Summary: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine actions
    M Zafarullah
    Departement de Medecine, Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite de Montreal, Lab K 5255 Mailloux, Hôpital Notre Dame du CHUM, 1560 Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada
    Cell Mol Life Sci 60:6-20. 2003
  2. ncbi The chemistry and biological activities of N-acetylcysteine
    Yuval Samuni
    Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:4117-29. 2013
  3. ncbi High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Maurits Demedts
    University Hospital, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    N Engl J Med 353:2229-42. 2005
  4. pmc PGE2-regulated wnt signaling and N-acetylcysteine are synergistically hepatoprotective in zebrafish acetaminophen injury
    Trista E North
    Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17315-20. 2010
  5. ncbi Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity
    Laura P James
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:1499-506. 2003
  6. ncbi Efficacy of inhaled N-acetylcysteine monotherapy in patients with early stage idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Sakae Homma
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan
    Respirology 17:467-77. 2012
  7. ncbi Effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on diabetic retinopathy and expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 from retinal blood vessels of diabetic rats
    Yuan Zhu
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliate Hospital of Xi an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, Xi an, 710061, Shaanxi, China
    Mol Biol Rep 39:3727-35. 2012
  8. pmc Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure
    William M Lee
    Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8887, USA
    Gastroenterology 137:856-64, 864.e1. 2009
  9. pmc N-Acetylcysteine reverses cocaine-induced metaplasticity
    Khaled Moussawi
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue BSB410, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:182-9. 2009
  10. ncbi N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia--a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Michael Berk
    The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Parkville, Australia
    Biol Psychiatry 64:361-8. 2008

Detail Information

Publications405 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine actions
    M Zafarullah
    Departement de Medecine, Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite de Montreal, Lab K 5255 Mailloux, Hôpital Notre Dame du CHUM, 1560 Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada
    Cell Mol Life Sci 60:6-20. 2003
    ..Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been used as tools for investigating the role of ROS in numerous biological and pathological ..
  2. ncbi The chemistry and biological activities of N-acetylcysteine
    Yuval Samuni
    Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:4117-29. 2013
    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been in clinical practice for several decades...
  3. ncbi High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Maurits Demedts
    University Hospital, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    N Engl J Med 353:2229-42. 2005
    ..Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disorder with a poor prognosis...
  4. pmc PGE2-regulated wnt signaling and N-acetylcysteine are synergistically hepatoprotective in zebrafish acetaminophen injury
    Trista E North
    Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17315-20. 2010
    ..The only available treatment, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), has a limited time window of efficacy, indicating a need for additional therapeutic options...
  5. ncbi Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity
    Laura P James
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:1499-506. 2003
    ..This finding led to the development of the currently used antidote N-acetylcysteine. The reactive metabolite was subsequently identified to be N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI)...
  6. ncbi Efficacy of inhaled N-acetylcysteine monotherapy in patients with early stage idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Sakae Homma
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan
    Respirology 17:467-77. 2012
    ..A multicentre, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of inhaled N-acetylcysteine (NAC) monotherapy in Japanese patients with early stage IPF.
  7. ncbi Effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on diabetic retinopathy and expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 from retinal blood vessels of diabetic rats
    Yuan Zhu
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliate Hospital of Xi an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, Xi an, 710061, Shaanxi, China
    Mol Biol Rep 39:3727-35. 2012
    ..Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was given to diabetic rats to elicit antioxidative responses, and rats were sacrificed at 3 and 5 months...
  8. pmc Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure
    William M Lee
    Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8887, USA
    Gastroenterology 137:856-64, 864.e1. 2009
    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, might benefit patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure.
  9. pmc N-Acetylcysteine reverses cocaine-induced metaplasticity
    Khaled Moussawi
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue BSB410, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Nat Neurosci 12:182-9. 2009
    ..N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment prevents relapse in animal models and craving in humans by activating cystine-glutamate ..
  10. ncbi N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia--a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
    Michael Berk
    The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Parkville, Australia
    Biol Psychiatry 64:361-8. 2008
    ..This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of oral NAC (1 g orally twice daily [b.i.d.]) as an add-on to maintenance medication for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia over a 24-week period...
  11. pmc N-acetylcysteine reduces disease activity by blocking mammalian target of rapamycin in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Zhi Wei Lai
    State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, College of Medicine, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 64:2937-46. 2012
    ..This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to examine the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of the GSH precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
  12. pmc N-acetylcysteine suppresses retinal detachment in an experimental model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy
    Hetian Lei
    Department of Ophthalmology, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, 20 Staniford St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Am J Pathol 177:132-40. 2010
  13. ncbi Impact of high-dose N-acetylcysteine versus placebo on contrast-induced nephropathy and myocardial reperfusion injury in unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The LIPSIA-
    Holger Thiele
    Department of Internal Medicine Cardiology, University of Leipzig Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany
    J Am Coll Cardiol 55:2201-9. 2010
    The aim of this randomized, single-blind, controlled trial was to assess N-acetylcysteine effects on contrast-induced nephropathy and reperfusion injury in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary angioplasty ..
  14. pmc N-acetylcysteine as adjunctive treatment in severe malaria: a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial
    Prakaykaew Charunwatthana
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Crit Care Med 37:516-22. 2009
    ..It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment...
  15. ncbi Neuronal glutathione deficiency and age-dependent neurodegeneration in the EAAC1 deficient mouse
    Koji Aoyama
    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:119-26. 2006
    ..These changes were reversed by treating the EAAC1(-/-) mice with N-acetylcysteine, a membrane-permeable cysteine precursor...
  16. ncbi N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy in primary angioplasty
    Giancarlo Marenzi
    Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Institute of Cardiology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    N Engl J Med 354:2773-82. 2006
    ..We investigated the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing primary angioplasty.
  17. pmc N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol synergistically enhance cardiac adiponectin content and reduce myocardial reperfusion injury in diabetic rats
    Tingting Wang
    Department of Anaesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e23967. 2011
    ..It is unknown whether or not antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and/or allopurinol (ALP) can attenuate APN deficiency and myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury ..
  18. ncbi PKCβ inhibition with ruboxistaurin reduces oxidative stress and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes
    Yanan Liu
    Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, China
    Clin Sci (Lond) 122:161-73. 2012
    ..the selective PKCβ inhibitor RBX (ruboxistaurin; 1 mg/kg of body weight per day) or the antioxidant NAC (N-acetylcysteine) for 4 weeks. LV (left ventricular) dimensions and functions were detected by echocardiography...
  19. pmc N-acetylcysteine inhibit biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Tiemei Zhao
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China
    BMC Microbiol 10:140. 2010
    ..It typically makes a biofilm, which makes treatment of these infections difficult. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on biofilms produced by P. aeruginosa.
  20. pmc Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs
    A R Fetoni
    Institutes of Otolaryngology, Catholic University of Rome, Italy
    Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 29:70-5. 2009
    ..of the pathogenic mechanisms of noise-induced cochlear damage and the efficacy of the antioxidant drug N-acetylcysteine in reducing noise ototoxicity...
  21. pmc Role of antibiofilm-antimicrobial agents in controlling device-related infections
    Saima Aslam
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
    Int J Artif Organs 34:752-8. 2011
    To assess the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on organism viability in planktonic and biofilm phases, biofilm thickness, and extracellular polysaccharide content.
  22. ncbi Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on intestinal functions of piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide
    Yongqing Hou
    Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, China
    Amino Acids 43:1233-42. 2012
    ..N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used precursor of L: -cysteine for animal cells and plays an important role in protecting ..
  23. ncbi Prevention of cisplatin ototoxicity using transtympanic N-acetylcysteine and lactate
    Won Taek Choe
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Otol Neurotol 25:910-5. 2004
    Transtympanic administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or lactated Ringer's solution onto the round window membrane will prevent cisplatin ototoxicity in the guinea pig model.
  24. pmc The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 but not N-acetylcysteine reverses aging-related biomarkers in rats
    Nataliya G Kolosova
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Aging (Albany NY) 4:686-94. 2012
    ..We suggest that supplementation with low doses of SkQ1 is a promising intervention to achieve a healthy ageing...
  25. ncbi Inhibitory effect of N-acetylcysteine on invasion and MMP-9 production of T24 human bladder cancer cells
    S Kawakami
    Department of Urology and Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1 5 45, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    Anticancer Res 21:213-9. 2001
    ..MMPs play a crucial role in the process of cancer invasion and metastasis...
  26. ncbi High-dose N-acetylcysteine in stable COPD: the 1-year, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled HIACE study
    Hoi Nam Tse
    Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    Chest 144:106-18. 2013
    The mucolytic and antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may have great value in COPD treatment...
  27. ncbi N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in A549 cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus
    Janina Geiler
    Institute of Medical Virology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Biochem Pharmacol 79:413-20. 2010
    ..Therefore, antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic...
  28. ncbi Administration of N-acetylcysteine after focal cerebral ischemia protects brain and reduces inflammation in a rat model of experimental stroke
    Mushfiquddin Khan
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurosci Res 76:519-27. 2004
    ..Preadministration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been found to attenuate the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model of experimental ..
  29. pmc Oral N-acetyl-cysteine attenuates loss of dopaminergic terminals in alpha-synuclein overexpressing mice
    Joanne Clark
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12333. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that supplementation with n-acetylcysteine (NAC), a source of cysteine--the limiting amino acid in glutathione synthesis, would protect against alpha-..
  30. ncbi N-Acetylcysteine--a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency
    Kondala R Atkuri
    Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, B007 Beckman Center, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford University, CA 94305 5318, United States
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:355-9. 2007
    Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is associated with numerous pathological conditions. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug, replenishes intracellular GSH levels...
  31. ncbi The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice
    Susan A Farr
    Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center GRECC, VA Medical Center 151 JC, 915 N Grand Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63109, USA
    J Neurochem 84:1173-83. 2003
    ..Here, we examined the ability of two antioxidants, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), to reverse the cognitive deficits found in the SAMP8 mouse...
  32. pmc N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action
    Olivia Dean
    Mental Health Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 36:78-86. 2011
    ..N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is emerging as a useful agent in the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
  33. pmc N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1-/- mouse
    Ari E Berman
    Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA
    Ann Neurol 69:509-20. 2011
    ..the age-related changes in nigral dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1(-/-) mouse, and (2) use the EAAC1(-/-) mouse to evaluate N-acetylcysteine, a membrane-permeable cysteine pro-drug, as a potential disease-modifying intervention for PD.
  34. ncbi The reno-protective effect of hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine in patients undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention: the RENO Study
    Alejandro Recio-Mayoral
    Department of Cardiology, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Seville, Spain
    J Am Coll Cardiol 49:1283-8. 2007
    ..This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a protocol for rapid intravenous hydration to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
  35. pmc Acetylcysteine for acetaminophen poisoning
    Kennon J Heard
    Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health, Denver 80208, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:285-92. 2008
  36. ncbi Cadmium activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway via induction of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of protein phosphatases 2A and 5
    Long Chen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130 3932, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 45:1035-44. 2008
    ..The findings strongly suggest that the inhibitors of JNK, Erk1/2, or antioxidants may be exploited for prevention of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases...
  37. ncbi Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy of NAC in the treatment of COPD: discordant in vitro and in vivo dose-effects: a review
    A M Sadowska
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 20:9-22. 2007
    In order to develop efficient therapeutic regimes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been tested as a medication which can suppress various pathogenic processes in this disease...
  38. pmc N-acetylcysteine -- passe-partout or much ado about nothing?
    Mirja Liisa Aitio
    Nyon, Switzerland
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 61:5-15. 2006
    In experimental studies, the old mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has had beneficial effects in disorders supposedly linked to oxidative stress...
  39. ncbi Beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats
    Ali Cetinkaya
    Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, Sutcuimam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
    Tohoku J Exp Med 206:131-9. 2005
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against acetic acid-induced colitis in a rat model...
  40. ncbi N-acetylcysteine reduces respiratory burst but augments neutrophil phagocytosis in intensive care unit patients
    A R Heller
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany
    Crit Care Med 29:272-6. 2001
    The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to attenuate septic tissue injury...
  41. pmc N-acetylcysteine and allopurinol confer synergy in attenuating myocardial ischemia injury via restoring HIF-1α/HO-1 signaling in diabetic rats
    XiaoWen Mao
    Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e68949. 2013
    To determine whether or not the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and allopurinol (ALP) confer synergistic cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)/heme ..
  42. ncbi Standard vs double dose of N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast agent associated nephrotoxicity
    Carlo Briguori
    Laboratory of Interventional Cardiology, Vita e Salute University School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Eur Heart J 25:206-11. 2004
    Prophylactic administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (600mg orally twice daily), along with hydration, prevents contrast agent-associated nephrotoxicity (CAN) induced by a low dose of non-ionic, low-osmolality contrast dye...
  43. ncbi Reactive oxygen species mediate Jak2/Stat3 activation and IL-8 expression in pulmonary epithelial cells stimulated with lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    Sang Yong Choi
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
    Inflamm Res 61:493-501. 2012
    ..and activators of transcription3 (Stat3), and IL-8 expression in pulmonary epithelial cells stimulated with lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) from Mycoplasma pneumoniae using a known antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
  44. ncbi Treatment by n-acetylcysteine and melatonin increases cardiac baroreflex and improves antioxidant reserve
    Helene Girouard
    Research Group on Autonomic Nervous System, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Am J Hypertens 17:947-54. 2004
    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of melatonin and n-acetylcysteine on the baroreflex sensitivity and to verify whether those effects were correlated with their antioxidant capacity in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously ..
  45. ncbi N-acetylcysteine prevents nitrosative stress-associated depression of blood pressure and heart rate in streptozotocin diabetic rats
    Prabhakara Reddy Nagareddy
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 47:513-20. 2006
    ..Control and STZ diabetic rats were treated orally for 9 weeks with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and inhibitor of iNOS...
  46. ncbi The effect of N-acetylcysteine on nuclear factor-kappa B activation, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in patients with sepsis
    Ross L Paterson
    Academic Unit of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
    Crit Care Med 31:2574-8. 2003
    ..Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation may be beneficial in critically ill patients. N-acetylcysteine is an antioxidant that inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation in vitro...
  47. pmc Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activity by N-acetyl cysteine attenuates inhibition of oligodendrocyte development in lipopolysaccharide stimulated mixed glial cultures
    Manjeet K Paintlia
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina and Ralph H Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Neurochem 105:956-70. 2008
  48. ncbi N-Acetylcysteine and allopurinol up-regulated the Jak/STAT3 and PI3K/Akt pathways via adiponectin and attenuated myocardial postischemic injury in diabetes
    Tingting Wang
    Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Free Radic Biol Med 63:291-303. 2013
    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and allopurinol (ALP) synergistically reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury in diabetes. However, the mechanism is unclear...
  49. ncbi Effect of N-acetylcysteine on lipopolysaccharide-induced intra-uterine fetal death and intra-uterine growth retardation in mice
    De Xiang Xu
    Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, PR China
    Toxicol Sci 88:525-33. 2005
    ..Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with LPS-induced developmental toxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a glutathione (GSH) precursor and direct antioxidant...
  50. ncbi N-acetylcysteine prevents nitric oxide-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degeneration in an experimental model of osteoarthritis
    Shuji Nakagawa
    Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo ku, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
    J Orthop Res 28:156-63. 2010
    We investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, could protect rabbit articular chondrocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis and could prevent cartilage destruction in an experimental model of ..
  51. ncbi Phase II, randomized, controlled trial of high-dose N-acetylcysteine in high-risk cardiac surgery patients
    Michael Haase
    Department of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia
    Crit Care Med 35:1324-31. 2007
    To assess the effect of high-dose N-acetylcysteine on renal function in cardiac surgery patients at higher risk of postoperative renal failure.
  52. ncbi N-acetylcysteine: multiple clinical applications
    Paul J Millea
    Mid Atlantic Permanente Medical Group, P C, Falls Church, VA 22046, USA
    Am Fam Physician 80:265-9. 2009
    N-acetylcysteine is the acetylated variant of the amino acid L-cysteine and is widely used as the specific antidote for acetaminophen overdose...
  53. ncbi N-acetylcysteine versus AScorbic acid for preventing contrast-Induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography NASPI study-a prospective randomized controlled trial
    Sang Ho Jo
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Korea
    Am Heart J 157:576-83. 2009
    ..There has been no study comparing the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ascorbic acid that have potential for CIN prevention in patients with renal insufficiency.
  54. pmc Prenatal N-acetylcysteine prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer in neonatal mice
    Roumen Balansky
    National Center of Oncology, Sofia 1756, Bulgaria
    Carcinogenesis 30:1398-401. 2009
    ..We also showed that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevents the extensive nucleotide and gene expression alterations that occur 'physiologically' at birth ..
  55. pmc Beneficial effects of n-acetylcysteine on ischaemic brain injury
    S Cuzzocrea
    Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Torre Biologica, Policlinico Universitario Via C Valeria, Italy
    Br J Pharmacol 130:1219-26. 2000
    ..Here we have investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment in Mongolian gerbils subjected to cerebral ischaemia. 2...
  56. pmc Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by activated natural killer cells
    C Guerra
    College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific Graduate of College of Biomedical Sciences Western University of Health Sciences, 309 East SecondStreet, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 168:142-52. 2012
    ..tb inside monocytes. This study describes a novel innate defence mechanism adopted by NK cells to control M. tb infection...
  57. ncbi N-acetylcysteine normalizes neurochemical changes in the glutathione-deficient schizophrenia mouse model during development
    Joao Miguel das Neves Duarte
    Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, University Hospital Lausanne, Switzerland
    Biol Psychiatry 71:1006-14. 2012
    ..Here we used a mouse model with chronic GSH deficit induced by knockout (KO) of the key GSH-synthesizing enzyme, glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM)...
  58. ncbi N-acetylcysteine possesses antidepressant-like activity through reduction of oxidative stress: behavioral and biochemical analyses in rats
    Irena Smaga
    Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Krakow, Poland
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 39:280-7. 2012
    ..The aim of this paper was to examine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) - a putative precursor of the most important tissue antioxidant glutathione - in an animal model of ..
  59. ncbi Contemporary use and effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention
    Hitinder S Gurm
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 5853, USA
    JACC Cardiovasc Interv 5:98-104. 2012
    The aim of this study was to examine the use of and outcomes associated with use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in real-world practice.
  60. ncbi Alantolactone induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells via GSH depletion, ROS generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction
    Muhammad Khan
    Central Research Laboratory, Jilin University Bethune Second Hospital, Changchun, People s Republic of China
    IUBMB Life 64:783-94. 2012
    ..Therefore, alantolactone may become a potential lead compound for future development of antiglioma therapy...
  61. ncbi Protective effects of curcumin, α-lipoic acid, and N-acetylcysteine against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats
    Mohamed A Morsy
    Department of Pharmacology, El Minia University, El Minia, Egypt
    J Physiol Biochem 68:29-35. 2012
    ..Therefore, in the present work, the effectiveness of curcumin, α-lipoic acid, and N-acetylcysteine in protecting against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis as well as the mechanism(s) ..
  62. pmc Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine
    Manuel Mata
    Research Foundation of the University General Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    PLoS ONE 7:e48037. 2012
    ..These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung ..
  63. pmc Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases
    William M Johnson
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, 2109 Adelbert Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Nutrients 4:1399-440. 2012
    ..The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum ..
  64. pmc Intravenous N-acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials
    Zikai Sun
    Cardiovascular Department, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangdong Province, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e55124. 2013
    ..Whether intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy is uncertain...
  65. ncbi N-Acetylcysteine mucolysis in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Anna M Sadowska
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium co uk
    Ther Adv Respir Dis 6:127-35. 2012
    To develop an efficient therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been tested as a medication that can suppress various pathogenic processes in this disease...
  66. ncbi Chemoprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cellular oxidative damages and apoptosis induced by nano titanium dioxide under UVA irradiation
    Chengbin Xue
    College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
    Toxicol In Vitro 25:110-6. 2011
    The chemoprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant, on nano titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2)) induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells was assessed...
  67. pmc Cigarette smoke and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes elicit VEGF release through the p38 MAPK pathway in human airway smooth muscle cells and lung fibroblasts
    Giorgia Volpi
    Department of Pharmacology, Chiesi Farmaceutici s p a, Parma, Italy
    Br J Pharmacol 163:649-61. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute exposure to cigarette smoke extract altered VEGF production in lung parenchymal cells...
  68. ncbi Evaluation of antioxidant drugs for the treatment of ochronotic alkaptonuria in an in vitro human cell model
    Laura Tinti
    Sezione di Reumatologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Scienze Immunologiche, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Policlinico Le Scotte, Siena, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 225:84-91. 2010
    ..Hence, we propose a new treatment for AKU using the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administered in combinations with ascorbic acid (ASC) since it has been proven that NAC counteracts the ..
  69. ncbi Critical roles of intracellular thiols and calcium in parthenolide-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells
    Siyuan Zhang
    Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine MD3, National University of Singapore, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597
    Cancer Lett 208:143-53. 2004
    ..All these changes preceded parthenolide-induced apoptotic cell death. More importantly, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a precursor of GSH synthesis, protected the cells from parthenolide-induced thiol depletion, ROS production, ..
  70. ncbi N-Acetyl-L-cysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB activation in alveolar macrophages by different mechanisms
    Ya qing Li
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 27:339-46. 2006
  71. ncbi Chemoprevention of cigarette smoke-induced alterations of MicroRNA expression in rat lungs
    Alberto Izzotti
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3:62-72. 2010
    ..the lungs of either ECS-free or ECS-exposed rats treated with the orally administered chemopreventive agents N-acetylcysteine, oltipraz, indole-3-carbinol, 5,6-benzoflavone, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (as single agents or in ..
  72. ncbi Attenuation of pulmonary inflammation after exposure to blast overpressure by N-acetylcysteine amide
    Mikulas Chavko
    Trauma and Resuscitative Medicine Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Shock 32:325-31. 2009
    ..This study examined the effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) on the progression of lung inflammation after exposure to a moderate level of blast overpressure (..
  73. pmc Activation of autophagy protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity
    Hong Min Ni
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Hepatology 55:222-32. 2012
    ..suppress mammalian target of rapamycin in hepatocytes and that APAP-induced autophagy was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting APAP mitochondrial protein binding and the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species may ..
  74. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine in the development of diabetic encephalopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetes
    Sukhdev Singh Kamboj
    Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Science Building, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India
    Metab Brain Dis 23:427-43. 2008
    ..The objective of the present study was to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation ameliorates learning and memory deficits caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative ..
  75. ncbi Anti-inflammatory properties of N-acetylcysteine on lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages
    J R Palacio
    Instituto de Biotecnologia y Biomedicina, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    Inflamm Res 60:695-704. 2011
    ..Several antioxidant agents have been used in the control of the inflammatory response...
  76. pmc The antioxidant function of the p53 tumor suppressor
    Anna A Sablina
    Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Med 11:1306-13. 2005
    ..increased mutation rate and karyotype instability, which are prevented by incubation with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
  77. ncbi N-Acetylcysteine treatment of dystrophic mdx mice results in protein thiol modifications and inhibition of exercise induced myofibre necrosis
    Jessica R Terrill
    School of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia
    Neuromuscul Disord 22:427-34. 2012
    ..This study examined the in vivo benefits to mdx mice of an antioxidant treatment with the cysteine precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC), administered in drinking water...
  78. ncbi Oral or intravenous N-acetylcysteine: which is the treatment of choice for acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning?
    N A Buckley
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia
    J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 37:759-67. 1999
    ..It has been stated on the basis of a selected post-hoc analysis that oral N-acetylcysteine is superior to intravenous N-acetylcysteine in presentations later than 15 hours.
  79. ncbi A randomized controlled pilot trial of oral N-acetylcysteine in children with autism
    Antonio Y Hardan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 71:956-61. 2012
    ..The goal of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of using oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamatergic modulator and an antioxidant, in the treatment of behavioral disturbance in children ..
  80. ncbi Effect of intravenous N-acetylcysteine on outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
    Ismail El-Hamamsy
    Research Center and Department of Surgery, Montreal Heart Institute and Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 133:7-12. 2007
    N-acetylcysteine, a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, is known to decrease the production of reactive oxygen species after cardiac surgery...
  81. pmc N-acetylcysteine protects against apoptosis through modulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
    Lili Sun
    Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e32503. 2012
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, on group I mGlus activation in apoptosis of glial C6 and ..
  82. ncbi Cadmium-induced up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 expression in human nasal septum carcinoma RPMI-2650 cells: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt
    Yoon Jin Lee
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan 330 090, Republic of Korea
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 31:469-78. 2011
    ..The cadmium-induced increase in AKR1C3 protein levels was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and, to a lesser extent, PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002)...
  83. ncbi Sensory neuroprotection, mitochondrial preservation, and therapeutic potential of N-acetyl-cysteine after nerve injury
    A M Hart
    Blond McIndoe Research Laboratories, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Room 3 102, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    Neuroscience 125:91-101. 2004
  84. ncbi N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibit mucin synthesis and pro-inflammatory mediators in alveolar type II epithelial cells infected with influenza virus A and B and with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
    Manuel Mata
    Research Foundation of the University General Hospital of Valencia, Avenida Tres Cruces No 2, Valencia, Spain
    Biochem Pharmacol 82:548-55. 2011
    ..NAC also inhibited replication of the three viruses under study. This work supports the use of antioxidants in order to ameliorate the inflammatory effects of different viral infections during COPD exacerbations...
  85. ncbi Central N-acetylcysteine effects on baroreflex in juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Vitor E Valenti
    Departamento de Medicina, Disciplina de Cardiologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo UNIFESP, Brazil
    J Integr Neurosci 10:161-76. 2011
    ..05) in WKY rats. In relation to SHR, NAC decreased HR range 15 and 30 minutes after its administration. In conclusion, acute NAC into the 4th V does not improve baroreflex in juvenile SHR...
  86. pmc Minocycline synergizes with N-acetylcysteine and improves cognition and memory following traumatic brain injury in rats
    Samah G Abdel Baki
    Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12490. 2010
    ..The drugs examined (minocycline (MINO), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), simvastatin, cyclosporine A, and progesterone) had FDA-approval for uses other than TBI and limited ..
  87. ncbi S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine attenuates liver fibrosis in cirrhotic rats
    Rafael Vercelino
    Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Physiology, Porto Alegre Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 90035 903, Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    J Mol Med (Berl) 88:401-11. 2010
    ..was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying prevention of hepatic fibrosis by S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), a nitric oxide donor that inhibits lipid peroxidation...
  88. ncbi Oxidative stress and metabolism in animal model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium
    Carlos R Damiani
    Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, Brazil
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:1846-51. 2007
    ..The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and deferoxamine (DFX) in the treatment of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).
  89. pmc Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the early expression of inflammatory markers in the retina and plasma of diabetic rats
    Gina Y Tsai
    Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Columbia, Canada
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 37:223-31. 2009 to investigate markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in an early model of diabetic retinopathy, correlate retinal and plasma results and evaluate the influence of treatment by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger.
  90. ncbi A novel antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide prevents gp120- and Tat-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells
    Tulin Otamis Price
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul 81010, Turkey
    Exp Neurol 201:193-202. 2006
    ..Here, we have determined the effects of a novel antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), on gp120- and Tat-induced oxidative stress...
  91. ncbi Proteasome inhibition modeling nigral neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease
    Wenjie Xie
    Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurochem 115:188-99. 2010
    ..Thus, this model recapitulates many neuropathological and behavioral features of PD, rendering it likely suitable for studying the mechanisms of nigral DA neuron degeneration and for testing the potential anti-PD medications...
  92. ncbi N-acetylcysteine prevents glucose/glucose oxidase-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in H9c2 cells
    Santosh Kumar
    National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
    Life Sci 84:328-36. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the cell damage induced by glucose/glucose oxidase-dependent oxidative stress and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on H9c2 cardiac muscle cells.
  93. pmc Reversing cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation provides enduring protection from relapse
    Khaled Moussawi
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:385-90. 2011 predrug parameters for at least 2 wk after discontinuing chronic treatment with the cystine prodrug, N-acetylcysteine. N-acetylcysteine produced these changes by inducing an enduring restoration of nonsynaptic glutamatergic tone ..
  94. ncbi Neuroprotection of rapamycin in lactacystin-induced neurodegeneration via autophagy enhancement
    Tianhong Pan
    Parkinson Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 32:16-25. 2008
  95. ncbi A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation
    Seon Hee Oh
    Research Center for Resistant Cells, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk dong, Dong Gu, Gwangju 501 759, South Korea
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 212:212-23. 2006
    ..N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment resulted in the complete inhibition of the Cd-induced apoptosis via catalase upregulation ..
  96. ncbi Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 and p21-activated protein kinase mediate reactive oxygen species-dependent regulation of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cell migration
    David S Weber
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Res 94:1219-26. 2004
    ..Such information is critical to understanding the role of ROS in vascular diseases in which migration of VSMCs is an important component...
  97. ncbi Pivotal role of Akt activation in mitochondrial protection and cell survival by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition in oxidative stress
    Antal Tapodi
    Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pecs, Hungary
    J Biol Chem 280:35767-75. 2005
  98. ncbi Complete rescue of cerebrovascular function in aged Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by antioxidants and pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist
    Nektaria Nicolakakis
    Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Neurosci 28:9287-96. 2008
  99. pmc Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands induce heme oxygenase-1 in lung fibroblasts by a PPARgamma-independent, glutathione-dependent mechanism
    Heather E Ferguson
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 692, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 297:L912-9. 2009
  100. ncbi Status of myocardial antioxidants in ischemia-reperfusion injury
    N S Dhalla
    Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St Boniface General Hospital Research Centre, 351 Tache Ave, Manitoba, R2H 2A6, Winnipeg, Canada
    Cardiovasc Res 47:446-56. 2000
    ..These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart...

Research Grants74

  1. Correction of glutathione deficiency for treatment of diabetic nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the milk thistle (MTh) plant flavonolignans are nutritional supplements with complementary ..
  2. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Liver Disease in Transaldolase Deficiency
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Remarkably, lifelong administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked acetaminophen susceptibility, restored Fas-dependent apoptosis, phosphorylation of 2-catenin, ..
    Enrique A Mesri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..So our work will allow us to not only to identify mechanisms of KS carcinogenesis but also will help to identify potential new target and new drugs for anti-KS therapy. ..
  4. Enterococcus faecalis, Colorectal Cancer, and Bystander Effects
    Mark M Huycke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These results will identify new approaches and targets for preventing sporadic colorectal cancer. ..
  5. Investigating Mechanism of Intracellular Rotational Transport with Optical T
    Jeffrey N Anker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Specifically, we measure toxicity of copper oxide and titanium dioxide which are widely used and have important ramifications for human health. ..
  6. A Thioredoxin Mimetic for Radiocontrast Nephropathy
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..R-901 exhibits in vitro potency 450- and 50-fold >than N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ascorbic acid, respectively, and in vivo potency substantially greater than NAC...
  7. Metabolic mechanisms of antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer
    ..I will also study the effects of the antioxidant n-acetylcysteine (NAC) on OXPHOS metabolic coupling in humans...
  8. DNA Methylation in Ethanol Drinking Behavior
    David P Gavin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ultimately, these studies will identify novel molecular targets in the actions of ethanol and ethanol drinking behavior, and promote the development of pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. ..
  9. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed research will test the effectiveness of an eye drop formulation of a new thiol antioxidant, N- acetylcysteine amide (NACA), in preventing and treating cataracts and retinal degeneration in relevant animal models...
  10. Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolism
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will make chemical measurements of O2 and 5-HT and electrophysiological measurements of GABAergic neurons in this region with the same electrode during ICSS. ..
  11. N-Acetylcysteine and Milk Thistle for Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the milk thistle (MTh) plant flavonolignans are nutritional supplements with complementary ..
  12. Alcohol-Induced Bone Resorption: The Role of Oxidative Stress
    Martin J J Ronis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EtOH-induction of RANKL was blocked by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in vitro. RANKL appears to be regulated via ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation...
  13. Resuscitation of smoke inhalation and burn injury with a thioredoxin mimetic
    ANDREW LURIE SALZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..R-901 exhibits in vitro potency 450- and 50-fold >than N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ascorbic acid, respectively, and in vivo potency substantialy greater than NAC...
  14. PARP Inhibitor and Redox Catalyst for Ventilatory Trauma
    Prakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A comparator group will be administered IV N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at an equivalent mass dose (30 mg/kg)...
  15. Histone Methylation: a role in excessive ethanol intake and self-administration
    Jennifer A Rinker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Results from the proposed research will help elucidate the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroplastic changes and provide insight into the development of more targeted treatment and prevention strategies. ..
  16. Transplantation of Reduced-Size Fatty Livers
    Zhi Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The effects of antioxidants (Ad-superoxide dismutase, N-acetylcysteine and polyphenols) and antinitrative therapies (nitric oxide synthase inhibitors) on survival and injury of ..
  17. Prevalence and Impact of Frailty among Dialysis Patients
    Kirsten L Johansen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Johansen's R21 project will also allow a preliminary assessment of whether short-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine, an anti-oxidant, is associated with reduced expression of catabolic proteins. In the second new project, Dr...
  18. Mechanisms of structural plasticity in stress-related disorders
    Scott J Russo; Fiscal Year: 2013
  19. Prevention and Treatment of Chlorine Gas Induced Injury to the Pulmonary System
    Sadis Matalon; Fiscal Year: 2011
  20. DAMP-RAGE Signaling and Fetal Injury in Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth
    Irina A Buhimschi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..test the efficacy of anti-HMGB1 and anti-RAGE blocking antibodies or potential therapeutic agents such as N-acetylcysteine and ethyl pyruvate to reverse the damaging effects of the DAMP-RAGE axis activation;3) In Specific Aim 3, by ..
    CLARK ALGAIER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Testing of Tris (chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) in Wistar Han Rats and B6C3F1 Mice [unreadable] Analytical Method Development for the Extraction and Analysis of Tris(chloropropyl)phosphate, mixture, 1-Chloroacetone and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine..
  22. Radiocontrast Nephropathy: Redox Degradation Catalyst and Nitric Oxide Donor
    ..The proposed studies will provide a rational foundation for advanced commercial development of R-100, with the intent that this product will serve as first-line prophylaxis in high-risk diabeic patients undergoing CM injection. ..
    Chi V Dang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We previously hypothesized that anti- oxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine or vitamin C, decrease tumorigenesis by interfering with genomic instability by squelching reactive oxygen ..
  24. Brain changes in tinnitus
    Josef P Rauschecker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These results would guide tinnitus research into a new direction and open up a new point of intervention by emphasizing the modulatory role of extra-auditory structures responsible for the direction of attention. ..
  25. Role of AIE in Epigenetic and Behavioral Changes at Adulthood
    Subhash C Pandey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research will help to identify novel epigenetic and molecular targets that can be used to develop future pharmacotherapies to treat adults comorbid with alcoholism and anxiety, due to exposure to alcohol during adolescence. ..
  26. Diet, Insulin, Dopamine, and Reward.
    Margaret E Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
  27. Bmi-1, a potential therapeutic target in ovarian cancer
    Resham Bhattacharya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly use of the oxygen scavenger N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) abolished cisplatin induced apoptosis suggesting involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or ..
  28. Novel Role for Sirtuin Signaling Mechanisms and Downstream Targets in Depression
    Deveroux Ferguson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Eric J Nestler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..program project characteristics ..
  30. Multigenerational Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
  31. Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Vulnerability to
    CLAUDIA VARGAS MORRIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
  32. Chemoprevention of Head &Neck Cancer Using Controlled Release Polymers
    Susan R Mallery; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose to evaluate three derivatives of natural compounds: N-acetylcysteine (NAC), endostatin and a water-ethanol extract of freeze dried black raspberries, RO-ET...
  33. Oxidative Stress and Autoimmunity
    M Firoze Khan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The role of oxidative stress in autoimmunity will be further established through iron overload, N-acetylcysteine administration and use of CYP2E1 knockout MRL +/+ mice;2) Establish the role of RNS induced by TCE in ..
  34. Addiction-like behavior in models of mood disorders: role of CLOCK and NPAS2
    Colleen A McClung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will lead to a better understanding of how the circadian genes are involved in regulating the dopaminergic reward pathway and the development of cocaine addiction. ..
  35. NAC for melanoma chemoprevention
    Douglas Grossman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..testing in melanocytes, a mouse model of UV- induced melanoma and in patients with nevi using the drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent bioavailable antioxidant with a demonstrated safety record of oral use in humans...
  36. Regulation of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptors by DARPP32 and deltaFosB mediate
    Matthew F Lazenka; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed studies will determine the effects of repeated cannabinoid administration on biochemical messengers that regulate activity in these brain regions. ..
  37. Amphetamine-Induced Transcriptional Plasticity in Striatal GABAergic Interneurons
    ANNE ELIZABETH WEST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Neuroendocrinology of Energy Balance Control
    Matthew R Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, results may help identify potential targets for combination drug therapy to enhance the food intake and body weight suppressive effects of GLP-1- based pharmaceuticals. ..
  39. Oxidative activation of Src in smoke-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition
    Henry Jay Forman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..results show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) activates Src and causes EMT and that both are inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, or by PP2, a Src inhibitor in the human non-small cell lung ..
  40. Regulation of Cocaine Reward and Reinforcement by MeCP2
    ANNE ELIZABETH WEST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies promise to yield significant new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that impact susceptibility to cocaine addiction. ..
  41. Role of Dopamine Transporter: HIV-1 Tat Protein and Nicotine Sensitization
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding this mechanism will have the potential to facilitate the development of effective smoking cessation programs in HIV-positive population. ..
  42. Hypertrophy Regression with N-Acetylcysteine in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
    Ali J Marian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and gather the pre-requisite data for subsequent robust randomized placebo-controlled efficacy studies with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
  43. Role of Cholesterol in Age-related Decline in Steroidogenesis
    Salman Azhar; Fiscal Year: 2013
  44. Mechanisms of Altered Dopamine Signaling in Cocaine Addiction
    David W Self; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The goal of this research is to better understand the biological basis of the disease, and to identify major biological targets for potential therapeutic intervention to promote abstinence. ..
  45. Adolescent Binge Drinking Increases Adult Alcohol Intake: Glutamate Mechanisms
    Deborah A Finn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This information can guide pharmacological treatment strategies for alcohol use disorder or binge drinking, an important area of focus in the treatment of our veterans. ..
  46. Cardiac and Renal Effects of N-Acetylcysteine
    Markus Meyer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Some clinical trials suggest a protective effect of the antioxidant agent N-Acetylcysteine (NAC). We hypothesize that NAC added to a radiographic contrast agent can provide cardiac and renal protection...
  47. Sex Differences in Vulnerability to Cocaine Addiction
    Therese Kosten; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Studies in this competitive revision will test the hypothesis that these sex differences are due to sex-dependent differences in maternal care received and reflect epigenetic effects of targeted genes in select brain regions. ..
  48. Overcoming Membrane Transporters to Improve CNS Drug Therapy
    Robert S B Clark; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provocative preliminary data showing that the combination of probenecid and the FDA-approved antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), whose CNS use is limited by poor brain bioavailability, synergistically restore total AOR in injured ..
  49. The ability of the transcription factor CREB in the Nac to regulate mood
    Ronald S Duman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., MCH in Project 3), and by characterizing their role in mediating CREB's complex behavioral phenotype related to depression and its treatment. ..
  50. p38 MAPK Mechanisms of Kappa Opioid-Induced Aversion
    Charles Chavkin; Fiscal Year: 2013
  51. Galanin-opiate interactions
    Marina R Picciotto; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, genetic factors related to galanin signaling could be important determinants of whether individuals are susceptible to opiate addiction. ..
  52. Cytokine Enhancement of Myeloid Progenitor Cell Survival
    Hal E Broxmeyer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2). Use "detoxification" (e.g., N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and hypoxia) strategies in HSC/HPC during harvest and manipulation to reduce HSC/HPC death and ..
  53. Neurophysiological analysis of accumbens activity during risk-taking behavior
    JONATHAN ADAM SUGAM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The results of these studies will provide invaluable insight into the neurocircuitry involved in normal risk-taking behavior and may have implications for the risk-taking involved in drug addiction. ..
  54. Oxidant Stress: Is it a biomarker of disease progression and response to therapy
    Jesse Roman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of care in the management of IPF: the combination of glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
  55. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Addiction-Related Neural Plasticity
  56. Pharmacological Actions of Antidepressants Treatments
    Eric J Nestler; Fiscal Year: 2013
  57. Mechanisms of nicotine and alcohol use: Focus on in utero exposure to dietary fat
    Sarah F Leibowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
  58. Metabolomic Investigation of Biosignatures of Chronic Cocaine Exposure
    Chi Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..rats will be examined using two mechanistically different experimental chemicals, GBR 12909 and N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the mechanism behind the cocaine-induced metabolomic changes will be probed by examining the ..
  59. Early binge drinking and gene regulation
    Howard J Edenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For that reason, an additional translational component will be to compare the effects of ethanol on key brain regions with those in an accessible tissue, blood, looking forward to potential human studies. ..
  60. Reactive Oxygen Species in Intermittent Hypoxia induced Sympathoexcitation
    PETER BERNARD RAVEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have recently noted that pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevents the increase in IH induced increase in MSNA...
  61. Presynaptic Release of Endocannabinoids in the Nucleus Accumbens
    Yanhua H Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given that eCBs are implicated in the pathophysiology of several brain diseases, including drug addiction, depression, and obesity, this line of research is highly relevant to the mission of the NIH. ..
  62. Neurobiological Investigation of Decision Making in Rats
    Regina M Carelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    BARTLEY HOEBEL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Linda La Grange; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..For purposes of comparison of antioxidant efficacy, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S- adenosylmethione (SAM) will also be tested...
  65. Involvement of Aldehydes in Alcohol Addiction
    William McBride; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the contribution of ACD and THIQs to high alcohol drinking could lead to the development of novel pharmaco-therapies for the treatment of alcoholism and alcohol abuse ..
    GREGORY MARK; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..It is hoped that these results will further our understanding of the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in drug-seeking and potentially to the development of clinically efficacious treatments for drug craving and relapse. ..
  67. A Controlled Trial of NAC for Cocaine Dependence
    Robert Malcolm; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Systemic administration of cysteine pro drugs such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) also normalizes extracellular glutamate and blocks behavioral reinstatement by cocaine...
  68. A New Antioxidant Prevents Toxicity of HIV Proteins with Methamphetamine
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We have also found that N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a new thiol antioxidant, significantly increased the levels of GSH in gp120 and Tat-exposed RBE4 ..
    Carol Conrad; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..To this end, pharmaceutical-grade N-acetylcysteine will be given orally in high doses. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]
  70. Human Lactoferrin in Acetaminophen Overdose-Induced Liver Failure
    Cynthia Ju; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..S. Currently, N- acetylcysteine (NAC) is the only antidote used clinically to ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury (AILI)...
    MARINA WOLF; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The identity of the residue phosphorylated, combined with experiments involving selective protein kinase inhibitors, will help identify the kinases involved in DA receptor-mediated effects. ..
  72. Oral Antioxidant/Anticytokine Therapy for ALD
    Daniell Hill; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Animal studies have clearly shown that treatment with GSH precursors, such as N-.acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adenosyl- L-methionine (Adomet or SAMe), ameliorates alcohol/endotoxin liver injury...
  73. Isothiocyanates in the Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer
    Yuesheng Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Ingested ITCs are efficiently absorbed and almost exclusively excreted in urine as N-acetylcysteine conjugates (NAC-ITCs), which also are anticarcinogens and can release ITCs, making the bladder epithelium the ..
    Deborah Cory Slechta; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..They will further define the comparative roles of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in these projections and their interactions with DA systems, allowing rational behavioral and therapeutic approaches to mesolimbic system dysfunctions. ..