fatty acids

Summary

Summary: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
  2. pmc SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver
    Jay D Horton
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9046, USA
    J Clin Invest 109:1125-31. 2002
  3. ncbi Fatty acid synthase and the lipogenic phenotype in cancer pathogenesis
    Javier A Menendez
    Translational Research Unit, Catalan Institute of Oncology ICO, Health Services Division of Catalonia, Girona Biomedical Research Institute IdIBGi, Medical Oncology, Josep Trueta University Hospital of Girona, 17, 007 Girona, Catalonia, Spain
    Nat Rev Cancer 7:763-77. 2007
  4. ncbi Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances
    Qiang Hu
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Arizona State University Polytechnic Campus, Mesa, AZ 85212, USA
    Plant J 54:621-39. 2008
  5. pmc Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Kerry L Donnelly
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, St Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1343-51. 2005
  6. pmc Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation
    Shimin Zhao
    School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, China
    Science 327:1000-4. 2010
  7. pmc Contribution of de novo fatty acid synthesis to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance: lessons from genetically engineered mice
    Catherine Postic
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 118:829-38. 2008
  8. ncbi Myocardial fatty acid metabolism in health and disease
    Gary D Lopaschuk
    Cardiovascular Research Group, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2S2, Canada
    Physiol Rev 90:207-58. 2010
  9. ncbi Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials
    Ronald P Mensink
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1146-55. 2003
  10. ncbi Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake
    Leanne Hodson
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
    Prog Lipid Res 47:348-80. 2008

Detail Information

Publications281 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
    ..Here we show that nutritional fatty acids, whose circulating levels are often increased in obesity, activate TLR4 signaling in adipocytes and macrophages ..
  2. pmc SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver
    Jay D Horton
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9046, USA
    J Clin Invest 109:1125-31. 2002
  3. ncbi Fatty acid synthase and the lipogenic phenotype in cancer pathogenesis
    Javier A Menendez
    Translational Research Unit, Catalan Institute of Oncology ICO, Health Services Division of Catalonia, Girona Biomedical Research Institute IdIBGi, Medical Oncology, Josep Trueta University Hospital of Girona, 17, 007 Girona, Catalonia, Spain
    Nat Rev Cancer 7:763-77. 2007
    ..fatty acid synthase (FASN)--a key lipogenic enzyme catalysing the terminal steps in the de novo biogenesis of fatty acids--in cancer pathogenesis...
  4. ncbi Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances
    Qiang Hu
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Arizona State University Polytechnic Campus, Mesa, AZ 85212, USA
    Plant J 54:621-39. 2008
    ..b>Fatty acids, the building blocks for TAGs and all other cellular lipids, are synthesized in the chloroplast using a single ..
  5. pmc Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Kerry L Donnelly
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, St Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1343-51. 2005
    ..liver biopsy were infused with and orally fed stable isotopes for 4 days to label and track serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), dietary fatty acids, and those derived from the de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway, present in liver ..
  6. pmc Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation
    Shimin Zhao
    School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 20032, China
    Science 327:1000-4. 2010
    ..The concentration of metabolic fuels, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, influenced the acetylation status of metabolic enzymes...
  7. pmc Contribution of de novo fatty acid synthesis to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance: lessons from genetically engineered mice
    Catherine Postic
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 118:829-38. 2008
    ..This review discusses recent advances in the field...
  8. ncbi Myocardial fatty acid metabolism in health and disease
    Gary D Lopaschuk
    Cardiovascular Research Group, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2S2, Canada
    Physiol Rev 90:207-58. 2010
    ..the continuous contractile activity of the heart, which is met primarily by the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The control of fatty acid beta-oxidation is complex and is aimed at ensuring that the supply and oxidation of ..
  9. ncbi Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials
    Ronald P Mensink
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
    Am J Clin Nutr 77:1146-55. 2003
    ..Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol...
  10. ncbi Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake
    Leanne Hodson
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
    Prog Lipid Res 47:348-80. 2008
    ..Tissue and blood fatty acids, because they are mainly derived from the diet, have been used as biomarkers of dietary intake for a number of ..
  11. ncbi Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance
    William L Holland
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Cell Metab 5:167-79. 2007
    ..Collectively, these data have two important implications. First, they indicate that different fatty acids induce insulin resistance by distinct mechanisms discerned by their reliance on sphingolipid synthesis...
  12. ncbi Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase
    Robert Zimmermann
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    Science 306:1383-6. 2004
    Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. Dysfunctional lipolysis affects energy homeostasis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance...
  13. ncbi Loss-of-function mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
    Daniela M L Tsukumo
    Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Diabetes 56:1986-98. 2007
    ..Because it is activated by lipopolysaccharide and saturated fatty acids, which are inducers of insulin resistance, TLR4 may be a candidate for participation in the cross-talk between ..
  14. pmc Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates the adaptive response to fasting
    S Kersten
    Institut de Biologie Animale, Universite de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Clin Invest 103:1489-98. 1999
    ..deprivation of food induces dramatic changes in mammalian metabolism, including the release of large amounts of fatty acids from the adipose tissue, followed by their oxidation in the liver...
  15. ncbi Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass
    Eric J Steen
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Nature 463:559-62. 2010
    ..b>Fatty acids are composed of long alkyl chains and represent nature's 'petroleum', being a primary metabolite used by cells ..
  16. ncbi Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes
    S Mandard
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Wageningen University, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Cell Mol Life Sci 61:393-416. 2004
    ..They mediate the effects of small lipophilic compounds such as long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives on transcription of genes commonly called PPAR target genes...
  17. pmc Triglyceride accumulation protects against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity
    Laura L Listenberger
    Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110 1010, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3077-82. 2003
    ..Here, we demonstrate in cultured cells that the relative toxicity of two common dietary long chain fatty acids is related to channeling of these lipids to distinct cellular metabolic fates...
  18. ncbi Hepatic lipotoxicity and the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the central role of nontriglyceride fatty acid metabolites
    Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Hepatology 52:774-88. 2010
    ..for the pathogenesis of NASH suggests that we need to focus our therapeutic efforts on reducing the burden of fatty acids going to the liver or being synthesized in the liver...
  19. ncbi Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes
    Andreas Schirmer
    LS9, Inc, 600 Gateway Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Science 329:559-62. 2010
    ..These genes and enzymes can now be leveraged for the simple and direct conversion of renewable raw materials to fungible hydrocarbon fuels...
  20. ncbi Role of the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-kappaB pathway in saturated fatty acid-induced inflammatory changes in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages
    Takayoshi Suganami
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Metabolism, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2 3 10 Kanda surugadai, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101 0062, Japan
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:84-91. 2007
    ..system composed of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages, we previously demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (FAs) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, play a major ..
  21. ncbi Leptin stimulates fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase
    Yasuhiko Minokoshi
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 415:339-43. 2002
    ..Leptin stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the uptake of glucose, and prevents the accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues, which can lead to ..
  22. ncbi Tlr-4 deficiency selectively protects against obesity induced by diets high in saturated fat
    Jeremy E Davis
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:1248-55. 2008
    ..Tlr-4), a key pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immune response, is activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs)...
  23. ncbi Membrane lipid homeostasis in bacteria
    Yong Mei Zhang
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 332 N Lauderdale, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:222-33. 2008
    ..Bacteria precisely adjust their membrane lipid composition by modifying the types of fatty acids that are produced by the biosynthetic pathway and altering the structures of pre-existing phospholipids...
  24. ncbi Interleukin-6 increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans and glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in vitro via AMP-activated protein kinase
    Andrew L Carey
    Cellular and Molecular Metabolism Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology RMIT University, Australia
    Diabetes 55:2688-97. 2006
    ..Our results demonstrate that acute IL-6 treatment enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans in vivo, while the effects of IL-6 on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in vitro appear to be mediated by AMPK...
  25. pmc Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies
    Marianne U Jakobsen
    Research Unit for Dietary Studies at the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:1425-32. 2009
    ..Lower habitual intakes of SFAs, however, require substitution of other macronutrients to maintain energy balance...
  26. pmc Combined analysis of oligonucleotide microarray data from transgenic and knockout mice identifies direct SREBP target genes
    Jay D Horton
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9046, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12027-32. 2003
    The synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, the building blocks of membranes, is regulated by three membrane-bound transcription factors: sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1a, -1c, and -2...
  27. ncbi The key roles of elongases and desaturases in mammalian fatty acid metabolism: Insights from transgenic mice
    Herve Guillou
    Integrative Toxicology and Metabolism, Pôle de Toxicologie Alimentaire, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie et Toxicologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA UR66, Toulouse Cedex 3, France
    Prog Lipid Res 49:186-99. 2010
    ..cells, elongases and desaturases play critical roles in regulating the length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids and thereby their functions and metabolic fates...
  28. pmc Pharmacologic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation sensitizes human leukemia cells to apoptosis induction
    Ismael Samudio
    Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:142-56. 2010
    ..synthase/lipolysis inhibitor orlistat also sensitized leukemia cells to ABT-737, which supports the notion that fatty acids promote cell survival...
  29. pmc Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription factor XBP1
    Ann Hwee Lee
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 320:1492-6. 2008
    ..This phenotype was not accompanied by hepatic steatosis or compromise in protein secretory function. The identification of XBP1 as a regulator of lipogenesis has important implications for human dyslipidemias...
  30. ncbi Adipose triglyceride lipase contributes to cancer-associated cachexia
    Suman K Das
    Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    Science 333:233-8. 2011
    ..Hsl-deficient mice with tumors were also protected although to a lesser degree. Thus, functional lipolysis is essential in the pathogenesis of CAC. Pharmacological inhibition of metabolic lipases may help prevent cachexia...
  31. ncbi The role of dietary fatty acids in the pathology of metabolic syndrome
    Ana Maria Lottenberg
    Faculty of Medical Sciences of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Nutr Biochem 23:1027-40. 2012
    ..of scientific knowledge in the field of nutrigenomics, it was possible to elucidate how the majority of dietary fatty acids influence plasma lipid metabolism and also the genes expression involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis within ..
  32. pmc Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 redistributes fatty acid synthase to sites of viral replication and increases cellular fatty acid synthesis
    Nicholas S Heaton
    Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17345-50. 2010
    ..This study provides mechanistic insight into DENV membrane remodeling and highlights the potential for the development of therapeutics that inhibit DENV replication by targeting the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway...
  33. pmc Fatty acid transport proteins, implications in physiology and disease
    Melissa Kazantzis
    Metabolic Biology, NST, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1821:852-7. 2012
    Uptake of long-chain fatty acids plays pivotal roles in metabolic homeostasis and human physiology...
  34. ncbi Fatty acids and inflammation: the cutting edge between food and pharma
    Philip C Calder
    Institute of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Institute of Developmental Sciences Building, MP887 Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, United Kingdom
    Eur J Pharmacol 668:S50-8. 2011
    Inflammation underlies many common conditions and diseases. Fatty acids can influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, including acting via cell surface and intracellular receptors/sensors that control inflammatory cell ..
  35. ncbi Biochemistry of mammalian peroxisomes revisited
    Ronald J A Wanders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Pediatrics, Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Disease, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Annu Rev Biochem 75:295-332. 2006
    ....
  36. ncbi Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death
    Christine M Albert
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02215 1204, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1113-8. 2002
    Experimental data suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish have antiarrhythmic properties, and a randomized trial suggested that dietary supplements of n-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of sudden death ..
  37. pmc Global analysis of the yeast lipidome by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry
    Christer S Ejsing
    Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2136-41. 2009
    ..This work serves as a resource for molecular characterization of eukaryotic lipidomes, and establishes shotgun lipidomics as a powerful platform for complementing biochemical studies and other systems-level approaches...
  38. ncbi Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk c
    Pinal S Patel
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:1214-22. 2010
    ..Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent. This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods...
  39. pmc The Randle cycle revisited: a new head for an old hat
    Louis Hue
    Université catholique de Louvain and de Duve Institute, Hormone and Metabolic Research Unit, Brussels, Belgium
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E578-91. 2009
    ..The original biochemical mechanism explained the inhibition of glucose oxidation by fatty acids. Since then, the principle has been confirmed by many investigators...
  40. pmc Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis exploits host-derived fatty acids to limit metabolic stress
    Wonsik Lee
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:6788-800. 2013
    ..b>Fatty acids and cholesterol appear more favored; however, their degradation can result in certain metabolic stresses...
  41. pmc Molecular mechanisms and the role of saturated fatty acids in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Alexandra K Leamy
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 351604, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
    Prog Lipid Res 52:165-74. 2013
    ..Recent literature suggests that elevated free fatty acids (FFAs), especially saturated FFAs, may play an important role in lipotoxic mechanisms, both in experimental ..
  42. pmc Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes
    Ulf Riserus
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala Science Park, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden
    Prog Lipid Res 48:44-51. 2009
    ..Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene ..
  43. pmc Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy
    Joshua Munger
    Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 26:1179-86. 2008
    ..These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy...
  44. ncbi Suppression of plasma free fatty acids upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and delta and PPAR coactivator 1alpha in human skeletal muscle, but not lipid regulatory genes
    M J Watt
    Skeletal Muscle Research Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 27, Bundoora 3083, Victoria, Australia
    J Mol Endocrinol 33:533-44. 2004
    b>Fatty acids are an important ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes...
  45. pmc Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Dariush Mozaffarian
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 7:e1000252. 2010
    ..Additionally, some public health groups recommend lowering or limiting polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) consumption, a major potential replacement for SFA...
  46. ncbi Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase
    T Yamauchi
    Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 8:1288-95. 2002
    ..Our data may provide a novel paradigm that an adipocyte-derived antidiabetic hormone, Ad, activates AMPK, thereby directly regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo...
  47. ncbi The surface of lipid droplets is a phospholipid monolayer with a unique Fatty Acid composition
    Kumi Tauchi-Sato
    Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:44507-12. 2002
    ....
  48. pmc Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma
    S A Kliewer
    Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development, Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:4318-23. 1997
    ..key regulators of lipid homeostasis and are activated by a structurally diverse group of compounds including fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones...
  49. pmc The influence of bacterial diet on fat storage in C. elegans
    Kyleann K Brooks
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e7545. 2009
    ..C. elegans feed on bacteria, and various strains of E. coli are commonly used in research settings. However, it is not known whether particular bacterial diets affect fat storage and metabolism...
  50. ncbi Royalactin induces queen differentiation in honeybees
    Masaki Kamakura
    Biotechnology Research Center, Toyama Prefectural University, Imizu, Toyama 939 0398, Japan
    Nature 473:478-83. 2011
    ..These findings indicate that a specific factor in royal jelly, royalactin, drives queen development through an Egfr-mediated signalling pathway...
  51. pmc Saturated fatty acids activate TLR-mediated proinflammatory signaling pathways
    Shurong Huang
    Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    J Lipid Res 53:2002-13. 2012
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 were shown to be activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) but inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
  52. ncbi Mesenchymal stem cells induce resistance to chemotherapy through the release of platinum-induced fatty acids
    Jeanine M L Roodhart
    Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Cancer Cell 20:370-83. 2011
    ..Through a metabolomics approach, we identified two distinct platinum-induced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PIFAs), 12-oxo-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (KHT) and hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid (16:4(n-3)), that ..
  53. ncbi The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids
    Celia P Briscoe
    Department of Metabolic Diseases, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:11303-11. 2003
    ..These data suggest that some of the physiological effects of fatty acids in pancreatic islets and brain may be mediated through a cell-surface receptor.
  54. pmc A critical role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARalpha-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders
    T C Leone
    Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7473-8. 1999
    ....
  55. pmc Plasma acylcarnitine profiles suggest incomplete long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation and altered tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in type 2 diabetic African-American women
    Sean H Adams
    USDA Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USA
    J Nutr 139:1073-81. 2009
    ....
  56. ncbi Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes
    Bradford B Lowell
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 99 Brookline Avenue, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 307:384-7. 2005
    ..Emerging evidence supports the potentially unifying hypothesis that both of these prominent features of type 2 diabetes are caused by mitochondrial dysfunction...
  57. ncbi Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study
    Janine Kröger
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam Rehbrucke, Nuthetal, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 93:127-42. 2011
    The long-term role of fatty acids (FAs) in the cause of diabetes remains largely unclear.
  58. pmc Fatty acid synthesis: a potential selective target for antineoplastic therapy
    F P Kuhajda
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:6379-83. 1994
    ..Tumor fatty acid synthase oxidized NADPH in a malonyl-CoA-dependent fashion and synthesized fatty acids composed of 80% palmitate, 10% myristate, and 10% stearate from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH with a ..
  59. pmc Genetic engineering of algae for enhanced biofuel production
    Randor Radakovits
    Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 9:486-501. 2010
    ....
  60. pmc Alterations in adipose tissue and hepatic lipid kinetics in obese men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Elisa Fabbrini
    Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Gastroenterology 134:424-31. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate TG metabolism in adipose tissue and liver in NAFLD...
  61. ncbi Saturated fatty acid-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue: mechanisms of action and implications
    Arion Kennedy
    Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402, USA
    J Nutr 139:1-4. 2009
    This review highlights the inflammatory and insulin-antagonizing effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome...
  62. ncbi A role for ceramide, but not diacylglycerol, in the antagonism of insulin signal transduction by saturated fatty acids
    Jose Antonio Chavez
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523 1870, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:10297-303. 2003
    ..Herein we demonstrate that exposing muscle cells to particular saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), but not mono-unsaturated FFAs, inhibits insulin stimulation of Akt/protein kinase B, a serine/threonine ..
  63. ncbi Saturated fatty acids produce an inflammatory response predominantly through the activation of TLR4 signaling in hypothalamus: implications for the pathogenesis of obesity
    Marciane Milanski
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Neurosci 29:359-70. 2009
    ..According to our results, long-chain saturated fatty acids activate predominantly toll-like receptor 4 signaling, which determines not only the induction of local ..
  64. ncbi Expression cloning and characterization of a novel adipocyte long chain fatty acid transport protein
    J E Schaffer
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142
    Cell 79:427-36. 1994
    Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are an important energy substrate used by cardiac myocytes and other cells, but the mechanism whereby these molecules cross the plasma membrane is poorly understood...
  65. ncbi Adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein can compensate functionally for adrenoleukodystrophy protein deficiency (X-ALD): implications for therapy
    A Netik
    Institute of Neurology, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Hum Mol Genet 8:907-13. 1999
    ..The pathognomonic accumulation of very long chain fatty acids could also be prevented by overexpression of ALDRP in immortalized X-ALD cells...
  66. ncbi Dietary saturated fatty acids prime the NLRP3 inflammasome via TLR4 in dendritic cells-implications for diet-induced insulin resistance
    Clare M Reynolds
    Nutrigenomics Research Group, UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Mol Nutr Food Res 56:1212-22. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that saturated fatty acids (SFA) directly prime the NLRP3 inflammasome via TLR4 concurrent with IR...
  67. ncbi Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review
    J Edward Hunter
    Department of Chemistry University of Cincinnati Cincinnati OH 45221 0172, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:46-63. 2010
    High stearic acid (STA) soybean oil is a trans-free, oxidatively stable, non-LDL-cholesterol-raising oil that can be used to replace trans fatty acids (TFAs) in solid fat applications.
  68. ncbi Contrasting effects of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 on the composition of murine brain fatty acids and gut microbiota
    Rebecca Wall
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1278-87. 2012
    We previously showed that microbial metabolism in the gut influences the composition of bioactive fatty acids in host adipose tissue.
  69. pmc Phosphatidate phosphatase activity plays key role in protection against fatty acid-induced toxicity in yeast
    Stylianos Fakas
    Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:29074-85. 2011
    ..that the pah1Δ mutation caused a reduction in TAG mass and an elevation in the mass of phospholipids and free fatty acids, changes that were more pronounced in the stationary phase...
  70. ncbi Fatty acids - induced lipotoxicity and inflammation
    Stephane Savary
    Lab Bio PeroxIL, EA7270 University of Bourgogne 6 Bd Gabriel, Dijon, F 21000, France
    Curr Drug Metab 13:1358-70. 2012
    b>Fatty acids are known to serve as energetic substrates, key components of membrane lipids, and as substrates for the synthesis of signaling molecules and complex lipids...
  71. pmc Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome
    Salih J Wakil
    Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Lipid Res 50:S138-43. 2009
    b>Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome...
  72. ncbi Common genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and their reconstructed haplotypes are associated with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids
    Linda Schaeffer
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Hum Mol Genet 15:1745-56. 2006
    ..eicosanoids, the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), also strong associations with levels of the n-6 fatty acids C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C22:4n-6 and of the n-3 fatty acids C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 (P-..
  73. pmc Demonstrated and inferred metabolism associated with cytosolic lipid droplets
    Joel M Goodman
    Department of Pharmacology University of Texas Southwestern Medical School Dallas TX 75390 9041, USA
    J Lipid Res 50:2148-56. 2009
    ....
  74. ncbi Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands, glucocorticoids, and insulin
    Boli Huang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 5122, USA
    Diabetes 51:276-83. 2002
    ..Neither compound affected the half-life of the PDK4 message, suggesting that both increase gene transcription. Fatty acids caused an increase in the PDK4 message comparable to that induced by WY-14,643...
  75. ncbi Defective export of a periplasmic enzyme disrupts regulation of fatty acid synthesis
    H Cho
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign 61801
    J Biol Chem 270:4216-9. 1995
    ..These results demonstrate that internalization of a normally secreted enzyme can disrupt normal cellular regulatory mechanisms...
  76. ncbi Storage lipid synthesis is non-essential in yeast
    Line Sandager
    Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 44, S 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 277:6478-82. 2002
    ..The strain is devoid of both TAG and steryl esters, and fluorescence microscopy revealed that it also lacks lipid bodies. We conclude that neither storage lipids nor lipid bodies are essential for growth in yeast...
  77. ncbi Brummer lipase is an evolutionary conserved fat storage regulator in Drosophila
    Sebastian Gronke
    Max Planck Institut fur biophysikalische Chemie, Abteilung Molekulare Entwicklungsbiologie, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Cell Metab 1:323-30. 2005
    ..Their evolutionary conservation suggests Brummer/ATGL family members to be implicated in human obesity and establishes a basis for modeling mechanistic and therapeutic aspects of this disease in the fly...
  78. ncbi Saturated fatty acids induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis independently of ceramide in liver cells
    Yuren Wei
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1571, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E275-81. 2006
    ..The present study examined the hypothesis that saturated fatty acids disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and promote apoptosis in liver cells via accumulation of ..
  79. pmc Gene coexpression clusters and putative regulatory elements underlying seed storage reserve accumulation in Arabidopsis
    Fred Y Peng
    Agricultural Lipid Biotechnology Program, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    BMC Genomics 12:286. 2011
    ..A more holistic view of this molecular interplay will help in the further study of the regulatory mechanisms controlling seed storage compound accumulation...
  80. ncbi Lipin 1 is an inducible amplifier of the hepatic PGC-1alpha/PPARalpha regulatory pathway
    Brian N Finck
    Center for Cardiovascular Research and Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Cell Metab 4:199-210. 2006
    ..These results identify lipin 1 as a selective physiological amplifier of the PGC-1alpha/PPARalpha-mediated control of hepatic lipid metabolism...
  81. ncbi Fatty acid transport proteins
    Ruth E Gimeno
    Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Wyeth Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    Curr Opin Lipidol 18:271-6. 2007
    ..Fatty acid transport proteins are a family of proteins involved in fatty acid uptake and activation. This review summarizes recent progress in elucidating the function of fatty acid transport proteins...
  82. pmc Hepatic lipid partitioning and liver damage in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase
    Zheng Zheng Li
    Department of Cell Biology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:5637-44. 2009
    ..Exposure of murine or human hepatocytes to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) resulted in lipid accumulation without changes in cell viability...
  83. ncbi Hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism mediates the orexigenic action of ghrelin
    Miguel Lopez
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, S Francisco s n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela A Coruña, Spain
    Cell Metab 7:389-99. 2008
    ..Overall, our results indicate that modulation of hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism specifically in the VMH in response to ghrelin is a physiological mechanism that controls feeding...
  84. ncbi Markers of dietary fat quality and fatty acid desaturation as predictors of total and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based prospective study
    Eva Warensjo
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 88:203-9. 2008
    ..Desaturase indexes, as markers of endogenous fatty acid desaturation, and a characteristic serum fatty acid (FA) composition are related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the relation to mortality is poorly investigated...
  85. ncbi Plasma fatty acid composition and incidence of diabetes in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
    Lu Wang
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 78:91-8. 2003
    ..The results of some epidemiologic studies conducted by using questionnaires suggest that dietary fat composition influences diabetes risk. Confirmation of this finding with use of a biomarker is warranted...
  86. ncbi New insights into the structure and function of fatty acid-binding proteins
    A W Zimmerman
    Department of Biochemistry, University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cell Mol Life Sci 59:1096-116. 2002
    ..Additionally, data on FABP knockout mice and the implication of FABP in medicine are discussed...
  87. ncbi Overproduction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity increases the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli
    M S Davis
    Departments of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:28593-8. 2000
    ..Under these conditions ACC overproduction resulted in a 6-fold increase in the rate of fatty acid synthesis...
  88. ncbi Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial
    Helena Bjermo
    Department of Public Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1003-12. 2012
    ..Replacing SFAs with vegetable PUFAs has cardiometabolic benefits, but the effects on liver fat are unknown. Increased dietary n-6 PUFAs have, however, also been proposed to promote inflammation-a yet unproven theory...
  89. ncbi Fine metabolic regulation in ruminants via nutrient-gene interactions: saturated long-chain fatty acids increase expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and immune response partly through PPAR-α activation
    Massimo Bionaz
    Mammalian NutriPhysioGenomics, Division of Nutritional Sciences, 498 Animal Sciences Laboratory, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Br J Nutr 107:179-91. 2012
    Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells cultured with 150 μm of Wy-14 643 (WY, PPARα agonist) or twelve long-chain fatty acids (LCFA; 16 : 0, 18 : 0, cis-9-18 : 1, trans-10-18 : 1, trans-11-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, ..
  90. ncbi Life and death: metabolic rate, membrane composition, and life span of animals
    A J Hulbert
    Metabolic Research Centre, Institute for Conservation Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    Physiol Rev 87:1175-213. 2007
    ..with the fact that 1) the products of lipid peroxidation are powerful reactive molecular species, and 2) that fatty acids differ dramatically in their susceptibility to peroxidation, membrane fatty acid composition provides a ..
  91. ncbi Gene-nutrient interactions in the metabolic syndrome: single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 interact with plasma saturated fatty acids to modulate insulin resistance
    Jane F Ferguson
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:794-801. 2010
    ..Progression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Gene-environment interactions may be important in modulating the susceptibility to the development of MetS traits...
  92. ncbi Airway inflammation is augmented by obesity and fatty acids in asthma
    H A Scott
    Dept of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
    Eur Respir J 38:594-602. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to assess airway inflammation in relation to obesity and plasma fatty acids in males and females with and without asthma...
  93. pmc Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha stimulates both differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes
    Tsuyoshi Goto
    Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
    J Lipid Res 52:873-84. 2011
    ..These findings indicate that the activation of PPARα affects energy metabolism in adipocytes, and PPARα activation in WAT may contribute to the clinical effects of fibrate drugs...
  94. ncbi Cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein sensing fatty acids for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor activation
    C Wolfrum
    Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, HPT, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 16, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland
    Cell Mol Life Sci 64:2465-76. 2007
    ..Besides providing energy, fatty acids act as prominent signaling molecules by altering cell membrane structures, affecting the lipid modification ..
  95. pmc Wall teichoic acid protects Staphylococcus aureus against antimicrobial fatty acids from human skin
    Thomas Kohler
    Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene Institute, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 191:4482-4. 2009
    ..a WTA-deficient Staphylococcus aureus mutant, we demonstrated that WTA confers resistance to antimicrobial fatty acids from human sebaceous glands by preventing fatty acid binding...
  96. ncbi Skeletal muscle "mitochondrial deficiency" does not mediate insulin resistance
    John O Holloszy
    Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:463S-6S. 2009
    ..this "deficiency" of mitochondria mediates insulin resistance by impairing the ability of muscle to oxidize fatty acids (FAs)...
  97. pmc Reversal of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance by antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2
    David B Savage
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:817-24. 2006
    ..These studies suggest that pharmacological inhibition of Acc1 and -2 may be a novel approach in the treatment of NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance...
  98. ncbi Major and minor QTL and epistasis contribute to fatty acid compositions and oil concentration in high-oil maize
    Xiaohong Yang
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Maize Improvement Center of China, China Agricultural University, Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian, 100193 Beijing, China
    Theor Appl Genet 120:665-78. 2010
    ..A larger number of minor QTL and a certain number of epistatic QTL, both with additive effects, also contributed to fatty acid compositions and oil concentration...
  99. ncbi Intestinal short-chain fatty acids alter Salmonella typhimurium invasion gene expression and virulence through BarA/SirA
    Sara D Lawhon
    Department of Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Mol Microbiol 46:1451-64. 2002
    ..Two other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), propionate and butyrate, present in high concentrations in the caecum and colon, had effects opposite ..
  100. ncbi Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturases and role in metabolism
    James M Ntambi
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Prog Lipid Res 43:91-104. 2004
    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1)...
  101. ncbi Taste preference for fatty acids is mediated by GPR40 and GPR120
    Cristina Cartoni
    Nestle Research Center, Lausanne 1000, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 30:8376-82. 2010
    ..and olfaction, but recent findings suggest that taste may also play a role in the detection of long chain fatty acids. The two G-protein coupled receptors GPR40 (Ffar1) and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain fatty ..

Research Grants76

  1. Identification of biomarkers of fatty acid intake
    Hannia Campos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    b>Fatty acids in the blood and more recently in adipose tissue are widely used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake in individuals and populations...
  2. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  3. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..inactivated in starvation and diabetes because of induction of PDK2 and 4 by high levels of glucocorticoids and fatty acids and low levels of insulin...
  4. Effective treatment of sleep apnea in prediabetes to reduce cardiometabolic risk
    Esra Tasali; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Secondary outcomes will be plasma levels of catecholamines, free fatty acids, leptin and CRP. We will also collect daily data on weight, caloric intake, and energy expenditure...
  5. Effects of Evoked Resistance Training and Testosterone after Spinal Cord Injury
    Ashraf Gorgey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..determine the changes in metabolic milieu (resting energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, free fatty acids, serum total and free testosterone and IGF-1), and cytokines (c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha ..
  6. Roles of Nitric Oxide and Superoxide in Cystitis
    ANTHONY JOHN KANAI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The therapeutic benefits of nitro-fatty acids (FA-NO2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and nerve growth factor-antibodies (BDNF-AB and NGF-AB) will be ..
  7. Role of SCD1 and Dietary Methionine Restriction on Energy Homeostasis
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Stearoyl-CoA desaturase- 1 (SCD1) is increased in obesity and catalyzes the conversion of saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) to mono- unsaturated fatty acids (16:1 and 18:1)...
  8. INSULIN RECEPTORS AND THE GLUCOSE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
    JERROLD MICHAEL OLEFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Omega 3 fatty acids are potent anti-inflammatory mole- cules and our studies show that these anti-inflammatory effects are largely ..
  9. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY DIETARY FAT
    Lisa M Salati; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In the course of our studies on mechanisms by which fatty acids regulate gene expression, we discovered that the rate of RNA splicing is inhibited in liver and primary ..
  10. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have lower levels of docosaehexanoic acid - a long chain polyunsaturated (LC-PUFA) derivative of essential fatty acids - than female offspring, while no differences in LC-PUFAlevels exist between male and female offspring of lean ..
  11. Mechanism of action of omega-3 fatty acids in brain injury
    CHARLES NICHOLAS SERHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Public interest has resulted in increased consumption of omega-3 fatty acids as dietary supplements (derived mainly from fish-oil) based upon purported effects that include: reduction in ..
  12. Fatty acid related regulation of enteric infectious disease
    FREDRICK JON KULL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..superfamily of regulators, of which there are numerous members throughout the bacterial world, is inhibited by fatty acids present in bile...
  13. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome
    W Timothy Garvey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Regarding the mechanism of insulin resistance, the conventional hypothesis is that oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) is impaired while availability is increased, and this results in the accumulation of intramyocellular ..
  14. ALTERED CARDIAC MYOCYTE SIGNALING IN DIABETIC MYOCARDIUM AND FUNCTIONAL SEQUELAE
    ANTHONY JUSTIN MUSLIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is characterized by an increase in the expression and activity of cPLA2 and iPLA , which liberate free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid, and lysophospholipids from membrane phospholipids...
  15. PUFA Synthesis and the Control of Hepatic Metabolism
    Donald B Jump; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally regarded as beneficial to human health...
  16. Dietary Lipids and Silica-Accelerated Autoimmunity
    James J Pestka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Research studies reveal that consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil holds promise for preventing and ameliorating chronic inflammatory diseases including ..
  17. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have lower levels of docosaehexanoic acid - a long chain polyunsaturated (LC-PUFA) derivative of essential fatty acids - than female offspring, while no differences in LC-PUFA levels exist between male and female offspring of lean ..
  18. Lipid Droplet Metabolism
    Fredric B Kraemer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..storage of energy in the form of TAG and the mobilization of this stored energy leading to the release of free fatty acids, the process known as lipolysis...
  19. Regulation of Hepatic SphK2 by Bile Acids: Effects on Lipid Metabolism
    HUIPING ROSE ZHOU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of numerous genes encoding enzymes/proteins involved in the metabolism/synthesis of bile acids, glucose, fatty acids, and lipoproteins as well as energy metabolism by activating specific nuclear receptors, a G protein coupled ..
  20. Role of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 in TLR5 KO mice colitis and metabolic syndrome
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Stearoyl Coenzyme A Desaturase-1 (SCD-1) synthesizes monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA;C16:1 and C18:1) from dietary or de novo saturated fatty acids (SFA;C16:0 and C18:0)...
  21. Prevention of age-associated musculoskeletal loss by n-3 fatty acids
    Md Mizanur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both n-3 fatty acids (FA) and calorie restriction (CR) are anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative...
  22. FASEB SUMMER CONFERENCE ON PHOSPHOLIPASES
    Alex Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Phospholipases A generate fatty acids and receptor-active lysophospholipids...
  23. NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES: METABOLIC EFFECTS AND TOXICITY
    Raymond F Novak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..it increases oxidative stress, catalyzes the metabolism of carcinogens, therapeutic agents, eicosanoids, and fatty acids, reflects an altered phenotype, and is a biomarker of progressive hepatic disease development with loss of ..
  24. Monocyte activation and the role of CD11c in obesity-linked metabolic syndrome
    Huaizhu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..liver-and with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) and increased levels of fatty acids (FAs, saturated FAs in particular). Current data suggest that these changes activate leukocytes in blood and AT...
  25. Lipid Binding Proteins in Obesity and Diabetes Syndromes
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..FABPs bind a variety of unesterified fatty acids and other lipid second messengers and mediate their intracellular metabolism...
  26. Role of GDNF in the regulation of hepatic steatosis
    SHANTHI K SRINIVASAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..activated receptor coactivator -1a (PGC-1a) in hepatocytes, resulting in up regulation of enzymes related to fatty acids beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis...
  27. Role of MicroRNA mi R-33 in Controlling Cholesterol/Lipid Homeostasis
    Anders M Naar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Cholesterol and fatty acids play critical functional roles in many physiological processes in metazoans, such as modulating membrane ..
  28. Potential Mechanisms of Glucagon-like peptide-1 in Fatty Liver Disease
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 3: To quantify the biochemical reduction of de novo synthesis of triglycerides and enhanced oxidation of fatty acids and VLDL secretion by GLP-1...
  29. Effects of In Utero and Transgenerational Exposure of Avy Mice to Bisphenol A
    CHERYL SUSAN ROSENFELD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..blood will be drawn weekly to measure the serum concentrations of metabolic and sex-regulating hormones, free fatty acids, and glucose, and their weight and overall appearance tracked...
  30. Hepatic Steatosis and ER Stress-Inducible Transcription Factor CREBH
    Kezhong Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Saturated fatty acids, inflammatory stimuli, or high-fat feeding can induce cleavage of CREBH in vitro or in vivo, leading to its ..
  31. Intermediary Metabolism, Histone Acetylation, and Transcriptional Regulation
    Ales Vancura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA is also used for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, histone acetylation and the synthesis of fatty acids compete for the same acetyl-CoA pool...
  32. MECHANISMS OF MILK LIPID SECRETION
    JAMES LEWIS MCMANAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NICHD Health Relatedness: CLD are the source of milk lipids, which are required neonatal growth, and essential fatty acids and cholesterol needed for membrane synthesis, particularly in the CNS...
  33. Pax8-PPARgamma regulation of transcription and metabolism in thyroid cancer
    RONALD JAY KOENIG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The use of glucose versus fatty acids as energy sources will be evaluated...
  34. Lung VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (Lung VITAL)
    Diane R Gold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Marine omega-3 fatty acids work through different pathways from vitamin D to modulate inflammation...
  35. Role of ALDH7A1 in Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Damage
    CHAD NICHOLAS BROCKER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes via LPO generates over two hundred different types of reactive aldehydes...
  36. Circadian Expression of Procolipase in the Liver: A Metabolic Signal
    Mark E Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will compare the blood and liver levels of triglycerides and fatty acids with the circadian expression of procolipase and PLRP2...
  37. Structural biology of enzymes in fatty acid metabolism
    Liang Tong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..carnitine acyltransferases, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids and/or carbohydrates, as well as other important cellular processes...
  38. Lipid Transport, Bile Acid Synthesis, and Cholesterol Homeostasis
    William M Pandak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase (rate-determining enzymes in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids)...
  39. ROLE OF GUT PEPTIDES IN INTESTINAL PERISTALSIS
    John R Grider; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Release of BDNF will be determined in response to physiological stimuli (mucosal stroking, free fatty acids, and bile salts), to neurotransmitters (CGRP and SP), and to paracrine agents (5-HT and endocannabinoids) known ..
  40. Lipid Binding Proteins in Obesity and Diabetes Syndromes
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..FABPs bind a variety of unesterified fatty acids and other lipid second messengers and mediate their intracellular metabolism...
  41. Mechanisms of Obesity in Mice with Neuron-Specific Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency
    Robert H Eckel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LPL is the rate limiting enzyme for the uptake of fatty acids from the hydrolysis of circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins for lipid storage and/or oxidation in ..
  42. Regulation of Triglyceride Metabolism by the transcription factor CREB-H
    Ann Hwee Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CREB-H is induced by fatty acids, the fatty acid oxidation regulator PPAR1, and fasting in the liver, suggesting that it might participate in ..
  43. Lifespan Extension Despite Greatly Elevated Insulin and Body Fat
    David E Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..adipokines (adiponectin, resistin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha);circulating and tissue levels of free fatty acids, triglyceride and cholesterol;and fat cell size distribution in mesenteric and subcutaneous fat tissue...
  44. Effects of periodontitis on insulin target organs and glucose homeostasis
    Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since certain bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from periodontal lesions and free fatty acids (FFAs) from HF diet promote inflammation through Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), and inflammation in general ..
  45. Fatty Acids, Eicosanoids and Inflammation
    Eric K Long; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity is characterized by increased basal lipolysis and circulating free fatty acids that in turn potentiate hepatic glucose output and affect 2-cell glucose stimulated insulin secretion...
  46. Hypo-Lipidemic Actions of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA
    Salman Azhar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has profound effects on multiple components of the metabolic syndrome including lowering of blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride levels, attenuation of elevated blood pressure and improvement in insulin sensitivity in ..
  47. Metabolic Actions of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Inflammation
    Michael Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clinical studies suggest that the marine-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) improve high triglyceride (TG) and blood ..
  48. Vitamin D and Fish Oil for Autoimmune Disease, Inflammation and Joint Pain
    Karen H Costenbader; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The purported health benefits of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids for preventing autoimmune diseases, decreasing inflammation and relieving joint pain are receiving increasing ..
  49. Regulation of Hepatic Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by PC-TP/StarD2
    David E Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PC-TP-mediated activation of Them2 promotes hepatic insulin resistance due to overproduction of saturated free fatty acids, which in turn promote endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
  50. DHA attenuates Inflammatory Responses Through Altering RAGE Signaling
    LYNETTE KAY ROGERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood, the anti-inflammatory properties of long chain fatty acids are thought to include effects on signaling pathways resulting in modified gene transcription...
  51. Maternal Obesity affects AMP-Kinase in Muscle Cell Differentiation
    Min Du; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RATIONALE: Skeletal muscle (SM) is a key tissue responsive to the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose, and its transition to insulin resistance (IR) precedes the onset of T2D...
  52. Role of estrogen-related receptors in cardiac and skeletal muscle
    Janice M Huss; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ATP generation in heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle involves primarily oxidative metabolism of fatty acids and glucose within the mitochondrion...
  53. Diet Quality and CVD Risk Factors in a Family Based Weight Management Study
    Alice H Lichtenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for highly pigmented fruits and vegetables;RBC 15:0 for full-fat milk and dairy products;and RBC trans fatty acids and plasma dihydrophylloquinone for fried food and savory snacks...
  54. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Lipolysis
    Jonathan C Jun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that elevations of free fatty acids (FFA) may cause metabolic dysfunction during IH...
  55. Novel PPAR-Independent Peroxisome Proliferators for Type 2 Diabetes
    LIDIA NIEROBISZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in rodents universally improve metabolic syndrome and diabetic symptoms and result in decreased elevated plasma fatty acids. Despite the name, however, current PPAR3 drugs do not significantly increase peroxisome biogenesis in humans ..
  56. Regulation/Role of AcylCer in Normal Epidermis and Atopic Dermatitis
    Peter M Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..or acylCer), that contains an acyl group esterified to the w-hydroxy terminal of amide-linked very long-chain fatty acids (>C28), is not only unique to the epidermis, but also critical for normal permeability barrier homeostasis...
  57. VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL: Effects on Bone Structure and Architecture
    MERYL SUSAN LEBOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 2000 IU/d) and/or marine omega-3 fatty acids (1 gm/d) in 20,000 men and women, to test the effects of vitamin D3 on BMD, geometry, architecture, and body ..
  58. mTORC1-dependent regulation of the CycC/CDK8 complex
    Jeffrey E Pessin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SREBP-1c is a pivotal activator of rate-limiting enzymes that are responsible for hepatic biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides and it is the primary effecto of insulin-induced de novo lipogenesis in hepatocytes...
  59. Fatty Acid Defects &Oxidative Stress Modulate Islet Function in Cystic Fibrosis
    Aliye Uc; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At birth, CF pigs and ferrets have an imbalance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) similar to patients with CF and have markers of pancreatic oxidative stress...
  60. In vitro Type Two Diabetes Mellitus Tissue Model to Investigate Insulin Resistanc
    KELLY ANNE BURKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tissue can directly contribute to insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle through secretion of free fatty acids (FFAs) that activate pathways known to disrupt insulin signaling...
  61. Inflammation and Immunosuppression in Lung Cancer
    Cong Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LAL hydrolyzes cholesteryl ester and triglycerides to generate free cholesterol and free fatty acids. Indeed, ablation of the lal gene resulted in systemic increase of MDSCs and immunosuppression of T cell ..
  62. Nitrated fatty acids/PPARgamma in the control of renal and vascular functions
    Tianxin Yang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In particular, we will determine whether the recently discovered endogenous PPAR ligands which are nitrated fatty acids (NO2-FA), including LNO2 and OA-NO2, may play a role in regulation of CD function...
  63. Group X sPLA2: Regulator of lipolysis and glucose homeostasis
    Nancy R Webb; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One possible mechanism linking obesity and insulin resistance is the excess mobilization of free fatty acids (FFAs) from adipocyte stores, which leads to derangements in insulin signaling either through direct actions of ..
  64. DIETARY LIPIDS--EFFECTS ON LIPID-LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM
    D Illingworth; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The influence of diets in which monounsaturated fatty acids represent the main source of fat will be investigated in terms of their lipid lowering effects compared to ..
  65. INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT OF AMPHIPATHS
    Bruce Luxon; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytoplasmic transport of amphipathic molecules like long-chain fatty acids and bile acids...
  66. Surfaces designed for the quantification of long-chain fatty acids
    STEVEN MEYERS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The detection of long chain fatty acids (e.g., quantity) in bodily fluids is an area that has not been fully explored...
  67. Pilot Study on Mammary Expression of Novel Desaturases
    ALISON VAN EENENNAAM; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..delta-12 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases responsible for producing the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), respectively, and hence these PUFAs are essential components of vertebrate diets...
  68. Fatty Acids, Angiotensin and Oxidative Stress
    Brent Egan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    BACKGROUND: Obese hypertensives have elevated plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) including oleic acid. Oleic acid induces a PKC-dependent increase of reactive oxygen species in vascular smooth muscle cells...
  69. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS, GENE EXPRESSION AND GROWTH
    William Heird; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Dietary omega3 fatty acids have been associated with higher rates of energy expenditure, lower rates of weight gain and/or lower rates of fat deposition in rodents as well as human infants and adults...
  70. ENALS IN TUMORIGENESIS
    Fung Lung Chung; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The opposing effects of omega-3 vs. omega-6 fatty acids in colon carcinogenesis, i.e...
  71. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND THE CEREBRAL CIRCULATION
    EARL ELLIS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Epidemiologic research and laboratory investigations have led others to propose that the omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids in fish oil reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease...
  72. EFFECTS OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS ON MEGAKARYOCYTES
    PAUL SCHICK; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The goals of the study are to determine the effects of omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic, and alpha linolenic acid, as well as the omega 6 fatty acids, linoleic ..
  73. Omega-3 fat to reduce risk for breast cancer
    WANDA ELAINE HARDMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One feasible change may be by altering the type of fat consumed in the diet. Consumption of omega 3 fatty acids (FAs) is usually associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer whereas exposure to high omega 6 fatty ..
  74. Echium Oil Modulates Macrophage Inflammation by Promoting Alternative Activation
    AMANDA WIBLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It addresses the possibility that omega-3 fatty acids, like those found in fish oil, modulate inflammation by promoting alternative activation...
  75. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS & HEPATIC LIPID METABOLISM
    David Otto; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Interest in omega-3 fatty acids, high in fish oil, stems in part from studies indicating that populations with high fish consumption have lower mortality from CHD...
  76. DIETARY N-3 FATTY ACIDS: TRANSPORT AND UPTAKE INTO BRAIN
    Gregory Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The brain is roughly fifty percent lipid, with polyunsaturates making up 35% of the total fatty acids. The brain and retina, and in particular the synaptic membranes and rod outer segments, are especially rich in the n-3 family of ..