LSP) and its potential beneficial effects in animal models of septic shock, we hypothesize that CN16 will ..
  29. RHIZOBIAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES ESSENTIAL FOR INFECTION
    Russell W Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These adaptations involve changes to cell surface polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and capsular polysaccharides...
  30. Molecular Definition of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
    JULIA INAMINE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..paratuberculosis to maintain a specific biological niche that is not shared by the closely related M. avium subspecies avium. ..
  31. Altered M. tuberculosis Mannosylation and the Macrophage
    Larry S Schlesinger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. Structure and function of family 1 glycosyltransferases
    R Garavito; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..target compounds to create a diverse set of macromolecules in plants, animals, and bacteria: glycolipids, lipopolysaccharides, the glycan structures in plants, glycoproteins, and glycosylated natural products of biomedical importance ..
  33. CR3 IN CELL ACTIVATION AND PHAGOCYTOSIS OF GONORRHEA
    ROBIN INGALLS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..encounter Gram- negative bacteria, the subsequent cytokine response is due to the interactions of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with macrophage receptors...
  34. Zebrafish Embryos as a Model for Cyanobacterial Toxins
    John Berry; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the zebrafish model will be used specifically to investigate a ubiquitous class of bacterial toxins, the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), from cyanobacteria...
  35. PERIODONTOPATHIC BACTERIA--CHEMICAL-BIOLOGIC NATURE
    STANLEY HOLT; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..major outer membrane antigens in selected Bacteroides, Wolinella and Eikenella strains; (2) to dissect the lipopolysaccharides form these pathogens in order to determine their virulence potential in selected in vitro assays of ..
  36. Oral Biofilms and the Immune System
    Kim Janda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..release a multiplicity of other biologically active, bacterially-derived molecules, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan fragments, and bacterial DNA, into the local environment...
  37. Modulation of the innate immunity by bacterial signaling molecules
    Vladimir Kravchenko; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..release a multiplicity of other biologically active, bacterially-derived molecules, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan fragments, and bacterial DNA, into the local environment...
  38. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES AND LIPID A
    Kuni Takayama; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..coli. We shall test the theory that the monomeric LPS is the active unit that interacts with the activates B cells and macrophages in aqueous medium...
  39. LYME DISEASE--DEVELOPMENT OF SKIN LESIONS AND ARTHRITIS
    GAIL HABICHT; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycans (PG) from the cell wall have been shown to mediate tissue damage. B...
  40. Testing of a New Protein Drug for Toxin-Induced Sepsis
    J Joseph Kim; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will test our hypothesis through a collection of three specific aims using Staph Enterotoxin B (SEB) and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as model toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively...
  41. GORDON CONFERENCE ON MICROBIAL ADHESION MECHANISMS
    Roy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These included consideration of lipoteichoic acid, teichoic acids, peptidoglycan, capsular molecules, lipopolysaccharides, pili or fimbriae, flagella and an array of surface proteins...
  42. INTERACTION OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES WITH SERUM PROTEINS
    STANLEY VUKAJLOVICH; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPS), by virtue of their functional localization on the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, play a pivotal role in the interaction of the bacterium with host defenses...
  43. ASSAY TO RAPIDLY DETECT ENDOTOXIN IN WHOLE BLOOD
    Nathan Smith; Fiscal Year: 1991
    The objective of this research is to provide the first rapid and reliable assay for detecting endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides form gram-negative bacteria) in whole blood samples...
  44. CENTRAL HYPERALGESIA SYSTEMS AND ANALGESIC EFFICACY
    ERIC WIERTELAK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..An aversive internal state is produced through intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) or lipopolysaccharides (Endotoxin), which induce a potent cutaneous hyperalgesia as measured by the tailflick test of pain ..
  45. Targeting Kupffer Cells With Short-Interfering RNA
    BIDDANDA PONNAPPA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..systems, it has been demonstrated that alcohol-mediated liver injury is greatly potentiated by endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides), that are potent inducers of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ..
  46. Cranberry flavonoids and cardiovascular inflammation
    Jess Reed; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..foods and nutritional supplements on cardiovascular inflammation, including vascular responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis...
  47. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF ENDOTOXIN UNRESPONSIVE C3H/HEJ MICE
    David Morrison; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Bacterial endotoxic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can initiate fever, profound hypotension (shock), disseminated intravascular coagulation, multisystem organ failure and death...
  48. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LPS-INITIATED HOST RESPONSE
    David Morrison; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The multiple physiological, pathological and immunological activities of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) have been well documented...
  49. THE BACTERIAL SURFACE AND ITS MULTIFUNCTIONAL DOMAINS
    Manfred Bayer; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..At these "adhesion sites," newly synthesized lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides and membrane proteins are exported; also enzyme and receptor activities are ..
  50. Altered M. tuberculosis Mannosylation and the Macrophage
    Larry Schlesinger; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The assembled investigators will combine techniques in genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology to accomplish the goals of this proposal. ..
  51. PERMEABILITY KINETICS AND NO IN EXPERIMENTAL MENINGITIS
    KATHLEEN BOJE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..studies have demonstrated alterations in the B-B barrier were also observed following exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS)...
  52. Cardioprotection against endotoxins
    Ruben Mestril; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that rodents submitted to a mild whole body heat shock become resistant to a subsequent lethal dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)...
  53. INTERACTIONS OF ENDOTOXIN WITH PLASMA AND CELLS
    Robert Munford; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Endotoxins (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides, or LPS) play a major role in the pathogenesis of invasive gram-negative bacterial diseases; the inflammatory reaction elicited by these molecules may produce great morbidity and ..
  54. INTESTINAL TRANSPORT AND RESPONSE TO SHIGA-LIKE TOXINS
    David Acheson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..address how SLTs cross IECs, what effect SLTs have on IECs and how the combination of cytokines, SLTs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) contribute to endothelial cell damage resulting in thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in the gut...
  55. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CD14 DEFICIENT MICE
    Kathryn Moore; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..CD14 binds lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) derived from the outermost layer of Gram-negative bacteria and activates a signaling cascade that ..
  56. LPS-specific Aptamers for Microbial Detection
    Marit Nilsen Hamilton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Lipopolysaccharides are a distinguishing feature of gram negative bacterial surfaces...
  57. STRUCTURE/PERMEABILITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE MEMBRANES
    THOMAS MC INTOSH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The overall goals of this project are to determine the structure and permeability of membranes composed of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) isolated from various Gram-negative bacteria...
  58. Signal-dependent Phosphorylation and Function of IKKy
    DEAN BALLARD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Biologic inducers of NF-kappaB include bacterial lipopolysaccharides, proinflammatory cytokines, antigen receptor agonists, and viral gene products such as the Tax oncoprotein ..
  59. RAPID ASSAY FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF PLATELETS
    Andrew Levin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The proposed immunoassay will rely on the capture and detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with emphasis on the selection of reagents with broad specificity for gram-negative bacterial ..
  60. Development of New Agent to Treat Toxin Induced Sepsis
    J Joseph Kim; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..their hypothesis through the conduct of three specific aims using staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as model toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively...
  61. GORDON CONFERENCE ON MICROBIAL ADHESION MECHANISMS
    Catharina Svanborg; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..domains, lipoteichoic acids, teichoic acids, peptidoglycan, teichuronic acids, capsular mole- cules, lipopolysaccharides, pili or fimbriae, fibrillae and flagella...
  62. NEUTROPHILS AND BACTERIAL PHOSPHOLIPID DEGRADATION
    Jerrold Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..A2 (PLA2) during inflammation and the determinants of the degradation of Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) during host antibacterial action...
  63. MECHANISTIC STUDIES ON KD08P SYNTHASE
    Karen Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..A key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for the formation of lipopolysaccharides is 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid-8-phosphate (KDO8P) synthase...
  64. NK AND MONOCYTE REGULATION IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE
    Robert Lindemann; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..By testing the interactions of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from pathogenic and non-pathogenic oral bacteria with NK cells and MO, this project will examine NK ..
  65. Co-regulation of outer membrane assembly factors
    Juliana Malinverni; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..assembly of its primary constituents, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipids such as phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides, in order to prevent the entry of toxic small molecules into the cell...