Genomes and Genes
Summary: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV.
Publications354 found, 100 shown here
- Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-Edwin DeJesus
Orlando Immunology Center, Orlando, FL, USA
Lancet 379:2429-38. 2012..We compared EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with a ritonavir-boosted (RTV) protease inhibitor regimen of atazanavir (ATV)/RTV+FTC/TDF as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection.
- Class-sparing regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infectionSharon A Riddler
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA
N Engl J Med 358:2095-106. 2008The use of either efavirenz or lopinavir-ritonavir plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is recommended for initial therapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but which of the ..
- Nevirapine- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based initial therapy for HIV-1 infection among women in Africa: a randomized trialShahin Lockman
Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Med 9:e1001236. 2012Nevirapine (NVP) is widely used in antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-1 globally. The primary objective of the AA5208/OCTANE trial was to compare the efficacy of NVP-based versus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based initial ART.
- Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: 48 week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE studyJean Michel Molina
Department of Infectious Diseases, Saint Louis Hospital, AP HP, Paris University of Paris Diderot, Paris 7, France
Lancet 372:646-55. 2008Atazanavir/ritonavir is as effective as lopinavir/ritonavir, with a more favourable lipid profile and less gastrointestinal toxicity, in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients...
- Nevirapine versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir for HIV-infected childrenAvy Violari
Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
N Engl J Med 366:2380-9. 2012..human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is common, a problem that has led to the recommendation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in such settings...
- Bone mineral density and fractures in antiretroviral-naive persons randomized to receive abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine along with efavirenz or atazanavir-ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTGGrace A McComsey
Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
J Infect Dis 203:1791-801. 2011Long-term effects of abacavir (ABC)-lamivudine (3TC), compared with tenofovir (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r), on bone mineral density (BMD) have not been analyzed.
- A nucleoside- and ritonavir-sparing regimen containing atazanavir plus raltegravir in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients: SPARTAN study resultsMichael J Kozal
Yale University School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
HIV Clin Trials 13:119-30. 2012Nucleoside and ritonavir (RTV) toxicities have led to increased interest in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and RTV-sparing antiretroviral regimens...
- Ritonavir induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and sensitizes sarcoma cells toward bortezomib-induced apoptosisMarianne Kraus
Department of Medicine II, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
Mol Cancer Ther 7:1940-8. 2008..We show that the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir induces ER stress in bortezomib-resistant sarcoma cells...
- Efficacy and safety of once daily elvitegravir versus twice daily raltegravir in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor: randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority studyJean Michel Molina
Hôpital Saint Louis and University of Paris Diderot, Paris, France
Lancet Infect Dis 12:27-35. 2012Elvitegravir is a once daily inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase boosted by ritonavir. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of elvitegravir with raltegravir, another HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, in patients in whom previous antiretroviral ..
- Efficacy of a nucleoside-sparing regimen of darunavir/ritonavir plus raltegravir in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients (ACTG A5262)Babafemi Taiwo
Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
AIDS 25:2113-22. 2011To explore darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus raltegravir (RAL) combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients.
- Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir compared with twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: 96-week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE studyJean Michel Molina
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hopital Saint Louis 1, Av C Vellefaux, 75475 Paris, Cedex 10, France
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:323-32. 2010Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir demonstrated similar antiviral efficacy to twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir over 48 weeks, with less gastrointestinal disturbance and a better lipid profile, in treatment-naive patients.
- Efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir maintenance monotherapy in patients with HIV-1 viral suppression: a randomized open-label, noninferiority trial, MONOI-ANRS 136Christine Katlama
INSERM UMR S 943 and University Pierre and Marie Curie UPMC Paris VI, Paris, France
AIDS 24:2365-74. 2010Darunavir/ritonavir (darunavir/r) maintenance strategy, in patients with suppressed HIV RNA viremia, is a potential long-term strategy to avoid nucleoside analogue toxicities and to reduce costs.
- Once-daily darunavir/ritonavir vs. lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected patients: 96-week analysisAnthony M Mills
Private Practice, Los Angeles, USA
AIDS 23:1679-88. 2009..Present 96-week data from ongoing ARTEMIS (AntiRetroviral Therapy with TMC114 ExaMined In Naive Subjects) trial...
- Inflammation markers after randomization to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavirGrace A McComsey
Case Western Reserve University and Rainbow Babies and Children s Hospital, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
AIDS 26:1371-85. 2012..The effect of specific antiretrovirals on inflammation is unclear...
- Lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy after virologic failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settingsJohn A Bartlett
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
AIDS 26:1345-54. 2012To evaluate virologic response rates of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy as second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) among adults in resource-limited settings (RLSs).
- Randomized, double-blind, placebo-matched, multicenter trial of abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with lopinavir/ritonavir for initial HIV treatmentKimberly Y Smith
Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
AIDS 23:1547-56. 2009..This is the first completed, randomized clinical trial to directly compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these agents, each in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral-naive patients.
- Body composition changes after switching from protease inhibitors to raltegravir: SPIRAL-LIP substudyAdrian Curran
Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Infectious Diseases Department, Spain
AIDS 26:475-81. 2012To compare 48-week changes in body fat distribution and bone mineral density (BMD) between patients switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) and patients continuing with PI/r.
- Changes in cardiovascular biomarkers in HIV-infected patients switching from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors to raltegravirEsteban Martinez
Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
AIDS 26:2315-26. 2012..Switching from boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) results in a better plasma lipid profile than continuing PI/r. Whether this strategy affects plasma biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis is unknown...
- Examination of noninferiority, safety, and tolerability of lopinavir/ritonavir and raltegravir compared with lopinavir/ritonavir and tenofovir/ emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naïve subjects: the progress study, 48-week resultsJacques Reynes
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France
HIV Clin Trials 12:255-67. 2011..The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a new NRTI-sparing regimen may provide an alternative for persons for whom traditional regimens may not be the best option...
- Pharmacokinetics and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on coadministration with lopinavir/ritonavirBrian P Kearney
Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:278-83. 2006Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are frequently used antiretrovirals. A pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers was conducted to assess the potential for a drug interaction between these agents.
- Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors in a human brain microvessel endothelial cell lineJason A Zastre
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Neurosci Res 87:1023-36. 2009..were to investigate transport and inductive properties on efflux drug transporters of two PIs, atazanavir and ritonavir, at the blood-brain barrier by using a human brain microvessel endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3...
- Cost-efficacy analysis of the MONET trial using UK antiretroviral drug pricesBrian Gazzard
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
Appl Health Econ Health Policy 9:217-23. 2011In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy maintains HIV RNA suppression, and could also lower treatment costs.
- Clinically validated mutation scores for HIV-1 resistance to fosamprenavir/ritonavirB Masquelier
Laboratoire de Virologie, CHU de Bordeaux and EA 2968, Universite Victor Segalen, Bordeaux, France
J Antimicrob Chemother 61:1362-8. 2008We developed clinically relevant genotypic scores for resistance to fosamprenavir/ritonavir in HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients.
- Dose-response of ritonavir on hepatic CYP3A activity and elvitegravir oral exposureA A Mathias
Clinical Research, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California, USA
Clin Pharmacol Ther 85:64-70. 2009b>Ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isoform 3A (CYP3A) activity, is frequently used to boost the effects of protease inhibitors at doses of 100-400 mg per day; however, human data regarding the optimal dose required for ..
- Cost-effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir versus nelfinavir as the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen for HIV infectionKit N Simpson
Pharmacy and Clinical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
HIV Clin Trials 5:294-304. 2004..This study evaluates the costs and effectiveness of using lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) vs...
- Lopinavir exposure is insufficient in children given double doses of lopinavir/ritonavir during rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosisHelen McIlleron
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Antivir Ther 16:417-21. 2011..A pharmacokinetic study in healthy adults showed that doubling the dose of coformulated lopinavir/ritonavir was able to overcome the inducing effect of rifampicin...
- Antiretroviral therapies in women after single-dose nevirapine exposureShahin Lockman
Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
N Engl J Med 363:1499-509. 2010..Peripartum administration of single-dose nevirapine reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but selects for nevirapine-resistant virus...
- The MONET trial: darunavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside analogues, for patients with HIV RNA below 50 copies/mlJose R Arribas
Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain
AIDS 24:223-30. 2010In virologically suppressed patients, darunavir-ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy could maintain virological suppression similarly to DRV/r and two nucleosides.
- Atazanavir plus ritonavir or efavirenz as part of a 3-drug regimen for initial treatment of HIV-1Eric S Daar
Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, N 24, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
Ann Intern Med 154:445-56. 2011..Limited data compare once-daily options for initial therapy for HIV-1...
- Effect of rifampicin on lopinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected children with tuberculosisYuan Ren
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:566-9. 2008Rifampicin dramatically reduces plasma lopinavir concentrations (coformulated with ritonavir in a 4:1 ratio). A study in healthy adult volunteers showed that this reduction could be ameliorated if additional ritonavir is given...
- ADME pharmacogenetics: investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the antiretroviral agent lopinavir coformulated with ritonavirRubin Lubomirov
Institute of Microbiology, Service of Infectious Diseases, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Center, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Pharmacogenet Genomics 20:217-30. 2010..absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion)-pharmacogenetics association study may identify functional variants relevant to the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir co-formulated with ritonavir (LPV/r), a first-line anti-HIV agent.
- Pharmacokinetics of adjusted-dose lopinavir-ritonavir combined with rifampin in healthy volunteersC J L la Porte
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1553-60. 2004Coadministration of lopinavir-ritonavir, an antiretroviral protease inhibitor, at the standard dose (400/100 mg twice a day [BID]) with the antituberculous agent rifampin is contraindicated because of a significant pharmacokinetic ..
- Substitution of raltegravir for ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV-infected patients: the SPIRAL studyEsteban Martinez
Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Clínic Institut d Investigaciones Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
AIDS 24:1697-707. 2010Switching to raltegravir in selected patients treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors may result in similar efficacy and lower plasma lipids.
- Switch to a raltegravir-based regimen versus continuation of a lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen in stable HIV-infected patients with suppressed viraemia (SWITCHMRK 1 and 2): two multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trialsJoseph J Eron
University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Lancet 375:396-407. 2010To reduce lipid abnormalities and other side-effects associated with antiretroviral regimens containing lopinavir-ritonavir, patients might want to switch one or more components of their regimen...
- Rifamycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a report of 3 relapses with acquired rifampin resistance following alternate-day rifabutin and boosted protease inhibitor therapyElizabeth R Jenny-Avital
Jacobi Medical Center, Administration for Children s Services Clinic, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
Clin Infect Dis 48:1471-4. 2009..tuberculosis infection following concurrent treatment with rifabutin (dosage, 150 mg every other day) and a ritonavir-boosted HIV protease inhibitor during a prior episode of drug-susceptible tuberculosis...
- P-glycoprotein and MRP1 expression and reduced ritonavir and saquinavir accumulation in HIV-infected individualsE R Meaden
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Pharmacology Research Laboratories, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
J Antimicrob Chemother 50:583-8. 2002..for the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and MRP, we wished to investigate whether differences in expression of these transporters on human lymphocytes correlated with intracellular concentrations of ritonavir and saquinavir.
- Differential effects of efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir on human adipocyte differentiation, gene expression and release of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokinesJosé M Gallego-Escuredo
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institut de Biomedicina IBUB, University of Barcelona and CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Curr HIV Res 8:545-53. 2010In the present study, a comparative assessment of the effects of efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r; 4:1) on human adipocytes in culture has been performed...
- The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir on the HIV integrase inhibitor S/GSK1349572 in healthy participantsIvy Song
GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
J Clin Pharmacol 51:237-42. 2011..care for patients infected with HIV is combination therapy, the potential interaction between S/GSK1349572 and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors was evaluated...
- HIV protease inhibitors are inhibitors but not substrates of the human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)Anshul Gupta
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7610, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 310:334-41. 2004..We found that ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir were effective inhibitors of wild-type BCRP (482R) with IC50 values of 19.5 +/- 0...
- The MONET trial: week 144 analysis of the efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy versus DRV/r plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, for patients with viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at baselineJ R Arribas
University Hospital La Paz, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain
HIV Med 13:398-405. 2012In the MONotherapy in Europe with Tmc114 (MONET) trial, darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy showed noninferior efficacy vs. two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus DRV/r at the primary 48-week analysis...
- Pharmacokinetic interaction between fosamprenavir-ritonavir and rifabutin in healthy subjectsSusan L Ford
Clinical Pharmacology and Discovery Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:534-8. 2008..dAc-RFB), has been reported during concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors, including ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir, and amprenavir (APV); therefore, a reduction in the RFB dosage is recommended when it is ..
- Sex differences in lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics among HIV-infected women and menObi C Umeh
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
J Clin Pharmacol 51:1665-73. 2011The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) between women and men...
- Pharmacokinetic evaluation of rifabutin in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with HIV infection and active tuberculosisCatherine Boulanger
University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA
Clin Infect Dis 49:1305-11. 2009..We examined the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin before and after the addition of lopinavir-ritonavir.
- High incidence of renal stones among HIV-infected patients on ritonavir-boosted atazanavir than in those receiving other protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapyYohei Hamada
AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1 21 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
Clin Infect Dis 55:1262-9. 2012Little information is available on the incidence of renal stones with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) use.
- Pharmacokinetics of darunavir/ritonavir and rifabutin coadministered in HIV-negative healthy volunteersVanitha Sekar
Tibotec, Inc, Yardley, Pennsylvania, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:4440-5. 2010The drug-drug interaction between rifabutin (RFB) and darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) was examined in a randomized, three-way crossover study of HIV-negative healthy volunteers who received DRV/r 600/100 mg twice a day (BID) (treatment A), ..
- Loss of bone mineral density after antiretroviral therapy initiation, independent of antiretroviral regimenTodd T Brown
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:554-61. 2009..Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been described in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the contributions of ART and immunologic and/or virologic factors remain unclear...
- Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir exposure is associated with an increased rate of renal stones compared with efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and ritonavir-boosted darunavirNeesha Rockwood
Department of HIV Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
AIDS 25:1671-3. 2011There have been no data presented on the relative rates of the development of renal stones in those receiving ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATZ/r) when compared with other commonly used antiretrovirals (ARVs)...
- Increased resilience to the development of drug resistance with modern boosted protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapyViviane D Lima
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, St Paul s Hospital, British Columbia, Canada
J Infect Dis 198:51-8. 2008..We explore the temporal and regimen-specific changes of HIV-1 drug resistance in a large cohort of antiretroviral-naive individuals starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
- Solid dispersion as an approach for bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug ritonavirShilpi Sinha
Department of Analytical Research Development, Jubilant Organosys, Noida, 201301, India
AAPS PharmSciTech 11:518-27. 2010b>Ritonavir is an antiretroviral drug characterized by low solubility and high permeability which corresponds to BCS class II drug...
- Factors associated with virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients receiving darunavir/ritonavir monotherapySidonie Lambert-Niclot
Department of Virology and Infectious Diseases, AP HP, Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, INSERM U 943 and Pierre et Marie Curie University, Paris, France
J Infect Dis 204:1211-6. 2011Our objective was to determine virological and clinical characteristics associated with virological failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy.
- Lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy versus lopinavir-ritonavir and 2 nucleosides for maintenance therapy of HIV: 96-week analysisJose R Arribas
Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital La Paz, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:147-52. 2009The OK04 trial has shown that 48 weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy with reintroduction of nucleosides as needed was noninferior to continuation of triple therapy with 2 nucleosides and lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with prior ..
- Nevirapine versus atazanavir/ritonavir, each combined with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients: the ARTEN TrialVicente Soriano
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Antivir Ther 16:339-48. 2011..Selection of first-line antiretroviral therapy requires consideration of efficacy as well as effects on lipids given the increased concern about cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients...
- Lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy versus lopinavir-ritonavir and two nucleosides for maintenance therapy of HIVFederico Pulido
Unidad HIV and Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
AIDS 22:F1-9. 2008..Prior attempts to reduce the number of drugs needed to maintain viral suppression in patients with suppressed HIV replication while receiving three antiretroviral drugs have been unsuccessful...
- Two-year outcomes of children on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor regimens in a South African pediatric antiretroviral programHeather B Jaspan
School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:993-8. 2008..Few data exist on the efficacy of the limited regimens for children with HIV, which are available in sub-Saharan Africa...
- NanoART synthesis, characterization, uptake, release and toxicology for human monocyte-macrophage drug deliveryAri S Nowacek
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
Nanomedicine (Lond) 4:903-17. 2009..In attempts to bypass such limitations, nanoparticles containing ritonavir, indinavir and efavirenz (described as nanoART) were manufactured to assess macrophage-based drug delivery.
- Polymorphism in Gag gene cleavage sites of HIV-1 non-B subtype and virological outcome of a first-line lopinavir/ritonavir single drug regimenJade Ghosn
Paris Descartes University, EA 3620, Necker University Hospital, Paris, France
PLoS ONE 6:e24798. 2011..We show that pre-therapy mutations in gag cleavage site sequence were significantly associated with the virological outcome of a first-line LPV/r single drug regimen in the Monark trial...
- Protease inhibitor resistance analysis in the MONARK trial comparing first-line lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy to lopinavir-ritonavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine triple therapyConstance Delaugerre
University Paris Descartes, EA 3620, Virology Department, Necker Hospital AP HP, Paris, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2934-9. 2009The MONARK study was a pilot randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy to those of LPV/r-zidovudine-lamivudine triple therapy for antiretroviral-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type ..
- Randomized controlled study demonstrating failure of LPV/r monotherapy in HIV: the role of compartment and CD4-nadirChristine Gutmann
Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland
AIDS 24:2347-54. 2010..Monotherapy with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-MT) is the most widely studied strategy...
- Analyses of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug charge, size, shape and content for uptake, drug release and antiviral activities in human monocyte-derived macrophagesAri S Nowacek
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5880, USA
J Control Release 150:204-11. 2011..To this end, we wet-milled 20 nanoparticle formulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz, collectively referred to as "nanoART," then assessed their performance using a range ..
- Immunologic responses associated with 12 weeks of combination antiretroviral therapy consisting of zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir: results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 315M M Lederman
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Infect Dis 178:70-9. 1998..persons with moderately advanced HIV-1 infection, after 12 weeks of treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir, plasma HIV-1 RNA fell a median of 2.3 logs (P < .0001)...
- The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir on the renal clearance of tenofovir in HIV-infected patientsJ J Kiser
School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:265-72. 2008We determined the effects of lopinavir/ritonavir on tenofovir renal clearance...
- Sex-based outcomes of darunavir-ritonavir therapy: a single-group trialJudith Currier
University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Ann Intern Med 153:349-57. 2010..Women account for an increasing proportion of patients with HIV-1 but remain underrepresented in antiretroviral clinical trials...
- Simplification strategies to reduce antiretroviral drug exposure: progress and prospectsJohn E McKinnon
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Antivir Ther 14:1-12. 2009..Pilot studies of simplified maintenance therapy with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor alone have shown more promise, although concerns remain...
- HIV therapy, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular riskVivian Pao
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Metabolism Section Box 111F, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
Curr Atheroscler Rep 10:61-70. 2008..It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking...
- Long term probability of detection of HIV-1 drug resistance after starting antiretroviral therapy in routine clinical practiceAndrew N Phillips
AIDS 19:487-94. 2005..Little is known about the long term risk of development of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or four drug regimens in routine clinical practice...
- Atazanavir pharmacokinetics with and without tenofovir during pregnancyMark Mirochnick
Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:412-9. 2011..Few data are available describing atazanavir exposure during pregnancy, especially when used in combination with tenofovir, whose coadministration with atazanavir results in decreased atazanavir exposure...
- Immunovirological response to triple nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in treatment-naive HIV-2-infected patients: The ACHIEV2E Collaboration Study GroupAntoine Benard
INSERM, U, France
Clin Infect Dis 52:1257-66. 2011..However, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-containing regimens are frequently prescribed...
- Effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir-500 mg formulation with ritonavir in healthy male and female volunteersAlan Winston
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
AIDS 20:1401-6. 2006..We evaluated the effect of omeprazole, a proton-pump-inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of the recently developed saquinavir-500 mg formulation co-administered with ritonavir.
- The level of persistent HIV viremia does not increase after successful simplification of maintenance therapy to lopinavir/ritonavir aloneJohn E McKinnon
University of Pittsburgh, Pensylvania, USA
AIDS 20:2331-5. 2006To determine whether the level of persistent HIV-1 viremia is affected by simplifying standard antiretroviral therapy to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) alone.
- Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findingsC M Chu
Department of Microbiology and Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Thorax 59:252-6. 2004The clinical response of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin was examined after establishing the in vitro antiviral susceptibility of the SARS associated ..
- Fat tissue distribution changes in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. Results of the MONARK trialSami Kolta
Paris Descartes University, Medicine Faculty, UPRES EA 4058, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France
Curr HIV Res 9:31-9. 2011..Data from the MONARK trial allowed for comparison of the potential lipodystrophic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy with those of triple therapy with LPV/r plus zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC)...
- Renal function in antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate associated with atazanavir/ritonavirLaurence Gerard
INSERM SC10, Villejuif, France
Antivir Ther 12:31-9. 2007....
- Effects of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on the pharmacokinetics of quinineM M Nyunt
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:889-95. 2012..A phase I pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the impact of long-term use of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) on quinine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers...
- Effects of etravirine alone and with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravirIvy Song
GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3517-21. 2011..Two studies evaluated the effects of etravirine (ETR) alone and in combination with ritonavir (RTV)-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) on DTG pharmacokinetics (PK) in healthy subjects...
- Safety and exposure of once-daily ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected pregnant womenF Conradie
HIV Clinical Trial Unit, Helen Joseph Hospital, University of Witwaterand, Westdene, South Africa
HIV Med 12:570-9. 2011..The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy and appropriate dosing regimen for ritonavir (RTV)-boosted atazanavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.
- 96 week results from the MONET trial: a randomized comparison of darunavir/ritonavir with versus without nucleoside analogues, for patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL at baselineNathan Clumeck
Hôpital St Pierre, Brussels, Belgium
J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1878-85. 2011In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy could avoid resistance and adverse events from continuing nucleoside analogues.
- A randomized comparison of second-line lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus tenofovir/lamivudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in patients failing NNRTI regimens: the HIV STAR studyTorsak Bunupuradah
HIV NAT, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand
Antivir Ther 17:1351-61. 2012..There are also no randomized trials addressing treatment options after failing first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-regimens...
- Ritonavir induces P-glycoprotein expression, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) expression, and drug transporter-mediated activity in a human intestinal cell lineM D Perloff
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
J Pharm Sci 90:1829-37. 2001..the response of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) to chronic ritonavir (RIT) exposure by assessing increases in P-gp and MRP1 protein expression and activity...
- Interaction of human cytochrome P4503A4 with ritonavir analogsIrina F Sevrioukova
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, 92697, United States
Arch Biochem Biophys 520:108-16. 2012b>Ritonavir is a HIV protease inhibitor that also potently inactivates cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), a major human drug-metabolizing enzyme...
- Formation of nano/micro-dispersions with improved dissolution properties upon dispersion of ritonavir melt extrudate in aqueous mediaIngunn Tho
Drug Transport and Delivery Group, Dept of Pharmacy, University of Tromsoe, N 9037 Tromsoe, Norway
Eur J Pharm Sci 40:25-32. 2010The objective of the study was to characterise the aqueous dispersions of ritonavir melt extrudates...
- Effects of boosted tipranavir and lopinavir on body composition, insulin sensitivity and adipocytokines in antiretroviral-naive adultsAndrew Carr
HIV, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Unit, St Vincent s Hospital, Sydney, Australia
AIDS 22:2313-21. 2008..We studied the effects of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens on body composition, insulin sensitivity and adipocytokine levels...
- Efficacy and safety outcomes among treatment-experienced women and men treated with etravirine in gender, race and clinical experienceSally Hodder
Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:544-51. 2012..HIV-1-infected patients, mainly women, in North America, to assess outcomes with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen, which could include etravirine (ETR)...
- Prospective, randomized, open label trial of Efavirenz vs Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV+ treatment-naive subjects with CD4+<200 cell/mm3 in MexicoJuan Sierra-Madero
Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53:582-8. 2010To compare the efficacy of efavirenz (EFV) vs lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in combination with azidothymidine/lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy naive, HIV+ individuals presenting for care with CD4 counts <200/mm.
- Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of danoprevir/ritonavir plus PEG-IFN α-2a/RBV in hepatitis C patientsEdward J Gane
Auckland Clinical Studies, New Zealand
J Hepatol 55:972-9. 2011..activity, resistance, and pharmacokinetics of once- and twice-daily danoprevir in the presence of low-dose ritonavir (danoprevir/r) and in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin in treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 ..
- Treatment intensification has no effect on the HIV-1 central nervous system infection in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapyAylin Yilmaz
Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:590-6. 2010....
- Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and ritonavir-boosted saquinavir mesylate administered alone or in combination at steady stateGregory E Chittick
Gilead Sciences, Inc, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, 4 University Place, 4611 University Dr, Durham, NC 27707, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1304-10. 2006..conducted to formally evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and ritonavir (RTV)-boosted saquinavir mesylate (SQV) when coadministered in healthy volunteers...
- Ritonavir inhibits the two main prasugrel bioactivation pathways in vitro: a potential drug-drug interaction in HIV patientsYoussef Daali
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
Metabolism 60:1584-9. 2011..HIV patients are at risk of cardiovascular disease, and the protease inhibitor ritonavir is a potent inhibitor of these 2 CYPs...
- Lopinavir plasma concentrations and changes in lipid levels during salvage therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimensFelix Gutierrez
Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Alicante, Spain
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:594-600. 2003..To determine whether an association existed between lopinavir (LPV) plasma concentrations and changes in lipid levels...
- The bile acid sensor FXR protects against dyslipidemia and aortic plaques development induced by the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir in miceAndrea Mencarelli
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Perugia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Perugia, Italy
PLoS ONE 5:e13238. 2010..Here we illustrate that targeting the bile acid sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protects against dyslipidemia and vascular injury induced HIV-PIs in rodents...
- Simultaneous determination of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and amprenavir in human plasma by LC/MS/MSJingduan Chi
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Drug Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Pharm Biomed Anal 30:675-84. 2002..has been developed to measure the levels of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir (NFV), indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV), saquinavir (SQV) and amprenavir (APV) in human plasma...
- Comparative gender analysis of the efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir at 96 weeks in the CASTLE studyKathleen E Squires
Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 211 South 9th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
J Antimicrob Chemother 66:363-70. 2011..overall results of the CASTLE study pertain to both genders, we analysed the efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in 277 female and 606 male patients in the open-label, multinational trial over 96 weeks...
- A randomized, pilot trial to evaluate glomerular filtration rate by creatinine or cystatin C in naive HIV-infected patients after tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenzLaura Albini
Department of Materno Infantile e Tecnologie Biomediche, Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Italy
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59:18-30. 2012..There is lack of data on GFR estimated by these methods in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy...
- Antiretrovirals as antimalarial agentsTina S Skinner-Adams
Malaria Biology Laboratory, Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, Queensland Institute of Medical Research and School of Population Health, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
J Infect Dis 190:1998-2000. 2004..on cytoadherence and phagocytosis, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease inhibitors saquinavir, ritonavir, and indinavir directly inhibit the growth of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro at clinically relevant ..
- The relation between treatment outcome and efavirenz, atazanavir or lopinavir exposure in the NORTHIV trial of treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patientsFilip Josephson
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:349-57. 2010..patients treated with (1) EFV + 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI) once daily, (2) ritonavir-boosted ATV + 2NRTI once daily or (3) ritonavir-boosted LPV + 2NRTI twice daily...
- Ritonavir greatly impairs CYP3A activity in HIV infection with chronic viral hepatitisTamsin A Knox
Nutrition Infection Division, Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49:358-68. 2008b>Ritonavir is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) that metabolizes many antiretrovirals. We examined the effect of ritonavir and of chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) status on CYP3A activity.
- Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulationsShantanu Balkundi
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Int J Nanomedicine 6:3393-404. 2011Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients...
- Pharmacokinetic interaction between mefloquine and ritonavir in healthy volunteersY Khaliq
Clinical Investigation Unit, Department of Pharmacy, The Ottawa Hospital--General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Br J Clin Pharmacol 51:591-600. 2001AIMS: To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between ritonavir and mefloquine. METHODS: Healthy volunteers participated in two separate, nonfasted, three-treatment, three-period, longitudinal pharmacokinetic studies...
- Berberine inhibits HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammatory response by modulating ER stress signaling pathways in murine macrophagesWeibin Zha
Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Internal Medicine Gastroenterology and McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e9069. 2010..This study examined the effect of berberine, a traditional herb medicine, on HIV PI-induced inflammatory response and further investigated the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms in macrophages...
- The effect of multiple doses of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of rifabutinA Cato
Pharmaceutical Products Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill, USA
Clin Pharmacol Ther 63:414-21. 1998To investigate the effects of ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of rifabutin.
- Hepatotoxicity associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimens with or without concurrent ritonavirMark S Sulkowski
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
AIDS 18:2277-84. 2004..enzyme elevations following the initiation of protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) with or without pharmacokinetic boosting with ritonavir (RTV), and to define the role of chronic viral hepatitis in its development.
- Effect of an antiretroviral regimen containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein in HIV-infected patientsC Wyen
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of the University of Cologne, Koln, Germany
Clin Pharmacol Ther 84:75-82. 2008..in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pharmacokinetics...
- Nanomedicine and NeuroAIDSHoward E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013..These include ritonavir boosted atazanavir, maraviroc, lamivudine, dolutegravir and efavirenz...
- Pharmacology of Antiretroviral Nanoparticle MicellesChristopher J Destache; Fiscal Year: 2010..Using a biodegradable polymer (poly (DL-lactide-co 5-caprolactone)), combined ARV agents (ritonavir RTV, lopinavir LPV, and efavirenz EFV) will be entrapped into a nanoparticle and efficiency will be investigated...
- Antimalarial Pharmacology in HIV Coinfected Children and Pregnant Women in UgandaSunil Parikh; Fiscal Year: 2013..PI-based regimens include lopinavir/ritonavir, and NNRTI-based regimens include either nevirapine or efavirenz...
- Designing HIV Protease Inhibitors with Lower Dosing Requirements and Lower ToxiciMitchell W Mutz; Fiscal Year: 2013..marketed HIV protease inhibitors (PI's) are substrates for cytochrome P450 and are co- administered with ritonavir, a pharmacokinetic booster...
- Cardioprotective Efficacy ofMg-Supplementation during HAART TherapyIVAN TONG MAK; Fiscal Year: 2011DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tenofovir (TFV), efavirenz (EFV) and ritonavir (RTV) are the first line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) agents used in most treatment of HIV patients...
- HIV Infection and Falls: Epidemiology and Risk AssessmentJulie A Womack; Fiscal Year: 2013..HIV specific factors such as lower CD4 count, higher viral load, efavirenz use, and ritonavir use may also contribute to falls risk...
- HAART to Prevent HIV Transmission to Infants In BotswanaRoger L Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2010..Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/RTV, or Kaletra)/Combivir (CBV) from 20-34 weeks of pregnancy through 6 months postpartum...
- NanoART Manufacture, Delivery and Pharmacokinetics for Optimizing Drug AdherenceHoward E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013..These risk factors often result in poor treatment outcomes. The advent of slow release ART (ritonavir, indinavir, efavirenz, atazanovir and efavirenz) will positively impact these concerns...
- Optimizing Antiretroviral Use in Aging: Pharmacokinetics, Response, and ToxicityJULIE BRUMER DUMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013..for two common ARV regimens, emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz (Atripla) and emtricitabine/tenofovir/atazanavir/ritonavir (Truvada, Reyataz, and Norvir)...
- Moving Towards More Individualized Therapies in HIV/HCV Co-infected PatientsSusanna Naggie; Fiscal Year: 2013..Aims 2 and 3 will be achieved using a prospective study design of HIV/HCV co-infected patients initiating ritonavir-boosted-protease inhibitor-based ART...
- HIV-1, Exercise and Endothelial FunctionChristopher A Desouza; Fiscal Year: 2013..ART regimen consisting of tenofovir and emtricitabine combined with either efavirenz or atazanavir boosted with ritonavir will be studied...
- Modeling Neural Injury Effects of Methamphetamine Metabolism by CYP2D6 in HIVMariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2013..These include serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression as well as the antiretroviral ritonavir, which is used to boost a majority of cART regimens...
- Lopinavir/ritonavir + zidovudine to prevent perinatal HIV in ThailandMarc J Lallemant; Fiscal Year: 2013..trial the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of a simple, affordable and potent combination of ZDV + lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) from 28 weeks'gestation versus the regimen currently recommended by WHO in a non breastfeeding ..
- CYP2D6 Genotype and Cognitive Deficits in Methamphetamine Users with/without HIVMariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2013..Finally, the antiretroviral ritonavir, used to boost the majority of cART regimens, is also a CYP2D6 inhibitor, and there are reports in the ..
- Anti-HIV Neuroimmunomodulatory Therapy with Neurokinin-1 (NK1-R) AntagonistsSTEVEN DANIEL DOUGLAS; Fiscal Year: 2013..R Antagonists in Depression;and 5) Phase IB Clinical Trial of Neurokinin-1 R Antagonist-Aprepitant with ritonavir boost and direct proof of NK1R antagonism efficacy, and two Cores: A) Administration;and C) Quantitative ..
- TAUROURSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID FOR PROTEASE-INHIBITOR ASSOCIATED INSULIN RESISTANCEDominic N Reeds; Fiscal Year: 2013..We have found that TUDCA markedly ameliorates ritonavir-induced insulin resistance in human myotubes and mice...
- Natural Product-Inspired Method for Enhancing HIV Protease InhibitorsJason E Gestwicki; Fiscal Year: 2013..The lifetime of this compound was superior to that of ritonavir-boosted amprenavir and, moreover, its metabolic stability was now independent of ritonavir co-administration...
- Concurrent HAART and Tuberculosis Treatment: Drug to Drug InteractionsAWEWURA JACOB KWARA; Fiscal Year: 2010..the interethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and tolerability of efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir before and during concurrent administration with rifampin...
- LIPOGENESIS & LIPOPROTEIN COMPLICATIONS OF HIV THERAPYDavid Y Hui; Fiscal Year: 2010..same HDL metabolic parameters in the HIV infected subjects after initiation of (i) atazanavir, (ii) lopinavir/ritonavir, or (iii) efavirenz therapy to identify the difference between health restoration and treatment-specific effects ..
- Optimal dosing of 1st line antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs in childrenHelen McIlleron; Fiscal Year: 2013..Using double dose lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the commercially available 4:1 ratio has been shown to be insufficient...
- Oligodendrocyte damage and dysfunction in HIV associated neurocognitive disorderKELLY L JORDANSCIUTTO; Fiscal Year: 2013..compounds (ARV), one nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), AZT, and one protease inhibitor (PI), ritonavir, alter oligodendrocyte morphology and decrease oligodendrocyte survival in a dose dependent manner in vitro...
- Milk-based nano-delivery system for hydrophobic drugs in infants and childrenTomas Martin-Jimenez; Fiscal Year: 2012..to use modified casein micelles from bovine milk as carrier systems for the delivery of the low MW hydrophobic ritonavir (MW = 721 KDa, Log P >3.9) into the small intestine...
- Treatment Options for Protease Inhibitor Exposed ChildrenLouise Kuhn; Fiscal Year: 2013..Treatment initiation with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is recommended because of concerns about resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase-inhibitors (..
- Bone health in perinatally HIV-infected South African children on antiretroviralsMichael T Yin; Fiscal Year: 2013..cytokines, nutrition and physical activity on bone turnover and accrual;and 3) compare the effects of lopinavir/ritonavir-based versus efavirenz-based regimens on vitamin D levels, bone turnover, and bone acquisition in pre-pubertal ..
- Virologic Failure of boosted ProteasesDAVID ALLENBERG KATZENSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013..the mechanism of drug resistance and failure among recipients of a boosted protease regimen, Atazanavir and ritonavir (ATV/r)...
- Once Monthly Antiretroviral Nanoparticles for HIV-1 TreatmentChristopher J Destache; Fiscal Year: 2011..Antiretroviral nanoparticles containing ritonavir, lopinavir, and efavirenz have been able to show success as a sustained drug delivery system...
- Garlic Metabolism and Cytochrome P450 ModulationDanny Shen; Fiscal Year: 2007..therapeutic drugs, including anticoagulants (warfarin, fuindione) and HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir, ritonavir), have been reported within the past 2 years...
- Drug-induced liver injury associated with anti-retroviral therapyXiaochao Ma; Fiscal Year: 2012..These complications include hepatotoxicity, which has been reported in ~10% of patients who receive ritonavir-containing protease inhibitor regimens...
- CHEMISTRY SUPPORT SERVICES TO THE ETP FOR AIDS THERAPEUTICSReshan Fernando; Fiscal Year: 2009..purity of zivudine, lamavudine, nevirapine, and nelfinavir and begin the assessment of emtricitabine, lopinavir, ritonavir, and tenofovir...
- Long-term efficacy of pediatric HAARTDALTON CHEKOKO WAMALWA; Fiscal Year: 2010..in Africa typically have a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) backbone and do not include ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (Pis), which are considered the most potent antiretrovirals available...
- Optimizing NNRTI Doses in Patients with HIV and TBTerrence Blaschke; Fiscal Year: 2007..NNRTI) efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP) plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), or ritonavir and/or saquinavir and 2NRTI, or a triple NRTI regimen...
- Antiretroviral Therapy of AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma in AfricaJeffrey Martin; Fiscal Year: 2009..our multidisciplinary team proposes these four aims: (1) Determine whether a Pi-based HAART regimen (lopinavir/ritonavir plus zidovudine/lamivudine) is more efficacious than a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-..
- HIV Therapy & Interruption RCT in Resource Poor ClinicLuis J Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2010..who successfully achieve viral suppression to <50 copies/ml during a 24 week "run-in" period on lopinavir/ritonavir, lamivudine, stavudine to include a complete vaccination series against rabies from week 16 to 22 (de novo ..
- HIV Therapy & Interruption RCT in Resource Poor ClinicLuis Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2004..who successfully achieve viral suppression to <50 copies/ml during a 24 week "run-in" period on lopinavir/ritonavir, lamivudine, stavudine to include a complete vaccination series against rabies from week 16 to 22 (de novo ..
- Interaction of Alcohol and HAART in HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS and HCV CoinfectionElinore F McCance Katz; Fiscal Year: 2011..g.: protease inhibitors;particularly ritonavir which is frequently co-administered with other protease inhibitors to delay their metabolism)...
- Metabolic and Nutritional Effects of ART in ChildrenMeera Chhagan; Fiscal Year: 2009..These guidelines recommend stavudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir for children less than 3 years, or stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz if older than 3...
- HIV PROTEASE INHIBITORS AND ATHEROSCLEROSISEric Smart; Fiscal Year: 2006..macrophages isolated from LDL receptor null mice given the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir, indinavir, or ritonavir, contain more SR-BI and CD36 than aged-matched controls...
- Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Oyster MushroomsDonald Abrams; Fiscal Year: 2004..oyster mushrooms (Pieurotus ostreatus) for treatment of hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected patients who are taking ritonavir, a protease inhibitor (PI) that is commonly used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
- Factors Affecting CYP3A-Mediated Metabolism of Drugs of Abuse in HIV+ PatientsLauren Oleson; Fiscal Year: 2007..Since the effect of chronic administration of the protease inhibitor, ritonavir, on CYP3A activity in HIV+ patients is currently unclear, we propose to study the effect of long-term ritonavir ..
- ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY AND VARIABILITY OF ANTIAIDS DRUGSPatrick Sinko; Fiscal Year: 2000..The specific drugs to be studied include HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir, ritonavir), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (delaviridine, UC-781), and antiherpetic/anti-CMV agents (..
- HIV protease inhibitors, marcophage function/estrogenMelinda Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2007..human monocyte/macrophage cell line, THP-1 to define the effects 17??estradiol on the HIV protease inhibitors ritonavir and amprenavir induced alterations of CD36 expression and CD36-dependent function by measuring lipoprotein ..
- Bone Loss and Its Prevention in HIV PatientsF Ross; Fiscal Year: 2006..In contrast to the osteoporotic properties of Indinavir, Ritonavir is bone sparing, in vivo, exerting its effect, in an M-CSF independent manner, by blunting OC formation and ..
- FPIA FOR SAQUINAVIR AND RITONAVIR HIV INHIBITORSCharles Harrington; Fiscal Year: 2000..Integral drugs in that cocktail are the HIV Specific Protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir. Immunoassay analysis of saquinavir and ritonavir would provide an analytically suitable, clinically useful ..
- NORTH JERSEY COMMUNITY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NJCRI)George Perez; Fiscal Year: 2006..In addition to patients being followed in the Nelfinavir vs. Ritonavir (NvR) study, they will enroll 50 patients in Mycobacterium avium complex (CR-MAC) and 50 in Pneumococcal ..
- Effects of Ritonavir on HHV-8 vGPCR signaling and tumorigenesisMarvin Reitz; Fiscal Year: 2007..We have previously shown that ritonavir, a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection, inhibits NFkappaB activation...
- Genetic-determinants of protease inhibitor pharmacologyPeter Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2007..The current clinical approach to deal with atazanavir's pharmacokinetic variability is to use ritonavir boosting...
- DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL TO PREDICT DRUG HEPATOTOXICITYKIM BROUWER; Fiscal Year: 2005..Test Compounds" [known hepatotoxic drugs (bosentan, troglitazone, ritonavir, methotrexate, acetaminophen) and a negative control (tamoxifen)], as well as six NCI compounds, will be assayed ..
- Pharmacogenetic Analysis in MiceGary Peltz; Fiscal Year: 2006..2) The pharmacokinetic profile (parent and metabolites) of coumadin, bleomycin, isoniazid and ritonavir will be measured in 11 inbred mouse strains...
- MUTATIONS EFFECTS ON INHIBITION OF HIV PROTEASEJordan Tang; Fiscal Year: 2002..for the resistance observed in clinical trials of 3 marketed HIV-1 PR inhibitor drugs (Saquanivir, Idinavir, Ritonavir); the mutations also lead to cross-resistance to other major inhibitors under development for clinical use...
- Treatment&Pathogenesis of Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV InfectRichard Price; Fiscal Year: 2004..and thermodynamically characterize many of the mutations in HIV- 1 protease that confer resistance to ritonavir. The nature of many of these mutations suggest the involvement of structural rearrangements, solvation effects, ..
- VARIANTS OF HIV WITH INCREASED POLYMERASE FIDELITYVinayaka Prasad; Fiscal Year: 1999..Samples will be obtained from a clinical trial, in which patients will be treated first with 3TC and given ritonavir as a second arm only after the appearance of 3TC-resistant RT is confirmed...
- Structure/Function Studies on FlavoproteinsIrina Sevrioukova; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- ANESTHETIC RENAL METABOLISM--MECHANISMS AND CONSEQUENCESEvan Kharasch; Fiscal Year: 2002..More broadly, resulting biochemical and clinical insights will be applicable to the numerous other nephrotoxic haloalkenes that are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. ..
- CNS Viral Dynamics and Cellular Immunity During AIDSDavid Haas; Fiscal Year: 2009..Characterizing these relationships will expand our knowledge regarding key events that lead to AIDS dementia, and may suggest novel approaches to other immunologic or viral-mediated diseases that affect the brain. ..
- Impact of selenium/zinc levels on HIV disease and treatment response in childrenTorsak Bunupuradah; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Novel noninvasive assessment of cytochrome P450 activityEvan Kharasch; Fiscal Year: 2009..This approach may identify inter-individual variability in drug disposition and response;permit more individualized dosing, and reduces the cost of drug interaction studies. ..
- VANDERBILT ADULT AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS UNITDavid Haas; Fiscal Year: 2006..The proposed ACTU will not only enroll patients into ACTG clinical trials, but will provide the ACTG the ability to address important questions concerning AIDS treatment and pathogenesis. ..
- ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPIES AND SUBSTANCE ABUSEDavid Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2002..to apply in vitromodels, using human liver microsomal preparations, to determine the capacity of HIV PIs (ritonavir, nelfinavir, indinavir, saquinavir) and of NNRTls tdelavirdine, nevirapine, efavirenz) to inhibit CYP3A-mediated ..
- HAART Regimens in Substance AbusersDavid Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2003..the method is applied to assessing CYP3A and P-gp inhibition and induction with initial and extended exposure to ritonavir, delavirdine, and nevirapine...
- GARLIC PREPARATIONS AND ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGSDavid Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2004..by CYP3A and transport by P-glycoprotein), and on the pharmacokinetics of two representative antiretrovirals, ritonavir and saquinavir. There are two specific aims...
- K24 MID-CAREER CLINICAL INVESTIGATOR AWARDJohn Bartlett; Fiscal Year: 2004..These mentorship activities are strongly supported by leadership of the Department of Medicine and the Division of Infectious Diseases, and an AIDS Training Grant, which provides financial support for young investigators. ..
- Predictors of Immunologic Long-term Non-Progression in Children with HIVJintanat Ananworanich; Fiscal Year: 2010..This will be important in deciding when to treat children with antiretroviral therapy. ..
- CHRONIC BENZODIAZEPINES: BEHAVIOR AND NEUROCHEMISTRYDavid Greenblatt; Fiscal Year: 2005....