- iSNO-PseAAC: predict cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in proteins by incorporating position specific amino acid propensity into pseudo amino acid composition
Department of Information and Computer Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China
PLoS ONE 8:e55844. 2013
..It is anticipated that iSNO-PseAAC may become a useful high throughput tool for identifying the SNO sites, or at the very least play a complementary role to the existing methods in this area...
- Cardioprotection by S-nitrosation of a cysteine switch on mitochondrial complex I
Edward T Chouchani
Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Cambridge, UK
Nat Med 19:753-9. 2013
..as a central pathological feature of ischemia-reperfusion injury and show that preventing this reactivation by modification of a cysteine switch is a robust cardioprotective mechanism and hence a rational therapeutic strategy.
- H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyase
Department of Physiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
Science 322:587-90. 2008
..These findings provide direct evidence that H2S is a physiologic vasodilator and regulator of blood pressure...
- Noxious compounds activate TRPA1 ion channels through covalent modification of cysteines
Lindsey J Macpherson
Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Nature 445:541-5. 2007
..We observed that most compounds known to activate TRPA1 are able to covalently bind cysteine residues...
- Gated access to the pore of a voltage-dependent K+ channel
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
Neuron 19:175-84. 1997
..The results suggest that these channels open and close by the movement of an intracellular gate, distinct from the selectivity filter, that regulates access to the pore...
- Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health
Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004
..The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine is catalyzed sequentially by two cytosolic enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH ..
- Regulation of intracellular signalling through cysteine oxidation by reactive oxygen species
Department of Cellular Regulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
J Biochem 151:255-61. 2012
..Such ROS-effector proteins commonly possess a highly reactive cysteine (Cys) residue, of which oxidation changes the protein function, thus enabling signal transmission to downstream ..
- Cysteine scanning and modification reveal major differences between BK channels and Kv channels in the inner pore region
Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12161-6. 2011
..Here, cysteine substitution and modification studies of the BK S6 point to substantial differences between BK and Kv channels in ..
- Cysteine 38 in p65/NF-kappaB plays a crucial role in DNA binding inhibition by sesquiterpene lactones
A J García-Piñeres
Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Stefan Meier Strasse 19, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
J Biol Chem 276:39713-20. 2001
..Here we report the construction of p65/NF-kappaB point mutants that lack the cysteine residues alkylated by SLs in our model...
- Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215
W C Barrett
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Section of Metabolic Regulation, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Biochemistry 38:6699-705. 1999
..Recent reports have shown that the active site cysteine residue, Cys215, can be reversibly oxidized to a cysteine sulfenic derivative (Denu and Tanner, 1998; Lee et al...
- On terminal alkynes that can react with active-site cysteine nucleophiles in proteases
Division of Cell Biology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Am Chem Soc 135:2867-70. 2013
..C-terminal carboxylate of ubiquitin (Ub) with an alkyne functionality, a selective reaction with the active-site cysteine residue of de-ubiquitinating enzymes was observed...
- Redox signalling directly regulates TDP-43 via cysteine oxidation and disulphide cross-linking
Todd J Cohen
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Institute on Aging and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4283, USA
EMBO J 31:1241-52. 2012
..Using in vitro and cell-based studies, we demonstrate that oxidative stress promotes TDP-43 cross-linking via cysteine oxidation and disulphide bond formation leading to decreased TDP-43 solubility...
- TRP channel activation by reversible covalent modification
Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19564-8. 2006
..thiol reactive compounds of diverse structure activate TRPA1 in a manner that relies on covalent modification of cysteine residues within the cytoplasmic N terminus of the channel...
- A novel family in Medicago truncatula consisting of more than 300 nodule-specific genes coding for small, secreted polypeptides with conserved cysteine motifs
Institut des Sciences du Vegetal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Plant Physiol 132:161-73. 2003
..analysis of Medicago truncatula nodules has led to the discovery of a gene family named NCR (nodule-specific cysteine rich) with more than 300 members...
- SNOSID, a proteomic method for identification of cysteine S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures
Department of Pharmacology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1012-7. 2006
..SNOSID provides the first effective tool for unbiased elucidation of the SNO proteome, identifying Cys residues that undergo reversible S-nitrosylation...
- Small cysteine-rich peptides resembling antimicrobial peptides have been under-predicted in plants
Kevin A T Silverstein
Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
Plant J 51:262-80. 2007
Multicellular organisms produce small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides as an innate defense against pathogens...
- The Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1 is neuroprotective due to cysteine-sulfinic acid-driven mitochondrial localization
Rosa M Canet-Aviles
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 1589, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9103-8. 2004
..We addressed whether this represents a posttranslational modification at cysteine residues by systematically mutating cysteine residues in human DJ-1...
- A critical cysteine is required for HMGB1 binding to Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of macrophage cytokine release
Laboratory of Biomedical Science and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11942-7. 2010
..plasmon resonance studies indicate that HMGB1 binds specifically to TLR4, and that this binding requires a cysteine in position 106...
- Distinct cysteine residues in Keap1 are required for Keap1-dependent ubiquitination of Nrf2 and for stabilization of Nrf2 by chemopreventive agents and oxidative stress
Donna D Zhang
Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
Mol Cell Biol 23:8137-51. 2003
..We have identified two critical cysteine residues in Keap1, C273 and C288, that are required for Keap1-dependent ubiquitination of Nrf2...
- Blood levels of homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in the acute phase of atherothrombotic stroke
Section of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Via Gaetano La Loggia 1, 90129, Palermo, Italy
Neurol Sci 30:361-4. 2009
Blood levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine (Cys), total and reduced glutathione (tGSH and rGSH), folic acid (FA), and vitamin B12 (B12) change during ischemic stroke as accompaniment of the tissue damage...
- Cysteine oxidative posttranslational modifications: emerging regulation in the cardiovascular system
Heaseung S Chung
Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Circ Res 112:382-92. 2013
..and nitrogen species can have many effects including the posttranslational modification of proteins at critical cysteine thiols...
- Characterization of cysteine-degrading and H2S-releasing enzymes of higher plants - from the field to the test tube and back
Institut fur Botanik, Universitat Hannover, Herrenhauser Strasse 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany
Plant Biol (Stuttg) 9:582-8. 2007
..compounds in plants which might be involved in SIR, such as high levels of thiols, glucosinolates, cysteine-rich proteins, phytoalexins, elemental sulfur, or H2S. Probably more than one strategy is used by plants...
- Thiol-based redox switches and gene regulation
Institute of Microbiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Antioxid Redox Signal 14:1049-63. 2011
b>Cysteine is notable among the universal, proteinogenic amino acids for its facile redox chemistry...
- Biologic and pharmacologic regulation of mammalian glutathione synthesis
O W Griffith
Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 27:922-35. 1999
..Glutathione synthesis is also modulated by the availability of gamma-GCS substrates, primarily L-cysteine, by feedback inhibition of gamma-GCS by GSH, and by covalent inhibition of gamma-GCS by phosphorylation or ..
- Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) mediate diverse aspects of cell-cell communication in plant reproduction and development
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne Campus, Wellesbourne, UK
J Exp Bot 62:1677-86. 2011
..Interestingly, most of these peptides are cysteine-rich, and there is convincing evidence suggesting multiple roles for related cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) as ..
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit T-cell activation by depleting cystine and cysteine
Minu K Srivastava
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA
Cancer Res 70:68-77. 2010
..Here we show that MDSCs also block T-cell activation by sequestering cystine and limiting the availability of cysteine. Cysteine is an essential amino acid for T-cell activation because T cells lack cystathionase, which converts ..
- The cysteine switch: a principle of regulation of metalloproteinase activity with potential applicability to the entire matrix metalloproteinase gene family
H E Van Wart
Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306 3015
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:5578-82. 1990
The general applicability of the "cysteine-switch" activation mechanism to the members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family is examined here...
- Production of piglets derived from in vitro-produced blastocysts fertilized and cultured in chemically defined media: effects of theophylline, adenosine, and cysteine during in vitro fertilization
National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0856, Japan
Biol Reprod 69:2092-9. 2003
..vitro culture (IVC) of in vitro-matured porcine oocytes, we evaluated the effects of theophylline, adenosine, and cysteine in a chemically defined medium during IVF...
- Blocker protection in the pore of a voltage-gated K+ channel and its structural implications
D del Camino
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 403:321-5. 2000
..This bend would occur at a Pro-X-Pro sequence that is highly conserved in Kv channels, near the site of activation gating...
- Cellular mechanisms of redox cell signalling: role of cysteine modification in controlling antioxidant defences in response to electrophilic lipid oxidation products
Anna Liisa Levonen
Department of Pathology, Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Biomedical Research Building II, 901 19th Str S, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Biochem J 378:373-82. 2004
- Cysteine-dependent ubiquitination of Pex18p is linked to cargo translocation across the peroxisomal membrane
Abteilung für Systembiochemie, Institut fur Physiologische Chemie, Medizinische Fakultät der Ruhr Universität Bochum, D 44780 Bochum, Germany
J Biol Chem 286:43495-505. 2011
..A cysteine residue near the extreme Pex18p amino-terminus is required for the second type of ubiquitination...
- Redox modification of cysteine residues regulates the cytokine activity of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)
Laboratory of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, United States of America
Mol Med 18:250-9. 2012
..HMGB1 contains three conserved redox-sensitive cysteine residues: C23 and C45 can form an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas C106 is unpaired and is essential for ..
- Conserved cysteine residues of GidA are essential for biogenesis of 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine at tRNA anticodon
Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST, Ibaraki, Japan
Structure 17:713-24. 2009
..We also present a tRNA-docking model that provides structural insights into the tRNA recognition mechanism for efficient modification...
- Facile conversion of cysteine and alkyl cysteines to dehydroalanine on protein surfaces: versatile and switchable access to functionalized proteins
Gonçalo J L Bernardes
Chemistry Research Laboratory, Dept of Chemistry, University of Oxford, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, UK
J Am Chem Soc 130:5052-3. 2008
An efficient and robust oxidative elimination of cysteine to dehydroalanine has been discovered. The reaction is induced by O-mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine (MSH) and is compatible with methionine...
- FIZZ1, a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein associated with pulmonary inflammation, defines a new gene family
I N Holcomb
Department of Pathology, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
EMBO J 19:4046-55. 2000
..4 kDa cysteine-rich secreted protein, FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone)...
- The activity of leukocyte NADPH oxidase: regulation by p47PHOX cysteine and serine residues
Bernard M Babior
The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 4:35-8. 2002
..Its activity is also regulated, however, by the four cysteines of the same subunit, as indicated by the replacement of those cysteines by alanines...
- Mechanisms of reversible protein glutathionylation in redox signaling and oxidative stress
MOLLY M GALLOGLY
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, and the Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44106 4965, United States
Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:381-91. 2007
..Accordingly, this review focuses primarily on mechanisms of catalysis in mammalian systems...
- Cysteine biosynthesis, oxidative stress and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella typhimurium
Amy L Turnbull
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, B724 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N4P2, Canada
Res Microbiol 161:643-50. 2010
..Previously, we had shown that cysteine biosynthesis was important for the induced antibiotic resistance phenotype of swarm cells...
- Protein cysteine phosphorylation of SarA/MgrA family transcriptional regulators mediates bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance
Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15461-6. 2012
..Although cysteine (Cys) in various proteins can be subject to multiple PTMs, its phosphorylation was previously considered a rare ..
- The role of plasma aminothiols in the prediction of coronary microvascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability
Saurabh S Dhawan
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
Atherosclerosis 219:266-72. 2011
..Accordingly, we hypothesized that higher oxidative stress would be associated with abnormal coronary epicardial structure and microvascular function...
- Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids activate NRF2 by a KEAP1 cysteine 151-independent mechanism
Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A I Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
J Biol Chem 286:14019-27. 2011
..OA-NO(2) can therefore be categorized as a Cys(151)-independent Nrf2 activator, which in turn can influence the pattern of gene expression and therapeutic actions of nitroalkenes...
- Regulation of SUMOylation by reversible oxidation of SUMO conjugating enzymes
Department of Biochemie I, University Goettingen, Humboldt Allee 23, 37073 Goettingen, Germany
Mol Cell 21:349-57. 2006
..Thus, our findings add SUMO conjugating enzymes to the small list of specific direct effectors of H(2)O(2) and implicate ROS as key regulators of the sumoylation-desumoylation equilibrium...
- dbSNO: a database of cysteine S-nitrosylation
Tzong Yi Lee
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan
Bioinformatics 28:2293-5. 2012
..post-translational modification that involves the covalent attachment of nitric oxide (NO) to the sulfur atom of cysteine, critically regulates protein activity, localization and stability...
- Location of the beta 4 transmembrane helices in the BK potassium channel
Roland S Wu
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Neurosci 29:8321-8. 2009
..In six of eight of the most highly crosslinked cysteine pairs, four crosslinks from TM2 to S0 and one each from TM1 to S1 and S2 had small effects on the V(50) and on ..
- Protection of Sinorhizobium against host cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides is critical for symbiosis
Andreas F Haag
School of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
PLoS Biol 9:e1001169. 2011
..Nodule-specific cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (NCR AMPs) and the bacterial BacA protein are essential for bacteroid development...
- Cysteine/cystine redox signaling in cardiovascular disease
Young Mi Go
Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 50:495-509. 2011
..The major thiol/disulfide redox couple in human plasma is cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide form, cystine (CySS)...
- Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid metabolism?
Amany K Elshorbagy
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
Am J Clin Nutr 88:738-46. 2008
..phenotype of cystathionine beta-synthase-deficient homocystinuria and the positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with body mass index (BMI) suggest that total homocysteine (tHcy) and tCys are associated with body ..
- Protein S-nitrosylation: purview and parameters
Douglas T Hess
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:150-66. 2005
S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitrogen monoxide group to the thiol side chain of cysteine, has emerged as an important mechanism for dynamic, post-translational regulation of most or all main classes of protein...
- Leptomycin B inactivates CRM1/exportin 1 by covalent modification at a cysteine residue in the central conserved region
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:9112-7. 1999
..pombe, and Crm1-K1 no longer bound biotinylated LMB. (1)H NMR analysis showed that LMB bound N-acetyl-L-cysteine methyl ester through a Michael-type addition, consistent with the idea that LMB binds covalently via its alpha, ..
- Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes
The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Nature 468:790-5. 2010
b>Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions...
- The role of cysteine oxidation in DJ-1 function and dysfunction
Mark A Wilson
Department of Biochemistry, Redox Biology Center, The University of Nebraska Lincoln, 68588 0664, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 15:111-22. 2011
..A conserved cysteine residue in DJ-1 (Cys106) is both functionally essential and subject to oxidation to the cysteine-sulfinate and ..
- DiANNA: a web server for disulfide connectivity prediction
Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:W230-2. 2005
..Next, cysteine oxidation state is predicted, then each pair of cysteines in the protein sequence is assigned a likelihood of ..
- S-nitrosylated protein-disulphide isomerase links protein misfolding to neurodegeneration
Center for Neuroscience and Aging, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Nature 441:513-7. 2006
..Alzheimer's disease, that PDI is S-nitrosylated, a reaction transferring a nitric oxide (NO) group to a critical cysteine thiol to affect protein function...
- Crystal structure of the wild-type human procathepsin B at 2.5 A resolution reveals the native active site of a papain-like cysteine protease zymogen
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, 1111, Slovenia
J Mol Biol 271:774-88. 1997
..The structure strongly suggests that processing of procathepsin B during its autoactivation is not unimolecular...
- Activation of the OxyR transcription factor by reversible disulfide bond formation
Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Science 279:1718-21. 1998
..The redox potential of OxyR was determined to be -185 millivolts, ensuring that OxyR is reduced in the absence of stress. These results represent an example of redox signaling through disulfide bond formation and reduction...
- Key residues for membrane binding, oligomerization, and pore forming activity of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin identified by cysteine scanning mutagenesis and targeted chemical modification
Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545, USA
J Biol Chem 270:23065-71. 1995
..individually replaced each charged residue (79 of 293 amino acids) and four neutral residues in alpha HL with cysteine, which is not found in the wild-type protein...
- Insights into Wnt binding and signalling from the structures of two Frizzled cysteine-rich domains
C E Dann
Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Nature 412:86-90. 2001
..An extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) at the amino terminus of Frizzled proteins binds Wnt proteins, as do homologous domains in ..
- Redox regulation of beta-actin during integrin-mediated cell adhesion
Department of Biochemical Sciences, Center of Excellence for Scientific Research DENOTHE, Department of Anatomy, University of Florence, Italy
J Biol Chem 281:22983-91. 2006
..Actin oxidation takes place via the formation of a mixed disulfide between cysteine 374 and glutathione; this modification is essential for spreading and for cytoskeleton organization...
- Formation of a stabilized cysteine sulfinic acid is critical for the mitochondrial function of the parkinsonism protein DJ-1
Cell Biology and Gene Expression Unit, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, NIA, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3707, USA
J Biol Chem 284:6476-85. 2009
The formation of cysteine-sulfinic acid has recently become appreciated as a modification that links protein function to cellular oxidative status...
- Location of modulatory beta subunits in BK potassium channels
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, LaGuardia Community College, Long Island City, NY 11101, USA
J Gen Physiol 135:449-59. 2010
..From the extents of disulfide cross-linking in channels on the cell surface between cysteine (Cys) substituted for residues in the first turns in the membrane of the S0 transmembrane (TM) helix, unique to ..
- Specific and reversible inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases by hydrogen peroxide: evidence for a sulfenic acid intermediate and implications for redox regulation
J M Denu
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
Biochemistry 37:5633-42. 1998
..of biochemical techniques including chemical modification, pH kinetic studies, and mutagenesis, the catalytic cysteine thiolate of PTPs was determined to be the selective target of oxidation by H2O2...
- Cysteine 203 of cyclophilin D is critical for cyclophilin D activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore
Tiffany T Nguyen
Systems Biology Center, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 286:40184-92. 2011
..Our previous studies have shown that cysteine 203 of cyclophilin D (CypD), a critical mPTP mediator, undergoes protein S-nitrosylation (SNO)...
- Cysteine S-nitrosylation protects protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B against oxidation-induced permanent inactivation
Yi Yun Chen
Institute of Biological Chemistry, National Core Facility for Proteomics Research, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
J Biol Chem 283:35265-72. 2008
..These findings suggest that S-nitrosylation might prevent PTPs from permanent inactivation caused by oxidative stress...
- Modulation of human mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (hVDAC-2) structural stability by cysteine-assisted barrel-lipid interactions
Svetlana Rajkumar Maurya
Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal 462023, India
J Biol Chem 288:25584-92. 2013
..Our findings suggest that cysteine mutation results in the formation of a better barrel at the expense of weakened protein-lipid interactions...
- Peroxiredoxin evolution and the regulation of hydrogen peroxide signaling
Zachary A Wood
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
Science 300:650-3. 2003
..We suggest this adaptation allows 2-Cys Prxs to act as floodgates, keeping resting levels of hydrogen peroxide low, while permitting higher levels during signal transduction...
- Reactivity of biologically important thiol compounds with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide
C C Winterbourn
Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine, New Zealand
Free Radic Biol Med 27:322-8. 1999
The reactivities of glutathione, cysteine, cysteamine, penicillamine, N-acetylcysteine, dithiothreitol and captopril with superoxide generated from xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine, and with reagent hydrogen peroxide, have been ..
- Enzymatic activation of sulfur for incorporation into biomolecules in prokaryotes
Biochemiezentrum Heidelberg, Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:825-40. 2006
..Sulfide is added to an activated acceptor in the biosynthesis of cysteine, from which methionine, coenzyme A and a number of biologically important thiols can be constructed...
- Locations of the beta1 transmembrane helices in the BK potassium channel
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10727-32. 2008
..TM1 and TM2 are in position to contribute, in concert with the extracellular loop and the intracellular N- and C-terminal tails of beta1, to the modulation of BK channel function...
- Cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, old and new; implications for asthma
T M Laidlaw
Departments of Medicine and Paediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
Clin Exp Allergy 42:1313-20. 2012
..This review focuses on these recent findings and their potential clinical implications...
- Excision of oxidatively damaged DNA bases by the human alpha-hOgg1 protein and the polymorphic alpha-hOgg1(Ser326Cys) protein which is frequently found in human populations
CEA, DSV, DRR, UMR217 CNRS CEA, Radiobiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Fontenay aux Roses, France
Nucleic Acids Res 27:4001-7. 1999
..Furthermore, both proteins efficiently complement the mutator phenotype of the fpg mutY mutant of Escherichia coli...
- Nitrosative damage to free and zinc-bound cysteine thiols underlies nitric oxide toxicity in wild-type Borrelia burgdorferi
Travis J Bourret
Laboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Mol Microbiol 81:259-73. 2011
..Collectively, these data suggested that nitrosative damage to proteins harbouring free or zinc-bound cysteine thiols, rather than DNA or membrane lipids underlies RNS toxicity in wild-type B. burgdorferi.
- Cysteine 70 of ankyrin-G is S-palmitoylated and is required for function of ankyrin-G in membrane domain assembly
Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
J Biol Chem 287:43995-4005. 2012
- Anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects of cysteine metabolites of the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
Joshua D Lambert
Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 332 Food Science Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
J Agric Food Chem 58:10016-9. 2010
..We have previously shown that EGCG can undergo conjugation to cysteine to form 2'-cysteinyl-EGCG and 2''-cysteinyl-EGCG...
- Cysteine-based redox switches in enzymes
Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 14:1065-77. 2011
..but now a distinct class of modification coming to the fore is a set of versatile redox modifications of key cysteine residues...
- Crystal structures of a cysteine-modified mutant in loop D of acetylcholine-binding protein
Laboratory of Structural Neurobiology, KULeuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
J Biol Chem 286:4420-8. 2011
Covalent modification of α7 W55C nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) with the cysteine-modifying reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate (MTSET(+)) produces receptors that are unresponsive to acetylcholine, ..
- Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica
Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
BMC Genomics 12:275. 2011
..E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol...
- Protective effects of cysteine analogues on acute myocardial ischemia: novel modulators of endogenous H(2)S production
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1155-65. 2010
The current study was designed to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of three novel cysteine-containing compounds: S-propyl-l-cysteine (SPC), S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), and S-propargyl-l-cysteine (SPRC) on H(2)S production and antioxidant ..
- A multifaceted study of stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA)-like Arabidopsis lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) suggests diversified roles for these LTPs in plant growth and reproduction
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
J Exp Bot 61:4277-90. 2010
Lily stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA), a plant lipid transfer protein (LTP) which is secreted into the extracellular matrix, functions in pollen tube guidance in fertilization...
- Berberine modifies cysteine 179 of IkappaBalpha kinase, suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic gene products, and potentiates apoptosis
Manoj K Pandey
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Cytokine Research Laboratory, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Cancer Res 68:5370-9. 2008
..Site-specific mutagenesis suggested the involvement of cysteine residue 179 in IKK...
- Genetic polymorphisms and alternative splicing of the hOGG1 gene, that is involved in the repair of 8-hydroxyguanine in damaged DNA
Biology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
Oncogene 16:3219-25. 1998
..These results suggest that the oh8Gua levels are maintained at a steady level, even though multiple hOGG1 proteins are produced due to genetic polymorphisms, mutations and alternative splicing of the hOGG1 gene...
- Physiological significance of reactive cysteine residues of Keap1 in determining Nrf2 activity
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryo cho, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
Mol Cell Biol 28:2758-70. 2008
..Keap1 possesses several reactive cysteine residues that covalently bond with electrophiles in vitro...
- Identification of the highly reactive cysteine 151 in the chemopreventive agent-sensor Keap1 protein is method-dependent
Aimee L Eggler
The Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago 60607, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 20:1878-84. 2007
..particular, our group has found C151 of human Keap1 to be highly reactive, while others have not identified this cysteine as being even weakly reactive...
- N-methyl-D-glucamine improves the laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis performance in the total plasma thiols measurement
Chair of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43 B, I 07100 Sassari, Italy
Electrophoresis 24:2796-804. 2003
..We show that CE-LIF allows a baseline separation of total plasma cysteinylglycine, homocysteine, cysteine, and glutathione in less than 5 min when N-methyl-D-glucamine in run buffer was added...
- Dynamic redox control of NF-kappaB through glutaredoxin-regulated S-glutathionylation of inhibitory kappaB kinase beta
Niki L Reynaert
Department of Pathology and Chemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, 05405, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13086-91. 2006
..We now report that cysteine-179 of the inhibitory kappaB kinase (IKK) beta-subunit of the IKK signalosome is a central target for oxidative ..
- Reaction of oxidized dopamine with endogenous cysteine residues in the human dopamine transporter
R E Whitehead
Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
J Neurochem 76:1242-51. 2001
..We have identified specific cysteine residues in the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) that are modified by this electron-deficient substrate analog...
- RSPO4 is the major gene in autosomal-recessive anonychia and mutations cluster in the furin-like cysteine-rich domains of the Wnt signaling ligand R-spondin 4
Nadina Ortiz Brüchle
Department of Human Genetics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
J Invest Dermatol 128:791-6. 2008
..Thus, we postulate that RSPO4 mutations preferentially cluster in the furin-like cysteine-rich domains of R-spondin 4, which is in line with experimental data proposing that for beta-catenin ..
- Role of cysteine residues in regulation of p53 function
Biology Department, University of Alaska, Anchorage 99508, USA
Mol Cell Biol 15:3892-903. 1995
Previous studies of p53 have implicated cysteine residues in site-specific DNA binding via zinc coordination and redox regulation (P. Hainaut and J. Milner, Cancer Res. 53:4469-4473, 1993; T. R. Hupp, D. W. Meek, C. A. Midgley, and D. P...
- S-Nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 induces chromatin remodelling in neurons
MRC Laboratory for Molecular and Cell Biology, and Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Nature 455:411-5. 2008
..Thus, by stimulating NO production and S-nitrosylation of HDAC2, neurotrophic factors promote chromatin remodelling and the activation of genes that are associated with neuronal development...
- Structural basis for the redox control of plant glutamate cysteine ligase
Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
J Biol Chem 281:27557-65. 2006
..The rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of GSH is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) the activity of which is tightly regulated. The regulation of plant GCLs is poorly understood...
- Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease risk factors as determinants of total cysteine in plasma: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study
Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care and the Department of Pharmacology, University of Bergen, Norway
Am J Clin Nutr 70:1016-24. 1999
..b>Cysteine is structurally and metabolically related to homocysteine, but data on its association with cardiovascular ..
- Key role of cysteine residues in catalysis and subcellular localization of sulfur oxygenase-reductase of Acidianus tengchongensis
Zhi Wei Chen
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People s Republic of China
Appl Environ Microbiol 71:621-8. 2005
..SORs) and the SOR-like sequences identified from public databases indicated that they all possess three cysteine residues within two conserved motifs (V-G-P-K-V-C(31) and C(101)-X-X-C(104); numbering according to the Acidianus ..
- Expanding the functional diversity of proteins through cysteine oxidation
Khalilah G Reddie
Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2216, USA
Curr Opin Chem Biol 12:746-54. 2008
The polarizable sulfur atom in cysteine is subject to numerous post-translational oxidative modifications in the cellular milieu, which regulates a wide variety of biological phenomena such as catalysis, metal binding, protein turnover, ..
- Modification of keap1 cysteine residues by sulforaphane
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois College of Pharmacy, 833 S Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, United States
Chem Res Toxicol 24:515-21. 2011
..in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a potent natural ARE activator that functions by modifying Keap1 cysteine residues, but there are conflicting in vitro and in vivo data regarding which of these cysteine residues react...
- Glutathione synthesis is diminished in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and restored by dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine
Rajagopal V Sekhar
Translational Metabolism Unit, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
Diabetes Care 34:162-7. 2011
..GSH in adult patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is attributed to decreased synthesis and measured the effect of dietary supplementation with its precursors cysteine and glycine on GSH synthesis rate and oxidative stress.
- Association of severe noncerebral Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Brazil with expressed PfEMP1 DBL1 alpha sequences lacking cysteine residues
Departmento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Mol Med 8:16-23. 2002
..We analyzed parasites of Brazilian patients with severe malaria to determine whether there were particular DBL1 alpha var sequences predominantly expressed in such patients...
- Multiple ways to make disulfides
Neil J Bulleid
Institute of Molecular, Cellular and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Trends Biochem Sci 36:485-92. 2011
..Here we discuss these various pathways for disulfide formation in the mammalian ER and highlight the central role played by glutathione in regulating this process...
- Sulfur amino acid metabolism: pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine
Martha H Stipanuk
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Annu Rev Nutr 24:539-77. 2004
Tissue concentrations of both homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteine (Cys) are maintained at low levels by regulated production and efficient removal of these thiols...
- Regulation of the catalytic activity and structure of human thioredoxin 1 via oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues
Seyed Isaac Hashemy
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 283:21890-8. 2008
..The reversible inhibition of human Trx1 activity by H(2)O(2) and NO donors is suggested to act in cell signaling via temporal control of reduction for the transmission of oxidative and/or nitrosative signals in thiol redox control...
- The redox switch: dynamic regulation of protein function by cysteine modifications
School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK
Physiol Plant 138:360-71. 2010
..Specifically, highly reactive cysteine (Cys) residues of low pK(a) are a major site of action for these intermediates...
- Reversal of HCN channel voltage dependence via bridging of the S4-S5 linker and Post-S6
David L Prole
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Gen Physiol 128:273-82. 2006
..Bridging also alters channel activation by cAMP, showing that interaction of these two regions can also affect the efficacy of physiological ligands...
- Cystathionine gamma-Lyase-deficient mice require dietary cysteine to protect against acute lethal myopathy and oxidative injury
Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
J Biol Chem 285:26358-68. 2010
b>Cysteine is considered a nonessential amino acid in mammals as it is synthesized from methionine via trans-sulfuration...