ritonavir

Summary

Summary: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-
    Edwin DeJesus
    Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA
    Lancet 379:2429-38. 2012
  2. pmc Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
  3. pmc Nevirapine- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based initial therapy for HIV-1 infection among women in Africa: a randomized trial
    Shahin Lockman
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 9:e1001236. 2012
  4. ncbi Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: 48 week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE study
    Jean Michel Molina
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Saint Louis Hospital, AP HP, Paris University of Paris Diderot, Paris 7, France
    Lancet 372:646-55. 2008
  5. pmc Nevirapine versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir for HIV-infected children
    Avy Violari
    Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 366:2380-9. 2012
  6. pmc Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naive persons randomized to receive abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine along with efavirenz or atazanavir-ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG
    Grace A McComsey
    Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:1791-801. 2011
  7. ncbi A nucleoside- and ritonavir-sparing regimen containing atazanavir plus raltegravir in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients: SPARTAN study results
    Michael J Kozal
    Yale University School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 13:119-30. 2012
  8. ncbi Ritonavir induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and sensitizes sarcoma cells toward bortezomib-induced apoptosis
    Marianne Kraus
    Department of Medicine II, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Cancer Ther 7:1940-8. 2008
  9. ncbi Efficacy and safety of once daily elvitegravir versus twice daily raltegravir in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor: randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority study
    Jean Michel Molina
    Hôpital Saint Louis and University of Paris Diderot, Paris, France
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:27-35. 2012
  10. pmc Efficacy of a nucleoside-sparing regimen of darunavir/ritonavir plus raltegravir in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients (ACTG A5262)
    Babafemi Taiwo
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    AIDS 25:2113-22. 2011

Detail Information

Publications354 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-
    Edwin DeJesus
    Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA
    Lancet 379:2429-38. 2012
    ..We compared EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with a ritonavir-boosted (RTV) protease inhibitor regimen of atazanavir (ATV)/RTV+FTC/TDF as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection.
  2. pmc Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008
    The use of either efavirenz or lopinavir-ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is recommended for initial therapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but which of the ..
  3. pmc Nevirapine- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based initial therapy for HIV-1 infection among women in Africa: a randomized trial
    Shahin Lockman
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 9:e1001236. 2012
    Nevirapine (NVP) is widely used in antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-1 globally. The primary objective of the AA5208/OCTANE trial was to compare the efficacy of NVP-based versus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based initial ART.
  4. ncbi Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: 48 week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE study
    Jean Michel Molina
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Saint Louis Hospital, AP HP, Paris University of Paris Diderot, Paris 7, France
    Lancet 372:646-55. 2008
    Atazanavir/ritonavir is as effective as lopinavir/ritonavir, with a more favourable lipid profile and less gastrointestinal toxicity, in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients...
  5. pmc Nevirapine versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir for HIV-infected children
    Avy Violari
    Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 366:2380-9. 2012
    ..human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is common, a problem that has led to the recommendation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in such settings...
  6. pmc Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naive persons randomized to receive abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine along with efavirenz or atazanavir-ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG
    Grace A McComsey
    Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:1791-801. 2011
    Long-term effects of abacavir (ABC)-lamivudine (3TC), compared with tenofovir (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r), on bone mineral density (BMD) have not been analyzed.
  7. ncbi A nucleoside- and ritonavir-sparing regimen containing atazanavir plus raltegravir in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients: SPARTAN study results
    Michael J Kozal
    Yale University School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 13:119-30. 2012
    Nucleoside and ritonavir (RTV) toxicities have led to increased interest in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and RTV-sparing antiretroviral regimens...
  8. ncbi Ritonavir induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and sensitizes sarcoma cells toward bortezomib-induced apoptosis
    Marianne Kraus
    Department of Medicine II, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Cancer Ther 7:1940-8. 2008
    ..We show that the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir induces ER stress in bortezomib-resistant sarcoma cells...
  9. ncbi Efficacy and safety of once daily elvitegravir versus twice daily raltegravir in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor: randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority study
    Jean Michel Molina
    Hôpital Saint Louis and University of Paris Diderot, Paris, France
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:27-35. 2012
    Elvitegravir is a once daily inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase boosted by ritonavir. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of elvitegravir with raltegravir, another HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, in patients in whom previous antiretroviral ..
  10. pmc Efficacy of a nucleoside-sparing regimen of darunavir/ritonavir plus raltegravir in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients (ACTG A5262)
    Babafemi Taiwo
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    AIDS 25:2113-22. 2011
    To explore darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus raltegravir (RAL) combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients.
  11. ncbi Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir compared with twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: 96-week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE study
    Jean Michel Molina
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hopital Saint Louis 1, Av C Vellefaux, 75475 Paris, Cedex 10, France
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:323-32. 2010
    Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir demonstrated similar antiviral efficacy to twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir over 48 weeks, with less gastrointestinal disturbance and a better lipid profile, in treatment-naive patients.
  12. ncbi Efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir maintenance monotherapy in patients with HIV-1 viral suppression: a randomized open-label, noninferiority trial, MONOI-ANRS 136
    Christine Katlama
    INSERM UMR S 943 and University Pierre and Marie Curie UPMC Paris VI, Paris, France
    AIDS 24:2365-74. 2010
    Darunavir/ritonavir (darunavir/r) maintenance strategy, in patients with suppressed HIV RNA viremia, is a potential long-term strategy to avoid nucleoside analogue toxicities and to reduce costs.
  13. ncbi Once-daily darunavir/ritonavir vs. lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected patients: 96-week analysis
    Anthony M Mills
    Private Practice, Los Angeles, USA
    AIDS 23:1679-88. 2009
    ..Present 96-week data from ongoing ARTEMIS (AntiRetroviral Therapy with TMC114 ExaMined In Naive Subjects) trial...
  14. pmc Inflammation markers after randomization to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir
    Grace A McComsey
    Case Western Reserve University and Rainbow Babies and Children s Hospital, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    AIDS 26:1371-85. 2012
    ..The effect of specific antiretrovirals on inflammation is unclear...
  15. pmc Lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy after virologic failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
    John A Bartlett
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    AIDS 26:1345-54. 2012
    To evaluate virologic response rates of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy as second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) among adults in resource-limited settings (RLSs).
  16. ncbi Randomized, double-blind, placebo-matched, multicenter trial of abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with lopinavir/ritonavir for initial HIV treatment
    Kimberly Y Smith
    Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    AIDS 23:1547-56. 2009
    ..This is the first completed, randomized clinical trial to directly compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these agents, each in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral-naive patients.
  17. ncbi Body composition changes after switching from protease inhibitors to raltegravir: SPIRAL-LIP substudy
    Adrian Curran
    Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Infectious Diseases Department, Spain
    AIDS 26:475-81. 2012
    To compare 48-week changes in body fat distribution and bone mineral density (BMD) between patients switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) and patients continuing with PI/r.
  18. ncbi Changes in cardiovascular biomarkers in HIV-infected patients switching from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors to raltegravir
    Esteban Martinez
    Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    AIDS 26:2315-26. 2012
    ..Switching from boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) results in a better plasma lipid profile than continuing PI/r. Whether this strategy affects plasma biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis is unknown...
  19. ncbi Examination of noninferiority, safety, and tolerability of lopinavir/ritonavir and raltegravir compared with lopinavir/ritonavir and tenofovir/ emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naïve subjects: the progress study, 48-week results
    Jacques Reynes
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France
    HIV Clin Trials 12:255-67. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a new NRTI-sparing regimen may provide an alternative for persons for whom traditional regimens may not be the best option...
  20. ncbi Pharmacokinetics and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on coadministration with lopinavir/ritonavir
    Brian P Kearney
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:278-83. 2006
    Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are frequently used antiretrovirals. A pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers was conducted to assess the potential for a drug interaction between these agents.
  21. ncbi Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors in a human brain microvessel endothelial cell line
    Jason A Zastre
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurosci Res 87:1023-36. 2009
    ..were to investigate transport and inductive properties on efflux drug transporters of two PIs, atazanavir and ritonavir, at the blood-brain barrier by using a human brain microvessel endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3...
  22. ncbi Cost-efficacy analysis of the MONET trial using UK antiretroviral drug prices
    Brian Gazzard
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Appl Health Econ Health Policy 9:217-23. 2011
    In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy maintains HIV RNA suppression, and could also lower treatment costs.
  23. ncbi Clinically validated mutation scores for HIV-1 resistance to fosamprenavir/ritonavir
    B Masquelier
    Laboratoire de Virologie, CHU de Bordeaux and EA 2968, Universite Victor Segalen, Bordeaux, France
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:1362-8. 2008
    We developed clinically relevant genotypic scores for resistance to fosamprenavir/ritonavir in HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients.
  24. ncbi Dose-response of ritonavir on hepatic CYP3A activity and elvitegravir oral exposure
    A A Mathias
    Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 85:64-70. 2009
    b>Ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isoform 3A (CYP3A) activity, is frequently used to boost the effects of protease inhibitors at doses of 100-400 mg per day; however, human data regarding the optimal dose required for ..
  25. ncbi Cost-effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir versus nelfinavir as the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen for HIV infection
    Kit N Simpson
    Pharmacy and Clinical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 5:294-304. 2004
    ..This study evaluates the costs and effectiveness of using lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) vs...
  26. ncbi Lopinavir exposure is insufficient in children given double doses of lopinavir/ritonavir during rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosis
    Helen McIlleron
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 16:417-21. 2011
    ..A pharmacokinetic study in healthy adults showed that doubling the dose of coformulated lopinavir/ritonavir was able to overcome the inducing effect of rifampicin...
  27. pmc Antiretroviral therapies in women after single-dose nevirapine exposure
    Shahin Lockman
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    N Engl J Med 363:1499-509. 2010
    ..Peripartum administration of single-dose nevirapine reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but selects for nevirapine-resistant virus...
  28. ncbi The MONET trial: darunavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside analogues, for patients with HIV RNA below 50 copies/ml
    Jose R Arribas
    Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain
    AIDS 24:223-30. 2010
    In virologically suppressed patients, darunavir-ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy could maintain virological suppression similarly to DRV/r and two nucleosides.
  29. pmc Atazanavir plus ritonavir or efavirenz as part of a 3-drug regimen for initial treatment of HIV-1
    Eric S Daar
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, N 24, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Ann Intern Med 154:445-56. 2011
    ..Limited data compare once-daily options for initial therapy for HIV-1...
  30. ncbi Effect of rifampicin on lopinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected children with tuberculosis
    Yuan Ren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:566-9. 2008
    Rifampicin dramatically reduces plasma lopinavir concentrations (coformulated with ritonavir in a 4:1 ratio). A study in healthy adult volunteers showed that this reduction could be ameliorated if additional ritonavir is given...
  31. ncbi ADME pharmacogenetics: investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the antiretroviral agent lopinavir coformulated with ritonavir
    Rubin Lubomirov
    Institute of Microbiology, Service of Infectious Diseases, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Center, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 20:217-30. 2010
    ..absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion)-pharmacogenetics association study may identify functional variants relevant to the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir co-formulated with ritonavir (LPV/r), a first-line anti-HIV agent.
  32. pmc Pharmacokinetics of adjusted-dose lopinavir-ritonavir combined with rifampin in healthy volunteers
    C J L la Porte
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1553-60. 2004
    Coadministration of lopinavir-ritonavir, an antiretroviral protease inhibitor, at the standard dose (400/100 mg twice a day [BID]) with the antituberculous agent rifampin is contraindicated because of a significant pharmacokinetic ..
  33. ncbi Substitution of raltegravir for ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV-infected patients: the SPIRAL study
    Esteban Martinez
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Clínic Institut d Investigaciones Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    AIDS 24:1697-707. 2010
    Switching to raltegravir in selected patients treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors may result in similar efficacy and lower plasma lipids.
  34. ncbi Switch to a raltegravir-based regimen versus continuation of a lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen in stable HIV-infected patients with suppressed viraemia (SWITCHMRK 1 and 2): two multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trials
    Joseph J Eron
    University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Lancet 375:396-407. 2010
    To reduce lipid abnormalities and other side-effects associated with antiretroviral regimens containing lopinavir-ritonavir, patients might want to switch one or more components of their regimen...
  35. ncbi Rifamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a report of 3 relapses with acquired rifampin resistance following alternate-day rifabutin and boosted protease inhibitor therapy
    Elizabeth R Jenny-Avital
    Jacobi Medical Center, Administration for Children s Services Clinic, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1471-4. 2009
    ..tuberculosis infection following concurrent treatment with rifabutin (dosage, 150 mg every other day) and a ritonavir-boosted HIV protease inhibitor during a prior episode of drug-susceptible tuberculosis...
  36. ncbi P-glycoprotein and MRP1 expression and reduced ritonavir and saquinavir accumulation in HIV-infected individuals
    E R Meaden
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Pharmacology Research Laboratories, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 50:583-8. 2002
    ..for the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and MRP, we wished to investigate whether differences in expression of these transporters on human lymphocytes correlated with intracellular concentrations of ritonavir and saquinavir.
  37. ncbi Differential effects of efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir on human adipocyte differentiation, gene expression and release of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines
    José M Gallego-Escuredo
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institut de Biomedicina IBUB, University of Barcelona and CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Curr HIV Res 8:545-53. 2010
    In the present study, a comparative assessment of the effects of efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r; 4:1) on human adipocytes in culture has been performed...
  38. ncbi The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir on the HIV integrase inhibitor S/GSK1349572 in healthy participants
    Ivy Song
    GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 51:237-42. 2011
    ..care for patients infected with HIV is combination therapy, the potential interaction between S/GSK1349572 and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors was evaluated...
  39. ncbi HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)
    Anshul Gupta
    Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7610, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:334-41. 2004
    ..We found that ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir were effective inhibitors of wild-type BCRP (482R) with IC50 values of 19.5 +/- 0...
  40. ncbi The MONET trial: week 144 analysis of the efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy versus DRV/r plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, for patients with viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at baseline
    J R Arribas
    University Hospital La Paz, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain
    HIV Med 13:398-405. 2012
    In the MONotherapy in Europe with Tmc114 (MONET) trial, darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy showed noninferior efficacy vs. two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus DRV/r at the primary 48-week analysis...
  41. pmc Pharmacokinetic interaction between fosamprenavir-ritonavir and rifabutin in healthy subjects
    Susan L Ford
    Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:534-8. 2008
    ..dAc-RFB), has been reported during concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors, including ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir, and amprenavir (APV); therefore, a reduction in the RFB dosage is recommended when it is ..
  42. pmc Sex differences in lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics among HIV-infected women and men
    Obi C Umeh
    David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 51:1665-73. 2011
    The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) between women and men...
  43. ncbi Pharmacokinetic evaluation of rifabutin in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with HIV infection and active tuberculosis
    Catherine Boulanger
    University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 49:1305-11. 2009
    ..We examined the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin before and after the addition of lopinavir-ritonavir.
  44. ncbi High incidence of renal stones among HIV-infected patients on ritonavir-boosted atazanavir than in those receiving other protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy
    Yohei Hamada
    AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1 21 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1262-9. 2012
    Little information is available on the incidence of renal stones with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) use.
  45. pmc Pharmacokinetics of darunavir/ritonavir and rifabutin coadministered in HIV-negative healthy volunteers
    Vanitha Sekar
    Tibotec, Inc, Yardley, Pennsylvania, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:4440-5. 2010
    The drug-drug interaction between rifabutin (RFB) and darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) was examined in a randomized, three-way crossover study of HIV-negative healthy volunteers who received DRV/r 600/100 mg twice a day (BID) (treatment A), ..
  46. ncbi Loss of bone mineral density after antiretroviral therapy initiation, independent of antiretroviral regimen
    Todd T Brown
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:554-61. 2009
    ..Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been described in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the contributions of ART and immunologic and/or virologic factors remain unclear...
  47. ncbi Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir exposure is associated with an increased rate of renal stones compared with efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and ritonavir-boosted darunavir
    Neesha Rockwood
    Department of HIV Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS 25:1671-3. 2011
    There have been no data presented on the relative rates of the development of renal stones in those receiving ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATZ/r) when compared with other commonly used antiretrovirals (ARVs)...
  48. ncbi Increased resilience to the development of drug resistance with modern boosted protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Viviane D Lima
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, British Columbia, Canada
    J Infect Dis 198:51-8. 2008
    ..We explore the temporal and regimen-specific changes of HIV-1 drug resistance in a large cohort of antiretroviral-naive individuals starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  49. pmc Solid dispersion as an approach for bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug ritonavir
    Shilpi Sinha
    Department of Analytical Research Development, Jubilant Organosys, Noida, 201301, India
    AAPS PharmSciTech 11:518-27. 2010
    b>Ritonavir is an antiretroviral drug characterized by low solubility and high permeability which corresponds to BCS class II drug...
  50. ncbi Factors associated with virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients receiving darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy
    Sidonie Lambert-Niclot
    Department of Virology and Infectious Diseases, AP HP, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, INSERM U 943 and Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris, France
    J Infect Dis 204:1211-6. 2011
    Our objective was to determine virological and clinical characteristics associated with virological failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy.
  51. ncbi Lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy versus lopinavir-ritonavir and 2 nucleosides for maintenance therapy of HIV: 96-week analysis
    Jose R Arribas
    Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital La Paz, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:147-52. 2009
    The OK04 trial has shown that 48 weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy with reintroduction of nucleosides as needed was noninferior to continuation of triple therapy with 2 nucleosides and lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with prior ..
  52. ncbi Nevirapine versus atazanavir/ritonavir, each combined with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients: the ARTEN Trial
    Vicente Soriano
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Antivir Ther 16:339-48. 2011
    ..Selection of first-line antiretroviral therapy requires consideration of efficacy as well as effects on lipids given the increased concern about cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients...
  53. ncbi Lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy versus lopinavir-ritonavir and two nucleosides for maintenance therapy of HIV
    Federico Pulido
    Unidad HIV and Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    AIDS 22:F1-9. 2008
    ..Prior attempts to reduce the number of drugs needed to maintain viral suppression in patients with suppressed HIV replication while receiving three antiretroviral drugs have been unsuccessful...
  54. ncbi Two-year outcomes of children on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor regimens in a South African pediatric antiretroviral program
    Heather B Jaspan
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:993-8. 2008
    ..Few data exist on the efficacy of the limited regimens for children with HIV, which are available in sub-Saharan Africa...
  55. pmc NanoART synthesis, characterization, uptake, release and toxicology for human monocyte-macrophage drug delivery
    Ari S Nowacek
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    Nanomedicine (Lond) 4:903-17. 2009
    ..In attempts to bypass such limitations, nanoparticles containing ritonavir, indinavir and efavirenz (described as nanoART) were manufactured to assess macrophage-based drug delivery.
  56. pmc Polymorphism in Gag gene cleavage sites of HIV-1 non-B subtype and virological outcome of a first-line lopinavir/ritonavir single drug regimen
    Jade Ghosn
    Paris Descartes University, EA 3620, Necker University Hospital, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e24798. 2011
    ..We show that pre-therapy mutations in gag cleavage site sequence were significantly associated with the virological outcome of a first-line LPV/r single drug regimen in the Monark trial...
  57. pmc Protease inhibitor resistance analysis in the MONARK trial comparing first-line lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy to lopinavir-ritonavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine triple therapy
    Constance Delaugerre
    University Paris Descartes, EA 3620, Virology Department, Necker Hospital AP HP, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2934-9. 2009
    The MONARK study was a pilot randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy to those of LPV/r-zidovudine-lamivudine triple therapy for antiretroviral-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type ..
  58. ncbi Randomized controlled study demonstrating failure of LPV/r monotherapy in HIV: the role of compartment and CD4-nadir
    Christine Gutmann
    Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland
    AIDS 24:2347-54. 2010
    ..Monotherapy with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-MT) is the most widely studied strategy...
  59. pmc Analyses of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug charge, size, shape and content for uptake, drug release and antiviral activities in human monocyte-derived macrophages
    Ari S Nowacek
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
    J Control Release 150:204-11. 2011
    ..To this end, we wet-milled 20 nanoparticle formulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz, collectively referred to as "nanoART," then assessed their performance using a range ..
  60. ncbi Immunologic responses associated with 12 weeks of combination antiretroviral therapy consisting of zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir: results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 315
    M M Lederman
    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Infect Dis 178:70-9. 1998
    ..persons with moderately advanced HIV-1 infection, after 12 weeks of treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir, plasma HIV-1 RNA fell a median of 2.3 logs (P < .0001)...
  61. ncbi The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir on the renal clearance of tenofovir in HIV-infected patients
    J J Kiser
    School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:265-72. 2008
    We determined the effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on tenofovir renal clearance...
  62. pmc Sex-based outcomes of darunavir-ritonavir therapy: a single-group trial
    Judith Currier
    University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Ann Intern Med 153:349-57. 2010
    ..Women account for an increasing proportion of patients with HIV-1 but remain underrepresented in antiretroviral clinical trials...
  63. pmc Simplification strategies to reduce antiretroviral drug exposure: progress and prospects
    John E McKinnon
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Antivir Ther 14:1-12. 2009
    ..Pilot studies of simplified maintenance therapy with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor alone have shown more promise, although concerns remain...
  64. pmc HIV therapy, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk
    Vivian Pao
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section Box 111F, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    Curr Atheroscler Rep 10:61-70. 2008
    ..It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking...
  65. ncbi Long term probability of detection of HIV-1 drug resistance after starting antiretroviral therapy in routine clinical practice
    Andrew N Phillips
    AIDS 19:487-94. 2005
    ..Little is known about the long term risk of development of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or four drug regimens in routine clinical practice...
  66. pmc Atazanavir pharmacokinetics with and without tenofovir during pregnancy
    Mark Mirochnick
    Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:412-9. 2011
    ..Few data are available describing atazanavir exposure during pregnancy, especially when used in combination with tenofovir, whose coadministration with atazanavir results in decreased atazanavir exposure...
  67. ncbi Immunovirological response to triple nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in treatment-naive HIV-2-infected patients: The ACHIEV2E Collaboration Study Group
    Antoine Benard
    INSERM, U, France
    Clin Infect Dis 52:1257-66. 2011
    ..However, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-containing regimens are frequently prescribed...
  68. ncbi Effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir-500 mg formulation with ritonavir in healthy male and female volunteers
    Alan Winston
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS 20:1401-6. 2006
    ..We evaluated the effect of omeprazole, a proton-pump-inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of the recently developed saquinavir-500 mg formulation co-administered with ritonavir.
  69. ncbi The level of persistent HIV viremia does not increase after successful simplification of maintenance therapy to lopinavir/ritonavir alone
    John E McKinnon
    University of Pittsburgh, Pensylvania, USA
    AIDS 20:2331-5. 2006
    To determine whether the level of persistent HIV-1 viremia is affected by simplifying standard antiretroviral therapy to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) alone.
  70. pmc Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings
    C M Chu
    Department of Microbiology and Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Thorax 59:252-6. 2004
    The clinical response of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin was examined after establishing the in vitro antiviral susceptibility of the SARS associated ..
  71. ncbi Fat tissue distribution changes in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. Results of the MONARK trial
    Sami Kolta
    Paris Descartes University, Medicine Faculty, UPRES EA 4058, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France
    Curr HIV Res 9:31-9. 2011
    ..Data from the MONARK trial allowed for comparison of the potential lipodystrophic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy with those of triple therapy with LPV/r plus zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC)...
  72. ncbi Renal function in antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate associated with atazanavir/ritonavir
    Laurence Gerard
    INSERM SC10, Villejuif, France
    Antivir Ther 12:31-9. 2007
    ....
  73. ncbi Effects of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on the pharmacokinetics of quinine
    M M Nyunt
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:889-95. 2012
    ..A phase I pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the impact of long-term use of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) on quinine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers...
  74. pmc Effects of etravirine alone and with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir
    Ivy Song
    GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3517-21. 2011
    ..Two studies evaluated the effects of etravirine (ETR) alone and in combination with ritonavir (RTV)-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) on DTG pharmacokinetics (PK) in healthy subjects...
  75. ncbi Safety and exposure of once-daily ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected pregnant women
    F Conradie
    HIV Clinical Trial Unit, Helen Joseph Hospital, University of Witwaterand, Westdene, South Africa
    HIV Med 12:570-9. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy and appropriate dosing regimen for ritonavir (RTV)-boosted atazanavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.
  76. ncbi 96 week results from the MONET trial: a randomized comparison of darunavir/ritonavir with versus without nucleoside analogues, for patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL at baseline
    Nathan Clumeck
    Hôpital St Pierre, Brussels, Belgium
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1878-85. 2011
    In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy could avoid resistance and adverse events from continuing nucleoside analogues.
  77. ncbi A randomized comparison of second-line lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus tenofovir/lamivudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in patients failing NNRTI regimens: the HIV STAR study
    Torsak Bunupuradah
    HIV NAT, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand
    Antivir Ther 17:1351-61. 2012
    ..There are also no randomized trials addressing treatment options after failing first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimens...
  78. ncbi Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell line
    M D Perloff
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Pharm Sci 90:1829-37. 2001
    ..the response of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) to chronic ritonavir (RIT) exposure by assessing increases in P-gp and MRP1 protein expression and activity...
  79. pmc Interaction of human cytochrome P4503A4 with ritonavir analogs
    Irina F Sevrioukova
    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 92697, United States
    Arch Biochem Biophys 520:108-16. 2012
    b>Ritonavir is a HIV protease inhibitor that also potently inactivates cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), a major human drug-metabolizing enzyme...
  80. ncbi Formation of nano/micro-dispersions with improved dissolution properties upon dispersion of ritonavir melt extrudate in aqueous media
    Ingunn Tho
    Drug Transport and Delivery Group, Dept of Pharmacy, University of Tromsoe, N 9037 Tromsoe, Norway
    Eur J Pharm Sci 40:25-32. 2010
    The objective of the study was to characterise the aqueous dispersions of ritonavir melt extrudates...
  81. ncbi Effects of boosted tipranavir and lopinavir on body composition, insulin sensitivity and adipocytokines in antiretroviral-naive adults
    Andrew Carr
    HIV, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    AIDS 22:2313-21. 2008
    ..We studied the effects of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens on body composition, insulin sensitivity and adipocytokine levels...
  82. ncbi Efficacy and safety outcomes among treatment-experienced women and men treated with etravirine in gender, race and clinical experience
    Sally Hodder
    Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:544-51. 2012
    ..HIV-1-infected patients, mainly women, in North America, to assess outcomes with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen, which could include etravirine (ETR)...
  83. ncbi Prospective, randomized, open label trial of Efavirenz vs Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV+ treatment-naive subjects with CD4+<200 cell/mm3 in Mexico
    Juan Sierra-Madero
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:582-8. 2010
    To compare the efficacy of efavirenz (EFV) vs lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in combination with azidothymidine/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy naive, HIV+ individuals presenting for care with CD4 counts <200/mm.
  84. ncbi Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of danoprevir/ritonavir plus PEG-IFN α-2a/RBV in hepatitis C patients
    Edward J Gane
    Auckland Clinical Studies, New Zealand
    J Hepatol 55:972-9. 2011
    ..activity, resistance, and pharmacokinetics of once- and twice-daily danoprevir in the presence of low-dose ritonavir (danoprevir/r) and in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin in treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 ..
  85. ncbi Treatment intensification has no effect on the HIV-1 central nervous system infection in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy
    Aylin Yilmaz
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:590-6. 2010
    ....
  86. pmc Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and ritonavir-boosted saquinavir mesylate administered alone or in combination at steady state
    Gregory E Chittick
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, 4 University Place, 4611 University Dr, Durham, NC 27707, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1304-10. 2006
    ..conducted to formally evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and ritonavir (RTV)-boosted saquinavir mesylate (SQV) when coadministered in healthy volunteers...
  87. ncbi Ritonavir inhibits the two main prasugrel bioactivation pathways in vitro: a potential drug-drug interaction in HIV patients
    Youssef Daali
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    Metabolism 60:1584-9. 2011
    ..HIV patients are at risk of cardiovascular disease, and the protease inhibitor ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of these 2 CYPs...
  88. ncbi Lopinavir plasma concentrations and changes in lipid levels during salvage therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimens
    Felix Gutierrez
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Alicante, Spain
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:594-600. 2003
    ..To determine whether an association existed between lopinavir (LPV) plasma concentrations and changes in lipid levels...
  89. pmc The bile acid sensor FXR protects against dyslipidemia and aortic plaques development induced by the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir in mice
    Andrea Mencarelli
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Perugia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Perugia, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e13238. 2010
    ..Here we illustrate that targeting the bile acid sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protects against dyslipidemia and vascular injury induced HIV-PIs in rodents...
  90. ncbi Simultaneous determination of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and amprenavir in human plasma by LC/MS/MS
    Jingduan Chi
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Drug Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 30:675-84. 2002
    ..has been developed to measure the levels of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir (NFV), indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV), saquinavir (SQV) and amprenavir (APV) in human plasma...
  91. pmc Comparative gender analysis of the efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir at 96 weeks in the CASTLE study
    Kathleen E Squires
    Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 211 South 9th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:363-70. 2011
    ..overall results of the CASTLE study pertain to both genders, we analysed the efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in 277 female and 606 male patients in the open-label, multinational trial over 96 weeks...
  92. ncbi A randomized, pilot trial to evaluate glomerular filtration rate by creatinine or cystatin C in naive HIV-infected patients after tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz
    Laura Albini
    Department of Materno Infantile e Tecnologie Biomediche, Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59:18-30. 2012
    ..There is lack of data on GFR estimated by these methods in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  93. ncbi Antiretrovirals as antimalarial agents
    Tina S Skinner-Adams
    Malaria Biology Laboratory, Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, Queensland Institute of Medical Research and School of Population Health, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
    J Infect Dis 190:1998-2000. 2004
    ..on cytoadherence and phagocytosis, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease inhibitors saquinavir, ritonavir, and indinavir directly inhibit the growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro at clinically relevant ..
  94. ncbi The relation between treatment outcome and efavirenz, atazanavir or lopinavir exposure in the NORTHIV trial of treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients
    Filip Josephson
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:349-57. 2010
    ..patients treated with (1) EFV + 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI) once daily, (2) ritonavir-boosted ATV + 2NRTI once daily or (3) ritonavir-boosted LPV + 2NRTI twice daily...
  95. ncbi Ritonavir greatly impairs CYP3A activity in HIV infection with chronic viral hepatitis
    Tamsin A Knox
    Nutrition Infection Division, Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49:358-68. 2008
    b>Ritonavir is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) that metabolizes many antiretrovirals. We examined the effect of ritonavir and of chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) status on CYP3A activity.
  96. pmc Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulations
    Shantanu Balkundi
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Int J Nanomedicine 6:3393-404. 2011
    Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients...
  97. pmc Pharmacokinetic interaction between mefloquine and ritonavir in healthy volunteers
    Y Khaliq
    Clinical Investigation Unit, Department of Pharmacy, The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 51:591-600. 2001
    AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between ritonavir and mefloquine. METHODS: Healthy volunteers participated in two separate, nonfasted, three-treatment, three-period, longitudinal pharmacokinetic studies...
  98. pmc Berberine inhibits HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammatory response by modulating ER stress signaling pathways in murine macrophages
    Weibin Zha
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Internal Medicine Gastroenterology and McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9069. 2010
    ..This study examined the effect of berberine, a traditional herb medicine, on HIV PI-induced inflammatory response and further investigated the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms in macrophages...
  99. ncbi The effect of multiple doses of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin
    A Cato
    Pharmaceutical Products Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 63:414-21. 1998
    To investigate the effects of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin.
  100. ncbi Hepatotoxicity associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens with or without concurrent ritonavir
    Mark S Sulkowski
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 18:2277-84. 2004
    ..enzyme elevations following the initiation of protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with or without pharmacokinetic boosting with ritonavir (RTV), and to define the role of chronic viral hepatitis in its development.
  101. ncbi Effect of an antiretroviral regimen containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein in HIV-infected patients
    C Wyen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of the University of Cologne, Koln, Germany
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 84:75-82. 2008
    ..in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics...

Research Grants63

  1. Nanomedicine and NeuroAIDS
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include ritonavir boosted atazanavir, maraviroc, lamivudine, dolutegravir and efavirenz...
  2. Pharmacology of Antiretroviral Nanoparticle Micelles
    Christopher J Destache; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Using a biodegradable polymer (poly (DL-lactide-co 5-caprolactone)), combined ARV agents (ritonavir RTV, lopinavir LPV, and efavirenz EFV) will be entrapped into a nanoparticle and efficiency will be investigated...
  3. Antimalarial Pharmacology in HIV Coinfected Children and Pregnant Women in Uganda
    Sunil Parikh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PI-based regimens include lopinavir/ritonavir, and NNRTI-based regimens include either nevirapine or efavirenz...
  4. Designing HIV Protease Inhibitors with Lower Dosing Requirements and Lower Toxici
    Mitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..marketed HIV protease inhibitors (PI's) are substrates for cytochrome P450 and are co- administered with ritonavir, a pharmacokinetic booster...
  5. Cardioprotective Efficacy ofMg-Supplementation during HAART Therapy
    IVAN TONG MAK; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tenofovir (TFV), efavirenz (EFV) and ritonavir (RTV) are the first line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) agents used in most treatment of HIV patients...
  6. HIV Infection and Falls: Epidemiology and Risk Assessment
    Julie A Womack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HIV specific factors such as lower CD4 count, higher viral load, efavirenz use, and ritonavir use may also contribute to falls risk...
  7. HAART to Prevent HIV Transmission to Infants In Botswana
    Roger L Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/RTV, or Kaletra)/Combivir (CBV) from 20-34 weeks of pregnancy through 6 months postpartum...
  8. NanoART Manufacture, Delivery and Pharmacokinetics for Optimizing Drug Adherence
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These risk factors often result in poor treatment outcomes. The advent of slow release ART (ritonavir, indinavir, efavirenz, atazanovir and efavirenz) will positively impact these concerns...
  9. Optimizing Antiretroviral Use in Aging: Pharmacokinetics, Response, and Toxicity
    JULIE BRUMER DUMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for two common ARV regimens, emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz (Atripla) and emtricitabine/tenofovir/atazanavir/ritonavir (Truvada, Reyataz, and Norvir)...
  10. Moving Towards More Individualized Therapies in HIV/HCV Co-infected Patients
    Susanna Naggie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aims 2 and 3 will be achieved using a prospective study design of HIV/HCV co-infected patients initiating ritonavir-boosted-protease inhibitor-based ART...
  11. HIV-1, Exercise and Endothelial Function
    Christopher A Desouza; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ART regimen consisting of tenofovir and emtricitabine combined with either efavirenz or atazanavir boosted with ritonavir will be studied...
  12. Modeling Neural Injury Effects of Methamphetamine Metabolism by CYP2D6 in HIV
    Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression as well as the antiretroviral ritonavir, which is used to boost a majority of cART regimens...
  13. Lopinavir/ritonavir + zidovudine to prevent perinatal HIV in Thailand
    Marc J Lallemant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..trial the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of a simple, affordable and potent combination of ZDV + lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) from 28 weeks'gestation versus the regimen currently recommended by WHO in a non breastfeeding ..
  14. CYP2D6 Genotype and Cognitive Deficits in Methamphetamine Users with/without HIV
    Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, the antiretroviral ritonavir, used to boost the majority of cART regimens, is also a CYP2D6 inhibitor, and there are reports in the ..
  15. Anti-HIV Neuroimmunomodulatory Therapy with Neurokinin-1 (NK1-R) Antagonists
    STEVEN DANIEL DOUGLAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..R Antagonists in Depression;and 5) Phase IB Clinical Trial of Neurokinin-1 R Antagonist-Aprepitant with ritonavir boost and direct proof of NK1R antagonism efficacy, and two Cores: A) Administration;and C) Quantitative ..
  16. TAUROURSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID FOR PROTEASE-INHIBITOR ASSOCIATED INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Dominic N Reeds; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that TUDCA markedly ameliorates ritonavir-induced insulin resistance in human myotubes and mice...
  17. Natural Product-Inspired Method for Enhancing HIV Protease Inhibitors
    Jason E Gestwicki; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The lifetime of this compound was superior to that of ritonavir-boosted amprenavir and, moreover, its metabolic stability was now independent of ritonavir co-administration...
  18. Concurrent HAART and Tuberculosis Treatment: Drug to Drug Interactions
    AWEWURA JACOB KWARA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the interethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and tolerability of efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir before and during concurrent administration with rifampin...
  19. LIPOGENESIS & LIPOPROTEIN COMPLICATIONS OF HIV THERAPY
    David Y Hui; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..same HDL metabolic parameters in the HIV infected subjects after initiation of (i) atazanavir, (ii) lopinavir/ritonavir, or (iii) efavirenz therapy to identify the difference between health restoration and treatment-specific effects ..
  20. Optimal dosing of 1st line antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs in children
    Helen McIlleron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using double dose lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the commercially available 4:1 ratio has been shown to be insufficient...
  21. Oligodendrocyte damage and dysfunction in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder
    KELLY L JORDANSCIUTTO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..compounds (ARV), one nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), AZT, and one protease inhibitor (PI), ritonavir, alter oligodendrocyte morphology and decrease oligodendrocyte survival in a dose dependent manner in vitro...
  22. Milk-based nano-delivery system for hydrophobic drugs in infants and children
    Tomas Martin-Jimenez; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to use modified casein micelles from bovine milk as carrier systems for the delivery of the low MW hydrophobic ritonavir (MW = 721 KDa, Log P >3.9) into the small intestine...
  23. Treatment Options for Protease Inhibitor Exposed Children
    Louise Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Treatment initiation with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is recommended because of concerns about resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase-inhibitors (..
  24. Bone health in perinatally HIV-infected South African children on antiretrovirals
    Michael T Yin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cytokines, nutrition and physical activity on bone turnover and accrual;and 3) compare the effects of lopinavir/ritonavir-based versus efavirenz-based regimens on vitamin D levels, bone turnover, and bone acquisition in pre-pubertal ..
  25. Virologic Failure of boosted Proteases
    DAVID ALLENBERG KATZENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the mechanism of drug resistance and failure among recipients of a boosted protease regimen, Atazanavir and ritonavir (ATV/r)...
  26. Once Monthly Antiretroviral Nanoparticles for HIV-1 Treatment
    Christopher J Destache; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Antiretroviral nanoparticles containing ritonavir, lopinavir, and efavirenz have been able to show success as a sustained drug delivery system...
  27. Garlic Metabolism and Cytochrome P450 Modulation
    Danny Shen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..therapeutic drugs, including anticoagulants (warfarin, fuindione) and HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir, ritonavir), have been reported within the past 2 years...
  28. Drug-induced liver injury associated with anti-retroviral therapy
    Xiaochao Ma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These complications include hepatotoxicity, which has been reported in ~10% of patients who receive ritonavir-containing protease inhibitor regimens...
  29. CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ETP FOR AIDS THERAPEUTICS
    Reshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..purity of zivudine, lamavudine, nevirapine, and nelfinavir and begin the assessment of emtricitabine, lopinavir, ritonavir, and tenofovir...
  30. Long-term efficacy of pediatric HAART
    DALTON CHEKOKO WAMALWA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in Africa typically have a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) backbone and do not include ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (Pis), which are considered the most potent antiretrovirals available...
  31. Optimizing NNRTI Doses in Patients with HIV and TB
    Terrence Blaschke; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..NNRTI) efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP) plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), or ritonavir and/or saquinavir and 2NRTI, or a triple NRTI regimen...
  32. Antiretroviral Therapy of AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma in Africa
    Jeffrey Martin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..our multidisciplinary team proposes these four aims: (1) Determine whether a Pi-based HAART regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir plus zidovudine/lamivudine) is more efficacious than a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-..
  33. HIV Therapy & Interruption RCT in Resource Poor Clinic
    Luis J Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..who successfully achieve viral suppression to <50 copies/ml during a 24 week "run-in" period on lopinavir/ritonavir, lamivudine, stavudine to include a complete vaccination series against rabies from week 16 to 22 (de novo ..
  34. HIV Therapy & Interruption RCT in Resource Poor Clinic
    Luis Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..who successfully achieve viral suppression to <50 copies/ml during a 24 week "run-in" period on lopinavir/ritonavir, lamivudine, stavudine to include a complete vaccination series against rabies from week 16 to 22 (de novo ..
  35. Interaction of Alcohol and HAART in HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS and HCV Coinfection
    Elinore F McCance Katz; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g.: protease inhibitors;particularly ritonavir which is frequently co-administered with other protease inhibitors to delay their metabolism)...
  36. Metabolic and Nutritional Effects of ART in Children
    Meera Chhagan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These guidelines recommend stavudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir for children less than 3 years, or stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz if older than 3...
  37. HIV PROTEASE INHIBITORS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    Eric Smart; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..macrophages isolated from LDL receptor null mice given the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir, indinavir, or ritonavir, contain more SR-BI and CD36 than aged-matched controls...
  38. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Oyster Mushrooms
    Donald Abrams; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..oyster mushrooms (Pieurotus ostreatus) for treatment of hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected patients who are taking ritonavir, a protease inhibitor (PI) that is commonly used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  39. Factors Affecting CYP3A-Mediated Metabolism of Drugs of Abuse in HIV+ Patients
    Lauren Oleson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Since the effect of chronic administration of the protease inhibitor, ritonavir, on CYP3A activity in HIV+ patients is currently unclear, we propose to study the effect of long-term ritonavir ..
  40. ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY AND VARIABILITY OF ANTIAIDS DRUGS
    Patrick Sinko; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The specific drugs to be studied include HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir, ritonavir), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (delaviridine, UC-781), and antiherpetic/anti-CMV agents (..
  41. HIV protease inhibitors, marcophage function/estrogen
    Melinda Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..human monocyte/macrophage cell line, THP-1 to define the effects 17??estradiol on the HIV protease inhibitors ritonavir and amprenavir induced alterations of CD36 expression and CD36-dependent function by measuring lipoprotein ..
  42. Bone Loss and Its Prevention in HIV Patients
    F Ross; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In contrast to the osteoporotic properties of Indinavir, Ritonavir is bone sparing, in vivo, exerting its effect, in an M-CSF independent manner, by blunting OC formation and ..
  43. FPIA FOR SAQUINAVIR AND RITONAVIR HIV INHIBITORS
    Charles Harrington; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Integral drugs in that cocktail are the HIV Specific Protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir. Immunoassay analysis of saquinavir and ritonavir would provide an analytically suitable, clinically useful ..
  44. NORTH JERSEY COMMUNITY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NJCRI)
    George Perez; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition to patients being followed in the Nelfinavir vs. Ritonavir (NvR) study, they will enroll 50 patients in Mycobacterium avium complex (CR-MAC) and 50 in Pneumococcal ..
  45. Effects of Ritonavir on HHV-8 vGPCR signaling and tumorigenesis
    Marvin Reitz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We have previously shown that ritonavir, a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection, inhibits NFkappaB activation...
  46. Genetic-determinants of protease inhibitor pharmacology
    Peter Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The current clinical approach to deal with atazanavir's pharmacokinetic variability is to use ritonavir boosting...
  47. DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL TO PREDICT DRUG HEPATOTOXICITY
    KIM BROUWER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Test Compounds" [known hepatotoxic drugs (bosentan, troglitazone, ritonavir, methotrexate, acetaminophen) and a negative control (tamoxifen)], as well as six NCI compounds, will be assayed ..
  48. Pharmacogenetic Analysis in Mice
    Gary Peltz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..2) The pharmacokinetic profile (parent and metabolites) of coumadin, bleomycin, isoniazid and ritonavir will be measured in 11 inbred mouse strains...
  49. MUTATIONS EFFECTS ON INHIBITION OF HIV PROTEASE
    Jordan Tang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..for the resistance observed in clinical trials of 3 marketed HIV-1 PR inhibitor drugs (Saquanivir, Idinavir, Ritonavir); the mutations also lead to cross-resistance to other major inhibitors under development for clinical use...
  50. Treatment&Pathogenesis of Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Infect
    Richard Price; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..and thermodynamically characterize many of the mutations in HIV- 1 protease that confer resistance to ritonavir. The nature of many of these mutations suggest the involvement of structural rearrangements, solvation effects, ..
  51. VARIANTS OF HIV WITH INCREASED POLYMERASE FIDELITY
    Vinayaka Prasad; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Samples will be obtained from a clinical trial, in which patients will be treated first with 3TC and given ritonavir as a second arm only after the appearance of 3TC-resistant RT is confirmed...
  52. Structure/Function Studies on Flavoproteins
    Irina Sevrioukova; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  53. ANESTHETIC RENAL METABOLISM--MECHANISMS AND CONSEQUENCES
    Evan Kharasch; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..More broadly, resulting biochemical and clinical insights will be applicable to the numerous other nephrotoxic haloalkenes that are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. ..
  54. CNS Viral Dynamics and Cellular Immunity During AIDS
    David Haas; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Characterizing these relationships will expand our knowledge regarding key events that lead to AIDS dementia, and may suggest novel approaches to other immunologic or viral-mediated diseases that affect the brain. ..
  55. Impact of selenium/zinc levels on HIV disease and treatment response in children
    Torsak Bunupuradah; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Novel noninvasive assessment of cytochrome P450 activity
    Evan Kharasch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This approach may identify inter-individual variability in drug disposition and response;permit more individualized dosing, and reduces the cost of drug interaction studies. ..
  57. VANDERBILT ADULT AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS UNIT
    David Haas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed ACTU will not only enroll patients into ACTG clinical trials, but will provide the ACTG the ability to address important questions concerning AIDS treatment and pathogenesis. ..
  58. ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPIES AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    David Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..to apply in vitromodels, using human liver microsomal preparations, to determine the capacity of HIV PIs (ritonavir, nelfinavir, indinavir, saquinavir) and of NNRTls tdelavirdine, nevirapine, efavirenz) to inhibit CYP3A-mediated ..
  59. HAART Regimens in Substance Abusers
    David Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the method is applied to assessing CYP3A and P-gp inhibition and induction with initial and extended exposure to ritonavir, delavirdine, and nevirapine...
  60. GARLIC PREPARATIONS AND ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
    David Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..by CYP3A and transport by P-glycoprotein), and on the pharmacokinetics of two representative antiretrovirals, ritonavir and saquinavir. There are two specific aims...
  61. K24 MID-CAREER CLINICAL INVESTIGATOR AWARD
    John Bartlett; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These mentorship activities are strongly supported by leadership of the Department of Medicine and the Division of Infectious Diseases, and an AIDS Training Grant, which provides financial support for young investigators. ..
  62. Predictors of Immunologic Long-term Non-Progression in Children with HIV
    Jintanat Ananworanich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This will be important in deciding when to treat children with antiretroviral therapy. ..
  63. CHRONIC BENZODIAZEPINES: BEHAVIOR AND NEUROCHEMISTRY
    David Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....